Language Learning Strategies: Theory and Research
What is considered by many to be the pioneering work in the field of language learning strategies was carried out in the mid eventies by researchers such as Rubin (1975) and Stern (1975). Although nearly a quarter of a century has passed since then, the language learning strategy field continues to be characterised by “no consensus” (O’Malley et al, 1985, p.22) and the concept of language learning strategies itself remains “fuzzy” (Ellis, 1994, p.529). This article attempts to clarify some of the fuzziness by trying first of all to establish basic terminology and going on to discuss definition and classification of language learning strategies. The development of language learning strategy theory and how it fits into the framework of contemporary language teaching and learning for students who speak other languages is examined, and research on language learning strategies to date is reviewed.