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Radi oLumbi niaudi encesur vey

whoi sl i st eni ng? MSNepal-Radi oLumbi nipar t ner shi ppr ogr amme

Table of contents SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................................2 FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .....................................................................................4 1. METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................................6 1.1 SAMPLE SIZE AND SELECTION OF RESPONDENTS .................................................................................6 1.2 DESIGN OF QUESTIONNAIRE AND COLLECTION OF DATA .....................................................................6 2. PEOPLE’S USAGE OF MEDIA ............................................................................................................8 2.1 INFORMATION ABOUT LOCAL ISSUES....................................................................................................8 2.2 USAGE OF MEDIA .................................................................................................................................12 2.2.1 Television.....................................................................................................................................12 2.2.2 Newspaper ...................................................................................................................................14 2.2.3 Internet.........................................................................................................................................15 3. USAGE OF RADIO................................................................................................................................18 3.1 CONSUMPTION .....................................................................................................................................19 3.2 RECEPTION AND QUALITY OF SIGNAL .................................................................................................22 3.3 PREFERENCE OF RADIO STATION ........................................................................................................22 3.4 PREFERENCE OF RADIO PROGRAMS ....................................................................................................25 3.5 PROGRAMS BROADCASTED BY RUPANDEHI RADIO STATIONS ...........................................................27 3.5.1 Local news, local reports and community affairs .....................................................................27 3.5.2 National news ..............................................................................................................................28 3.5.3 International news.......................................................................................................................29 3.5.4 Educational programs ................................................................................................................30 3.5.5 Music programs ..........................................................................................................................32 4. RADIO LUMBINI LISTENERS COMPOSITION ..........................................................................34 4.1 WHO LISTENS TO RADIO LUMBINI ......................................................................................................34 4.2 PEOPLE NOT LISTENING TO RADIO LUMBINI ......................................................................................36 4.3 CONSUMPTION .....................................................................................................................................37 4.4 PERCEPTION OF RADIO PROGRAMS .....................................................................................................39 4.4.1 The popular programs ................................................................................................................40 4.4.2 The unpopular programs ............................................................................................................43 4.4.3 The unknown programs ..............................................................................................................45 4.4.4 MS Nepal supported radio programs ........................................................................................46 4.5 SUGGESTED CHANGES FROM LISTENERS ............................................................................................50 4.6 LISTENERS’ RELATIONSHIP WITH RADIO LUMBINI ............................................................................51 5. CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................................54 6. RECOMMENDATIONS .......................................................................................................................56

Summary From the perspective of Radio Lumbini, this survey pursues to find out to what extent the common perception is viable that radio is the most popular and useful media to disseminate information media in rural communities. At the time the data for the survey was collected, media in Nepal experienced severe suppression from the royal regime. It is therefore no surprise when the survey concludes mouth to mouth still is the most important mean of communication on local issues among the large majority although a very high number of people trust the information from the media. The fact that most stories are told from mouth to mouth allows rumours easily to flourish although the likelihood increases people will search additional information or discuss it with others for triangulation, as they get more educated. The literate, people in the urban areas, as well as most mainstream media speak in Nepali and people in this language group are to a large extent satisfied with their access to - and representation in the media. Half the population in Radio Lumbini’s home district Rupandehi, however, has Bhojpuri as their mother tongue, and is an idiom together with the languages Tharu and Awadi commonly spoken in the lower belt of Nepal, Terai. The survey concludes these communities remain largely outside the reach of the media. Radio Lumbini seems not to sufficiently have embraced the Bhojpuri community, which is why a large proportion of listeners from this language group tune into Rupandehi FM, which has a larger selection of programs available for this community, news and educational programs included. The survey provides data that challenges and to some degree also contradicts the Bhojpuri community’s ‘hostile’ position towards Radio Lumbini as Bhojpuri is the language group, which has the highest ownership feeling of Radio Lumbini and is also the language group, which has expressed most interest to become more involved with Radio Lumbini. The Tharu community, which has close cultural ties with the Bhojpuri language community, are committed listeners of Radio Lumbini and prefers its local news and educational programs. Tharu people not listening to Radio Lumbini is likely because they do not know of Radio Lumbini. A large proportion from the Bhojpuri and Tharu communities also belongs to the uneducated segment of Nepal as well as many from these populations work as labourers. For these people are television, newspaper and the internet hardly an option available and only 50-60 percent have a radio receiver in their home. Although Radio Lumbini is talented in attracting uneducated listeners compared to the other radio stations, the findings of the survey give indications that the radio programs of Radio Lumbini has limited appeal to listeners with no or little education. The fact the uneducated segment has many people not knowing of Radio Lumbini and/or limited ownership feeling of Radio Lumbini makes it challenging to establish points of encounter with this group of people. Although the survey concludes one of Radio Lumbini’s assets compared to other radio stations is their educational program, the uneducated people have preference for Rupandehi FM when it comes to educational programs. The survey concludes Radio Lumbini’s strengths are its programs attracting educated listeners age 20 to 39, its balanced composition of male and female listeners, its news programs for the Nepali and Tharu communities, as well as its educational and folk music programs. Another of Radio Lumbini’s strengths 2

is the fact it is deeply rooted in its community as a noticeable high proportion of society has ownership feeling of Radio Lumbini and more than half of the respondents expressed interest in becoming more involved in the work of Radio Lumbini, in particular through the listener clubs. Radio Lumbini’s challenge is to expand or change its programs to sustain the children/teenage listeners and to truly penetrate the excluded groups currently outside the reach of media. The findings of the survey indicates there is a linkage between the fact programs targeted for marginalised groups in large are unknown and these groups of people have expressed most interest in becoming more involved with Radio Lumbini.

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Foreword and acknowledgements Generally, there is a widespread perception that radio is the most popular and suitable media in Nepal in particularly the rural communities due to high levels of illiteracy, the many different languages, and a radio receiver’s comparatively cheap price. But is it true? We actually have only little knowledge on hand about citizens’ media usage; if people prefer radio compared to other media, if radio is seen as a reliable source of information, what programs people prefer, if the programs meet their needs and expectations, and what the listeners actually do with the information they receive. The survey is conducted within the MS Nepal – Radio Lumbini partnership programme, and its objective is to provide Radio Lumbini (RL) a platform to carry out their operations, in terms of: •

Ability to develop radio programs that meet people’s needs and expectations,

Providing criteria for distribution of listening equipment and opening of new listener clubs in areas according to needs and demands, and

MS as well as other donors can measure the impact of their support to RL.

As the statistical material generated in the survey is immense, choices and priorities have been made by the author to narrow down the scope of the vast material. Although what might have been stated and concluded in this report, fortunately a society remains much richer and complex than the percentages in the statistics can show. The reader is therefore also requested to take all necessary precautions and only read the material in the survey as ideas and suggestions as to how RL can become even more an inclusive community radio. The structure of the report is as follows. The following chapter 1 will describe the methodology used in the survey. Chapter 2 will outline people’s usage of media, and chapter 3 will focus on people’s usage of media. Chapter 4 is an in-depth analysis of RL and its listeners’ listening habits, and chapter 5 concludes the report. Finally, chapter 6 will outline the recommendations from the findings in the survey. A number of annexes can be found at the end of the report. Before proceeding with the report itself, some acknowledgements should be mentioned. The accomplishment of the survey would not have been possible if people along the path would not have been contributing. The former coordinator of the RL Listener Club Unit, Durga Aryal, was giving a valuable contribution, helping in the initial phase of the survey in the preparation and coordination of the collection of data. Umesh Rijal, head of the Department for Sociology, Geography and Population studies at Bhairahawa Multiple Campus, was very kind and supportive in coordinating the student’s field visits for the collection of data. All the forty students from Bhairahawa Multiple Campus collecting the data should also be recognised. Yamkala and Radhika are two volunteers of RL and should also be appreciated as they did the hard work processing all the questionnaires in SPSS software. And finally Goma Ghimire, the new coordinator of the RL Listener Club Unit, was kind in 4

assisting analysing all the raw data and did together with Sharda Gaire and Shyam Basyal, social mobilisors at the RL Listener Club Unit, the teeny-weeny work mapping the reception and quality of signal in annex 7. Also thanks to them. Jacob Thorsen Community radio advisor to MS Nepal-Radio Lumbini partnership programme October 2006

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1. Methodology This chapter introduces the methodology used in the survey and how respondents have been selected, how the questionnaire has been designed, and how data has been collected and processed.

1.1 Sample size and selection of respondents The sample size of the audience survey is 1,529 people from the coverage area of RL. RL management was initially provided a complete list (annex 3) with the names of all the VDC’s in the districts of Rupandehi, Kapilbastu, Palpa, Gulmi, Arghakhanchi, Nawalparasi and Chitwan. From this list 193 VDC’s were selected, assuming the broadcasting signal of RL potentially can reach these areas. In numbers 1,540,797 people live in the coverage area of RL. Two criteria were set for the proportional selection of respondents (annex 8): I. Geography, including number of people in the districts/VDC’s, and II. The socio economic characteristics of the RL broadcasting area, defined in the survey as: gender, age, ethnicity/caste and mother tongue. The 2001 census published in the “District Development Profile of Nepal 2004” by Informal Sector Research & Study Centre (www.isrsc.org) is used to set the benchmarks for the selection of respondents. As for the first criteria the actual collected data from the defined respondents is accurate and with only minor variation compared to the set benchmarks. In terms of the second criteria, inaccuracy is found compared to the set benchmarks. The overall accuracy is 74.5 percent (annex 1) and the largest variation is seen in the following segments: • • • • •

Ethnicity/caste Brahman 171 too many, Gender male 162 too many, Gender female 135 too few, Age 60+ years 111 too few, and Age 20-24 years 101 too many.

The inaccuracy tilts the result and gives a distorted picture, not fully reflecting the pluralistic reality of the RL broadcasting area. This happened although the researchers were instructed to carefully select the respondents (annex 6). The way the statistics is used in the survey, however, will balance the inaccuracy.

1.2 Design of questionnaire and collection of data A questionnaire containing a total of 56 questions was initially drafted in English (annex 4) and subsequently discussed and adjusted for subsequent approval by RL management. Finally, the questionnaire was translated into Nepali (annex 5). 40 students from Bhairahawa Multiple Campus, Department of Sociology, Geography and Population studies were prepared to go into the field as researchers with the questionnaires. The period for the collection of data was in 2005 from July to August in Rupandehi district and October to November in the neighbouring districts. After the collection of data, the data was processed into SPSS statistical software for computerised analysis. 6

60 questionnaires were randomly checked after processing the data. Out of the 56 questions many mistakes were found in the processing of questions number 46 and 49. These questions have been left out of the analysis. In question number 6, one of the time options (5PM to 8PM) was for some reason left out in the Nepali questionnaire. The question has, however, remained in the survey but the mistake has to be kept in mind when reading the report. When data subsequently was analysed, clusters of respondents with less than 20 answers are left out of the analysis. This has sometimes been done when analysing data from ethnic minorities and small language groups, for example, as collected data from these segments at times are insignificant in numbers. Including their data in the survey would in some cases have made the tables disproportional. In the period the data was collected, Nepal experienced severe suppression by the royal regime on media and other democratic forces, including various media ordinances striving to control the media. At that time news and information was banned from the radio stations, which obviously also has influenced the survey as there are a number of questions related to news and likeminded topics. This is also quite clear in the answers people give to the questions related to these issues, and has to be taking into account by the reader. It will also be discussed in greater details later in the report.

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2. People’s usage of media From this chapter and onwards the findings from the survey will be presented. This chapter will outline how people obtain information about local issues and describe peoples’ usage of the various media available: television, newspaper and the internet. The usage of the radio will be dealt with separately in the following chapter.

2.1 Information about local issues Nepal does not have a long history of free and independent media. After the introduction of democracy in 1990, independent radio stations, television and newspapers started to mushroom and has ever since been an important ingredient in assisting people framing their perception of the world. A variety of media is accessible in RL’s broadcasting area, Rupandehi district. Four radio stations, three cable television operators, eleven newspapers and internet in urban areas is available. Yes 92.9% No 7.1% Table 1: Trust in information from media. 1,416 respondents.

According to findings a remarkable high percentage trusts the information they get from the media. A quite high number if we take into consideration independent media was severely challenged at the time the data for the survey was collected. In the survey we asked people what their main source of information on local issues is. Friends and family Newspaper Television Radio Internet Table 2: People’s main source of information about local

55.4% 23.1% 10.0% 9.5% 1.0% issues. 1,434 respondents.

Stories, news and rumours from friends and families still are the most important source of information for more than half of the respondents. Among the media options available, newspaper is the most used source, whereas only 10 percent utilises television and radio respectively. Although trust in the media is high, people still prefer accessing information from friends and family when it comes to issues of local content. For sure the instable political situation at the time data was collected also has influenced people’s answer.

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100% 80%

Internet Radio

60%

TV 40%

Newspaper Family/friends

20%

G ul Ar m gh i ak ha nc hi C hi tw an

Pa lp N a aw al pa ra si

Ru pa nd eh i Ka pi lb as tu

0%

Table 3: Main source about local issues, district. 1,489 respondents.

District vice family and friends are noticeable important sources on local issues in Kapilbastu and Chitwan districts, whereas Palpa differs and widely utilises the different varieties of media available. Palpa is also the district where the radio is mostly used as a main source for information on local issues. Radio is not a popular source of information on local issues in RL’s home district Rupandehi. Only 3.9 percent consider radio as the most appropriate media for this purpose. 100% 90% 80% 70%

Internet

60%

Radio

50%

TV

40%

Newspaper

30%

Family/friends

20% 10% 0% 10- 15- 20- 25- 30- 35- 40- 45- 50- 55- 60+ 14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59

Table 4: Main source about local issues, age. 1,468 respondents.

If we look at people’s selection of media from an age perspective some interesting figures appear. The younger (except from childhood) the more open people are towards the different media - particular the newspapers. Radio is most popular among people in their late thirties, and has in average 10 percent listeners from children to people in their mid-forties. Television has almost an equal amount around 10 percent of viewers in all ages.

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100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Internet Radio TV Newspaper

In te rm ed ia te

SL C

y

Se co nd ar y

ar im Pr

N o

ed uc at io n

Family/friends

Table 5: Main source about local issues, education. 1,294 respondents.

Education is a significant factor that determines people’s main source of information about local issues. The more educated people are the more likely they obtain their information from the media. An interesting thing to observe is the fact radio seems to peak in popularity among people with secondary education. Newspapers, in comparison, increases nearly proportionally in popularity as people get more educated. 100% 90% 80% 70%

Internet

60%

Radio

50%

TV

40%

Newspaper

30%

Family/friends

20% 10% 0% Bhojpuri

Tharu

Magar

Urdu

Nepali

Table 6: Main source about local issues, language. 1,481 respondents.

Particularly the Bhojpuri and Tharu language communities rely to at high degree on family and friends as their main source of information on local issues. These are also the communities who significantly little utilises the radio for this purpose. In the other language communities, however, radio and newspaper have gained more space, whereas television is almost at the same level among all language groups. The internet is hardly noticeable.

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100% 80% Internet Radio

60%

TV 40%

Newspaper Family/friends

20%

t

Te ac he r G ov .e m p.

en ud St

La bo ur

Fa rm er

H ou se

w ife

0%

Table 7: Main source about local issues, occupation. 1,385 respondents.

Physical work (house wife, farmer and labourer) also influences people’s usage of media, as these groups only to a low degree utilise the media to obtain information on local issues. Television is most popular among the housewives and radio is significantly most popular among the teachers. Once information from the media is obtained two-third of people will discuss it with friends and relatives, one-tenth will keep the information for themselves, and again one-tenth search additional information on the subject.

Search additional information Keep it for myself

SL C

y ar im Pr

In te rm ed ia te

Discuss it with relatives and friends

Se co nd ar y

N o

ed uc at io n

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Table 8: Utilisation of obtained information, education. 1,399 respondents.

People’s educational background is an influential factor as to what people do with the information they obtain. The less educated, the more there is a tendency to withhold the information and thereby allow rumours easier to flourish, whereas the more educated people are the more likely they will discuss the issues with others and/or search additional information for triangulation. Education stimulates people’s critical perception as to the information they obtain.

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2.2 Usage of media The following pages will describe people’s media usage of the various media available. The usage of radio will, as mentioned, be dealt with separately in the following chapter.

2.2.1 Television Local, national and international television is available in Rupandehi district. Cable television is supplied by three different providers and is mostly available in the urban areas, whereas the rural areas depend on antenna connection In RL’s coverage area 53.6 percent of the respondents answered they have a television at home. In the following paragraphs we will look at who most likely has a television and how they utilise this media.

Table 9: TV at home, education. 1,310 respondents.

One factor that influences to what extent people have a television at home is education. The higher education, the more likely people have a television. Compared to average, secondary education is breakeven for having a television at home.

Table 10: TV at home, language. 1,500 respondents.

Language also indicates where you most likely can find a television in people’s home. The Bhojpuri and Tharu communities less likely have a television set, whereas the Urdu community is at level with average. Magar and Nepali language communities quite likely have a television at home. 12

Table 11: Never watch television, education. 767 respondents.

An average of 3.7 percent never watches television. However, as the graph above illustrates, the number of non-viewer’s increase significantly among people without an educational background. At home 96.3% At work 0.4% At my friends, relatives home 3.1% Table 12: Where people mostly watch television. 790 respondents.

There is no practice of significance to watch television outside home. The vast majority watches television at home.

Table 13: Hours of watching television. 800 respondents.

People mostly watch television 1-2 hours a day, and will mostly do it in the evening from 8 to 11PM (38.1 percent). Soaps and films 21.0% Documentary 16.8% National news 15.9% Educational programs 13.9% International news 13.2% Local news 10.5% Sports 6.3% Music programs 0.4% Table 14: Most popular television programs. 859 respondents.

Most popular television programs are soaps and films, followed by documentaries and news programs. Music programs and sports are not appreciated as much.

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2.2.2 Newspaper There are eleven local and national newspapers available in Rupandehi district.

Table 15: Freq. reading newspaper. 1,428 respondents.

Half the population never read newspaper, whereas 15 percent read newspaper every day. Among people reading newspaper, the majority do it almost every day. Kantipur 48.0% Annapurna Post 12.2% Gorkhapatra 10.7% Lumbini 5.5% Mechikali Sandesh 5.0% Janasangharsa 4.5% Sapatahik Bhairahawa 3.7% Samachar Patra 2.6% Bhawana 1.9% Rajdhani 1.0% Rajayasatta Sapthik 1.0% Table 16: Read newspaper during last week. 658 respondents. The local newspaper ‘Butwal Today’ is by mistake left out from the survey.

The two major media houses in Nepal significantly dominate the sale of newspapers. The three top newspapers are all national newspapers, whereas the remaining local newspapers struggle for the fourth and remaining positions. There is a significant difference in popularity between the local and the national newspapers. The fact the national newspapers are most popular seems contradictory to what previously stated that newspaper is the most important media-source on local issues (table 2, page 8). An explanation to this occurrence could be that radio was the media most suppressed by the royal regime, which influenced the radio stations ability to deliver stories and news with local content. Newspapers were the most stable source of stories at the time the data for the survey was collected.

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Table 17: Read newspaper every day, language. 1,474 respondents.

The Bhojpuri and Tharu language communities less likely read newspaper every day. The Urdu and Nepali language communities, in comparison, are more likely to read newspaper every day.

Table 18: Read newspaper every day, education. 1,292 respondents.

Breakeven for reading newspaper is somewhere between a secondary and SLC education.

2.2.3 Internet The internet has increasingly become available in Nepal as broadband lines gradually connect more areas. An average of 14.6 percent in the coverage area of RL uses the internet somehow, whereas 1.4 percent of the respondents have internet in their home. Among people using the internet 48.4 percent would use the internet once a week. Only 2.5 percent of the people using the internet would use it every day. Female 12.0% Male 15.8% Table 19: Use of internet, gender. 1,497 respondents.

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The use of the internet is a fairly balanced between the two sexes, although slightly dominated by the males.

Table 20: Usage of internet, age. 1,475 respondents.

No surprise is it mainly the youth using the internet as it mainly has been exposed to this age group.

Table 21: Usage of internet, education. 1,299 respondents.

While breakeven for radio is a primary education, television a secondary education, and the newspaper somewhere between a secondary education and a SLC, for the internet SLC is breakeven. The number of internet users, however, significantly increases as people get an intermediate education.

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Table 22: Usage of internet, language. 1,487 respondents.

Language is a very determinant factor as to who uses the internet. It is mainly the Nepali language community who is exploring the internet, whereas the Bhojpuri and Tharu language communities are way behind; in particular the Tharu community.

Table 23: For what usage of internet. 204 respondents.

A vast majority of people with access to the internet use it for e-mails. Chat comes second. Only 5 percent of the people with access to the internet would use it to seek information.

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3. Usage of radio Radio Sagarmatha was the first independent radio station in Nepal and started its broadcasting in 1997. Shortly after followed the foundations of RL and Radio Madan Pokhara in 1999 as the first radio stations outside the Kathmandu valley. Today, 19 community radios are broadcasting all over Nepal and an equal number of commercial radio stations. Of these 14 radio stations can be tuned in Rupandehi. Among the 95 percent of the respondents who answered the question if they have a radio at home, 84.8 percent answered yes to the question. District Gender Age Education Palpa Male 20-24 Intermediate Highest 93.9% 85.5% 89.1% 95.5% Chitwan Female 35-39 No education Lowest 68.2% 82.2% 76.9% 60.2% Average 84.1% 84.1% 84.3% 88.6% Table 24: Ownership of radio. 1,455 respondents.

Ethnicity/caste Brahman 90.9% Chamar 73.7% 84.5%

Language Nepali 88.4% Tharu 75.4% 84.4%

Occupation Teacher 96.4% Labourer 53.1% 83.7%

The table above speaks for itself and expresses a general assumption as to who most likely would have a radio set at home. In the following pages we shall look more into details as to peoples usage of radio.

Table 25: Radio at home, education. 1.312 respondents.

As the table before and graph above illustrates, the more educated the more likelihood there is to have a radio. Breakeven to have a radio set compared to average is somewhere between primary and secondary education. Only 60 percent among the uneducated people have a radio at home, which is significantly lower compared to people with an educational background.

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Table 26: Radio at home, language. 1,503 respondents.

The Nepali language community would most likely have a radio at home in comparison with the other language communities. In particular the Tharu and Urdu communities are behind when it comes to having a radio at home. Whether the reason for these communities do not have a radio at home is related with the fact fewer radio programs are available in these languages or due to the fact these communities have fewer recourses available and therefore cannot afford a radio receiver is unclear. The survey cannot provide a clear-cut answer on this.

3.1 Consumption In this paragraph we shall see how much people listen radio and where and when people most likely listen.

Table 27: Hours of radio listening, education. 1,293 respondents.

People listening to radio in average listen 1 hour 38 minutes a day. People with a primary education spend more hours listening to radio (1 hour 50 minutes), whereas uneducated people in average listen 1 hour 15 minutes a day.

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Table 28: Hours of radio listening, language. 1,470 respondents.

From a linguistic perspective is Bhojpuri the language group significantly listening most hours (2 hours 6 minutes), whereas the other language groups are near average.

Table 29: Hours listening to radio, age. 1,458 respondents.

The youth spend most hours listening, in particular the age group 15 to 24. There is substantial difference in the amount of hours listening radio between youth and seniors. 87 percent listen to radio at home. The educational is one factor that determines which location people choose for listening. More than twice the average among the uneducated people listens to radio at friends or relatives home.

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At friends/relatives home At w ork

Ur du

M ag ar

Th ar u

At home

Ne pa li

Bh oj pu ri

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Table 30: Where people listen to radio, language. 1,236 respondents.

Language is another factor determining where people listen to radio. The Bhojpuri, Tharu and Urdu language communities more likely listen to radio outside home, be it at work or at friends and relatives homes.

Table 31: Time people listen to radio, language. 1,206 respondents. Note that due to mistakes in the questionnaire the data collected for the timeframe 5PM to 8PM is incorrect.

During the day there is a fairly constant flow of listeners around 15 percent, peaking in the evening hours where it doubles. Language is one factor providing nuances as to the preference for when people listen. In the morning there is only little variation, although the Nepali language communities slightly have preference for radio at this time of day. At noon, the Bhojpuri language communities divert significantly from average. The afternoon is the Tharu community’s preference time and in the evening the number of listeners’ peak for all . Overall, 15 percent never listen to radio. The survey provides certain characteristics as to how to define the group of non-listeners: senior citizens, no/little educated, and labourers.

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3.2 Reception and quality of signal In this paragraph is outlined the reception and quality of the signal of RL and the three other radio stations broadcasting from Rupandehi district. Rupandehi FM

Radio Lumbini

Butwal FM

Tinau FM

85.7% 1.8% 2.0% 10.1% 0.3%

80.5% 4.7% 3.1% 2.0% 9.7%

76.3% 11.8% 3.8% 3.0% 5.1%

70.7% 16.3% 8.0% 2.6% 2.5%

Can receive Can't receive Don't know Clear Not clear

Table 32: Reception and quality of signal of radio stations broadcasting in Rupandehi. 1,108 respondents.

Rupandehi FM is received by most people and has also the clearest signal. RL has less a clear signal compared to the three others, which most likely is due to the fact the three other radio stations have double the transmitter power compared to RL. Please notice that when people answer they can receive a particular radio they maybe also can receive other radio stations as well without their knowledge. This fact is not reflected in the survey. Chitwan Gulmi Rupandehi Kapilbastu Palpa Nawalparasi Arghakhanchi TOTAL

Can receive

Can't receive

Don't know

88 24 473 102 75 129 66 957

10 11 20 2 0 2 12 57

8 5 9 8 0 3 4 37

79,3% 58,5% 86,5% 87,9% 98,7% 61,4% 73,3% 80,4%

9,0% 26,8% 3,7% 1,7% 0,0% 1,0% 13,3% 4,8%

7,2% 12,2% 1,6% 6,9% 0,0% 1,4% 4,4% 3,1%

Clear 0 0 16 2 1 4 1 24

0,0% 0,0% 2,9% 1,7% 1,3% 1,9% 1,1% 2,0%

Not clear 5 1 29 2 0 72 7 116

4,5% 2,4% 5,3% 1,7% 0,0% 34,3% 7,8% 9,7%

Total 111 41 547 116 76 210 90 1.191

100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0% 100,0%

Table 33: Radio Lumbini reception and quality of signal, district level. 1,191 respondents.

If we analyse the quality of the signal of RL from a geographical perspective, particularly respondents in Gulmi and Arghakhanchi have answered they cannot receive the signal of RL. Chitwan is also on the high side. The quality of the signal is in a less good quality in particularly Nawalparasi and Arghakhanchi. See also annex 7 in which the quality of RL’s signal in the different VDC’s is mapped.

3.3 Preference of radio station In the survey we asked the respondents about which radio people listen to among 14 radio stations broadcasting in the coverage area of RL. Among these radio stations, people listen most to the following radio stations.

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Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Kalika FM Butwal FM Tinau FM Radio Nepal Srinagar FM Synergy FM Muktinath FM Paschimanchal FM BBC Nepali Bijaya FM All India Nepal Service China International Nepal Service Table 34: Radio most listened to. 1,185 respondents.

39.0% 18.2% 10.7% 7.6% 5.9% 5.0% 4.1% 3.1% 2.4% 2.1% 0.7% 0.5% 0.2% 0.1%

Rupandehi FM is the most listened to radio station followed by RL in the coverage area of RL. Kalika FM broadcasts from Chitwan district and is in a third position, which is a remarkable achievement as it is broadcasting from a different district. In the following pages comparisons is made about peoples particular preference between the four radio stations broadcasting from Rupandehi district: Rupandehi FM, RL, Butwal FM and Tinau FM. Subsequently, comparisons between the two most popular radio stations Rupandehi FM and RL is made.

Table 35: Preference of radio station, age. 1,209 respondents.

In terms of people’s age and preference for radio station, Rupandehi FM compared to RL is stronger in all age groups except from people age 50 to 59.

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Table 36: Preference of radio, language. 1,218 respondents.

In terms of language, Rupandehi FM is in strongest position in all language groups. However, notice the gap in the Bhojpuri community’s preference of radio station, which is exceptionally significant. For the language groups Nepali and Tharu the difference is minor.

Table 37: Preference of radio, occupation. 1,121 respondents.

Occupation wise, the gap between Rupandehi FM and RL is biggest among labourers, whereas RL has a fairly good hold of the housewives. Compared to Butwal FM and Tinau FM, RL appears to have a relative significant proportion of housewives, farmers and students as listeners, whereas government employees, teachers and labourers are on, or close to level.

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Table 38: Preference of radio, education. 1,128 respondents.

If we apply an educational optic, people no matter educational background prefer Rupandehi FM. Its popularity decreases gradually as people get more educated. Rupandehi FM’s preference as radio station among the uneducated is significant. RL in comparison gradually although slightly become popular as people get educated. RL peaks in popularity among people with a secondary education.

3.4 Preference of radio programs In this paragraph is discussed people’s preference for radio programs. The lighter areas in the graph below illustrate what kinds of programs are most preferred by the listeners according to age. The blue areas indicate no or little preference.

Table 39: Preference of radio program, age. 1,161 respondents.

The left side of the graph coloured in light colours shows news programs in particular is appreciated by the listeners - seniors in particular.

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In the middle of the graph there is a yellow area indicating folk music is very popular; again in particular by the senior listeners. Educational programs are liked by the children/youth as well as by the seniors. On the right side of the graph there are some light spots; radio drama has some light areas among the teenagers, people in their first thirties, as well among the senior listeners. The senior listeners, in particular, appreciate agricultural programs. In general are ‘soft issue’ programs on gender, culture, development and peace, health and sports not liked by almost all age groups. Children themselves like the children programs.

Table 40: Preference of radio program, language. 1,172 respondents.

If we apply a linguistic optic, news programs are popular particularly in the Bhojpuri and Nepali language communities. Most language groups like folk music programs and educational programs are almost as popular. Radio drama has a small spot indicating some popularity as well among the Nepali language community. The Bhojpuri language community like agricultural programs more than the average. Generally, there seems to be consensus that gender programs are not popular. The Bhojpuri language community in particular does not seem to like the ‘soft issue’ based programs (programs on gender, development, health, culture), nor do the Tharu and Urdu language communities.

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Table 41: Preference of radio program, occupation. 1,078 respondents.

In terms of people’s occupation and their preference for radio programs, again the light left side of the graph illustrates news programs popularity; among government employees and farmers in particular. Most occupation groups, particularly popular among government employees, appreciate folk music. Labourers not as much. Radio drama is liked among students, farmers and government employees. Agricultural programs are very liked by the farmers. Labourers, housewives and farmers are not too keen about the ‘soft issue’ programs.

3.5 Programs broadcasted by Rupandehi radio stations In the following paragraphs different thematic radio programs is analysed and compared between the four radio stations broadcasting from Rupandehi district. Radio Nepal and BBC Nepali service have been included in some parts of the analysis, as they exceptionally became popular media during the times of censorship imposed by the royal regime.

3.5.1 Local news, local reports and community affairs Rupandehi FM is the overall most popular radio station when it comes to local news (26.8 percent). RL is in second position (21.1 percent) and Butwal FM in a third position (13.3 percent).

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Table 42: Radio best in local news, local reports and community affairs, language. 1,183 respondents.

From a language perspective, Rupandehi FM in particular differs from RL in its appeal to the Bhojpuri community. In line with what previously has been outlined, this could indicate RL as well as the other radio stations not sufficiently satisfy the needs of the Bhojpuri community on local news. RL is the overall preferred radio station on local news among the Tharu and Nepali language communities.

Table 43: Radio best in local news, local reports and community affairs, education. 1,095 respondents.

When it comes to educational background and people’s opinion about best radio station on local news also here some interesting figures appear. Particularly people with no educational background or primary school significantly prefer Rupandehi FM compared to RL and the other radio stations. This could indicate RL as well as Butwal FM and Tinau FM utilise a vocabulary too sophisticated for no or little educated people in their local news program, or that the subject matter not is relevant to these groups.

3.5.2 National news In the following pages we can see the full consequences of what happens to a society when censorship is imposed. After free media started to broadcast in 28

Nepal and the state owned Radio Nepal no longer was the only source of information, Radio Nepal’s popularity started to decline. The imposed censorship February 2005, however, again made Radio Nepal the mouthpiece for the royal regime and suddenly a popular source of information.

Table 44: Radio best in national news, language. 1,183 respondents.

As we can see is Radio Nepal overly the most popular radio on national news (53.7 percent). In second position is Rupandehi FM (10.2 percent) and third is RL (9.6 percent). If we exclude Radio Nepal for a moment, RL compared to Rupandehi FM is equally popular and again differs most notably in the Bhojpuri community’s preferred source for national news. RL is the overall most popular radio station among the Nepali language community, whereas Butwal FM is most popular in the Tharu community when it comes to national news. The survey cannot answer which radio is most popular on national news now censorship has been lifted.

3.5.3 International news Shortwave radio in Nepal has never before in history been as popular as when news and information was banned by the royal regime. The table below clearly illustrates the consequences of censorship, making BBC Nepali service broadcasted by shortwave an important lifeline for many people. District Gender Age Education Ethnicity Kapilbastu Male 30-34 Intermediate Kewat Highest 75. 2% 56.2% 60.7% 66.9% 63.6% Nawalparasi Female 10-14 Secondary Muslim Lowest 23. 9% 44.8% 37.4% 44.1% 42.5% Average 51.8% 51.8% 51.6% 53.1% 52.2% Table 45: BBC Nepali Service listener composition. 1,136 respondents.

Language Nepali 53.8% Urdu 32.4% 51.8%

Occupation Teacher 69.7% Labourer 46.4% 51.8%

52.0 percent of the respondents listened to BBC Nepali Service during the censorship, and as we can see is it noticeable males, teachers and people with and intermediate background listening.

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Table 46: Radio best in international news, language. 1,168 respondents.

In second position is Radio Nepal (9.8 percent), followed by Rupandehi FM (7.3 percent) and RL (7 percent). Again, the Bhojpuri language community seems to prefer Rupandehi FM compared to RL, and also the Magar community seems to join when it comes to international news. RL, in comparison, is most appealing to the Tharu and Nepali language communities. The survey cannot answer which radio is most popular on international news now censorship has been lifted.

3.5.4 Educational programs RL is the most listened to radio station when it comes to educational programs. 30.5 percent tune into RL when they want to listen to these kinds of programs, whereas its main contestant Rupandehi FM has 21.4 percent of the listeners. The following pages will highlight the two radio stations and their differences in their educational programs appeal to their listeners.

Table 47: Educational programs, language. 1,175 respondents.

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Among all language groups RL has noticeable preference except (again) from the Bhojpuri community, which remarkably prefers Rupandehi FM. The Tharu community, in comparison, has a noticeable preference for RL when it comes to educational programs.

Table 48: Educational programs, ethnicity. 1,133 respondents.

Among most ethnic groups RL has preference, except the Kewat and Yadav communities. These communities speak Bhojpuri language.

Table 49: Educational programs, education. 1,091 respondents.

If we look at people’s educational background, RL has a constant number of listeners in the range between 25 and 35 percent, slightly increasing in popularity as people become more educated. Rupandehi FM, in comparison, has a noticeable decreasing popularity as people become more educated, attracting a substantial number of uneducated listeners to their educational programs. RL and Rupandehi FM battle for the listeners with a primary educational background for their educational programs.

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Table 50: Educational programs, age. 1,165 respondents.

If we look at people’s age, listeners age 40 to 49 and senior listeners above 60 prefer Rupandehi FM compared to RL. Among people in other ages, RL is the most popular radio station in educational programs. RL and Rupandehi FM battle for the teenage listeners.

Table 51: Educational programs, occupation. 1,079 respondents.

RL is popular among most occupation groups but has to battle with Rupandehi FM for the farmers. Rupandehi FM is most popular among the labourers when it comes to educational programs. Students, teachers and housewives significantly enjoy the educational programs of RL.

3.5.5 Music programs In this paragraph is made comparisons of the listeners’ opinion on a variety of musical programs broadcasted by RL and its three neighbour radio stations.

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Table 52: Music program preference. 1,067 respondents.

Rupandehi FM is the preferred radio station (26.3 percent) when it comes to music programs in general. RL is in second position (21.0 percent). Listeners have preference for RL when it comes to folk music programs, whereas RL bottoms when it comes to programs with pop music.

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4. Radio Lumbini listeners composition Two-third of the respondents listen to RL. But who are they? What is their opinion about RL? And how do they perceive RL’s linkage with its community? This chapter will try to answer this and a number of related questions.

4.1 Who listens to Radio Lumbini Among the respondents in the survey, 63.4 percent answered yes to the question if they listen to RL. This is equivalent to nearly one million listeners. Yes 63.4% No 36.6% Table 53: People listening to Radio Lumbini. 1,501 respondents.

If we go further into details about who is listening to RL and compare those listening with those with access to a radio receiver there is a gap of 21.4 percent; 329,730 people who potentially could be listeners of RL.

Table 54: People listening to Radio Lumbini, age. 1,478 respondents.

RL has fairly good hold of listeners age 15 to 44, whereas RL has more difficulties accessing the children and the senior listeners. Male 62.2% Female 64.1% Table 55: People listening to Radio Lumbini, sex. 1,501 respondents.

The listeners of RL are fairly balanced between the two sexes.

Table 56: People listening to Radio Lumbini, language. 1,491 respondents.

If we apply a linguistic optic on who is listening to RL we can see the number of listeners almost equally reflect their access to a radio receiver. The Tharu 34

language community slightly are more committed listeners of RL whereas Nepali slightly less committed.

Table 57: Listeners of Radio Lumbini compared with radios at home, ethnicity/caste. 1,442 respondents.

If we extend the same exercise to also include ethnicity/caste, we can see where we most likely can find the committed listeners from this perspective. The Tharu and Muslim communities are among the more committed listeners, whereas RL potentially could have more listeners from the Chetri and Kami communities.

Table 58: Listeners of Radio Lumbini compared with radios at home, education. 1,302 respondents.

In terms of education is the breakeven for listening to RL a secondary education. If we compare people’s educational background with if they have a radio at home and listen to RL, we can see RL has fairly a constant number of listeners. The gap is around 21 percent although slightly lower for the uneducated people, which indicate RL is good at attracting listeners with an uneducated background. This seems to be in contrast to what earlier explained, that Rupandehi FM compared to RL significantly is more appealing to listeners with an uneducated background (table 38, page 25). How can both radio stations have appeal among the uneducated population? The simple explanation could be uneducated people do in general have preference for Rupandehi FM, although they also do listen to RL.

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Table 59: Listeners of Radio Lumbini compared with radios at home, occupation. 1,394 respondents.

RL has many listeners among teachers and students, and a significantly low number of labourer listeners. Although there are not that many labourers in numbers listening to RL, labourers belong to the group of committed listeners if we take into consideration their access to radio receivers. Government employees significantly do not listen to RL if we compare with their access to radio receivers. This is maybe due to the bizarre situation they experienced at the time the data was collected, when they were twisted between their loyalty to the royal regime and the severe restrictions on media.

4.2 People not listening to Radio Lumbini People answering they do not listen to RL gave various reasons. Let’s look into the details as to what they answered.

Don't like RL Prefer other radio

im Pr

SL C In te rm ed ia te Av er ag e

Don't know RL

ar y Se co nd ar y

N o

ed uc at io n

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Table 60: Why people not listen to Radio Lumbini, education. 208 respondents.

As described before, people with no or little education listens less to radio compared to average. The graph above clearly illustrates that the reason people with no education do not listen to RL is not because they do not like RL or prefer another channel, but due to the fact they do not know of RL. People with educational background not listening to RL, in comparison, decide to do so mainly because they prefer other radio stations.

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Don't like RL Prefer other radio Don't know RL

Fa rm er La bo ur St ud en t Te ac he r G ov .e m p. Av er ag e

H ou se

w ife

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Table 61: People not listening to Radio Lumbini, occupation. 218 respondents.

People with a labourer background less likely listen to radio compared to other working areas. This is also the group, which significantly and most likely do not know RL. Most government employees, in comparison, know of RL and those not listening to RL do so because they prefer other radio stations. Their preference to listen to other radio stations is quite significant and could have to do with their mixed loyalty to their employer as described previously. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60%

Don't like RL

50%

Prefer other radio

40%

Don't know RL

30% 20% 10%

Av er ag e

Ur du

M ag ar

N ep al i

Th ar u

Bh oj pu ri

0%

Table 62: People not listening to Radio Lumbini, language. 231 respondents.

If we apply a linguistic optic on those not listening to RL, the Urdu and Tharu language communities are highest in not knowing of RL. The Tharu and Bhojpuri communities not listening to RL are highest in not liking RL.

4.3 Consumption People listening to RL most likely do it almost every day, which is equivalent to 387,816 listeners. Another one-third of the listeners listen to RL less than once a month. Every day 11.5% Almost every day 39.7% Once a week 11.4% Once a month 3.0% Less than once a month 30.4% Table 63: Frequency of listening to Radio Lumbini. 1,159 respondents.

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The committed listeners listening to RL every day consists of 11.5 percent, which in numbers is equivalent to 112,340 people. In average people daily listen 1 hour 49 minutes to RL, which is 11 minutes more than people in average listen radio.

Table 64: Hours listening to Radio Lumbini daily, education. 761 respondents.

From an educational perspective only people with a primary education listen less to RL compared to the average consumption of radio. People with all other educational backgrounds, uneducated included, listen more to RL than what is the average consumption of radio. The more educated the more hours people are likely to listen to RL. RL core listeners are definitely people with a higher education, who generally listen two hours. This is 36 minutes more than what people with the same educational background in average would listen to radio.

Table 65: Hours listening to Radio Lumbini daily, language. 823 respondents.

Bhojpuri is the language group spending fewest hours listening to RL (1 hour 24 minutes), whereas the Urdu community is at the other end of the scale spending most hours listening to RL (2 hours 40 minutes). Tharu and Nepali are near the average consumption listening to RL, although significantly above what these language groups in general listen to radio. On average, the Bhojpuri community listen 42 minutes less to RL compared to what they in general would listen to radio. This is in contrast to the other 38

language groups, which are likely to spend more hours listening to RL than their average consumption of radio in general. This could indicate, although listening to RL, the Bhojpuri community has preference for other radio stations. It has been described before how the Bhojpuri community has preference for Rupandehi FM in general. This could be one explanation to the phenomenon we experience in the table before.

Table 66: Hours listening to Radio Lumbini, age. 815 respondents.

Previously was described (table 54, page 34) how RL has good hold on listeners in the age 15 to 44. If we add to this fact how many hours people listen to radio, the age range is reduced to span from 20 to 39, which is an age group substantially listening more hours to RL compared to what they would listen to radio in general. There are some indications RL seems to struggle with the children/teenagers and the senior listeners, which also has been mentioned before.

Table 67: Hours of listening to Radio Lumbini, sex. 826 respondents.

If we apply a gender optic on how much males and females listen to RL, there is hardly any difference between the two sexes. This is in contrast to males in general spending more hours listening to radio.

4.4 Perception of radio programs RL broadcasted during the survey 60 different radio programs (annex 2). Due to limitations in scope and time all the radio programs of RL cannot be analysed in details in the report. Reference to the files containing all the details from the data material and annex 2 is made if the reader wants to go into details about a particular program. In this paragraph is selected a 39

number of programs for detailed analysis based on four criteria: the most popular programs, the most unpopular programs, the most unknown programs, and the MS Nepal supported programs.

Table 68: ‘Mountain shaped’ outlook of average perception of Radio Lumbini programs compared with the most popular program at Radio Lumbini, Dharmic Karyakaram. 679 respondents.

When the respondents were requested to rank a particular radio program they had five available options: ‘like very much’, ‘like’, ‘don’t know’, ‘don’t like’, and ‘don’t like at all’. Among the 60 programs broadcasted by RL, almost half of the respondents listening to RL do not know the programs of RL. This gives the graph of the average perception of RL programs a ‘mountain shaped’ outlook with a peak in the middle as illustrated in the table above.

4.4.1 The popular programs The most popular program is Dharmic Karyakaram (table 68), which is a program on religious issues. Whether this program also would have been the most popular program during times of peace and stability is doubtful. Studies from other parts of the world indicate people during times of conflict and war tend to search inward and look for answers and understandings at a more metaphysical level. Dharmic karyakaram Religion Lok Suseli Folk songs in the evening Mutu ko betha Program about psychological and emotional issues Subha ratri Evening program with music, letter, phone ins, interviews, etc. Samudaik Gatibidhi News program Lumbini Quiz Quiz program Table 69: Most popular six programs of Radio Lumbini. 679 respondents.

It is interesting to notice that among the six most popular radio programs three of them are broadcasted in the evening. This is also the prime time most people would listen to radio (table 31, page 21), and could indicate it rather is the time than the program itself, which attract the listener. The survey cannot give a clear answer on this matter.

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Table 70: Samudaik Gatibidhi. 623 respondents.

Samudaik Gatibidhi is RL’s news program and has a similar ‘mountain shaped’ outlook as the average perception of RL programs, however located more to the left in the graph, indicating it is a popular and liked program. Due to the royal suppression on media, RL changed the program name from ‘news program’ to ‘community activities’. The change in name might have created some confusion among the listeners and respondents and should be kept in mind by the reader. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Don't like at all Don't like Don't know Like Like very much

Brahman

Tharu

Muslim

Magar

Chhetri

Yadav

Table 71: Samudaik Gatibidhi, ethnicity/caste. 606 respondents.

If we take a closer look on the preference of Samudaik Gatibidhi from an ethnic/caste perspective, we find that the program remarkably is popular in the Brahman community. 100% 80% Don't like at all Don't like

60%

Don't know 40%

Like Like very much

20% 0% No education

Primary

Secondary

SLC

Intermediate

Table 72: Samudaik Gatibidhi, education. 575 respondents.

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And if we look at people’s educational background, Samudaik Gatibidhi increasingly becomes popular, as people get more educated. People with lower or no educational background do not as much appreciate the program. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Don't like at all Don't like Don't know Like Like very much

Bhojpuri

Nepali

Tharu

Magar

Urdu

Table 73: Samudaik Gatibidhi, language. 620 respondents.

The program is most popular within the Nepali language community while the Tharu, Bhojpuri and Urdu communities not are as appealed by the program. An interesting observation to make is the fact the Tharu community is most in favour of RL when it comes to local news as previously described (table 42, page 27). Should the Nepali language community’s appeal for Samudaik Gatibidhi set the benchmark for a news program for all language groups, however, there are indications the Tharu community has not yet found the appropriate media informing them about local news and current affairs. 100% 80%

Don't like at all Don't like Don't know Like Like very much

60% 40% 20% 0% Student

Farmer

Teacher

House wife

Labour

Table 74: Samudaik Gatibidhi, occupation. 570 respondents.

Samudaik Gatibidhi certainly is a topper among the teachers compared to the other occupational groups. Labourer is the group, which less is in favour of the program. Overall, Samudaik Gatibidhi is a very popular and liked program. If we, however, look into the wider society we find the program less appeals the uneducated, labourers, and the Bhojpuri, Tharu and Urdu language groups. The survey cannot give any direct answer as to why these groups are less pleased by the program, but a language barrier (both linguistic and due to too sophisticated vocabulary), and the fact the program do not deal with issues relevant to the wider community could be an explanation as to the different opinions about the program.

42

4.4.2 The unpopular programs At the other end of the popularity scale is Aartha Banijya, which is a program on economics and finance. The survey cannot give any direct answer as to why this program is unpopular, as there in the questionnaire not are questions related to identify why. Aartha Banijya Program on economics and finance Pop dot com Pop song music program Aaina Bhojpuri Bhojpuri songs and information Patriphal Program on income generation and poverty reduction Khet Khaliyaan Agricultural program in Bhojpuri Bhojpuri Karyakram Songs, information, news and letters in Bhojpuri Table 75: Most unpopular six programs of Radio Lumbini. App. 679 respondents.

It draws attention the fact that three of the six most unpopular programs are in Bhojpuri language. What makes them unpopular will be analysed in greater details in the following pages.

Table 76: Aaina Bhojpuri program. 578 respondents.

Listeners’ average perception of Aaina Bhojpuri gives a similar ‘mountain shaped’ outlook to the program as has the average perception outlook of RL’s radio programs, although the program is slightly higher on like very much and lower on like and don’t know. Compared to average, however, it is very unpopular, which also makes the program is at the bottom end of the popularity scale. Now, if we only ask the Bhojpuri community about their opinion about Aaina Bhojpuri, the picture changes completely and we get ‘lightening shaped’ graph instead as illustrated above. A remarkable higher number near the 50 percent that very much like the program and a noticeable reduced number of people who do not know the program. Almost no one who does not like the program. Although unpopular by the majority of RL listeners, we can conclude Aaina Bhojpuri serves its purpose in the Bhojpuri community. Another Bhojpuri program is Khet Khaliyaa, which is a program specially targeted to the farmers.

43

Table 77: Khet Khaliyaa (farmers program in Bhojpuri) cross-tabbed with Bhojpuri language and farmer as occupation. 556 respondents.

Compared to the ‘mountain shaped’ outlook for the average perception of RL programs, the average perception of Khet Khaliyaa gives a more ‘snake shaped’ outlook with a relative high number of listeners who either like very much or don’t like at all the program compared to the overall average perception of RL’s programs. The number of people who do not know the program is lower than average. If we only ask the Bhojpuri farmers about the program, however, the picture again changes to a ‘lightning shaped’ outlook with nearly fifty percent of the listeners very much liking the program and a comparatively low number not knowing the program, and only few people who do not like the program.

Table 78: Krishi Karyakaram (farmers program in Nepali) compared with Khet Khaliyaa (farmers program in Bhojpuri). 568 respondents.

It is interesting to compare Khet Khaliyaa with the similar program for farmers in Nepali language, Krishi Karyakaram. Both graphs have almost an identical ‘lightning shaped’ outlook. Although unpopular by the majority, again we can conclude Khet Khaliyaa serves its purpose for the Bhojpuri speaking farmers. 44

4.4.3 The unknown programs A general characteristic of the most unknown programs of RL is the fact they deal with softer issues, such as minority rights and women’s rights. Also the program Radio Browsing on information and communication technology (ICT), supported by UNESCO, is fairly unknown to the people. MS Nepal supports the two most unknown programs. Jamarko Dalit issues and discrimination. Supported by MS Pratribimba Women’s rights. Supported by MS Radio Browsing ICT. Supported by UNESCO Minham Gorak Current affairs in Magar language Satkshakaar Current affairs and interviews Uddhami Barta Entrepreneurial and business matters Table 79: The six programs most unknown to people. App. 679 respondents.

The most unknown program is Jamarko, which is a program on Dalit issues.

Table 80: Dalit’s and non-Dalit’s perception of Jamarko compared. 553 respondents.

Jamarko is a program targeted to the Dalit community although everyone could benefit listening about Dalit-issues. As the graph above illustrates is the program largely equally unknown to both Dalit’s and non-Dalit’s. 70 percent of the Dalit community does not know about Jamarko.

Table 81: Pratibimba cross-tabbed with sex. 571 respondents.

Another unknown program is Pratibimba, which deals with women issues and rights. Although women rights are an issues for both male and female, the target group of this program are the women. Asking both males and the 45

females about the program, however, there is no major difference between the two sexes perception of the program; both groups are equally little appreciate and are unaware about the program.

Table 82: Perception of Minham Gorak compared between different ethnic groups/castes. 532 respondents.

Minham Gorak is a program targeted the Magar community and is also one of the most unknown programs of RL. The program is slightly more known to the Magar community if we compare with other ethnic groups/castes, although still significantly unknown if we compare with the average perception of RL programs. Overall, there are no indications Minham Gorak significantly is appealing to the Magar community. In sum, the fact four of the six most unknown programs are funded by outside donors or NGO makes it is tempting to conclude there is a lack of ownership feeling of the programs by RL. A second explanation, however, could be the subject matter wished to brought up for the public by the outside donors/NGO still are new matters to handle for the program producers and requires more training and skills in order to make the programs interesting and relevant for the listeners.

4.4.4 MS Nepal supported radio programs In addition to the two previously described MS supported programs Jamarko and Patribimba, MS Nepal supports another three radio programs at RL: Hamro Batabaran, which is a program on environmental issues and Aanter Drishti, which is a program targeted for disabled people. A third supported program is on good governance, but was not broadcasted at the time of the survey. In relation to the MS Nepal – Radio Lumbini partnership program, RL broadcasts in addition to the mentioned programs two other programs: Aphnai Kura and Ghumdai Phiday. The latter two programs and Hamro Barabaran and Aanter Drishti, shall be analysed in the following pages.

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Table 83: Hamro Batabaran. 562 respondents.

Hamro Batabaran is a program on environmental issues and should ideally also be an overall issue of concern for the community, which it also does as it follows the ‘mountain shaped’ average perception of RL programs. As the survey does not include questions specifically related to environmental issues there are no additional comments to this program.

Table 84: Aanter Drishti. 554 respondents.

Aanter Dirshti is targeted to a narrow segment of the listeners: the disabled. It is maybe therefore of no surprise the program not is as popular as the average program of RL. As the survey does not include questions specifically related to disabled issues there are no additional comments to this program.

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Table 85: Ghumdai Phirday. 580 respondents.

Ghumdai Phirday in English means ‘rooming around’, and is a program collecting stories and testimonies from the communities; particularly communities having established a listener club affiliated with RL. Compared to average is the program on the lower side in popularity and people’s knowledge of the program is also low. 100% 80% Don't like at all

60%

Don't like Don't know

40%

Like Like very much

20% 0%

Brahman

Tharu

Muslim

Magar

Chhetri

Yadav

Table 86: Ghumdai Phirday, ethnicity/caste. 563 respondents.

If we look at the different ethnicities’ and castes’ perception of the program, we see the program is more popular in the Brahman and Magar communities, whereas the Tharu and Muslim communities have less preference for the program. This indicates the program does not reach the wider community and could be an explanation as to why the program is relatively unknown compared to average.

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Table 87: Aaphnai Kura. 571 respondents.

Another MS supported program is Aaphnai Kura, which translated into English means ‘own voice’ and is also a radio program linked with RL’s affiliated listener clubs. Only looking at peoples overall perception of the program, Aaphnai Kura is close to average perception of RL’s programs. 100% Don't like at all

80%

Don't like

60%

Don't know 40%

Like

20%

Like very much

0% Brahman

Tharu

Muslim

Magar

Chhetri

Yadav

Table 88: Aaphnai Kura, ethnicity. 554 respondents.

Comparing the different communities, Aaphnai Kura seems particularly popular in the Brahman and Magar communities. One explanation could be the fact that the majority of the members of the listener clubs also come from these communities and therefore feel more inclined with the program. 100% Don't like at all

80%

Don't like

60%

Don't know 40%

Like

20%

Like very much

0% Student

Farmer

Teacher

House wife

Labour

Table 89: Aaphnai Kura, occupation. 522 respondents.

As the graph above illustrates is Aaphnai Kura most popular among students. One explanation could be the fact that the majority of the members of the listener clubs are students as well. 49

100% 80%

Don't like at all Don't like

60%

Don't know

40%

Like Like very much

20% 0% No education

Primary

Secondary

SLC

Intermediate

Table 90: Aaphnai Kura, education. 524 respondents.

Aaphnai Kura becomes proportionally popular as people get more educated and has less appeal among people with little or no education. In sum, Ghumdai Phirday and Aaphnai Kura have a tendency appealing to already privileged people in society. The programs seem to a large extent to reflect the members of the listener clubs, whose majority of members also come from these strata in society. The challenge for RL becomes how to make the work in the listener clubs and the related radio programs inclusive and interesting to also the wider community, also including the uneducated, the Tharu and Muslim communities, as well as people from all walks of life no matter their occupational background.

4.5 Suggested changes from listeners When the respondents were asked what programs they would like more of, news programs are high on the wish list. Maybe not strange, as news programs experienced a lot of disruptions when the data for the survey was collected. Esthaniya news (local news) Rastriya news (national news) Lok geet (folk music) Antarastriya news (international news) Krishi Karyekaram (farmers program) Sikshya Sambandhi (educational) Pariwar Swasthaya (family program) Pop geet (pop music) Aadhunik geet (modern music) Radio natak (drama) Esthaniya geet (local music) Baal karyakram (childrens program) Laingik Samanta (gender) Khel Kud (sports) Aanya Sanskiti (other culture) Biswa byapaar (world trade) Aartha, Banijya, Byapaar (business) Table 91: Programs like more of. 380 respondents.

380 325 282 271 270 263 203 200 193 191 127 127 114 93 73 51 35

24.9% 21.3% 18.4% 17.7% 17.7% 17.2% 13.3% 13.1% 12.6% 12.5% 8.3% 8.3% 7.5% 6.1% 4.8% 3.3% 2.3%

Approximately one-forth wants more news related programs. Specifically the desire for local news programs is highest in the Bhojpuri language community (29.9 percent), followed by the Urdu language community (26.7 percent) and Nepali language community (24.7 percent). It is interesting to notice the Bhojpuri community expresses the highest desire for more news programs from RL, as they also in large tune into Rupandehi FM to listen to news. Also programs on education and agriculture are high on the wish list. 50

Pop geet (pop music) Aartha, Banijya, Byapaar (business) Laingik Samanta (gender) Aanya Sanskiti (other culture) Krishi Karyekaram (farmers program) Aadhunik geet (modern songs) Esthaniya geet (local songs) Khel Kud (sports) Lok geet (folk music) Radio natak (drama) Pariwar Swasthaya (family program) Baal karyakram (childrens program) Esthaniya news (local news) Rastriya news (national news) Antarastriya news (international news) Sikshya Sambandhi (educational) Biswa byapaar (trade program) Table 92: Programs too much of. 236 respondents.

236 116 68 62 53 49 49 49 40 36 27 27 24 23 23 20 5

15.4% 7.6% 4.4% 4.1% 3.5% 3.2% 3.2% 3.2% 2.6% 2.4% 1.8% 1.8% 1.6% 1.5% 1.5% 1.3% 0.3%

On the ‘too much of’ list, pop music is high scorer. The no desire for pop music, however, is almost equalised with the 200 people wanting more programs of this kind (table 91). We can conclude there are different opinions on the program. 100% 80% Don't like at all Don't like

60%

Don't know

40%

Like Like very much

20% 0% 10- 15- 20- 25- 30- 35- 40- 45- 50- 55- 60+ 14 19 24 29 34 39 44 49 54 59

Table 93: Pop dot com (pop music program), age. 576 respondents.

A generation issue seems to be the explanation behind why pop music divides the opinions among the listeners. As the table above illustrates is the pop music program ‘Pop dot com’ a hit among the teenagers. This in an age group from which RL struggles to capture listeners as described earlier (table 66, page 39 and table 54, page 34), and programs like this seems to be one of the recipes as to how RL can capture listeners from this age group. Second highest on programs too much of is Aartha Banijya, which is a program on finance and economics. This program is also highest scoring on programs not liked (table 75, page 43). We can conclude the listeners definitely do not like this program.

4.6 Listeners’ relationship with Radio Lumbini A community radio is more than merely broadcasting news, information and music to its listeners. It is also about building up a relation so that the listeners feel ownership of the radio station. This paragraph will outline listeners’ perception of their relationship with RL.

51

District Sex Age Education Ethnicity Nawalparasi Male 45-49 Intermediate Newar 93.2% 79.8% 84.1% 85.5% 95.5% Chitwan Female 50-54 No education Yadav Lowest 30.4% 72.9% 48.3% 43.1% 70.8% Average 77.0% (61.7% of total) 77.0% 77.1% 79.0% 77.0% Table 94: Ownership feeling of Radio Lumbini. 1,186 respondents. Highest

Language Bhojpuri 81.1% Urdu 62.5% 76.9%

Occupation Teacher 89.2% Labourer 62.2% 76.1%

Two-third of the respondents have an ownership feeling of RL. High educated and teacher’s high appeal for RL has been described before and are also people with a high ownership feeling of RL. A surprise is that people from Nawalparasi (because of the distance) and the Bhojpuri community’s strong ownership feeling for RL. The latter I shall discuss later.

Table 95: Ownership feeling of Radio Lumbini, education. 1,097 respondents.

If we look at people’s educational background, not everyone has a strong ownership feeling. Compared to people with an educational background, a significant number of people with no educational background have no ownership feeling of RL. Likewise, labourers also have a low ownership feeling of RL.

Table 96: Ownership feeling of RL, language. 1,224 respondents.

The Tharu and Urdu language groups have the lowest ownership feeling of RL, while the Bhojpuri community has the highest ownership feeling of RL, 52

which at first glance appears to contradict their appeal for Rupandehi FM that has been outlined previously. This indicates RL has a great prospective to capture even more listeners from the Bhojpuri community, as they have a positive attitude towards RL. Also in light of RL has already proved they successfully can produce programs appealing to the Bhojpuri community. District Sex Age Education Ethnicity Language Nawalparasi Male 15-19 Intermediate Kahar Bhojpuri Highest 85.8% 60.5% 66.2% 70.8% 70.0% 64.7% Chitwan Female 50-54 No education Kami Tharu Lowest 10.7% 52.0% 34.2% 25.6% 35.3% 45.1% Average 57.0% (51.0% of total) 57.0% 56.9% 61.3% 56.9% 57.1% Table 97: Like to become more involved in Radio Lumbini. 1,318 respondents.

Occupation Teacher 75.6% Labourer 33.9% 56.5%

More than half of the respondents answered they want to be more involved with RL. Surprisingly again is it the Bhojpuri community that is most eager to become more involved in RL. Among the less eager, again we find the uneducated and labourers, as well as the Tharu community. Member of listener club 73.9% Shareholder of RL 4.0% Do my own programs 14.2% Table 98: How people would like to become more involved with Radio Lumbini. 736 respondents.

Among the people answering they are interested in becoming more involved with RL, listener clubs have most attraction. District Sex Rupandehi Male 84.9% 77.0% Palpa Female Lowest 43.9% 66.8% Average 73.3% (36.2% of total) 73.3% Table 99: People wanting to become more respondents. Highest

Age Education Ethnicity Language Occupation 30-34 No education Muslim Urdu Labourer 81.8% 90.5% 90.9% 92.0% 94.6% 35-39 SLC, Intermediate Yadav Nepali Gov. emp. 66.7% 70.1% 67.4% 70.3% 55.5% 73.5% 73.8% 73.3% 73.2% 73.0% involved with Radio Lumbini through listener club. 736

Among the people answering they want to become more involved with RL, three-forth (more than one-third of all respondents) answered through a listener club. It is remarkable that it is people with no educational background, labourers and the Urdu language community who are most keen to join the listener clubs, as these groups of people previously have expressed they have little ownership feeling of RL.1 Indeed, an invitation to RL from these people. In contrast, it is the educated Nepali language community who express less interest in becoming member of a listener club, which is interesting as the majority of the members in the current listener clubs have these characteristics. Also the fact people from Rupandehi district are most eager to join the listener clubs indicates RL still can increase the participation in its home district.

1

It seems contradictory uneducated and labourer are most interested becoming a member of a listener club (table 99) as they previously expressed their reservations to become more involved with RL. The reader should note, however, that table 99 only outline the respondents who have expressed interest in becoming involved with RL whereas table 97 include all respondents.

53

5. Conclusion At the time data for the survey was collected media in Nepal experienced severe suppression from the royal regime. It is therefore no surprise when the survey concludes that mouth to mouth still is the most important mean of communication on local issues among the large majority, although a very high number of people trusts the information they get from the media. The fact that most stories are told from mouth to mouth allows rumours easily to flourish. As people get more educated, the survey concludes the likelihood increases people will search additional information or discuss it with others for triangulation. The survey, however, also concludes that the large majority still remains untouched by the media, as media does not sufficiently represent all language groups. The explanations for this cannot alone be found on the grounds of the impacts from the conflict and the suppressions made by the royal regime. The literate, people in the urban areas, as well as mainstream media mostly use Nepali language. The findings in the survey conclude this language group to a large extent is satisfied with their access to- and representation in the media. Half the population in Rupandehi district, however, has Bhojpuri as their mother tongue, and is an idiom together with the languages Tharu and Awadi commonly spoken in the lower belt of Nepal, Terai. The survey concludes these communities largely are outside the reach of the media. Still today these communities use family and friends as their main source of information on local issues as they belong to the group, which has the lowest access to television, newspaper, internet and radio. But it is not because this community has any reluctance towards the media. Those within the Bhojpuri community listening to radio, for example, spend most hours listening radio compared to other language groups. RL seems not to sufficiently having embraced the Bhojpuri community, which is why a large proportion of listeners from this language group tune into Rupandehi FM that has a larger selection of programs available for this community, news and educational programs included. Overall, RL is the most listened to radio station when it comes to educational programs. Compared to other language groups, however, the Bhojpuri community prefers Rupandehi FM when it comes to local news and educational programs as the only language group. The survey provides data that challenges and to some degree also contradicts the Bhojpuri community’s ‘hostile’ position towards RL. Bhojpuri is the language group, which has the highest ownership feeling of RL and is also the language group, which has expressed most interest to become more involved with RL. This is definitely an invitation to RL from the Bhojpuri community and to improve their correlation. As RL already has proved they successfully can produce radio programs for this community, there seem not to be any reasons as to why the relationship could not be developed even further. The Tharu community, which has close cultural ties with the Bhojpuri language community, are committed listeners of RL. Tharu people not listening to RL have a high proportion of people not knowing of RL or not listening to RL because they do not like RL. It seems to be more challenging for RL establishing closer relations with this community as the Tharu community, compared to the other ethnic groups and castes, has a low 54

ownership feeling of RL. Likewise, the Tharu community also expressed the lowest interest to become more involved with the work of RL. A large proportion from the Bhojpuri and Tharu communities also belongs to the uneducated segment of Nepal and we can also find many labourers within these communities. For the uneducated and labourers are television, newspaper and the internet hardly an option available and only 50-60 percent have a radio receiver on hand. Although RL is talented in attracting uneducated and labourer listeners compared to the other radio stations, the findings of the survey give indications the radio programs of RL has limited appeal to listeners with no or little education. The fact the uneducated and labourer segment has many people not knowing of RL and/or limited ownership feeling of RL makes it challenging to establish points of encounter with this group of people. Although the survey concludes one of RL’s strengths compared to other radio stations is their educational programs, it should be an issue of concern uneducated and labourers have preference for Rupandehi FM when it comes to educational and news programs. The uneducated and labourers have, however, expressed much interest joining the listener clubs, which could be one platform for encounter between RL and listeners from this segment. The five MS Nepal supported radio programs strive to improve the accessibility of information to marginalised groups and listeners belonging to the segments portrayed above, but these programs seem to have only limited impact. Two of the supported programs are among the five most unknown programs of RL, and there are also indications the programs have more appeal to the already privileged in society. The language barrier and the fact the subject matter is not relevant or interesting has been given as explanations as to why the programs do not appeal to the listeners. The survey concludes RL’s strengths are its balanced composition of male and female listeners, its educational and folk music programs, local news programs for the Nepali and Tharu language communities, and its programs attracting educated listeners age 20 to 39. Additionally, it is remarkable the extent RL is rooted in its community as a noticeable high proportion of society has ownership feeling of RL and more than half of the respondents expressed interest in becoming more involved in the work of RL, in particular through the listener clubs. The survey also concludes RL’s challenge is to expand or change its programs to sustain the children/teenage listeners and to truly penetrate the excluded groups that are excluded from the media and has been portrayed in the report. There seem to be a link between the fact programs targeted for the marginalised groups in large are unknown to people and lack impact in the communities, and the fact these groups of people have expressed most interest in becoming more involved with RL. These groups have given RL an invitation in the survey.

55

6. Recommendations Based on the findings in the survey these are the recommendations to RL: 

Sustain/increase the number of children and teenage listeners. A program like ‘pop dot com’ seems to have high appeal and similar new programs could be developed to sustain this group.



Increase the number of hours of broadcasting in Bhojpuri language. This should include news and educational programs.



Develop educational programs specifically designed for labourers and the uneducated population.



As only 50-60 percent of labourers and the uneducated population have a radio receiver the establishment of new listening centres should be targeted to also this segment. The establishment of listener clubs should be based on analysis that takes into consideration where the need and interest is highest (see table 99, page 53). This will also help to monitor if the programs targeted these communities reach their destination as the communities can provide feedback on the programs.



Provide additional training to the program producers producing the soft issues programs (gender, minority issues, etc.) in order to make these programs more interesting and relevant to the listeners. As an additional/alternative strategy could RL purchase or obtain these programs from outside producers.

56

Annex 1 Radio Lumbini coverage area District Rupandehi Kapilbastu Palpa Gulmi Arghakhanchi Nawalparasi Chitwan TOTAL

Number of VDC # 71 18 18 17 28 32 9

Population # % 705.240 45,8% 134.344 8,7% 84.477 5,5% 64.766 4,2% 115.398 7,5% 250.424 16,3% 186.148 12,1% 1.540.797

193

No. of interviews 682 130 82 63 112 242 180

100,0%

Collected

1.491

695 133 82 62 115 249 180

Diff. 101,8% 102,3% 100,3% 98,9% 103,0% 102,8% 99,9%

1516

Social characteristics of Radio Lumbini coverage area and proportional distribution of interviews Social characteristics

Rupandehi % Int.

%

Kapilbastu Int.

Gulmi

Palpa %

Int.

%

Int.

Arghakhanchi % Int.

Nawalparasi % Int.

Chitwan % Int.

TOTAL % Int.

Collected

Accuracy %

Language Bhojpuri Nepali Tharu Awadi Magar Gurung Newar Hindi Urdu Khariya LANGUAGE TOTAL

50,5% 34,6% 6,3% 0,6% 3,3% 1,4% 1,3% 0,7% 0,0% 0,0% 98,7%

345 236 43 4 23 10 9 5 0 0 674

0,0% 16,4% 10,0% 71,3% 0,6% 0,0% 0,0% 0,3% 0,6% 0,3% 99,5%

0 21 13 93 1 0 0 0 1 0 129

0,0% 61,4% 0,0% 0,0% 33,9% 0,0% 2,6% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 97,9%

0 50 0 0 28 0 2 0 0 0 80

0,0% 94,7% 0,0% 0,0% 3,3% 0,4% 1,1% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 99,5%

0 59 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 62

0,0% 96,2% 0,0% 0,0% 2,4% 0,0% 0,8% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 99,4%

0 107 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 111

32,6% 39,6% 9,1% 0,0% 14,2% 1,7% 1,1% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 98,3%

79 96 22 0 34 4 3 0 0 0 238

0,0% 69,0% 12,2% 0,0% 1,6% 2,9% 2,3% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 88,0%

0 124 22 0 3 5 4 0 0 0 159

28,4% 46,6% 6,7% 6,5% 6,2% 1,3% 1,3% 0,3% 0,1% 0,0% 97,5%

424 695 100 97 93 19 19 5 1 0 1.453

412 732 132 22 111 14 19 5 60 1 1.508

97,3% 105,4% 132,0% 22,7% 119,3% 73,1% 98,0% 96,8% 7692,2% 256,4%

Ethnicity Brahman Tharu Muslim Magar Chhetri Kami Newar Sarki Kumal Yadav Chamar Lodha Gurung Kurmi Dusadh Kahar Baniya Kewat ETHNICITY TOTAL

15,2% 10,6% 8,9% 8,8% 5,8% 2,1% 2,2% 0,0% 0,0% 7,7% 3,9% 2,9% 2,8% 2,2% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 73,1%

104 72 61 60 40 14 15 0 0 53 27 20 19 15 0 0 0 0 499

8,4% 12,6% 19,4% 12,5% 4,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 9,7% 5,4% 0,0% 0,0% 6,4% 3,6% 3,1% 2,4% 2,0% 89,5%

11 16 25 16 5 0 0 0 0 13 7 0 0 8 5 4 3 3 116

19,3% 0,0% 0,0% 50,9% 8,1% 5,8% 3,6% 2,6% 2,2% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 92,5%

16 0 0 42 7 5 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 76

28,5% 0,0% 0,0% 19,9% 23,1% 9,5% 1,8% 3,4% 2,5% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 88,7%

18 0 0 12 14 6 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56

36,9% 0,0% 0,0% 9,3% 18,3% 8,8% 2,9% 3,6% 2,4% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 82,2%

41 0 0 10 20 10 3 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 92

16,9% 16,5% 22,1% 17,2% 5,8% 0,0% 2,0% 0,0% 2,2% 3,1% 3,7% 0,0% 2,4% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 91,9%

41 40 54 42 14 0 5 0 5 8 9 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 223

29,3% 12,7% 0,0% 4,2% 11,0% 4,5% 5,4% 0,0% 1,6% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 6,7% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 75,4%

53 23 0 8 20 8 10 0 3 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 136

19,0% 10,2% 9,4% 12,7% 8,1% 2,9% 2,5% 0,6% 1,0% 4,9% 2,9% 1,3% 2,5% 1,6% 0,3% 0,3% 0,2% 0,2% 80,3%

283 152 140 190 120 43 37 8 14 73 43 20 37 23 5 4 3 3 1.197

454 183 102 155 175 38 32 10 17 109 38 14 14 20 5 16 21 30 1433

160,3% 120,7% 73,1% 81,6% 145,6% 88,5% 86,7% 120,8% 119,2% 150,0% 89,2% 70,7% 37,8% 85,7% 106,8% 397,0% 673,1% 1153,8%

Accuracy Total

Diff. 12 37 32 75 18 5 0 0 59 1 239

84,1%

171 31 38 35 55 5 5 2 3 36 5 6 23 3 0 12 18 27 474

66,9%

Gender Male Female GENDER TOTAL

50,8% 49,2% 100,0%

346 336 682

50,3% 49,7% 100,0%

65 65 130

47,3% 52,7% 100,0%

39 43 82

43,4% 56,6% 100,0%

27 35 63

45,6% 54,4% 100,0%

51 61 112

48,9% 51,1% 100,0%

119 124 242

49,7% 50,3% 100,0%

90 91 180

49,4% 50,6% 100,0%

737 754 1.491

899 619 1518

122,0% 82,1%

Age 10-14 years 15-19 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 35-39 years 40-44 years 45-49 years 50-54 years 55-59 years 60-64 years 65-69 years 70-74 years 75 and over AGE TOTAL

17,9% 14,5% 12,3% 10,5% 8,9% 7,9% 6,4% 5,4% 4,3% 3,4% 3,0% 2,3% 1,7% 1,7% 100,0%

122 99 84 72 61 54 43 37 29 23 20 16 12 12 682

17,8% 13,9% 11,5% 10,2% 8,8% 7,9% 6,5% 5,9% 4,6% 3,6% 3,2% 2,5% 1,8% 1,7% 100,0%

23 18 15 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 2 130

20,2% 14,9% 10,3% 8,5% 7,6% 6,9% 6,2% 5,6% 5,1% 4,1% 3,6% 2,7% 2,1% 2,3% 100,0%

17 12 8 7 6 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 82

21,2% 14,7% 9,6% 7,8% 7,1% 6,6% 6,1% 5,6% 5,2% 4,3% 3,9% 3,0% 2,3% 2,5% 100,0%

13 9 6 5 4 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 2 63

21,3% 14,7% 9,9% 8,3% 7,4% 6,9% 6,3% 5,3% 5,0% 4,1% 3,5% 2,8% 2,2% 2,3% 100,0%

24 16 11 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 2 3 112

18,6% 14,8% 11,9% 9,8% 8,4% 7,6% 6,3% 5,5% 4,5% 3,6% 3,1% 2,3% 1,7% 1,8% 100,0%

45 36 29 24 20 18 15 13 11 9 7 6 4 4 242

17,3% 15,0% 13,0% 10,4% 8,9% 7,8% 6,3% 5,1% 4,2% 3,3% 2,8% 2,3% 1,7% 2,0% 100,0%

31 27 23 19 16 14 11 9 7 6 5 4 3 4 180

18,4% 14,6% 11,8% 10,0% 8,5% 7,7% 6,3% 5,4% 4,5% 3,6% 3,1% 2,4% 1,8% 1,9% 100,0%

275 218 176 148 127 114 95 81 67 53 46 36 27 28 1.491

214 279 277 206 156 104 103 65 41 24

77,9% 128,3% 157,0% 138,7% 122,7% 91,1% 108,9% 80,5% 61,5% 45,0%

61 61 101 58 29 10 8 16 26 29

26

19,0%

111

Accuracy Diff 10-20% Diff 20-30% Diff +30%

1495

Too many

Too few

162 135 297

80,4%

509

65,9%

Accuracy

74,5%

Annex 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

Radio Lumbini programs Genre ke very muc Weight 1,5 Dharmic karyakaram religion 36,2 Rastriya geet national songs 13,7 Kanunu Sachetana legal issues 14,8 Khel Sansaar sports 16,7 Jeevan Chakra success stories 10,4 Paani ra jeevan water management 6,0 Ghumdai Phidai community affairs 5,5 Aanubhuti ra aabhibekti Nepali litterature 7,2 Hamro Lumbini turism 9,2 Pratribimba women rights (ms) 4,5 Satkshakaar current affairs, interview 5,9 Mero desh mero gaurab national songs, poems 11,3 Jamarko dalit issues, discrimination (ms) 5,3 Chino Phano conflict, peaceful resolution (ktm 1/3) 19,1 Lumbini Quiz quiz 32,1 Uddhami Barta entrepreneurs, buisiness people 7,1 Bigyann prabidhi science and technology 17,5 Aanter Drishti disability programme (ms) 7,5 Saichik Chaupari educational programme 25,6 Krishi Karyakram agriculture 29,3 Pariwar Swastheya family health 23,1 Shodhi Khoji conflict, peaceful resolution (ktm) 14,6 Saha Aastitwa womens issues, feminist (ktm) 8,8 Cine Nagari movies 26,2 Minham gorak magar language, current affairs 7,6 Sangam songs 9,2 Hello Lumbini modern songs with information 23,2 Khichadi satire 28,2 Bhojpuri karyakram bhojpuri songs, info, news, letters 34,6 Deurali folk songs based on letters 30,2 Ghar Aagan women issues 12,9 Pahur listeners questions - radio find answer 10,5 Yuwa Aawaj youth 16,9 Darpan physical health 9,7 Hamro geet tapaiko sandeslisteners letters (sometimes with problem 12,1 Marchawar all nepali songs from various ethnic com 11,9 Aaina Bhojpuri bhojpuri prg. songs and information 21,1 Majheri folk songs with active community particip 19,5 Tapaika geet request for songs 16,4 Gyan manche quiz 21,6 Aaphnai kura community affairs (ms) 10,8 Jagrity women based program in bhojpuri 7,7 Bikash ka lagi sajhedari butwal municipality prg. 12,2 Sherophero current affairs 10,3 Paribesh womens issues (ms) 13,4 Radio Browsing ict 8,4 Hamro Batabaran environmental issues (ms) 8,0 Gaphananda ko gapha satire 15,3 Aartha Banijya economics and finance 5,6 Khet Khaliyaan agricultural prg. In bhojpuri 20,2 Hamro nagar hamro sahar butwal municipality 7,0 Aasal jodi good couple - about marriages 20,5 Subha ratri music, letter, phone ins, interviews, etc. 32,5 Mutu ko betha problem of heart; psykological issues 40,2 Hamro Rupandehi ddc - district dev. Committee 14,9 Lok Suseli folk songs in the evening 46,2 Pop dot com pop songs 28,1 Lumbini Call In phone in prg. 20,7 Patriphal income generation, poverty reduction 8,7

Like Don't know Don't like on't like at PositiveDon't knowNegative 1,0 1,0 1,0 1,5 42,0 15,7 5,9 0,1 96,3 15,7 6,1 43,6 35,2 7,2 0,3 64,2 35,2 7,7 37,9 40,8 6,4 0,2 60,1 40,8 6,7 36,9 38,0 7,3 0,9 62,0 38,0 8,7 32,2 49,8 6,8 0,8 47,8 49,8 8,0 26,9 59,8 6,9 0,5 35,9 59,8 7,7 25,0 61,2 7,8 0,5 33,3 61,2 8,6 22,3 61,4 8,4 0,7 33,1 61,4 9,5 35,4 51,0 4,4 0,0 49,2 51,0 4,4 51,6 65,1 7,4 0,5 58,4 65,1 8,2 26,4 61,9 5,3 0,5 35,3 61,9 6,1 27,8 55,3 5,2 0,4 44,8 55,3 5,8 20,7 66,8 6,8 0,4 28,7 66,8 7,4 28,1 47,7 5,0 0,2 56,8 47,7 5,3 28,8 35,5 2,8 0,8 77,0 35,5 4,0 21,9 61,9 8,3 0,9 32,6 61,9 9,7 27,2 47,4 7,6 0,3 53,5 47,4 8,1 21,9 60,2 9,9 0,5 33,2 60,2 10,7 28,9 40,0 4,4 1,0 67,3 40,0 5,9 30,2 31,1 7,7 1,7 74,2 31,1 10,3 36,5 34,1 5,3 1,0 71,2 34,1 6,8 30,1 47,4 7,0 1,0 52,0 47,4 8,5 21,5 58,2 10,9 0,7 34,7 58,2 12,0 32,4 34,9 5,5 1,0 71,7 34,9 7,0 18,2 63,6 7,7 3,0 29,6 63,6 12,2 23,5 59,0 7,2 1,1 37,3 59,0 8,9 34,7 36,2 5,2 0,7 69,5 36,2 6,3 31,2 34,8 5,2 0,5 73,5 34,8 6,0 22,1 30,9 8,9 3,4 74,0 30,9 14,0 25,3 38,0 5,3 1,2 70,6 38,0 7,1 28,0 48,9 9,3 0,9 47,4 48,9 10,7 26,0 53,8 9,3 0,4 41,8 53,8 9,9 29,8 46,7 5,6 0,9 55,2 46,7 7,0 29,2 52,9 7,1 1,2 43,8 52,9 8,9 32,1 46,7 7,7 1,4 50,3 46,7 9,8 20,1 56,9 8,8 2,4 38,0 56,9 12,4 19,8 43,5 10,9 4,7 51,5 43,5 18,0 23,8 48,0 6,4 2,3 53,1 48,0 9,9 37,1 39,6 5,4 1,4 61,7 39,6 7,5 31,0 42,0 4,2 1,2 63,4 42,0 6,0 31,3 51,4 5,6 0,9 47,5 51,4 7,0 28,8 54,3 6,5 1,5 40,4 54,3 8,8 26,4 53,7 6,5 1,1 44,7 53,7 8,2 25,9 54,3 7,9 1,6 41,4 54,3 10,3 20,3 56,9 8,1 1,3 40,4 56,9 10,1 16,3 65,1 8,2 1,9 28,9 65,1 11,1 31,5 50,7 7,6 2,2 43,5 50,7 10,9 28,8 44,5 8,6 2,9 51,8 44,5 13,0 25,1 52,7 12,1 4,5 33,5 52,7 18,9 23,1 42,6 9,7 4,3 53,4 42,6 16,2 25,8 54,9 9,2 3,2 36,3 54,9 14,0 34,0 40,8 4,2 0,5 64,8 40,8 5,0 35,5 28,9 2,7 0,3 84,3 28,9 3,2 28,8 28,0 2,6 0,3 89,1 28,0 3,1 33,0 47,0 3,8 1,3 55,4 47,0 5,8 25,8 22,9 3,4 1,7 95,1 22,9 6,0 26,8 29,6 10,1 5,4 69,0 29,6 18,2 30,1 39,0 6,9 3,4 61,2 39,0 12,0 18,7 57,1 11,4 4,1 31,8 57,1 17,6

Annex 3 Radio Lumbini Coverage area The highlighted VDC’s are all included in the survey, assuming RL can be listened to in these areas in good quality. Rupandehi

Kapilbastu Palpa

Nawalparasi

Arghakhanchi Chitawan

Gulmi Aaglung

Aama

Abhirawa

Archale

Agryouli

Adguri

Ayodhyapuri

Aanandaban

Ajigara

Argali

Amarapuri

Argha

Bachhyauli

AmarArbathok

Amuwa

Bahadurganj

Bahadurpur

Amraut

Arghatos

Bagauda

Amarpur

Asurena

Balaramwapur

Baldengadhi

BadaharaDubauliya

Asurkot

Bhandara

Apchaur

Bagaha

Baluhawa

Bandipokhara

Baidauli

Balkot

BharatpurN.P.

Arbani

Bagauli

Banganga

Barangdi

Banjariya

Bangi

Birendranagar

Arje

Bairghat

Baraipur

Bhairabsthan

Benimanipur

Bangla

Chainpur

Arkhale

Basantapur

Barakulpur

Bhuwanpokhari

Bharatipur

Bhagawati

ChandiBhanjyang

Arkhawang

Betakuiya

Basantapur

Birkot

Bhujhawa

Chhatraganj

Dahakhani

Arlangkot

Bhagawanpur

Baskhaur

Bodhapokharathok

Bulingtar

Chidika

Darechok

Aslewa

Bisunpura

Bedauli

Boudhagumba

DadajheriTadi

Dhakawang

Dibyanagar

Badagaun

Bodabar

Bhagwanpur

Chappani

DawanneDevi

Dhanchaur

Fulbari

Bajhketeria

Bogadi

Bhalubari

Chhahara

Dedgaun

Dharapani

Gardi

Baletaksar

ButawalN.P.

Bijuwa

Chidipani

Deurali

Dhatiwang

Gitanagar

Balithum Bamgha

Chhipagada

Birpur

Chirtungdhara

Devachuli

Dhikura

Gunjanagar

ChhotakiRamnagar

Bishunpur

Darchha

Devagawa

Dibharna

Jagatpur

Bharse

Chilhiya

Bithuwa

Darlamdanda

Dhaubadi

Gorkhunga

Jutpani

Bhurtung

DayaNagar

Budhi

Deurali

Dhurkot

Hansapur

Kabilas

Birbas

Devadaha

Chanai

Devinagar

Dibyapuri

Jukena

Kathar

Bisukharka

Dhakadhai

Dhankauli

Dobhan

Dumkibas

Juluke

Kaule

Chhapahile Dalamchaur

Dhamauli

Dharmpaniya

Fek

Gaidakot

Keemadada

Khairahani

Dudharakchhe

Dohani

Foksingkot

Gairami

Kerunga

Korak

DarbarDevisthan

Ekala

Dubiya

Gadakot

GuthiParsauni

Khan

Kumroj

Darling

Farena

Dumara

Galdha

Guthisuryapura

Khanchikot

Lothar

Daungha

Gajedi

Fulika

Gejha

Hakui

Khandaha

MadiKalyanpur

Dhamir

Gangoliya

Gajehada

Gothadi

Harpur

Khidim

Mangalpur

DhurkotBastu

Gonaha

Ganeshpur

Haklang

Hupsekot

Khilji

Meghauli

DhurkotBhanbhane

Harnaiya

Gauri

Humin

Jahada

Maidan

Padampur

DhurkotNayagaun

HatiBangai

Gotihawa

Hungi

Jamuniya

Mareng

Parbatipur

DhurkotRajasthal

HatiPharsatikar

Gugauli

Jalpa

Jaubari

Narapani

Patihani

Digam

Jogada

Haranampur

Jhadewa

Kawaswoti

Nuwakot

Piple

Dirbung

Kamahariya

Harduona

Jhirubas

Kolhuwa

Pali

Pithuwa

Dohali

Karahiya

Hariharpur

Juthapauwa

Kotathar

Pathauti

RatnanagarN.P.

Dubichaur

Karauta

Hathausa

Jyamire

Kudiya

Pathona

Saradanagar

Foksing

Kerbani

Hathihawa

Kachal

Kumarwarti

Pokharathok

Shaktikhor

Gaidakot

KhadawaBangai

Jahadi

Kaseni

Kusma

Sandhikharka

Sibanagar

Gwadha

Khudabagar

Jawabhari

Khaliban

Mainaghat

Siddhara

Siddi

Gwadi

Lumbini

Jayanagar

Khanichhap

Makar

Simalapani

Sukranagar

Madhbaliya

Kajarhawa

Khanigau

Manari

Sitapur

Madhuwani

KapilbastuN.P.

Khasyoli

Mithukaram

Subarnakhal

Hardineta

Mainahiya

Khurhuriya

Khyaha

Mukundapur

Thada

Harewa

Majhagawa

Kopawa

Koldada

Naram

Thulapokhara

Harmichaur

Makrahar

KrishnaNagar

Kusumkhola

Narayani

Hadahade Hansara

Harrachaur

Rupandehi

Kapilbastu Palpa

Nawalparasi

Arghakhanchi Chitawan

Gulmi

ManPakadi

Labani

Masyam

NayaBelhani

Hawangdi

Maryadpur

Lalpur

Mityal

Pakalihawa

Hunga

Masina

Maharajganj

Mujhung

Palhi

IsmaRajasthal

Motipur

Mahendrakot

Nayarnamtales

Panchanagar

Jaisithok

Padsari

Mahuwa

PalungMainadi

Parsauni

Jayakhani

Pajarkatti

Malwar

Pipaldada

Pithauli

Johang

PakadiSakron

Manpur

Pokharathok

Pragatinagar

Juniya

Parroha

Milmi

Rahabas

Pratappur

Juvung

Patekhouli

Motipur

Rampur

Rajahar

Khadgakot

Pokharvindi

NandaNagar

Ringneraha

Rakachuli

Kharjyang

Rayapur

Nigalihawa

Rupse

Rakuwa

Kurgha

Roinihawa

Pakadi

Sahalkot

RamgramN.P.

Limgha

Rudrapur

Parsohiya

Satyawati

Ramnagar

Malagiri

Sadi

Patariya

Siddheshwor

RampurKhadauna

Marbhung

Saljhundi

Patna

Siluwa

Rampurkha

Musikot

SameraMarchwar

Patthardaihiya

Somadi

Ratanapur

MyalPokhari

Semalar

Pipara

Tahu

Ruchang

Neta

ShankarNagar

Purusottampur

TansenN.P.

Rupauliya

Pallikot

SiddharthNagarN.P.

Rajpur

Telgha

Sanai

Paralmi

Sikatahan

Ramnagar

Timure

Sarawal

PauchhiAmarayee

Silautiya

Rangapur

Wakamalang

Shivmandir

Pipaldhara

Sipawa

Sauraha

Yamgha

Somani

PurkotDaha

SourahaPharsatikar

Shipanagar

Sukrauli

Purtighat

Suryapura

Shivagadhi

Sunwal

Reemuwa

Tenuhawa

Shivapur

Swathi

Rupakot

ThumhawaPiprahawa

Singhkhor

Tamasariya

Ruru

Tikuligadh

Sirsihawa

ThuloKhairatawa

Shantipur

Sisawa

Tilakpur

Simichaur

Somdiha

Tribenisusta

Sirseni

Thunhiya

UpalloArkhale

Tamghas

Tilaurakot

Thanpati

Titirkhi

ThuloLumpek

Udayapur

Turang

VidhyaNagar

Wagla Wamitaksar

Annex 4 FOR INTERNAL NOTES Language:

Bhojpuri

Ethnicity:

Brahman

Religion:

Nepali

Tharu

Hindu

Gender:

Tharu

Muslim

Awadi

Magar

Magar

Chhetri

Bouddha

Yadav

Islam

1014

1519

Area:

2024

Other Other

Female

Age group:

Other

Male 2529

3034

3539

4044

VDC

4549

5054

5559

60 +

District

Radio Lumbini audience survey questionnaire Edition: 05.07.05

Mark boxes clearly with a A. 1.

Demographic questions Sex? Female  Male 

2.

How old are you? 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60+

          

3.

Can you read? Yes  No  (If answer is “No”: go to question A6)

4.

Can you write? Yes 

5.

No 

Which education have you completed? (Do not read options, mark only one) Primary school Secondary school SLC Intermediate or above No education

    



6.

7.

8.

Which ethnicity/caste do you belong to? (Do not read options, mark only one) Brahman Tharu Muslim Magar Chhetri Kami Newar Sarki Kumal Yadav Chamar Lodha Gurung Kurmi Dusadh Kahar Baniya Kewat Other

                  

Please specify: _________________________

What is your mother tongue? (Do not read options, mark only one) Bhojpuri Nepali Tharu Awadi Magar Gurung Newar Hindi Urdu Khariya Other

          

Please specify: _________________________

What languages do you speak? (Do not read options) Bhojpuri Nepali Tharu Awadi Magar Gurung Newar Hindi Urdu Khariya Other

          

Please specify: _________________________

9.

Which occupation do you have right now? (Do not read options, mark only one) Student Farmer Government employee Merchant Teacher House wife Labour Unemployed Other

10. What is your religion? (Do not read options, mark only one) Hindu Buddhist Muslim Christian Other

        

Please specify: __________________________

    

Please specify: __________________________

11. Is there a temple in your community? Yes  No  (If answer is “No”: go to question A13)

12. When is the temple made? 10 years ago 20 years ago 30 years ago More than 30 years ago Don’t know

    

13. Which temple do you prefer to go to? (Do not read options, mark only one) Shiva Devi Buddha Church Mosque I don’t go to temple

     

14. When do you prefer to go? Morning  Evening  (If answer is “No”: go to question A16)

15. Which day do you prefer to go to temple? Monday  Tuesday  Wednesday 

16. For how many hours do you pray? ________ hours I don’t pray 

Thursday 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

B. Media questions RADIO: 1.

Is there a radio in your home? Yes  No  (If the answer is “No”: go to question B4)

2.

What radio channel is the radio tuned into right now? ___________, ______ MHz

3.

Which radio stations can the radio receive and how clear is the signal? (Read all questions one at a time and mark all relevant)

Radio Nepal Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Butwal FM Tinau FM Srinagar FM Muktinath FM Kalika FM Paschimanchal FM Bijaya FM Synergy FM BBC China International All India

Can receive              

Can not receive              

Do not know              

4.

For how many hours do you listen to the radio every day? (Read all questions one at a time and mark only one) I never listen to radio  I do regularly listen to radio  Less than half an hour  Between half an hour and one hour  Between 1-2 hours  Between 2-4 hours  Between 4-8 hours  More than 8 hours  (If answer is “I never listen to radio”: go to question B19)

5.

Where do you mostly listen to the radio? (Read all questions one at a time and mark only one) At home At work In the car/bus At my friends/relatives homes In a public space (market, restaurant) Other

Clear              

Not clear              

      Please specify: _________________________

6.

At what time do you mostly listen to the radio? (Read all questions one at a time and mark all relevant) Before 5 AM  Between 5 AM and 8 AM  Between 8 AM and 11 AM  Between 11 AM and 2 PM  Between 2 PM and 5 PM  Between 5 PM and 8 PM  Between 8 PM and 11 PM  After 11 PM 

7.

Which radio channel do you listen to most often? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Butwal FM Tinau FM Srinagar FM Muktinath FM Kalika FM Paschimanchal FM Bijaya FM Synergy FM BBC Nepali Service China International Nepali Service All India Nepali Service

             

Which radio channels did you listen to the last week? (Read all options, one at a time, mark all relevant) Radio Nepal Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Butwal FM Tinau FM Srinagar FM Muktinath FM Kalika FM Paschimanchal FM Bijaya FM Synergy FM BBC Nepali Service China International Nepali Service All India Nepali Service

             

8.

9.

Which radio programs do you like the most – maximum 5 programmes? (Write down all answers – maximum 5 programmes) 1. Program: _____________________ of _______________________ radio 2. Program: _____________________ of _______________________ radio 3. Program: _____________________ of _______________________ radio 4. Program: _____________________ of _______________________ radio 5. Program: _____________________ of _______________________ radio

station station station station station

10. How do you like the following types of radio programs? (Read all options, one at a time, and mark only one relevant statement pr. type of programme) Like very much Local news  National news  International news  Prg. on agriculture  Prg. on family health, nutrition and child care  Prg. on business, enterprise and price information  Prg. on district development and peace  Prg. on gender issues  Prg. on education  Prg. about different cultures  Radio drama  Folk music  Pop music  Local music  International music  Sports  Children’s programmes  Other – please specify: _________________________

Like                 

Don’t know                 

Don’t like                 

11. Which radio channel is the best in local news, local reports and community affairs? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal  Rupandehi FM  Radio Lumbini  Butwal FM  Tinau FM  Srinagar FM  Muktinath FM  Kalika FM  Paschimanchal FM  Bijaya FM  Synergy FM  BBC  China International  All India 

12. Which radio channel is the best in national news and national reports? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal  Rupandehi FM  Radio Lumbini  Butwal FM  Tinau FM  Srinagar FM  Muktinath FM  Kalika FM  Paschimanchal FM  Bijaya FM  Synergy FM  BBC  China International  All India 

Don’t like at all                 

13. Which radio channel is the best in international news? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Butwal FM Tinau FM Srinagar FM Muktinath FM Kalika FM Paschimanchal FM Bijaya FM Synergy FM BBC China International All India

             

14. Which radio channel is the best in educational/informative programmes (i.e. programmes on agriculture, health and nutrition, etc.)? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal  Rupandehi FM  Radio Lumbini  Butwal FM  Tinau FM  Srinagar FM  Muktinath FM  Kalika FM  Paschimanchal FM  Bijaya FM  Synergy FM  BBC  China International  All India 

15. Which radio channel is the best in folk music? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Butwal FM Tinau FM Srinagar FM Muktinath FM Kalika FM Paschimanchal FM Bijaya FM Synergy FM BBC China International All India

             

16. Which radio channel is the best in modern music? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Butwal FM Tinau FM Srinagar FM Muktinath FM Kalika FM Paschimanchal FM Bijaya FM Synergy FM BBC China International All India

             

17. Which radio channel is the best in pop music? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal Rupandehi FM Radio Lumbini Butwal FM Tinau FM Srinagar FM Muktinath FM Kalika FM Paschimanchal FM Bijaya FM Synergy FM BBC China International All India

             

18. Among the local radio stations which one do you like the most? (Do not read the options, mark only one) Radio Nepal  Rupandehi FM  Radio Lumbini  Butwal FM  Tinau FM  Srinagar FM  Muktinath FM  Kalika FM  Paschimanchal FM  Bijaya FM  Synergy FM 

TELEVISION: 19. Is there a television set in your home? Yes  No  (If answer is “No”: go to question B25)

20. How many television sets are there in your home? Number: ________

21. Do you have a satellite dish? Yes  No 

22. Do you have cable television? Yes  No 

23. For how many hours do you usually watch television every day? (Read all the options and mark only one) I never watch television  I do regularly watch television  Less than half an hour  Between half an hour and one hour  Between one and two hours  Between two and four hours  More than four hours  (If the answer is “I never watch television”: go to question C28)

24. Where do you mostly watch television? (Read all questions one at a time and mark only one) At home At work In the car/bus At my friends/relatives homes In a public space (market, restaurant) Other

     

Please specify: _____________________

25. At what time do you usually watch television? (Read all questions one at a time and mark all relevant) Before 5 AM  Between 5 AM and 8 AM  Between 8 AM and 11 AM  Between 11 AM and 2 PM  Between 2 PM and 5 PM  Between 5 PM and 8 PM  Between 8 PM and 11 PM  After 11 PM 

26. Which channels do you watch the most – maximum 5 channels? (Write down all answers – maximum 5 channels) 1. Channel: _____________________ 2. Channel: _____________________ 3. Channel: _____________________ 4. Channel: _____________________ 5. Channel: _____________________

27. Which kind of television programmes do you usually watch the most – chose maximum three? Local news  National news  International news  Educational programmes  Soap operas and films  Documentary  Music programmes  Sports  Other  Please specify: ____________________

NEWSPAPER: 28. How often do you read a newspaper? (Read all options and mark only one) Every day Almost every day Once a week Once a month Never (If answer is “Never”: go to question B31)

29. How often do you buy a newspaper? (Read all options and mark only one) Every day Almost every day Once a week Once a month Never

    

    

30. Which newspaper did you read during the last week? (Do not read the options, mark all relevant) Kantipur Gorkhapatra Rajdhani Annapurna Post Samachar Patra Lumbini Bhawana Janasangharsa Mechikali Sandeth Sapatahik Bhairahawa Rajyesatta Sapalahik None Others

            

Please specify: _______________________

INTERNET: 31. Do you ever use the internet? Yes  No  (If answer is “No�: go to question B35)

32. Do you have internet at home? Yes  No 

33. How often do you use the internet? (Read all options and mark only one) Every day Almost every day Once a week Once a month Less than once a month

    

34. What do you use the internet for? (Read all options and mark all relevant) E-mail  News  Seeking information  Chat  Just for fun  Other 

35. Have you ever heard about radio browsing? Yes  No 

Please specify: __________________

GENERAL MEDIA QUESTIONS: 36. What is the main source of information (Read all options and mark only one) Radio Television Newspaper Internet Friends, family, colleges, etc. Other

about local issues?      

Please specify: ____________________

37. Can you give any examples on how media has made any important changes on your daily life? Yes  No  (If the answer is “No”: go to question B39)

38. Please explain what changes – maximum 5. (Write down all answers – maximum 5) 1: _____________________ 2: _____________________ 3: _____________________ 4: _____________________ 5: _____________________

39. Do you trust the information you get from the media? Yes  No  (If the answer is “Yes”: go to question B41)

40. Please explain why you don’t trust the media. (Write down all answers – maximum 5) 1: _____________________ 2: _____________________ 3: _____________________ 4: _____________________ 5: _____________________

41. What do you do with the information you get from the media? (Read all options and mark all relevant) I sometimes discuss it with friends, colleges or relatives I keep it for myself I sometimes search additional information on the subject Other

   

Please specify: _______________

RADIO LUMBINI: 42. Do you listen to Radio Lumbini? Yes  No  (If the answer is “Yes”: go to question B44) 43. Why don’t you listen to Radio Lumbini? (Read all options and mark only one) Do not know Radio Lumbini Prefer other radio channels Do not like Radio Lumbini Please give main reasons: _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Other (Questionnaire is finished)

  



Please specify: __________________

44. Do you know in which district Radio Lumbini is situated? District: ____________________ Do not know 

45. How often do you listen to Radio Lumbini? (Read all options and mark only one) Every day Almost every day Once a week Once a month Less than once a month (If answer is “Less than once a month”: go to question

     B52)

46. At what time during the day do you usually listen to Radio Lumbini? (Read all questions one at a time and mark all relevant) Between 5 AM and 8 AM  Between 8 AM and 11 AM  Between 11 AM and 2 PM  Between 2 PM and 5 PM  Between 5 PM and 8 PM  Between 8 PM and 10 PM 

47. For how many hours do you listen to the radio every day? (Read all questions one at a time and mark only one) Less than 15 minutes  Between 15 minutes and half an hour  Between half an hour and one hour a day  Between 1-2 hours  Between 2-4 hours  Between 4-8 hours  More than 8 hours a day 

48. Where do you mostly listen to Radio Lumbini? (Read all questions one at a time and mark only one) At home At work In the car/bus At my friends/relatives homes In a public space (market, restaurant) Other

     

Please specify: ________________

49. Which programmes did you listen to during the last week? (Read all options, one at a time, and mark all relevant) TYPE THE NAMES OF THE RL PROGRAMMES IN NEPALI LANGUAGE Local news  National news  International news  Prg. on agriculture  Prg. on family health, nutrition and child care  Prg. on business, enterprise and price information  Prg. on district development and peace  Prg. on gender issues  Prg. on education  Prg. about different cultures  Radio drama  Folk music  Pop music  Local music  International music  Sports  Children’s programmes  Others  Please specify: ________________ None 

50. Which programmes do you listen to most often? Name maximum 3 programmes. (Write down all answers – maximum 3 programmes) 1: _____________________ 2: _____________________ 3: _____________________ 4: _____________________ 5: _____________________

51. How do you like the following types of radio programs on Radio Lumbini? TYPE THE NAMES OF THE RL PROGRAMMES IN NEPALI LANGUAGE (Read all options, one at a time, and mark only one relevant statement pr. type of programme)

Local news National news International news Prg. on agriculture Prg. on family health, nutrition and child care Prg. on business, enterprise and price information Prg. on district development and peace Prg. on gender issues Prg. on education Radio drama Folk music Pop music Local music International music Sports Children’s programmes Commercials

Like very much                 

52. Is there any kind of programme you would like to have (Do not read options, mark all relevant) Local news National news International news Prg. on agriculture Prg. on family health, nutrition and child care Prg. on business, enterprise and price information Prg. on district development and peace Prg. on gender issues Prg. on education Prg. about different cultures Radio drama Folk music Pop music Local music International music Sports Children’s programmes Youth programmes Commercials Others

Like                 

Don’t know                 

Don’t like                 

Don’t like at all                 

more of on Radio Lumbini?                    

Please specify: ________________

53. Is there any kind of programme there is too much of on Radio Lumbini? (Do not read options, mark all relevant) Local news  National news  International news  Prg. on agriculture  Prg. on family health, nutrition and child care  Prg. on business, enterprise and price information  Prg. on district development and peace  Prg. on gender issues  Prg. on education  Prg. about different cultures  Radio drama  Folk music  Pop music  Local music  International music  Sports  Children’s programmes  Youth programmes  Commercials  It’s ok  Others  Please specify: ________________

54. Do you feel Radio Lumbini is your radio station, and do you have an ownership feeling of Radio Lumbini? In the sense: does it bring up your concerns, your problems and your feelings. Yes  No 

55. Would you like to become more involved in the work of Radio Lumbini? Yes  No  (If the answer is “No”: questionnaire is finished)

56. How would you like to become more involved in the work of Radio Lumbini? Member of a listeners club  Shareholder of Radio Lumbini  Do my own radio programmes  Others  Please specify: ________________

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND COLLABORATION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

TO INTERVIEWER Date: Interviewer name: VDC/municipality name: Village/ward name: Interviewer’s comments on interview situation:

Annex 5 FOR INTERNAL NOTES Language:

Bhojpuri

Ethnicity:

Brahman

Religion:

Nepali

Tharu

Hindu

Gender: Age group:

Tharu

Muslim

Awadi

Magar

Magar

Chhettri

Buddha

1519

Area:

2024

Yadav

Islam

Other Other

Female

1014

Other

Male

2529

3034

3539

4044

VDC

4549

5054

5559

60 +

District

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;lSbg

%= s'g lzIff k'/f ug'{eof] < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf];\_ k|fylds lzIff dfWolds lzIff P;=Pn=;L k|df0f kq tx jf dfyL clzlIft ;fdfGo n]vk9 -k|f}9 lzIff _

1

^= tkfO{ s'g hftsf] xf] < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'x f];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\_ afx'g yf? d'l:nd du/ If]qL sfdL{ g]jf/ ;fsL{ s'dfn ofbj rdf/ nf]w u'?Ë s'dL{ bf];fw sxf/ aflgof s]j6 :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ========================================== cGo &= tkfO{sf] dft[ efiff s'g xf]< -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'x f];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'xf];\_ ef]hk'/L g]kfnL yf? cjbL du/ u'?Ë g]jf/L lxGbL pb[{' s/Lof cGo :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ============================================ *= tkfO{ s'g efiff af]Ng'x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / cfPsf] pQ/df lrGx nufpg'xf];\_ ef]hk'/L g]kfnL yf? cjbL du/ u'?Ë g]jf/L lxGbL pb{' s/Lof :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ============================================= cGo

2

(= clxn] tkfO{ s'g k]zf ug'{x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\_ lawfyL{ ls;fg ;/sf/L lzIfs u[x0fL dhb'/L :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ========================================================== cGo !)= tkfO{n] s'g wd{ dfGg'x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / ;lx pQ/df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ lxGb' a'4 d'lZnd ls|ZrLog :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ========================================== cGo !!= s] tkfO{sf] ;d'bfodf dlGb/ 5 < 5}g

5

- olb pQ/ Æ5}gÆ cfPdf k|Zg s !# ;f]Wg'xf];\ ._

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lbp+;f] du+naf/

;f+em a'waf/

cGo lalxaf/

:ki6 kfg'{x f];\ ===================== z'qmaf/

zlgaf/

!^= tkfO{ slt 306f k'h f ug'x'G5 < ===================306f d k'hf ulb{g

3

v_ ;+ r f/ k| Z g M

/] l 8of]

!= tkfO{sf] 3/df /]l8of] 5 < 5 5}g - olb pQ/ Æ5}gÆ cfPdf k|Zg v $ ;f]Wg'xf];\_ @= clxn] tkfOn] s'g /]l8of] ahfO{/xg' ePsf] 5 < ====================MHz #= s'g /]l8of] :6]zg s:tf] ;'lgG5 < ;lx pQ/df lrGx nufpg'x f]; . -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / ;lx pQ/df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ ;dfT5 ;dfTb}g yfxf 5}g /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof

:ki6

:ki6 5}g

=

$= x/]s lbg slt 306f /]l8of] ;'Gg'x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / ;lx pQ/df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ d slxNo} ;'lGbg d ;'lg/xG5' cfwf 306f eGbf w]/} cfwf / Ps 306fsf] lardf `Ps b]lv b'O{ 306fsf] lardf b'O{ b]lv rf/ 306fsf] lardf rf/ b]lv cf7 306fsf] lardf cf7 306f eGbf al9 -olb pQ/ Æd slxNo} ;'lGbgÆ eGg] cfP, k|Zg v !( df hfg'x f];\_ %= tkfO{ k|foM /]l8of] s+xf ;'Gg'x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Ps ;lx pQ/df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ 3/df sfd ubf{ sf/, a;df ;fyL, efO{, O{i6ldqsf]df ;fj{hlgs 7fpFd f -ahf/,/]i6'/]i6 cflb_ :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ====================== cGo

4

^= tkfO{ /]l8of] s'g ;dodf ;'Gg'x'G5< -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / ;lx pQ/df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ laxfg % b]vL * ah]sf] lardf laxfg * b]vL !! ah]sf] lardf laxfg !! b]vL lbp;f] @ ah]sf] lardf lbp;f] @ b]vL % ah]sf] lardf /ftL * b]vL !) ah]sf] lardf &= tkfO{ w]/} h;f] s'g /]l 8of] :6]zg ;'Gg'x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / ;lx s'g} Ps pQ/df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo *= ut xKtf tkfO{n] s'g /]l8of] :6]zg ;'Gg'eof] < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ k9\g'x f]; / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo (= s'g /]l8of] sfo{s|d tkfO{n fO{ clt dg k5{ < al9df % j6f ;Dd sfo{s|dsf] gfd n]Vg'xf];< -% j6} sfo{s|dsf] gfd n]Vg'xf];\_ ! sfo{s|d ============================s'g =========================================/]l 8of] :6]zg @ sfo{s|d ============================s'g =========================================/]l8of] :6]zg # sfo{s|d ============================s'g =========================================/]l8of] :6]zg $ sfo{s|d ============================s'g =========================================/]l8of] :6]zg % sfo{s|d ============================s'g =========================================/]l 8of] :6]zg

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

=================

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

=================

5

!)= lgDgcg'; f/ /]l8of] sfo{s|d tkfO{nfO{ s:tf] nfU5< -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrgf] nufpg'x f];\ _ w]/} dg k5{ dg k5{ yfxf 5}g dgkb}g{ slQ dgkb{}g :yflgo ;dfrf/ /fli6«o ;dfrf/ cGt/fli6«o ;dfrf/ s[lif sfo{s|d kl/jf/ / :jf:Yo cy{ ,afl0fHo,Jofkf/ nf}lËs ;dfgtf lzIff ;DalGw cGo ;:s[ltsf] sfo{s|d lasfz / zflGt ;DalGw /]l8of] gf6s kk lut cfw'lgs lut nf]s lut :yflgo uLt sfo{s|d v]ns'b cGo sfo{s|d, -:ki6 kfg'{xf];\ =========================================================================_ !!= :yflgo va/sf nflu s'g /]l8of] pQd 5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\_ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

afn

=================

6

!@= /fli6«o ;dfrf/sf nflu s'g /]l8of] pQd 5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\_ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo !#= cGt/fli6«o ;dfrf/sf nflu s'g /]l8of] pQd 5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];_\ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo !$= s'g /]l8of] lzIff d'n s ÷;'rgfd'ns sfo{s|dsf nflu] pQd 5 < -s[lif,:jf:Yo, kf]if0f,cfbL_ -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];_\ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo !%= nf]s uLt ;+lutsf nflu s'g /]l8of] pQd 5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\_ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd=

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

================

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

=================

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ===================

7

klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo !^= cfw'lgs uLtsf nflu s'g /]l8of] pQd 5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\_ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo !&= kk uLtsf nflu s'g /]l8of] pQd 5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'x f];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'xf];\_ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd la la ;L rfOgf OG6/g];gn cn OG8Lof cGo !*= :yflgo /]l 8of]x? dWo] tkfO{nfO{ Psbd} dg kg]{ /]l8of] s'g xf] < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf];, ;f]Wg'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\_ /]l8of] g]kfn ?kGb]xL Pkm=Pd= /]l8of] n'lDagL a'6jn Pkm=Pd= sfnLsf Pkm=Pd= ltgfp Pkm=Pd= >L gu/ Pkm=Pd= d'lQmgfy Pkm=Pd= klZrdf~rn ljho Pkm=Pd= l;ghL{ Pkm=Pd cGo

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

================

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

=================

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

==============

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\

================

6] l nlehg !(= tkfO{sf] 3/df l6=eL 5 < 5<

5}g <

8

-olb pQ/ Æ5}gÆ eGg] cfP, k|Zg v @% df hfg'xf];\_ @)= tkfO{sf] 3/df slt j6f l6=eL 5g< ;+Vof ======================== @!= tkfO{sf] 3/df e"–pku|x Rofgnx? 5g\ < - l8; PlG6gf _ 5}g 5 @@= tkfO{sf] 3/df s]a'n 5 < 5

5}g

@#= k|foM h;f] tkfO{ b}lgs slt 306f l6=eL x]g'{x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / Ps 7fFpmdf lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ d slxNo} x]bL{g k|foM lg/Gt/ x]5'{ cfwf 306f eGbf w]/} cfwf / Ps 306fsf] lardf Ps b]lv b'O{ 306fsf] lardf b'O{ b]lv rf/ 306fsf] lardf rf/ 306f eGbf al9 -olb pQ/ d slxNo} x]bL{g eGg] pQ/ cfP k|Zg v @* ;f]Wg'x f];\_ @$= tkfO{ l6=eL k|foM sxfF x]g'x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / Ps 7fFpmdf lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ 3/df clkm;df sf/, a;df ;fyL efO{ O{i6ldqsf]df ;fj{hlgs 7fpFdf :ki6 kfg'{xf];\=================================== cGo

9

@%= tkfO{ s'g ;dodf l6=eL x]g{'x'G5 < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ laxfg % ah] kl5 laxfg % b]vL * ah]sf] lardf laxfg * b]vL !! ah]sf] lardf laxfg !! b]vL lbp;f] @ ah]sf] lardf lbp;f] @ b]vL % ah]sf] lardf /ftL % b]lv * ah] ;Dd /ftL * b]vL !! ah]sf] lardf /ftL !! ah] kl5 @^= k|foM s'g l6=eL Rofgn x]g'{x'G5 < a9Ldf % j6f pbfx/0f lbg'xf];\ . -% j6} sfo{s|dsf] gfd n]Vg'x f];\_ !_ Rofgn ======================================= @_ Rofgn ======================================= #_ Rofgn ======================================= $_ Rofgn ======================================= %_ Rofgn ======================================= @&= s'g l6=eL sfo{s|d tkfO{nfO{ lgs} /fd|f] nfUb5 < al9df # j6f 5fGg'xf]; . :yflgo ;dfrf/ /fli6«o ;dfrf/ cGt/fli6«o ;dfrf/ lzIffd"n s cGo ;:s[ltsf] sfo{s|d 8s'd]G6«L lkmNd v]ns'b cGo sfo{s|d ==================== :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ===============================

klqsf @*= tkfO{ slQsf] klqsf k9\g'x'G5 < -n]lvPsf] pQ/ k9\g'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'xf];\ _ lbgx'F k|foM lbgx'F xKtfsf] Ps k6s dlxgfsf] Ps k6s slxNn} gfO{ -olb pQ/ ÆslxNo} gfO{Æ eGg] pQ/ cfP k|Zg v#! ;f]Wg'xf];\_ @(= tkfO{n] klqsf slQsf] lsGg'x'G5 < -n]lvPsf] pQ/ k9\g'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];\ _ lbgx'F k|foM lbgx'F xKtfsf] Ps k6s dlxgfsf] Ps k6s slxNn} gfO{

10

#)= uPsf] xKtfdf s'g klqsf k9g' eof]<- -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ gk9\g'xf]; / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ sflGtk'/ uf]/vfkq cGgk"0f{ kf]i6 ;dfrf/ kq n'lDagL efjgf hg;+3if{ d]rLsfnL ;fKtflxs e}/xjf a'6jn 6'8] /fh;Qf ;fKtflxs s'g} klg gfO{ /fhwfgL :ki6 kfg{'xf];\ =============================== cGo

#!= tkfO{n] slxNo} OG6/g]6 k|of]u ug{'ePsf] 5 < 5<

OG6/g] 6 5}g <

-olb pQ/ Æ5}gÆ eGg] cfPdf k|Zg v #% ;f]Wg'xf];\_ #@= tkfO{sf] 3/df OG6/g]6 5 < 5<

5}g <

##= tkfO{ slQsf] OG6/g]6 k|of]u ug'{ x'G5 < -n]lvPsf] pQ/ k9\g'xf]; / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'xf];\ _ ;w} lbgx'F k|foM lbgx'F xKtfsf] Ps k6s dlxgfsf] Ps k6s dlxgfsf] Ps k6s eGbf w]/} #$= OG6/g]6 s] sf nflu k|of]u ug'{x'G5 < -;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrGx nufpg'xf];_ O{d]n ;dfrf/ ;"rgf Rof6 /dfOnfsf nflu :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ =============================== cGo #%= tkfO{n] slxNo} /]l8of] n'lDagLsf] sfo{s|d Æ/]l8of] a|fplhË Æ ;'Gg' ePsf] 5 < 5}g 5

11

;dfGo ;+ r f/ k| Z g M #^= tkfO{n] :yflgo laifosfaf/] hfgsf/L lng] -yfxf kfpg]_ d'Vo >f]t s'g xf] < -;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];_ l6=eL kqkqLsf O{G6/g]6 ;fyLefO{,;xsdL{ , kl/jf/ cGo :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ =============================== #&= ;+rf/n] tkfO{sf] b}lgs lhjgdf kl/jt{g NofPsf] 5< 5

5}g

-olb Æ5}gÆ eGg] pQ/ cfPdf k|Zg v #( ;f]Wg'x f];\_ #*= s[kof % kl/jt{g af/] JofVof ug'{xf];\ . -% j6} n]Vg'xf];\_ !=========================================== @+========================================= #========================================== $=========================================== %=========================================== #(= tkfO{n fO{ ;+rf/ dfWodaf6 k|fKt ;'rgfdf ljZjf; nfU5 < nfUb}g < nfU5 < -olb ÆnfU5Æ eGg] pQ/ cfPdf k|Zg v $! ;f]Wg'xf];\_ $)= s[kof tkfO{n] ;+rf/ dfWodnfO{ lsg ljZjf; ug'{x'G g < kfrF j6f sf/0f n]Vg'xf];\ . -% j6} n]Vg'xf];\_ !=========================================== @+========================================= #========================================== $=========================================== %=========================================== $!= ;+rf/ dfWodaf6 kfPsf] ;'rgfnfO{ tkfO{ s] ug'{x'G5 < \ -;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrGx nufpg'xf]; _ cfkm} ;+u /fV5' slxn]sfxL ;fyL efO{ gft]b f/ ;+u 5nkmn u5'{ slxn] sfxL cGo yk ;'rgf vf]H5' cGo ====================================

:ki6 kfg{'xf];\ =====================

12

/] l 8of] n' l DagL $@= tkfO{ /]l 8of] n'lDagL ;'Gg'x'G5 < ;'G5' <

;'lGbg <

-olb pQ/ Æ;'G5'Æ eg]df k|Zg v $$ ;f]Wg'xf];\_ $#= tkfO{ /]l8of] n'lDagL lsg ;'Gg'x'Gg < -;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / Psdf lrGx nufpg'xf];_ /]l8of] n'lDagLsf af/]df yfxf 5}g . cGo /]l8of] ;'G5' /]l8of] n'lDagL dg kb}{g s[kof d"Vo sf/0f lbg'xf]; !=========================================== @+========================================= #========================================== $=========================================== %=========================================== :ki6 kfg'{xf];\ ======================== cGo ====================================== $$= tkfO{n fO{ yfxf 5 < /]l8of] n'lDagL s'g lhNnfdf cjl:yt 5 < ====================================== $%= tkfO{ slQsf] /]l8of] n'lDagL ;'Gg'x'G5 <-;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];_ ;w} lbgx'F k|foM lbgx'F xKtfsf] Ps k6s dlxgfsf] Ps k6s dlxgfsf] Ps k6s eGbf yf]/} -olb pQ/ Ædlxgfsf] Ps k6s eGbf yf]/}ÆcfPdf k|Zg v %@ ;f]Wg'xf];\ _ $^= tkfO{ /]l8of] n'lDagL s'g ;dodf ;'Gg'x'G5 < -;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrGx nufpg'xf]; _ laxfg % b]vL * ah]sf] lardf laxfg * b]vL !! ah]sf] lardf laxfg !! b]vL lbp;f] @ ah]sf] lardf lbp;f] @ b]vL % ah]sf] lardf /ftL * b]vL !) ah]sf] lardf /ftL !) ah]sf] kl5 $&= tkfO{n] Ps lbgdf slt 3G6f /]l8of] n'lDagL ;'Gg'x'G5 < -;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];_ !% ldg]6 eGbf !% ldg]6 b]vL cfwf 3G6f ;Dd cfwf 3G6f b]lv ! 3G6fsf] lardf ! b]lv @ 3G6f sf] lardf @ b]lv $ 3G6f sf] lardf $ b]lv * 3G6f sf] lardf * 3G6f eGbf w]/}

13

$*= tkfO{n] /]l8of] n'lDagL k|foM sxfF ;'Gg'x'G5 < -;a} tn n]lvPsf pQ/x? k9g'xf];\ / s'g} Psdf lrGx nufpg'x f];_ 3/df clkm;df sf/, a;df ;fyL efO{ O{i6ldqsf]df ;fj{hlgs 7fpFdf cGo =========================

:ki6 kfg'{xf];\===================================

$(= tkfO{n] uPsf] xKtf s:tf] k|sf/sf] sfo{s|d ;'Gg'eof] < -tn n]lvPsf] P]lR5s pQ/ Ps Ps ul/ k9\b},;f]Wg'xf]; / cfPsf pQ/x?df lrgf] nufpg'xf];\ _ @_ ;fd'b flos ultljlw !_ wfld{s sfo{s|d $_ sfg'gL ;r]tgf #_ /fli6«o lutsf] sfo{s|d ^_ hLjg rs| %_ v]n ;+:ff/ *_ 3'Db} lkmb}{ &_ kfgL / hLjg !)_ xfd|f] n'lDagL (_ cg'e'lt / cleJolQm !@_ ;fIffTsf/ !!_ k|ltlaDa !#_ d]/f] b]z d]/f] uf}/a !$_ hd{sf] !^_ n'lDagL SjLh !%_ l5gf]kmfgf] !*_ la1fg k|lawL !&_ pwdL jftf{ !(_ cGt/ b[li6 @)_ z}lIfs rf}kf/L @@_ kl/jf/ :jf:Yo @!_ s[lif sfo{s|d @$_ ;x c:tLTj @#_ ;f]wL vf]hL @^_ dLGxfd uf]/fs @%_ l;g]gu/L @*_ x]Nnf] n'lDagL @&_ ;+ud @(_ lvr8L #)_ ckgdg s] lut #@_ 3/ cfug #!_ b]p/fnL ##_ kfx'/ #$_ o'jf cfjfh #^_ xfd|f] lut tkfO{sf] ;Gb]z #%_ bk{0f #*_ cfO{gf ef]hk'/L #&_ dr{jf/ d':tfË $)_ tkfO{sf lut #(_ dem]/L $@_ cfˆg} s'/f $!_ 1fg d+r $$_ ljsf;sfnflu ;fem]bf/L $#_ hfu[tL $^_ kl/j]z $%_ ;]/f]km]/f] $*_ xfd|f] jftfj/0f $&_ /]l8of] a|fplhË %)_ cy{ afl0fHo $(_ ukmgGbsf] ukm %@_ xfd|f] gu/ xfd|f] zx/ %!_ v]t vl/ofg %$_ z'e /fqL %#_ c;n hf]8L %%_ afn ;+;f/ %%_ d'6'sf] Joyf %&_ nf]s ;';]nL %^_ xfdf|] ?kGb]lx xfdf|] uf}/j %(_ n'lDagL sn O{g %*_ kk 86 sd ^)_ k|ltkmn :ki6 kfg{'xf]; ========================================= cGo sfo{s|d # s' g } klg gf O{ %)= d'VotM tkfO{ k|foM h;f] s'g sfo{s|d ;'Gg'xG5 < ltgj6f sfo{s|dsf] gfd n]Vg'xf];\ . -ltgj6} pQ/ n]Vg'xf];\_ !=========================================== @+========================================= #========================================== %!= /]l8of] n'lDagLsf tkl;n adf]lhdsf sfo{s|d tkfO{nfO{ s:tf] nfUb5 < w]/} dg k5{ !_ wfld{s sfo{s|d @_ ;fd'b flos ultljlw #_ /fli6«o lutsf] sfo{s|d $_ sfg'gL ;r]tgf %_ v]n ;+:ff/ ^_ hLjg rs| &_ kfgL / hLjg *_ 3'Db} lkmb}{ (_ cg'e'lt / cleJolQm !)_ xfd|f] n'lDagL !!_ k|ltlaDa !@_ ;fIffTsf/

dg k5{

yfxf 5}g

dg kb}{g

slQ dg kb}{g

!#_ d]/f] b]z d]/f] uf}/a !$_ hd{sf] !%_ l5gf]kmfgf] !^_ n'lDagL SjLh !&_ pwdL jftf{ !*_ la1fg k|lawL !(_ cGt/ b[li6 @)_ z}lIfs rf}kf/L @!_ s[lif sfo{s|d @@_ kl/jf/ :jf:Yo @#_ ;f]wL vf]hL @$_ ;x c:tLTj @%_ l;g]gu/L @^_ dLGxfd uf]/fs @&_ ;+ud @*_ x]Nnf] n'lDagL @(_ lvr8L #)_ ef]hk'/L sfo{s|d #!_ b]p/fnL #@_ w/ cfug ##_ kfx'/ #$_ o'jf cfjfh #%_ bk{0f #^_ xfd|f] lut tkfO{sf] ;Gb]z #&_ dr{jf/ d':tfË #*_ cfO{gf ef]hk'/L #(_ dem]/L $)_ tkfO{sf lut $!_ 1fg d+r $@_ cfˆg} s'/f $#_ hfu[tL $$_ ljsf;sfnflu ;fem]bf/L $%_ ;]/f]km]/f] $^_ kl/j]z $&_ /]l8of] a|fplhË $*_ xfd|f] jftfj/0f $(_ ukmgGbsf] ukm %)_ cy{ afl0fHo %!_ v]t vl/ofg %@_ xfd|f] gu/ xfd|f] zx/ %#_ c;n hf]8L %$_ z'e /fqL %%_ d'6'sf] Joyf %^_ xfdf|] ?kGb]lx xfdf|] uf}/j %&_ nf]s ;';]nL %*_ kk 86 sd %(_ n'lDagL sn O{g ^)_ k|ltkmn

# la1fkgx? # cGo sfo{sd |

:ki6 kfg{'xf];\ ========================

%@= /]l8of] n''lDagLd. s'g} k|sf/sf] sfo{s|d h'g tkfO{nfO{ cem} -a9L _ cfjZostf 5 < -tn n]lvPsf pQ/ gk9g'xf];,cfPsf pQ/x?df lrGx nufpg'x f];\ _ :yflgo ;dfrf/ /fli6«o ;dfrf/

cGt/fli6«o ;dfrf/ s[lif sfo{s|d kl/jf/ :jf:Yo÷ cy{,afl0fHo,Jofkf/ nf}lËs ;dfGtf lzIff ;DalGw cGo ;:s[ltsf] sfo{s|d /]l8of] gf6s kklut nf]s lut cfw'lgs lut :yflgo uLt afn sfo{s|d v]ns'b laZj Jofkf/ cGo sfo{s|d

:ki6 kfg{'xf]; ========================

%#= /]l 8of] n'lDagLdf To;tf] sfo{s|d 5< h'g tkfO{n fO{ al9 -g/fd|f]_ nfu]sf] 5 < -tn n]lvPsf pQ/ gk9g'xf];,cfPsf pQ/x?df lrGx nufpg'x f];\ _ :yflgo ;dfrf/ /fli6«o ;dfrf/ cGt/fli6«o ;dfrf/ s[lif sfo{s|d kl/jf/,:jf:Yo, kf]if0f cflb cy{,afl0fHo,Jofkf/ n}lËs ;dfGtf lzIff ;DalGw cGo ;:s[ltsf] sfo{s|d /]l8of] gf6s kklut nf]s lut cfw'lgs lut :yflgo uLt afn sfo{s|d v]ns'b cGo sfo{s|d

:ki6 kfg{'xf];\========================

%$= tkfO{sf rf;f] / ;/f]sf/sf laifoa:t',;d:of ,xs clwsf/sf ;fy} cfjZos s'/fx?-d'2f_ /]l8of]af6 p7fg ug{]u/]sf] ;jfndf s] tkfO{nfO{ /]l8of] n'lDagL cfˆg} /]l8of] :6]zg xf] eGg] nfU5 < tkfO{df /]l8of] n'lDagL k|lt ckgTjsf] efjgf 5 < 5 %%= s] tkfO{ /]l8of] n'lDagLsf] sfddf ;xefuL x'g rfxg'x'G5 < rfxG5' -olb pQ/ ÆrfxfGgÆ cfPdf k|ZgfjnL ;lsof]_

5}g rfxGg

%^= tkfO{ /]l8of] n'lDagLsf] sfo{df s;/L ;xefuL x'grfxg'x'G5 < >f]tfSna ,>f]tf ;d'x sf] ;b:o ag]/ /]l8of] n'lDagL sf] z]o/ ;b:o ag]/ /]l8of] sfo{s|d pQkfbg u/]/ cGo kfg{'xf];\======================

:ki6

tkfO{ s f] ;do / ;xof] u sf nflu wGoa fb !

c G t/jf tf{ l ng] s f nfl u dfq M – ldlt M— cGt/jftf{ lng]sf] gfd M– cGt/jftf{ lnPsf] 7fpF M— lhNnf M— uf=la=;÷gu/kflnsfsf] gfd M— ufpF ÷jf8{ g=+ M—

s'/fsfgLsf] cj:yf af/] k|Zgstf{

Annex 6 Comments on how to select respondents to questionnaire according to social characteristics Note: the explanations made below are based on the example of a total sample size of survey of 1,500 interviews. Example is given for the VDC Basantapur (6 interviews). -

If 1,500 interviews are decided as total sample size and entered in cell C3 in Excel spreadsheet in RawdataVDC folder, 6 interviews have proportionally to be made in Basantapur VDC (see column K in Excel spreadsheet). I have expanded the spreadsheet to also include the distribution of interviews at VDC level according to social characteristics. See data for each VDC in RawdataVDC folder column L and onwards in Excel spreadsheet. In the example with Basantapur with 6 interviews, see example below how interviews are distributed according to the social characteristics of the VDC.

Example on how distribution of interviews could be done in Basantapur. NOTE: THIS IS ONLY AN EXAMPLE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; IT COULD BE DONE IN OTHER DIFFERENT WAYS ALSO 1st person: 10-14 years Bhojpuri speaking Bhaman caste Hindu Male 2nd person: 15-19 years Bhojpuri spaking Tharu Hindu Male 3rd person: 20-24 years Bhojpuri speaking Random selection of ethnic group Hindu Male 4th person: 25-29 years Nepali speaking Magar Hindu Female 5th person: 30-34 years Nepali speaking Random selection of ethnic group Hindu Female 6th person: 35-39 years Random selection of speaking language Muslim Islam religion Female -

VDC/Nagarpalika Basantapur % of cov. area 0,4% No. of interview 6 Age 10-14 years 1 15-19 Years 1 20-24 years 1 25-29 years 1 30-34 years 1 35-39 years 1 40-44 years 0 45-49 years 0 50-54 years 0 55-59 years 0 60-64 years 0 65-69 years 0 70-74 years 0 75+ years 0 Age total 6 Language Bhojpuri 3 Nepali 2 Tharu 0 Awadi 0 Magar 0 Gurung 0 Newar 0 Language total 6 Caste/ethnic group Brahman 1 Tharu 1 Muslim 1 Magar 1 Chhetri 0 Kami 0 Newar 0 Sarki 0 Kumal 0 Yadav 0 Chamar 0 Lodha 0 Gurung 0 Kurmi 0 Dusadh 0 Kahar 0 Baniya 0 Kewat 0 Ethnic group total 5 Religion Hindu 6 Bouddha 0 Islam 1 Religion total 6

Distribution of interviews

-

-

-

Pls. notice that in the spreadsheet, distributed interviews according to social characteristics not always meet the set number of interviews according to size of VDC. In the example of Basantapur, there are e.g. only distributed 5 interviews for language (3 Bhojpuri and 2 Nepali). The same is also the case with ‘caste/ethnic group’ where only 5 interviews are distributed. The reason is that the remaining languages (and castes) have a decimal number of interviews – not a “whole number”. The decimals don’t appear in the spreadsheet – only “whole numbers”, either graded up or down. Furthermore, the 2001 census doesn’t always 100% cover the social characteristics of the districts. In case the distributed number of interviews according to social characteristics doesn’t meet the set number of interviews according to the size of VDC, the interviewer (student) randomly can select him/herself. Remember half the respondents should be male, the other half female.

Annex 8 Radio Lumbini coverage area District Rupandehi Kapilbastu Palpa Gulmi Arghakhanchi Nawalparasi Chitwan TOTAL

Number of VDC # 71 18 18 17 28 32 9

RL listeners clubs # % 25 89,3% 2 7,1% 1 3,6% 0 0,0% 0 0,0% 0 0,0% 0 0,0% 28

193

100,0%

Population # % 705.240 45,8% 134.344 8,7% 84.477 5,5% 64.766 4,2% 115.398 7,5% 250.424 16,3% 186.148 12,1% 1.540.797

100,0%

No. of interviews 687 131 82 63 112 244 181 1.500

Social characteristics of Radio Lumbini coverage area and proportional distribution of interviews Kapilbastu Int.

Palpa

%

Language Bhojpuri Nepali Tharu Awadi Magar Gurung Newar Hindi Urdu Khariya LANGUAGE TOTAL

50,5% 34,6% 6,3% 0,6% 3,3% 1,4% 1,3% 0,7% 0,0% 0,0% 98,7%

347 238 43 4 23 10 9 5 0 0 678

0,0% 16,4% 10,0% 71,3% 0,6% 0,0% 0,0% 0,3% 0,6% 0,3% 99,5%

0 21 13 93 1 0 0 0 1 0 130

0,0% 61,4% 0,0% 0,0% 33,9% 0,0% 2,6% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 97,9%

0 50 0 0 28 0 2 0 0 0 81

0,0% 94,7% 0,0% 0,0% 3,3% 0,4% 1,1% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 99,5%

0 60 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 63

0,0% 96,2% 0,0% 0,0% 2,4% 0,0% 0,8% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 99,4%

0 108 0 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 112

32,6% 39,6% 9,1% 0,0% 14,2% 1,7% 1,1% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 98,3%

79 97 22 0 35 4 3 0 0 0 240

0,0% 69,0% 12,2% 0,0% 1,6% 2,9% 2,3% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 88,0%

Ethnicity Brahman Tharu Muslim Magar Chhetri Kami Newar Sarki Kumal Yadav Chamar Lodha Gurung Kurmi Dusadh Kahar Baniya Kewat ETHNICITY TOTAL

15,2% 10,6% 8,9% 8,8% 5,8% 2,1% 2,2% 0,0% 0,0% 7,7% 3,9% 2,9% 2,8% 2,2% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 73,1%

104 73 61 60 40 14 15 0 0 53 27 20 19 15 0 0 0 0 502

8,4% 12,6% 19,4% 12,5% 4,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 9,7% 5,4% 0,0% 0,0% 6,4% 3,6% 3,1% 2,4% 2,0% 89,5%

11 16 25 16 5 0 0 0 0 13 7 0 0 8 5 4 3 3 117

19,3% 0,0% 0,0% 50,9% 8,1% 5,8% 3,6% 2,6% 2,2% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 92,5%

16 0 0 42 7 5 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 76

28,5% 0,0% 0,0% 19,9% 23,1% 9,5% 1,8% 3,4% 2,5% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 88,7%

18 0 0 13 15 6 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 56

36,9% 0,0% 0,0% 9,3% 18,3% 8,8% 2,9% 3,6% 2,4% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 82,2%

41 0 0 10 21 10 3 4 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 92

16,9% 16,5% 22,1% 17,2% 5,8% 0,0% 2,0% 0,0% 2,2% 3,1% 3,7% 0,0% 2,4% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 91,9%

41 40 54 42 14 0 5 0 5 8 9 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 224

29,3% 12,7% 0,0% 4,2% 11,0% 4,5% 5,4% 0,0% 1,6% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 6,7% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% 75,4%

%

Gulmi %

Arghakhanchi % Int.

Rupandehi % Int.

Social characteristics

Int.

Int.

Nawalparasi % Int.

Chitwan % Int.

TOTAL %

Int.

0 125 22 0 3 5 4 0 0 0 159

28,4% 46,6% 6,7% 6,5% 6,2% 1,3% 1,3% 0,3% 0,1% 0,0% 97,5%

426 699 101 97 94 19 20 5 1 0 1.462

53 23 0 8 20 8 10 0 3 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 137

19,0% 10,2% 9,4% 12,7% 8,1% 2,9% 2,5% 0,6% 1,0% 4,9% 2,9% 1,3% 2,5% 1,6% 0,3% 0,3% 0,2% 0,2% 80,3%

285 152 140 191 121 43 37 8 14 73 43 20 37 23 5 4 3 3 1.204

Gender Male Female GENDER TOTAL

50,8% 49,2% 100,0%

348 338 687

50,3% 49,7% 100,0%

66 65 131

47,3% 52,7% 100,0%

39 43 82

43,4% 56,6% 100,0%

27 36 63

45,6% 54,4% 100,0%

51 61 112

48,9% 51,1% 100,0%

119 124 244

49,7% 50,3% 100,0%

90 91 181

49,4% 50,6% 100,0%

741 759 1.500

Age 10-14 years 15-19 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 35-39 years 40-44 years 45-49 years 50-54 years 55-59 years 60-64 years 65-69 years 70-74 years 75 and over AGE TOTAL

17,9% 14,5% 12,3% 10,5% 8,9% 7,9% 6,4% 5,4% 4,3% 3,4% 3,0% 2,3% 1,7% 1,7% 100,0%

123 99 84 72 61 54 44 37 30 23 20 16 12 12 687

17,8% 13,9% 11,5% 10,2% 8,8% 7,9% 6,5% 5,9% 4,6% 3,6% 3,2% 2,5% 1,8% 1,7% 100,0%

23 18 15 13 11 10 9 8 6 5 4 3 2 2 131

20,2% 14,9% 10,3% 8,5% 7,6% 6,9% 6,2% 5,6% 5,1% 4,1% 3,6% 2,7% 2,1% 2,3% 100,0%

17 12 8 7 6 6 5 5 4 3 3 2 2 2 82

21,2% 14,7% 9,6% 7,8% 7,1% 6,6% 6,1% 5,6% 5,2% 4,3% 3,9% 3,0% 2,3% 2,5% 100,0%

13 9 6 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 1 2 63

21,3% 14,7% 9,9% 8,3% 7,4% 6,9% 6,3% 5,3% 5,0% 4,1% 3,5% 2,8% 2,2% 2,3% 100,0%

24 17 11 9 8 8 7 6 6 5 4 3 2 3 112

18,6% 14,8% 11,9% 9,8% 8,4% 7,6% 6,3% 5,5% 4,5% 3,6% 3,1% 2,3% 1,7% 1,8% 100,0%

45 36 29 24 20 19 15 13 11 9 7 6 4 4 244

17,3% 15,0% 13,0% 10,4% 8,9% 7,8% 6,3% 5,1% 4,2% 3,3% 2,8% 2,3% 1,7% 2,0% 100,0%

31 27 24 19 16 14 11 9 8 6 5 4 3 4 181

18,4% 14,6% 11,8% 10,0% 8,5% 7,7% 6,3% 5,4% 4,5% 3,6% 3,1% 2,4% 1,8% 1,9% 100,0%

276 219 178 149 128 115 95 81 67 54 46 36 27 28 1.500


Radio Lumbini audience survey