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Cultivating Interaction and Cross Fertilization in Urban Environments

Do urban environments stimulate the cross-fertilization between people or is it the people that are the activators of urban environments? The knowledge we gained resembles the “chicken or egg� question and this book will investigate this relationship.

How do urban environments shape the interactions and behaviors of people?

Our observations led us to believe that no one element, geographical or situational, is a complete cause or effect without the other. Over the course of 15 weeks, our research provided the foundation to generate developmental tools and parameters necessary to enhance the synergistic relationship between people’s willingness to engage with others and urban environments. This book serves as a guideline to understand the perpetual exchange between people and environments.

Place of Observation

research

From the observations out of these places, we learned that -Union SQ there are varying levels of commonality that are dependent on the situation that people are in. It is evident that different sub -Times SQ jects have different values and intensity to lead people to feel -Washington SQ Park such a commonality with others. We learned that design fea -West Village tures and various places that people occupy create deeper en -Central Park gagement and offer a certain level of commonality. This knowl -Fast food restaurant edge lead us to present the journey to answer the question “Which spaces and places help filter human interaction more -Cafes than other?� through all the elements and parameters that work in synergy within the urban space.

what are the crucial parameters to consider opportunity for interactions between people?

objectives

1. Comfort 2. Proximity 3. Convenience 4. Sense of Belonging 5. Familiarity 6. Security 7. Discovery 8. Commonality 9. Opportunity 10. Activities 11. Entertainment 12. Social Norms 13. Disaster

comfort

comfort

Comfortability is a sense of being at psychological ease, often characterized as a state that lacks hardships, but comfort can also describe the sense of being a physical ease as well. Comfort can facilitate a sense of belongingness (refer to point 4) for people, and therefore when surrounded with things that provide psychological comfort, they may discover a “comfort zone” of sorts. The comfort zone is a behavioural state within which a person operates in an anxiety-neutral condition, using a limited set of behaviours to deliver a steady level of performance, usually without a sense of risk (White 2009) This feeling of safety is promoted by structures that protect one from weather (e.g. awnings), clearly signage marking a public/private separation, and by spontaneous protection with the eyes of both pedestrians and those watching the continual flow of pedestrians from buildings. To make this protection effective at enhancing safety, there should be “an unconscious assumption of general street support” when necessary, or an element of “trust”. (Jane Jacobs) As the main contact venue, these places contribute to building trust among neighbors over time. However, because of the personal nature of positive associations, psychological comfort is highly subjective. (Kolcaba, 2003)

DESIGN GUIDELINE greenery

Abundant greenery plays a vital role in the health and mental well being of citizens. Evidence shows that elements of nature, such as trees, wildlife, and lakes, promote physical and mental health and can reduce blood pressure, mental andand stress levels. Not only does Abundant greenery plays a vital role fatigue, in the health mental well being of citizens. it offer ashows morethat attractive, an urban but Evidence elements natural of nature,space such asin trees, wildlife,environment, and lakes, promote greenery can alsohealth improve attachment to a public space physical and mental and our can sense reduce of blood pressure, mental fatigue, and and strengthen social ties in communities by serving as aingathering stress levels. Not only does it offer a more attractive, natural space an urban place. For but citygreenery dwellers, spaces crucial space for environment, cangreen also improve ourprovide sense of a attachment to a public human interaction a ties connection to their space and strengthen and social in communities by communities. serving as a gathering place. For city dwellers, green spaces provide a crucial space for human interaction Tree-lined streets andcommunities. parks filled with green life invite citizens to take and a connection to their

greenery greenery

a stroll and linger to smell the roses, further enhancing opportunities to connect and interact withfilled others. Tree-lined streets and parks with green life invite citizens to take a stroll and

linger to smell the roses, further enhancing opportunities to connect and interact Studies conclude that trees providing shade are essential for thriving with others.

public spaces. Simply put, “The more trees that existed in a space, the more heavily thethat space used shade by people of all ages.” (American Studies conclude trees was providing are essential for thriving public Planning Association). Welltrees landscaped green areasthe also contribute to spaces. Simply put, “The more that existed in a space, more heavily the comfort safety in an of environment; barren Planning areas are more prone to space wasand used by people all ages.” (American Association). Well crime thangreen public spaces filled withtogreenery. landscaped areas also contribute comfort and safety in an environment; barren areas are more prone to crime than public spaces filled with greenery.

Greenery is especially important for children; studies conclude that playtime isisespecially essentialimportant for cognitive development in youngthat children, and Greenery for children; studies conclude playtime is they arefor more likelydevelopment to engage ininyoung creative play and in green spaces with essential cognitive children, they are more likely trees andingrass. to engage creative play in green spaces with trees and grass.

“The more trees that existed in a space, the more heavily the space was used by people of all ages.” - American Planning Association

proximity Bigger is not necessarily always better.

Small buildings, compared to their larger counterparts, are less expensive, cheaper to heat and cool, less expensive to maintain, easier to clean, and have a smaller environmental footprint, among other benefits. These create a better space in which to live, work, and play. Small streets help to create affordable housing in good urban neighborhoods. The homes on the main Avenues tend to be grand in both size and architectural detail. However, around the corner down the small street in this photo are smaller, more affordable houses. These two housing types co-exist harmoniously, complimenting each other to create an economically diverse neighborhood that is beautiful and stable.

proximity

Accommodating city transportation is important, and this should not destroy the related intricate and concentrated land use. Giving room to other desired city uses which compete with automobile traffic needs, such as widening sidewalks, narrowing the vehicular roadbed and in turn, reduces car use, and traffic congestion.

convenience

Lively, diverse areas encourage walking. To make more areas of cities successful, diversity should be enhanced, rather than large monotonous areas which discourage interaction, such as parking lots or junk yards. Blocks should be short, to encourage walking, increase path options between points of departure, and destinations, and therefore enhance social and as a result economic development. This two categories of locations: “stops,” somewhere one might go to on the way to another place, which is a “destination.” Neighborhoods must serve more than one primary function to ensure presence of people using the same common facilities at different times. Dense concentration of people, including residents, promote visible city life.

convenience

Sense of community is a concept in urban sociology which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. Research has been done on empirical research on community by intellectuals, but the psychological approach asks questions about the individual’s perception, understanding, attitudes, feelings, about community and his or her relationship to it and to others’ participation—indeed to the complete, multifaceted community experience.

belongingness

Belonging is a double-edged sword: on one hand, you want to belong because you feel lonely, so you seek out others who share certain similarities, but on the other, you don’t want to be categorized and generalized. You want to eat your cake and have it too.

sense of belonging

During our time in New York, Union Square has always been an anchor in my life, with its convenience and proximity to my various apartments and university, but more importantly, because of the sense of belonging it offers to its visitors. Union Square represents a place where any type of New Yorker can feel a sense of belonging and attachment to their community; here we are given the possibility to connect with others who share our interests and find commonalities, while also being free to express our unique perspectives and differences. What draws me to Union Square, is the idea that we can all call this public space a part of our home. Union Square is not only a park, but also a refuge for weary, lonely New Yorkers who yearn for a sense of belonging and connection with their 1.6 million other neighbors.

familiarity

familiarity Familiarity is the important factor to influence people to want to interact with each other in urban space. However the crucial element of this factor is the balance in the level of such sense. When a person is too familiar with the neighborhood or the event and occasion he/ she experiences, the sense of benefit by interacting with strangers may be forgot, underrated or unsocial. On the other hand, when a person is too unfamiliar with the neighborhood or the event and occasion, such situation may bring fear and emotional discouragement to want to interact with strangers. However, feeling of familiarity acts variously and synergistically according to the design setting of the urban space and context. In neighborhoods with design features that are thought to bring high sense of community among residents such as low rise townhouses and stoops, neighbors may interact more actively than neighborhoods with high rise apartment buidings that provide no tools to create prolonged happenstance conversations.

DESIGN GUIDELINE STOOPS

People in the streets of West Village tend to chat while sitting or standingn on the stoops of townhouses Stoops provide structural support for the neighbors to engage in conversations with each other Stoops expose the people sitting on the stoops and walking near them in a natural way where eye-contacts with strangers are natural, thus eliminating the stranger-to-stranger barrier Stoops provide the opportunity for people’s conversations to be prolonged as the stoops’ fences may suggest support for leaning while being engaged in a conversation

DESIGN GUIDELINE BENCHES

Benches visually suggest restful waiting and prolonged casual conversations outside shops. They also influence longer ‘good bye conversations‘ as the members of the crowds part.

Such common instance shows desire for eye-to-eye level conversation, proving the function of stoops for naturally eye-to-eye exposure

Crowds typically use benches to chat with each other. Members of the crowds typically chat with each other while some of them are sitting and some of them are standing in front of them even when there is space next tothe member sitting.

DESIGN GUIDELINE Corners and Intersections

As Jane Jacobs, the author of the book ‘Life & Death of Great American Cities’ advocated corner space as the one of the most im portant urban spots, we observed corners in the West Village to find out whether the th eory is true. During our observation, it was immedi ately clear that corners in fact create rapid and frequent chances for people to interact with each other, be it friends chatting, or strangers asking directions, corner spaces seemed to provide the platform to prolong casual behaviors of interactions between people and larger foot traffic for retail spaces.

DESIGN GUIDELINE INTERSECTIONS

When thinking about urban design tool and features, consideration of seeing them within context often lead to helpful insight to recognize synergistic effect between multiple design features. One of the guide lines we suggest that boosts the pontential of conrers is inter sections. While corners can provide multiple opportunities of unexpected bump-ins, serendipity or surprises, and prolonged conversation and standing, smaller scale intersections of busy areas multiply such outcomes by providing opportunities of accidental eye-to-eye exposure of people from all sides.In other words, while conrners provide the chance of people coming from vertical and horizontal side of a block inter acting each other, an intersection multiplies the chance at the meeting point of each block by four. Thus intersections physically support the easier chances of inter actions through increased mo ments of accidental eye con tacts in multiple ways, “en counters� (Jane Jacobs, Life and Death of Great American Cities), as well as prolonged exposure of people crossing and waiting at the four sides to eachother, hence the de sign tool to create situations.

DESIGN GUIDELINE

NARROW STREETS

There is something about narrow streets that lead people to put on more inviting facial expressions.If you ever have time to kill, try walking slowly and standing around random parts of narrow streets with restaurant and cafe patios, then try the same on larger avenues. You will see there is noticeably higher chance of someone approaching you to ask for directions and for various random reasons.

Na oft rrow cre en mer s ore tree ma ate ts c s e y l str ev nse ikely are a Su nge en to am of c r s h wo int o p c n be rks lose assin g th ires st w espe pro g by e are taur hen ciall ximit . a qu pre nts pati y th y co ent sent and os o e ac n as ca f t a str c f c ts ide the es a n nta fre tio b g e e s mo and rs fro twee l ey rea te th the m th n th e if it dily em t stree e pa e en ob tp i s sm g jus roe a g i m sio ley t sli ing ore g , n wo s th facia htly eve the uld ey c l ex mor n o e p p n u c r dir los t o scio ese to ct fa er n d usl ea an ue y c i ch al d e oth xp mo to er. osu re res

INTRODUCTION HERE:

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security Chapter 6

Balance of securithy and freedom of self expression is a necessary part and a base to create barrier-free interactions between people. Such aspect is shown in many ways. For instance, the fact that many metropolitan cities’ neighborhoods have connotation of residents’ own social images, political views, and life style choices exemplify prove that self expression is required in order for people to want to interact with each other. Our own example is the interview of the West Village resident who said “I was known as hippie... while working in Wall Street... for living in the village.“ Such sense of freedom also directly tiees into the sense of belongingness which is one of the most crucial key in positive stranger interactions and promotion of active ‘urban socializing.

BEHAVIORS Balance of secur and freedom of s express

discovery Sense of discovery makes stranger interactions and natural casual conversation about the subject of the discovery the strangers share fascination with. Such aspect was proven by our interviews with Times SQ staple personalities like Elmo, Naked Cow Boy. In fact, Naked Cow Boy said “I create chances for strangers to interact with each other by talking about me and asking each other to take pictures with me.� Sense of discovery also directly inter-related with familiarity we mentioned in earlier chapter. (Too high of familiarity=Low sense of discovery=low sense of commonality through fascination with others)

discovery

discovery

A sense of discovery is a key point in cultivating spontaneous social interaction amongst strangers. If urban public spaces encourage people to linger, with the attraction of surprises and discoveries, social interaction is more likely to naturally follow. In Union Square or Times Square, visitors are always ready to capture an event with their iPhones, cameras, or even video cameras. These public spaces are constantly populated, even in the rain, with visitors who are ready and willing to witness something exciting. You never know who or what you’ll stumble upon. After sharing a bizarre, hilarious, and memorable experience together, such a dancing flash mob, the Naked Cowboy, a man playing the piano with his dog, or perhaps a 12 piece orchestra, strangers often times feel compelled and enthusiastic to interact with each other.

discovery

commonality

commonality

What leads people to feel hesitant free to freely ask a question or start in a casual conversation with others is often based on sense of commonality. We noticed sense of commonality can come from different aspects such as ‘someone who looks like me or is dressed like me‘, age, and as simple and strange as everyday behaviors like complaining (ex:lines, slow elevator). However, the aspect that most likely brings sense of commonality that is more personal often tends to be common interest, and such sense between strangers almost always and only activated and initiated by events and behavioral resemblence that are not too common, because they are the immediate and physical, which suggests the realization of commonality. Our observation for instance showed Times SQ orchestra event watchers had a lot more to talk about with other strangers at the venue, longer and typically in more engaging active manners than others. Also parents in Central Park were a lot more likely to freely interact with other parents. Also a common example of the behavioral resemblence of commonality between strangers would be smokers being more likely to chat with each other.

Opportunity is necessary in order to create an interactive environment with people who do not know each other. Opportunity is vital for these situations. Opportunity is created when a set of circumstances generate possibilities for advancement or progress. People in situations with strangers are likely to use the opportunity to engage more than if they had not had the opportunity at all. Take a restaurant, for example, it is likely that a person will converse with others at nearby tables.

opportunity

opportunity

Will people take advantage of opporunity? How do people react with others when there is opportunity and an open outlet for interaction?

opportunity

Activities help create tools for social interaction. Diverse groups of people come together under the same motive. Activties shape create social and community building by bringing people together for the same purpose. As social beings, humans are trained to work with others to achieve certain goals and motives. Activities provide a sense of commality for strangers. People no longer have that barrier that creates uncomfort or a feeling of uncertainty to speak with others. Public activities, especially provide an outlet for greater communication and interaction between unknown parties.The aspect of familiarity and commonality is not required to be as strong in these situations. Public spaces create no restrictions and allows for a sense of inclusivity. The openess of public spaces, especially parks, generates a greater diverse group of people rather than a confined one.

activities

activities

DESIGN GUIDELINE food

Food is an essential ingredient in successful public spaces because it attracts pedestrians and inspires conversations. Designing public spaces with easy access to food, such as cafes and open restaurant seating bordering the perimeters of the area, and food vendors inside the space, creates a sociable atmosphere. People are likely to cross paths and interact when waiting in line, or finding a seat, or perhaps deciding what to order. To maximize convenience, there should be at least one place to find food within the site. Open air farmers’ markets in particular can have a great impact on a public space and encourage interaction, strengthen community ties, and provide a basis for shared commonality between strangers.

food

entertainment Entertainment and outside performances create a synergy between people with similar interests curiosity. It creates space for interaction, especially in public spaces where there is openness and inviting for all types of people. This also brings different cultures of people together from all different walks of life.

entertainment

Is there a relationship between cultural, tradition and social norms and how strangers react with one another? Groups of people with similar culttures, traditions and social norms may gravitate more towards each other. This can be attributed to feelings of comfort and similarities. Commonality is a key player in people’s willingness to interrelate among one another. How strong does this commonality need to be to support it?

norms

norms

norms

disaster

Throughout the after effect of the hurricane Sandy all New Yorkers experienced, we noticed important and significant behavioral changes in people. Disaster is by far one of the most immediate driver in leading people to naturally engage in interactions including complete strangers. Such interactions were throughout all groups and demographics of people in general in New Yortk. People were generally more eager to talk to each other about the disatrous event itself, how they were personally affected, and even their anxiety and inconvenience they are going through even among strangers. On personal level, people were generally trying to contact people they know to make sure they were ok even the ones they were not particularly very close with usually. The idea that everybody is experiencing hardship together in immediate sight led strangers to forget that they were strangers, but led them to feel strong sense of commonality. Perhaps, that is the reason why during this dsastrous event, people were more likely to voluntarily help each other. Somehow, the effect of disaster seems to bring appreciation of human interactions.

disaster

DESIGN GUIDELINE connectivity

As more people come to depend on their computers to make a living, the need for wireless Internet access and access to power strips and electricity has prompted some businesses to offer free Wi-Fi as a way to attract customers. Free Wi-Fi can help build customer loyalty and keep customers in the establishment longer. Free Wi-Fi and power can keep customers in an establishment for a longer period of time, and establish a location’s reputation as a meeting place. Business partners like to meet clients over a cup of coffee to make a presentation on a laptop, students can meet to discuss projects, all of this creates a more relaxed atmosphere for visitors of a spot to communicate. The more customer traffic in a retail location that appears as a result of offering free WiFi and power, the more people will feel compelled to visit.

DESIGN GUIDELINE naked cowboy

We noticed often in places with crowds attention grabbers like The Naked Cowboy and Elmo provide opportunities for people to be fascinated in larger groups. Attention grabbers like these examples help facilitate discussion and interaction among strangers due to the same situations that these strangers are in. Unknown and unexpected outside performances cause people to have a greater chance to question the situation and speak to others around them.

initiation stranger interaction suprise effects entertainment commonality

DESIGN GUIDELINE elmo at times square

We see Elmo as a figure in not only American culture, but international cultures as well. Elmo is a character that many people are able to recognize and is popular not only among children, but also adults. When people see Elmo in areas that are not particularly thought of, it is an “attention grabber�. People have more incentive to speak to others in situations where there is a suprise effect or a situation that was not necessarily expected. Culture and what we are exposed to in society plays a large role in peoples willingness to approach random situations as well. We are able to associate Elmo when we see the figure, making people more willing to approach the situation.

DESIGN GUIDELINE shelter

Awnings provide shelter for people especially when there is bad weather. We observed many people congregating under awnings to protect themselves from the rain. In addition, we observed and concluded that awnings serve as an outlet for stranger interaction. When people are in the same place at the same time and for the same purpose, there is a commonality effect that brings unknown people together.

Interview with people in West Village

DISCOVERY COMFORT SAFETY ACTIVITIES

CULTURE

BELONGINGNESS

COMMONALITY

PROXIMITY

NORMS

FASCINATION ENTERTAINMENT OPPORTUNITY

CONVENIENCE

https://vimeo.com/51094006

SHARED EMOTIONS After careful observation and analyzing the parameters we explored, we gained the answer to explain the links between urban design and people. While all of the parameters and design tools are inter-related with multiple directions of a cycle, there are four initial elements that need to co-occur. They are; Comfort, Convenience, Discovery, and opportunity. Before these four conditions co-occur, there is no chance for any active willingness to interact and chance to feel commonality among people. While the way for people to understand the everyday situations between people on the streets of New York involves largely norms and culture, they are largely shared among people subcontiously, thus the urban features that enhance the culture encourage the sharing of culture subtly. We believe the good design features to invent and utilize therefore are the ones that provide effortless initiation of people interacting together, the features that would lead people to naturally want to engage in conversations and interactions with one another. Culture in this sense is necessarily attitute, standards and ways to treat situations and all senses and emotions that are shared among people unilaterally, hence the sense of commonality.

observations

research

Union Square Times Square Washington Square The West Village Central Park Restaurants Cafes

From the observations, we learned that there are varying levels of commonality that are dependent on the situation that people are in. It is evident that different subjects have different values and intensity to lead people to feel such a commonality with others. We learned that design features and various places that people occupy create deeper engagement and offer a certain level of commonality. This knowledge lead us to present the journey to answer the question “Which spaces and places help filter human interaction more than other?� through all the elements and parameters that work in synergy within the urban space.

“The street is the river of life of the city, the place where we come

“Cities have the capability of providing something for

together, the pathway to the center.”

everybody, only because, and only when, they are

william h. whyte

created by everybody.” “Lively, diverse, intense cities contain the

seeds of

their own regeneration, with energy enough

to carry over for problems and needs outside themselves.”

jane jacobs

Our research and inspiration for our project is guided by the work of Jane Jacobs and William H. Whyte, influential pioneers in their field who have paved the path for urban planners focusing on community-based approaches and interaction. Their insights on urban development and social lives of cities provides the basis of our research and has inspired us to delve deeper in their investigations. We sought to understand what makes public spaces a success or a failure, and explore the parameters required to cultivate cross friction and interaction between people. Community adovcate Jane Jacobs argued that cities are living ecosystems, “organic, spontaneous, and untidy,” that constantly change and respond based on interactions. She believed that the surroundings of a public space are essential to its success. “Observers, as well as active users,” she writes, “are ingredients of a successful place.” William H. Whyte’s extensive observations on human behavior in urban settings in Manhattan offers seven common features prevalent in successful public spaces, including the relationship between the public space and the street, seating, environmental factors, and food. Our design guidelines and parameters are based on further developing his findings. A good public space requires careful thought and consideration by designers and urban planners. Though culture plays an important role, we can utilize all of our design guidelines in order to ensure that we have the best fighting chance at creating a successful public space that encourages interaction, innovation, and community.

What are the crucial parameters are needed to create opportunities for interactions between people?

parameters

Comfort Proximity Convenience Sense of Belonging Familiarity Security Discovery Commonality Opportunity Activities Entertainment Social Norms Disaster

“The more trees that existed in a space, the more heavily the space was used by people of all ages.� - American Planning Association

proximity Bigger is not necessarily always better.

Small buildings, compared to their larger counterparts, are less expensive, cheaper to heat and cool, less expensive to maintain, easier to clean, and have a smaller environmental footprint, among other benefits. These create a better space in which to live, work, and play. Small streets help to create affordable housing in good urban neighborhoods. The homes on the main Avenues tend to be grand in both size and architectural detail. However, around the corner down the small street in this photo are smaller, more affordable houses. These two housing types co-exist harmoniously, complimenting each other to create an economically diverse neighborhood that is beautiful and stable.

proximity

Accommodating city transportation is important, and this should not destroy the related intricate and concentrated land use. Giving room to other desired city uses which compete with automobile traffic needs, such as widening sidewalks, narrowing the vehicular roadbed and in turn, reduces car use, and traffic congestion.

convenience

Lively, diverse areas encourage walking. To make more areas of cities successful, diversity should be enhanced, rather than large monotonous areas which discourage interaction, such as parking lots or junk yards. Blocks should be short, to encourage walking, increase path options between points of departure, and destinations, and therefore enhance social and as a result economic development. This two categories of locations: “stops,” somewhere one might go to on the way to another place, which is a “destination.” Neighborhoods must serve more than one primary function to ensure presence of people using the same common facilities at different times. Dense concentration of people, including residents, promote visible city life.

convenience

Sense of community is a concept in urban sociology which focuses on the experience of community rather than its structure, formation, setting, or other features. Research has been done on empirical research on community by intellectuals, but the psychological approach asks questions about the individual’s perception, understanding, attitudes, feelings, about community and his or her relationship to it and to others’ participation—indeed to the complete, multifaceted community experience.

belongingness

Belonging is a double-edged sword: on one hand, you want to belong because you feel lonely, so you seek out others who share certain similarities, but on the other, you don’t want to be categorized and generalized. You want to eat your cake and have it too.

sense of belonging

familiarity

familiarity Familiarity is the important factor to influence people to want to interact with each other in urban space. However the crucial element of this factor is the balance in the level of such sense. When a person is too familiar with the neighborhood or the event and occasion he/ she experiences, the sense of benefit by interacting with strangers may be forgot, underrated or unsocial. On the other hand, when a person is too unfamiliar with the neighborhood or the event and occasion, such situation may bring fear and emotional discouragement to want to interact with strangers. However, feeling of familiarity acts variously and synergistically according to the design setting of the urban space and context. In neighborhoods with design features that are thought to bring high sense of community among residents such as low rise townhouses and stoops, neighbors may interact more actively than neighborhoods with high rise apartment buidings that provide no tools to create prolonged happenstance conversations.

INTRODUCTION HERE:

#BMBODFPGTFDVSJUIZBOEGSFFEPNPGTFMGFYQSFTTJPOJTBOFDFTTBSZQBSUBOEBCBTFUP DSFBUFCBSSJFSGSFFJOUFSBDUJPOTCFUXFFOQFPQMF4VDIBTQFDUJTTIPXOJONBOZXBZT'PS instance, the fact that many metropolitan citJFTOFJHICPSIPPETIBWFDPOOPUBUJPOPGSFTJEFOUTPXOTPDJBMJNBHFT QPMJUJDBMWJFXT  BOEMJGFTUZMFDIPJDFTFYFNQMJGZQSPWFUIBU TFMGFYQSFTTJPOJTSFRVJSFEJOPSEFSGPSQFPQMF UPXBOUUPJOUFSBDUXJUIFBDIPUIFS0VSPXO FYBNQMFJTUIFJOUFSWJFXPGUIF8FTU7JMMBHF SFTJEFOUXIPTBJEi*XBTLOPXOBTIJQQJF XIJMFXPSLJOHJO8BMM4USFFUGPSMJWJOHJOUIF WJMMBHFi4VDITFOTFPGGSFFEPNBMTPEJSFDUMZ UJFFTJOUPUIFTFOTFPGCFMPOHJOHOFTTXIJDIJT POFPGUIFNPTUDSVDJBMLFZJOQPTJUJWFTUSBOHsecurity security FSJOUFSBDUJPOTBOEQSPNPUJPOPGBDUJWFAVSCBO socializing

security Chapter 6

Balance of securithy and freedom of self expression is a necessary part and a base to create barrier-free interactions between people. Such aspect is shown in many ways. For instance, the fact that many metropolitan cities’ neighborhoods have connotation of residents’ own social images, political views, and life style choices exemplify prove that self expression is required in order for people to want to interact with each other. Our own example is the interview of the West Village resident who said “I was known as hippie... while working in Wall Street... for living in the village.“ Such sense of freedom also directly tiees into the sense of belongingness which is one of the most crucial key in positive stranger interactions and promotion of active ‘urban socializing.

BEHAVIORS Balance of secur and freedom of s express

security

Sense of discovery makes stranger interactions and natural casual conversation about the subject of the discovery the strangers share fascination with. Such aspect was proven by our interviews with Times SQ staple personalities like Elmo, Naked Cow Boy. In fact, Naked Cow Boy said “I create chances for strangers to interact with each other by talking about me and asking each other to take pictures with me.� Sense of discovery also directly inter-related with familiarity we mentioned in earlier chapter. (Too high of familiarity=Low sense of discovery=low sense of commonality through fascination with others)

discovery

DESIGN GUIDELINE public art

in t r f a erby t o es ass t, bu h c pie s a p n ar oug om elp upo r thr by d an es h ble the ed r e g ac rm tist? the m h n i o u w p f v t Ha blic s nly s w it, ng in e ar hind uh pu not o kno r bei as t g be nt m ay d to get to ion o ho w inkin iffere e to to cuss rd. W eir th a d ou se dis laca as th there ne y e? a p at w Was the o ok lik Wh ce? ath it lo pie bene at did ral d wh an

Public art can define the spirit of a city. It connects people with a sense of history and place. Art can provide people access to information that helps them better understand the world around them.

discovery

DESIGN GUIDELINE water

Water is a magical element in public spaces, attracting people with its calming and natural beauty, engages our senses, and offers opportunities for play, discovery, fascination, and relaxation. In small, public spaces, water is especially important to provide a much needed dose of refreshing and rejuvenating nature in a congested urban environment. The hypnotizing, soothing sound of fresh water bubbling in a fountain can be transportative for stressed city dwellers. Because of our inherent attraction to water, fountains have long been magnets in public spaces, serving as a meeting point. As William H. Whyte discovered, water should be accessible to encourage interaction, so designers must allow for visitors to touch, feel, and play with water.

water

DESIGN GUIDELINE transparency

Transparency in stores, cafes, and restaurants also provide structural support for curiosity and discrete interaction among strangers. Specifically in cafes and restaurants, many outsiders may look inside of the restaurant at a nearby table and make eye contact with strangers inside or glance at the food that is being served. This serves as a connector between people who are inside of the restaurant with those who are outside.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, (New York: Random House, 1961) William Whyte, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, (Project for Public Spaces Inc, 2001)

Soonbeam Jang

Christine Mi Kim

Kensey Wilbon

Yvonne Yeh


Cultivating Friction and Cross Fertilizations