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Diana Ovezea

type and media

Editura a work in progress

[1] — DEFINITION

e•di•tu•ra | publisher noun, from Romanian: • a person or company that prepares and issues books, journals, music, or other works for sale.

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4

Title

introduction

Editura is a type family for serious publications, magazines, as well as non-fiction books. With a variety of text and display styles, it offers designers the stylistic choice to build structured typographic hierarchies. The fundamental premise was that the text character should reflect the authority of the contents, while having enough flavor to make it suitable for branding publications.

9.25/13 points

5

Horizontal proportions. �s opposed to old-style typefaces, the hori�ontal proportions of �ditura are

�iscotekst

Editura

ProPorTions and basics

rather e�uali�ed, creatin� a more uniform te�ture, an approach which could be considered more contemporary. 7.25/13 points

Discotekst

Garamond

6

Vertical emphasis. The desi�n follows the transitional model; it has a

�unicipal vertical emphasis

clear, but not e�a��erated �ertical emphasis; the serifs are ample, keepin� the type �rounded. ��en the top serifs run in line with the �-hei�ht, for more stability. The same happens in the italic wei�ht, where

�u�ertüre

horizontal stability

sociophaty horizontal stability

the bottom serifs are curled, while the top serifs stabili�e the �-hei�ht.

6/11 points

Proportions and basics

Editura is a type family for serious publications, magazines, as well as non-fiction books. With a variety of text and display styles, it offers designers the stylistic choice to build structured typographic hierarchies. The fundamental premise was that the character should reflect the authority of the contents, while having enough flavor to make it suitable for branding publications & differentiating itself. 10/13 points semibold

vertical axis

almost vertical axis

Typography

738 pt 673 pt 465 pt

223 pt

Vertical proportions. The typeface has a generous x-height, while leaving enough room for ascenders. Vertically, the descenders are shorter than the ascenders in order to allow the lines to be spaced tighter, without affecting legibility. The cap-height is rather low, which ensures that capitals do not distract when there are frequent proper nouns within the text (or in the German language).

The typeface has a generous x-height, while leaving enough room for ascenders. Vertically, the descenders are shorter than the ascenders in order to allow the lines to be spaced tighter, without affecting legibility. The cap-height is rather low, which ensures that capitals do not distract when there are frequent proper nouns within the text (or in the German language). 7.25/8 points vs 7.25/16 points

7

8

design details

Design details.

These are some of the design characteristics of the text weight. These details are present in most of the weights, possibly exaggerated in the display styles. 8/13 points

stem top becomes narrow to maximize white triangle between stem and shoulder low connection breaks away from otherwise squarish construction

transitional contrast

top serif runs along x-height

slight inward kink creates more sharpness

asymmetrical counters

flat-bottom, non-bracketed serifs

slight kink makes shapes a bit less static

design details

Words about terminals in italic.

The half-circle terminals retain the sharpness of Editura’s character, while still creating enough contrast at small sizes.

The half-circle terminals fit within the sharpness of Editura’s character, but are not less heavy than a real circle. 14/20 points black

14/20 points italic

10 points small caps

The half-circle terminals retain the sharpness of Editura’s

Sacesfor caps serifs are more angluar, with slight kinks

flat bottom serifs keep baseline stable

curly outer endings fill up white gaps

terminals on s without spurs for functional reasons

the angle of the terminal changes according to the needs of the letter

9

10

Family connections

REtages REtages

Roman vs. Italic

The italic weight inherits some of the rigidity of the roman, and the same basis of vertical proportions. The strokes connect smoothly with each other, and the counters are round. 7.25/13 points

Etage42 Etage42

Text vs. Display

Many decisions in the text weights relate to the type’s performance at small sizes. In the display, there are less strict rules, many things have been redesigned for a better impression at large sizes. 7.25/13 points

Family connections

Display Black Text Black Text Regular Text Italic Display Thin

xxxxx The x-height increases as the weights get bolder to compensate, optically, for the perceived decrease in height. The old style figures increase in height as well, but the ascenders and caps stay at the same height. The italic has been optically adjusted to look the same height as the regular. 10/17 points semibold

11

12

FeaTures

�ty245mologi. text styles: light, regular, semibold, bold, black, and italic

�O��tOn, �e 5mc2�[��]d�� text styles: small caps

math/figures: old style, linear, tabular, superiors, inferiors, and small caps

Ďå����m���� p’un�ct:2�w�o? special characters: diacritics in caps, lower case, and small caps

punctuation: quotes. guillemots, parentheses, other marks

58 points, text weights

FeaTures

Overview of features These are the features for the te�t wei�hts (marked with � are a�ailable in the re�ular): small caps � fi�ures � currency�. li�atures, old style and linin� fi�ures � currency, old style and linin� tabular fi�ures, superiors and inferiors�, capital spacin�, case-specific punctuation, kernin� (uc–uc, uc–lc, pnct–uc, pnct–lc), kernin� (smcp–smcp)�

� � ffi ffj � ffl fb ff � � � fk fl Th ligatures: for all text weights

this is just a fun overlap of the interpolations.

6/14 points

30/30 points display black

{(daw)} {(daW)} d«2–1% ���–�% case-specific: punctuation and math

bag249 bag249 ��� bam $2.50 display: re-considered shapes

$250.80 $25.80 £230.85 �230.85 currency: for caps and small caps

13

14

design considerations

Many of the design aspects did not come out of the blue, but were rather the result of optimization for text sizes. These pages show a few of the considerations.

tva short serifs left and right of diagonal shapes help with closer spacing

the bar on t and f has the same thickness as the top serifs in order to avoid clashes

relatively flat outstroke for less spacing clashes in certain combinations

half-circle terminals help retain a sharp and controled feel in the rounder forms

wide base on v and and w opens the counter and stabilizes the baseline

design considerations

flat connection increases size of counters and supports the vertical stress

kuj even the top serifs on the u allign with the x-height-line, providing a stable visual line for the reading eye

one-sided serif maximizes white space in lower counter

no reason for a terminal on the j

15

16

design considerations

the ear does not curl up, which might clash with some accents, but aligns nicely with serifs

Ä&#x;ri deeper conenction than on the n in order to make the structure narrower

the width of the r has been kept as narrow as possible

extra long serif side closes up some of the white space on the right side

design considerations

different treatment of serifs in the s in order to keep it from sticking out of the line (like in previous versions)

ęjś steep acute and grave acents (like the French like them), allow them to be visible at smaller sizes

to avoid clashes with other letters, the j does not feature a ball-terminal

17

18

design considerations

slight flaring at the top adds weight and balance without disturbing the reading line (compare with previous version)=

the italic borrows from the stability of the roman by having flat top serifs

the ear curls up to leave space for the serifs

Egi ample counters and roman construction on the g

design considerations

because the f-bar (and t-bar) and the top serifs align, there are no clashes when

dfy round counters give elegance to balance outer rigidity

the tail of the y is kept short and flat so as to avoid any clashes with other letters

19

On the next pages are some examples of use (set in Editura v 9.3 as of June 2013)

briefing

The brief was to create a type family for magazines, serious publications, and any type of nonfiction books. The family should include enough styles to offer the designer stylistic choice in building functional typographic hierarchies. The glyph repertoire should be able to accommodate not only different languages, but also different types of notations (chemical formulas, reports, bibliographies, etc). The character of the typeface would be sharp and controlled to reflect the seriousness of the contents, but at the same time it would have a degree of personality so as to make it suitable for branding publications.

11/15 points

21

22

Style overview

In its current stage, Editura features five masters, from which seven styles have been creates. A Text Light version is in the workings, as well as an intermediate display style. When it will be released, the typeface will have enough italic weights to match the roman.

abcdefghiJKLmNo pQrstUVWXYZÆŒ0123456879 abcdefghijklmnopqr ?!& stuvwxyzßæœ0123456879 Text Regular

abcdefghiJKLmNo pQrstUVWXYZÆŒ0123456879 abcdefghijklmnopqr ?!& stuvwxyzßæœ0123456879 Text Semibold

abcdefghiJKLmNo pQrstUVWXYZÆŒ0123456879 abcdefghijklmnopqr ?!& stuvwxyzßæœ0123456879 Text Bold

Style overview

abcdefghiJKLmNo pQrstUVWXYZÆŒ 0 &123456879 abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzßæœ 0 123456879 Text Italic

abcdefghiJKLmNo pQrstUVWXYZÆŒ0123456879 abcdefghijklmnopqr ?!& stuvwxyzßæœ0123456879 Text Black

abcdefghiJKLmNo pQrstUVWXYZÆ Œ 0 123456879 abcdefghijklmnopqr ? ! & stuvwxyz œ 0 123456879 Display Thin

abcdefghiJKLmNo pQrstUVWXYZÆ Œ 0 123456879 abcdefghijklmnopqr ? ! stuvwxyzßæœ 0 123456879 Display Black

23

Text Regular

28/38

Work expands to fill the time available. 14 / 18

1 • Typographie ist die Kunst des feinen Maßes. Ein Zuwenig und Zuschwach entfernt sie ebenso von der Meisterschaft wie ein Zuviel und Zustark: eine Dienstleistung. 10 / 13

2 • Typographie ist eine sowas wie eine Dienstleistung. Die Kunst dabei ist vor allem die Kunst, von sich selbst weitgehend absehen zu können, sich nicht zwischen Autor und Leser zu drängen. Schriftkunst ist anonym, sozusagen; sie hat ihre Kenner, aber sie hat kein Publikum. 8 / 11

3 • Typographie hat schon vor Jahrhunderten ihre gültigen Formen gefunden. Dafür haben sich Gebote und Regeln gebildet und bewährt, die dem Auge und der Hand dienen, dem Sehen und begreifen. Ergreifen zielt auf Besitz. Begreifen fördert die Einsicht. Abendland und die forma. 6 / 10 4 • Typographie im Abendland arbeitet mit einem zweitausendjährigen kaum zu verändernden Zeichenvorrat des römischen Alphabetes. Die Grundformen ihrer Anwendung sind so gültig wie die Formen von Beil, Sichel, Pflugschar. Das Rad muß nicht immer wieder neu erfunden werden.

Text Semibold

28/38

Work expands to fill the time available. 14 / 18

1 • Typographie ist die Kunst des feinen Maßes. Ein Zuwenig und Zuschwach entfernt sie ebenso von der Meisterschaft wie ein Zuviel und Zustark: eine Dienstleistung. 14 / 18

2 • Typographie ist eine sowas wie eine Dienstleistung. Die Kunst dabei ist vor allem die Kunst, von sich selbst weitgehend absehen zu können, sich nicht zwischen Autor und Leser zu drängen. Schriftkunst ist anonym , sozusagen; sie hat ihre Kenner, aber sie hat kein Publikum. 14 / 18

3 • Typographie hat schon vor Jahrhunderten ihre gültigen Formen gefunden. Dafür haben sich Gebote und Regeln gebildet und bewährt, die dem Auge und der Hand dienen, dem Sehen und begreifen. Ergreifen zielt auf Besitz. Begreifen fördert die Einsicht. Abendland und die forma. 6 / 10 4 • Typographie im Abendland arbeitet mit einem zweitausendjährigen kaum zu verändernden Zeichenvorrat des römischen Alphabetes. Die Grundformen ihrer Anwendung sind so gültig wie die Formen von Beil, Sichel, Pflugschar. Das Rad muß nicht immer wieder neu erfunden werden.

Text Bold

28/38

Work expands to fill the time available. 14 / 18

1 • Typographie ist die Kunst des feinen Maßes. Ein Zuwenig und Zuschwach entfernt sie ebenso von der Meisterschaft wie ein Zuviel und Zustark: eine Dienstleistung. 10 / 13

2 • Typographie ist eine sowas wie eine Dienstleistung. Die Kunst dabei ist vor allem die Kunst, von sich selbst weitgehend absehen zu können, sich nicht zwischen Autor und Leser zu drängen. Schriftkunst ist anonym, sozusagen; sie hat ihre Kenner, aber sie hat kein Publikum. 8 / 11

3 • Typographie hat schon vor Jahrhunderten ihre gültigen Formen gefunden. Dafür haben sich Gebote und Regeln gebildet und bewährt, die dem Auge und der Hand dienen, dem Sehen und begreifen. Ergreifen zielt auf Besitz. Begreifen fördert die Einsicht. Abendland und die forma. 6 / 10 4 • Typographie im Abendland arbeitet mit einem zweitausendjährigen kaum zu verändernden Zeichenvorrat des römischen Alphabetes. Die Grundformen ihrer Anwendung sind so gültig wie die Formen von Beil, Sichel, Pflugschar. Das Rad muß nicht immer wieder neu erfunden werden.

Text Black

28/38

Work expands to fill the time available. 14 / 18

1 • Typographie ist die Kunst des feinen Maßes. Ein Zuwenig und Zuschwach entfernt sie ebenso von der Meisterschaft wie ein Zuviel und Zustark: eine Dienstleistung. 14 / 18

2 • Typographie ist eine sowas wie eine Dienstleistung. Die Kunst dabei ist vor allem die Kunst, von sich selbst weitgehend absehen zu können, sich nicht zwischen Autor und Leser zu drängen. Schriftkunst ist anonym , sozusagen; sie hat ihre Kenner, aber sie hat kein Publikum. 14 / 18

3 • Typographie hat schon vor Jahrhunderten ihre gültigen Formen gefunden. Dafür haben sich Gebote und Regeln gebildet und bewährt, die dem Auge und der Hand dienen, dem Sehen und begreifen. Ergreifen zielt auf Besitz. Begreifen fördert die Einsicht. Abendland und die forma. 6 / 10 4 • Typographie im Abendland arbeitet mit einem zweitausendjährigen kaum zu verändernden Zeichenvorrat des römischen Alphabetes. Die Grundformen ihrer Anwendung sind so gültig wie die Formen von Beil, Sichel, Pflu. Das Rad muß nicht immer wieder neu erfunden werden.

Display Black

120

Black

24/28

Die Kunst dabei ist vor allem die Ampersand von sich selbst weitgehend absehen zu kรถoennen, sich nicht zwischen Autor und Leser zu draengen. 76/76

Magnify bkardos

Display Thin

120

THIN 24/28

Die Kunst dabei ist vor allem die Ampersand von sich selbst weitgehend absehen zu koennen, sich nicht zwischen Autor und Leser zu draengen. 76/76

Magnify bikardos

Text Italic

28/38

Work expands to fill the time available. 14 / 18

1 • Typographie ist die Kunst des feinen Maßes. Ein Zuwenig und Zuschwach entfernt sie ebenso von der Meisterschaft wie ein Zuviel und Zustark: eine Dienstleistung. 10 / 13

2 • Typographie ist eine sowas wie eine Dienstleistung. Die Kunst dabei ist vor allem die Kunst, von sich selbst weitgehend absehen zu können, sich nicht zwischen Autor und Leser zu drängen. Schriftkunst ist anonym, sozusagen; sie hat ihre Kenner, aber sie hat kein Publikum. 8 / 11

3 • Typographie hat schon vor Jahrhunderten ihre gültigen Formen gefunden. Dafür haben sich Gebote und Regeln gebildet und bewährt, die dem Auge und der Hand dienen, dem Sehen und begreifen. Ergreifen zielt auf Besitz. Begreifen fördert die Einsicht. Abendland und die forma. 6 / 10 4 • Typographie im Abendland arbeitet mit einem zweitausendjährigen kaum zu verändernden Zeichenvorrat des römischen Alphabetes. Die Grundformen ihrer Anwendung sind so gültig wie die Formen von Beil, Sichel, Pflugschar. Das Rad muß nicht immer wieder neu erfunden werden.

PARKINSON ’S LAW Geofiscal Research Matters

NEWS discipline of the soul should not be underestimated

sarboncharity

spießmönster am Finger

coming soon Banksymptotic in the office, at work, or in the magazines

Editura in regular & black Some work in progress at TypeMedia set in Editura – June 2013 production by Diana Ovezea

g g g g wwww BBBB k k k k a a a a E EE E Details from al five masters.

g w B k a E

examples of use

73 ‘I want to run a world-famous studio, do great work, and make lots of money’. Running a studio

Employing creative staff In a previous chapter I looked at how tough it is for the new designer to find a job, but spare a m for the poor employer: it is just as tough finding good employees. Getting the right people – p design staff, non-design staff – is the one thing a start-up design studio can’t afford to get wr possible to screw up in every other area and still prosper, but in recruiment you can’t afford t mistakes. In this chapter l’ll look at ways to find, assess and secure talent. And then I’ll discu to treat the people we work with, because it is not enough to find and hire talented people, w to nurture them. When you set up in business, you are offered lots of advice. When I co-founded Intro, I discounted most At a critical st of the advice I was given by well-meaning acquaintances and the developm business people, because I wanted to trust my common sense Intro, we expe with a manag and intuition. I wanted to find new and fresh ways of doing things, consultant: he and I figured that if I listened to everything I was old I’d be forcea course of re that didn’t see fed a lot of old-fashioned formulaic thinking. I also felt that ‘deto fit into our sign was different’, and I was loath to take guidance from anyone more democr ture I asked h who didn’t know about design, and the quirks and slightly wonky why he’d reco this approach 2 logic of the design world.2 And of course, I was more arrogant looked miffed than I am now, and wrongly imagined I didn’t need the help of replied: ‘Well, it’s what every outsiders. does’. Bad ans However, one piece of advice that I was Needless to sa didn’t take his offered struck me as perversely good. In fact, so good that much and after he s later I found it to be the single most helpful piece of advice anyus an ‘Instruc video which u one gave me concerning the running of a design studio. It came McDonald’s c from an unlikely source, too – an acquaintance who had made practice as its we decided no numerous attempts to become a successful businessman, all of his services. which had ended in failure, and who knew nothing about design or designers. He told me: ‘Always employ people who are better than you’. Did the earth move for you when you read this? It didn’t for me when I first h although it was eventually to become my first rule of creative recruitment. I suspect for de perhaps recruiting for the first time in their careers, it is tough advice to swallow. Designe vulnerable breed; easily discouraged, easily damaged and quick to feel threatened. Not m signers willingly agree to be upstaged by new talent in their own backyard. Personally, I w with this notion for a long time before finding the courage to put it into practice. But as soon I saw it for the great truism it is. And when I saw the benefits of employing designers more t than myself, I was concentrate on the things I did best (creative direction and worki Adapted layout from “Howable to be atographic designer, without losing your soul” clients). Now, I’m aware that formulations like ‘better than’ are largely redundant in What does it mean if you say that someone is a ‘better designer than someone else? Not m have any meaning it would have to be accompanied by caveats and elaborate qualifiers. B

35 Ku rumuńskim źródłom dadaizmu Towards a romanian sources of dadaism

Kiedy mówimy o dadaizmie, na ogół z trudem przychodzi nam przyjąć, że przed przybyciem Tristana Tzary i jego przyjaciela Marcela Janco do Zurychu w 1915 roku na obszarze Rumunii miały miejsce zawirowania zapowiadające ruch Dada. Takie słowa, jak „mit o rzekomym rumuńskim zalążku dadaizmu”, których autorem jest Giovanni Lista, szanowany badacz futuryzmu, wydają się emblematyczne dla tej powściągliwości1. A przecież odpowiedź, jaką od Tristana Tzary otrzymał Sașa Pana, poeta, który w 1934 zaproponował mu opublikowanie pod tytułem Poémes d’avant Dada [Wiersze sprzed Dada] poezji pisanych po rumuńsku przed wyjazdem do Szwajcarii, przynosi

When discussing Dadaism there is usually hesitation in admitting that before Tristan Tzara and his friend made arcel Janco arrived in Zurich in, things had already been happening in Romania that heralded the Dada movement. Phrases such as ‘the myth about the allegedly Romanian beginnings of Dadaism’, used by Giovanni Lista, a respected expert on futurism, seem emblematic of this reticence.1 And yet the reply that Tristan Tzara sent to poet Sașa Pana, who in 1934 suggested he publish, as Poémes d’avant Dada [Poems From Before Dada], the poems written in Romanian before the journey to Switzerland, offers at least a partial answer: Tzara did not accept the title because ‘it assumed that a kind of breakthrough had occurred in my, so to speak, poetic persona, a breakthrough resulting from something happening outside me (the eruption of a semi-mystical faith), that is, strictly speaking, a breakthrough that never took place, because it was rather a continuity of more or less violent and determinant fits and starts, but still a continuity and an interpenetration, tied, to the utmost degree, to a

przynajmniej częściowe rozwiązanie problemu. T nie zgadzał się na ten tytuł, gdyż „zakładał on rod przełomu, jaki rzekomo zaszedł w mej, że się tak w poetyckiej osobowości – przełomu będącego wyn czegoś, co dokonało się poza mną (rozpętanie się, rzec, niby-mistycznej wiary), czyli przełomu, któr naprawdę nigdy nie miał miejsca, gdyż była to rac ciągłość, złożona z gwałtownych i istotnych wstrz lecz mimo wszystko ciągłość i wzajemne przenika w najwyższym stopniu związane z jakąś ukrytą koniecznością” – stąd sugestia, by książkę zatytuł Les premiers poémes [Wczesne wiersze]2. To zresz znana rzecz. Jednak oprócz tej osobistej opinii kil historycznoliterackich faktów poświadcza istnien w owym czasie, w Bukareszcie, atmosfery sprzyjaj szybkim przemianom języka literackiego. Ruch Dada przez wiele dziesięcioleci był postr poprzez swoją ograniczającą pole wi-dzenia legen identyfikowany z nihilizmem, destrukcją, brakiem powagi czy też po prostu z błazenadą – aby przypo

facts from the history of literature confirm that at the there existed in Bucharest an atmosphere conducive to rapid changes in the literary language. Above all, it w unusual personality of Demetru Demetrescu-Buzau (k under the pen name of Urmuz), a clerk at the High Co Appeals, earlier a magistrate in several provincial tow marginal figure, towards the end of the first decade of 20th century he was working, in semi-anonymity. For decades, the Dada movement was perceived through its view-restricting legend, identified with nih destructiveness, lack of seriousness, or simply tomfool mention but a couple of the qualities An example layout in Polish/English (thank you, Barbara)

[3.43] Testing numerals. I tested the numerals inside articles from The Economist, which often contain many numbers. In this version, the proportions were too narrow and the extenders too diagonal.

The tabular numerals have been partially tweaked to fill up the space. All of the weights fit on the same grid, so they can be used interchangeably in a table, without the tabular allignment shifting. In addition, there are other tabular figures provided, like a period, comma, column, semicolumn. Similarly, the currency symbols have been designed to have the same width, so that, in a tabular environment, changing the currency sign does not affect the allignment. This can be seen in the tables below. Table 3-A. Tabular old style figures 1991 1993 1994 1995 1996

94.950 95.544 92.722 89.058 89.208

93.984 94.529 91.594 87.966 88.132

93.039 93.539 90.489 86.898 87.085

945 990 1.105 1.068 1.047

€ 925 $ 967 £ 1.083 $ 1.048 ¥ 1.019

€ 19 $ 21 £ 21 $ 16 ¥ 27

Table 3-A. Tabular lining figures 1991

94.950

93.984

93.039

945

€ 925

€ 19

1993

95.544

94.529

93.539

990

$ 967

$ 21

1994

92.722

91.594

90.489

1.105

£ 1.083

£ 21

1995

89.058

87.966

86.898

1.068

$ 1.048

$ 16

1996

89.208

88.132

87.085

1.047

¥ 1.019

¥ 27

I also started developing small cap numerals [3.51]. At first I was not sure if this was even needed — since small caps can be paired nicely with the oldstyle numerals (same x-height) — but there appear to be at least two good reasons. One is to insure that the user can write technical abbreviations, like HSB-80 or MATH163 in matching styles. The second is to derive superior and inferior figures from them, which basically have the same proportions. By making small cap figures in both Regular and Black and with the An example layout from help of interpolation and scaling (UFOStretch), it was quite easy to derive the Editura process book a good basis for superior and inferior numerals. This makes it possible to write chemical formulas like Ba3(PO4)2 and employ footnote notation23. At the moment, the typeface includes some basic mathematical signs, but I

Brad Pitt and Angelina Jolie once hired from London to Glasgow. Tom Cruise’s d have a wardrobe worth $400,000.

SLAVERY OF THE ALGORITHM Nick Meaney has a better reason for believing that the stars are overpaid: his algorithm tells him so. In fact, he says, with all but one of the above actors, the studios are almost certainly wasting their money. Because, according to his movie-analysis software, there are only three actors who make money for a film. And there is at least one A-list actress who is worth paying not to star in your next picture. The headquarters of Epagogix, Meaney’s company, do not look like the sort of headquarters from which one would confidently launch an attack on Hollywood royalty. A few attic rooms in a shared south London office, they don’t even look as if they would trouble Dollywood. But my meeting with Meaney will be

Meaney is given a job by a studio, the first thing he does is quantify thousands of factors, drawn from the script. Are there clear bad guys? How much empathy is there with the protagonist? Is there a sidekick? The complex interplay of these factors is then compared by the computer to their interplay in previous films, with known box-office takings. The last calculation is what it expects the film to make. In 83% of cases, this guess turns out to be within $10m of the total. Meaney, to all intents and purposes, has an algorithm that judges the value—or at least the earning power—of art. To explain how, he shows me a two-dimensional representation: a grid in which each column is an input, each row a film. “Curiously,” Meaney says, “if we block this column…” With one hand, he obliterates the input labelled star casually rendering everyone from Clooney to Cruise, Damon to De Niro, an irrelevancy. An example layout based on magazine “In almost every case, it makes no difference to layout (article from the Economist) the money column.” “For me that’s interesting. The first time I saw that I said to the mathematician, ‘You’ve got to change your program—this is wrong.’ He said, ‘I couldn’t care less—it’s the numbers.’”

Perspektive & Debatte

R^egierung versinkt im Wirrwarr der Mehrwertsteuer

Christian Ramthun | Hundefutter sieben Prozent, Milch 19 Prozent – das deutsche Mehrwertsteuersystem ist ungerecht und teilweise absur Doch anstatt den Wirrwarr von Ausnahmen wie versprochen zu beseitigen, ist die Bundesregierung vor den Lobbyisten eingeknickt.

Oma Erna ist schuld. Sie ist eine ältere Dame mit Hund und der Gewohnheit, einmal in der Woche frische Blumen auf das Grab ihres verstorbenen Gemahls zu stellen. Oma Erna ist nur eine Fiktion und geistert als solche durch das Bundesfinanzministerium. Dort machte sie ein solchen Eindruck, dass Minister Wolfgang Schäuble (CDU) und seine Spitz Beamten vor der Reform des Mehrwertsteuersystems zurückschreckten, aus Angst vor drohendem öffentlichem Widerstand, falls etwa der für Hundefutter und Schnittblumen geltende ermäßigte Satz von sieben Prozent angehoben An example layout for magazines based on würde. an article in WirtschaftsWoche Zu Beginn dieser Legislaturperiode sahen CDU, CSU und FDP noch „Handlungsbedarf bei den ermäßigten Mehrwertsteuersätzen“. In dem Koalitionsvertrag erklärten sie im Sommer 2009: „Aus

diesem Grunde sollen wir eine Kommission einsetzen, die sich mit (…) dem Katalog der ermäßigten Mehrwertsteuersätze befasst“. Für Verfechter der Marktwirtschaft und eines gerechteren Steuersystems las sich diese Passage so, als würde eine Bundesregierung endlich mit Durcheinander aufräumen und einen einheitlichen MwSt schaffen. Der Wirtschaftsweise und andere Befürworter einer großen Vereinfachung hatten jedoch die Macht von Oma Erna und den Lobbyisten unterschätzt. Schon im Koalitionsvertrag von 2009 schlug sich der Einfluss einer mächtigen Gruppe nieder. Mit Verweis auf die europäische Wettbewerbslage, aber ohne jeglichen Beweis ihrer Gefährdung, steht dort, dass „ab dem 1.1.2010 für Beherbergungsleistungen in Hotel- und Gastronomiegewerbe Mehrwertsteuer-

+15%

Mehrwertsteu auf Möhrensaf

Top Aktienfonds FF-INS. JAP A

8.748,00

84,95%

BGF JAPAN S &

4.561,00

64,12%

INV NIPPON SM

816,00

62,55%

GLG JAPAN COR

12.742,00

60,54%

BGF JAPAN VAL

1.030,00

60,44%

Flops Aktienfonds FS GOLD + SIL

20,21

−62,87

PACIFIC GOLD+

47,14

−60,18

STABILITAS GR

16,09

−60,05

TASS GLOBAL R

32.049,63

−57,52

STABILITAS −

18,88

−56,80

A10 · NEWS

Folio: Inside the In On March 13 – at 5:10 p.m. ET, to be precise – a ceremonial bell will ring and Canada’s Chris Hadfield will take the helm of the International Space Station. He may have the top job, but the space veteran has lived there for almost three months. Here’s a glimpse into life at the station, where astronauts sleep against a wall and eat from a menu chosen five months before the mission.

– rd.

HADFIELD TAKES COM Chris Hadfield, already famous as a With the arrival of another group of former test pilot, veteran astronaut astronauts at the end of the month, Mr. Hadfield will command and social-media sensation, astwo American and three Russian sumed a new role Wednesday. Mr. crew members. The crew will keep Hadfield, whose online posts are busy operating scores of medical followed by half a million fans on Twitter, took command of Expedi- experiments and maintaining the ISS, often described as the most tion 35 of the International Space complex and expensive structure Station, the first Canadian to lead ever launched into orbit. The comsuch a mission. Since people began living perma- mander’s job is most critical when there are no nently aboard the space station emergencies, Mr. Hadfield says. 11 years ago, Mr. Hadfield is only “If someone has a serious medical the second astronaut who is not Chris Hadfield’s self-portrait, problem … If we had a major American or Russian to command taken in the space st ation’s Cupola. technical emergency on board, on a mission. “I have devoted pretty CHRIS HADFIELD a puncture, so that we start losing much my whole adult life … to getpressure, or contaminated atmoting to this position where somesphere or smoke or a fire, then I am one would trust me to command in charge.” what is, in effect, the world’s The risks aren’t theoretical. After spaceship,” Mr. Hadfield said in an interview with The Globe and Mail 1997, an oxygen-generating canister aboard the aging Russian Mir before he left in December for his space station burned out of control five-month mission. The 53-year-old retired Canadian for 15 minutes, filling the cabin with smoke and soot. Four months Forces colonel took the helm from later, a supply ship crashed into NASA’s K. Ford, who is flying back Mir. The station began to depresto Earth this week with his two An example layout for newspapers, surize until the crew sealed off the based on an article in The Globe. Russian flight engineers. Then he leaking module. In such situations, Mr. Ford surprised Mr. Hadfield Mr. Hadfield says, the decisions a when he played the cool Canadian commander makes within the two national anthem over a speaker Tu Thanh Ha AND Tonia Cowan as part of the transfer of command. first minutes of a crisis can be the difference between life and death. A member of the ground crew The Globe and Mail

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LIFE A SPACE

The Internat now has abo a Boeing 747 Chris Hadfie living in a su its home por modules, br the hum of f dioxide from from a mach purifies urin The module like Harmon are used for as sleeping,

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t h a n k

y o u

I would like to thank all of my mentors and colleagues for supporting me during my time at TypeMedia, for bearing with my craziness, my indecisiveness, and the foosball squeaking; most of all, for giving me valuable feedback on my work.

Peter Verheul for the sharp eyes and sarcasm Erik van Blokland for questioning everything Paul van der Laan for high kerning expectations Just van Rossum for introducing me to Python Françoise Berserik for imposing high standards Christoph Noordzij for help on shape predictability Peter Bil�ak for always being helpful & supportive Frank Blokland for great tips on the typeface Petr van Blokland for makinag me think about things Jan Willem Stas for taking care of everything Lucas de Groot for good tips in Berlin Tomato Kosir for the love of type Ulli Pötschke for being my typo-mama Giovanni de Faccio for introducing me to type design Simon Herzog for being the best friend Troy Leinster for being the greatest housemate Barbara Bigosińska for support, balance, and life Adam and Étienne for being great friends My colleagues for giving me an amazing year My parents for teaching me to be a good person

Thank you

This booklet documents the process of designing the type family Editura at TypeMedia 2012–2013 Š Diana Luciana Ovezea


Editura - Work in Progress Specimen