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IDSA GUIDELINES Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Cryptococcal Disease: 2010 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America John R. Perfect,1 William E. Dismukes,2 Francoise Dromer,11 David L. Goldman,3 John R. Graybill,4 Richard J. Hamill,5 Thomas S. Harrison,14 Robert A. Larsen,6,7 Olivier Lortholary,11,12 Minh-Hong Nguyen,8 Peter G. Pappas,2 William G. Powderly,13 Nina Singh,10 Jack D. Sobel,10 and Tania C. Sorrell15 Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; 2Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York; 4Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas San Antonio, Audie L. Murphy Veterans Affairs Hospital, San Antonio, and 5Division of Infectious Diseases, Veteran’s Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Houston, Texas; Departments of 6Medicine and 7Infectious Diseases, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles; 8Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh College of Medicine, and 9Infectious Diseases Section, VA Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 10Wayne State University, Harper Hospital, Detroit, Michigan; 11Institut Pasteur, Centre National de Re´fe´rence Mycologie et Antifongiques, Unite´ de Mycologie Moleculaire, and 12Universite´ ParisDescartes, Service des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Hoˆpital Necker-Enfants Malades, Centre d’Infectiologie Necker-Pasteur, Paris, France; 13University College, Dublin, Ireland; 14Department of Infectious Diseases, St. George’s Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom; 15Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Sydney at Westmead, Sydney, Australia 3 Cryptococcosis is a global invasive mycosis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These guidelines for its management have been built on the previous Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines from 2000 and include new sections. There is a discussion of the management of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in 3 risk groups: (1) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals, (2) organ transplant recipients, and (3) non–HIVinfected and nontransplant hosts. There are specific recommendations for other unique risk populations, such as children, pregnant women, persons in resource-limited environments, and those with Cryptococcus gattii infection. Recommendations for management also include other sites of infection, including strategies for pulmonary cryptococcosis. Emphasis has been placed on potential complications in management of cryptococcal infection, including increased intracranial pressure, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), drug resistance, and cryptococcomas. Three key management principles have been articulated: (1) induction therapy for meningoencephalitis using fungicidal regimens, such as a polyene and flucytosine, followed by suppressive regimens using fluconazole; (2) importance of early recognition and treatment of increased intracranial pressure and/or IRIS; and (3) the use of lipid formulations of amphotericin B regimens in patients with renal impairment. Cryptococcosis remains a challenging management issue, with little new drug development or recent definitive studies. However, if the diagnosis is made early, if clinicians adhere to the basic principles of these guidelines, and if the underlying disease is controlled, then cryptococcosis can be managed successfully in the vast majority of patients. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2000, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) first published “Practice Guidelines for the Management of Cryptococcal Disease” [1]. In this updated version of the guidelines, a group of medical Received 12 October 2009; accepted 15 October 2009; electronically published 4 January 2010. Reprints or correspondence: Dr John R. Perfect, Div Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Hanes House, Rm 163, Trent Dr, Box 102359, Durham, NC 27710 ( Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010; 50:291–322  2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. 1058-4838/2010/5003-0001$15.00 DOI: 10.1086/649858 mycology experts have approached cryptococcal management using the framework of key clinical questions. The goal is to merge recent and established evidencebased clinical data along with shared expert clinical opinions and insights to assist clinicians in the management of infection with this worldwide, highly recognizable invasive fungal pathogen. The foundation for the successful management of cryptococcal disease was It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. The Infectious Diseases Society of America considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient’s individual circumstances. Guidelines for Management of Cryptococcosis • CID 2010:50 (1 February) • 291 Downloaded from at IDSA member on May 20, 2013 1

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