Church Life: A Journal for the New Evangelization (Catholic Social Teaching)
The Fall 2012 edition of the Institute for Church Life's journal on Catholic Social Teaching and the new evangelization. This issue was a partnership between the Center for Social Concerns and the Institute for Church Life. Columnists include Deacon Jim Keating, John Cavadini, Fr. Jeremy Driscoll, O.S.B., Michael Hebbeler, and Christian Smith. Articles by Timothy O'Malley, Fr. Dan Groody, C.S.C., Margie Pfeil, Gen Jordan and Nick Albares, David Lantigua, and Pat Reidy, C.S.C.
CHURCH LIFE: A JOURNAL FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING II VOCATIONS FOR TEENS / TIM O’MALLEY CHURCH LIFE: A JOURNAL FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION Church Life is published quarterly by the Institute for Church Life University of Notre Dame 372 Geddes Hall Notre Dame, IN 46556 Church Life explores the theological and pastoral roots of the New Evangelization, with particular attention to catechesis, liturgy, adult theological education, a spirituality of vocation, and the formation of ordained and lay ministers. Manuscript submissions may be sent to email@example.com. Columns are 1,000 words, articles no more than 3,000 words, and more substantive essays 5,000-7,000 words. For style, see The Chicago Manual of Style and the USCCB Style Guide. EDITORIAL Editor: Timothy P. O’Malley, Ph.D. Assistant Editor, Art Editor: Carolyn Pirtle Designer: Krista Seidl DIRECTORS OF THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Director: John C. Cavadini, Ph.D. Assistant Director: Jennifer A. Monahan, M.A. Catholic Social and Pastoral Research Initiative: Brian Starks, Ph.D. Echo: Faith Formation Leadership Program: Colleen Moore, M.Div. Notre Dame Center for Liturgy: Timothy P. O’Malley, Ph.D. Notre Dame Vision: Leonard DeLorenzo, M.A. Satellite Theological Education Program (STEP): Thomas C. Cummings, M.Div. University Life Initiatives: Mary K. Daly © 2012 Institute for Church Life This periodical is indexed in the ATLA Catholic Periodical and Literature Index® (CPLI®), a product of the American Theological Library Association, 300 S. Wacker Dr., Suite 2100, Chicago, IL 60606, USA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.atla.com. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE COVER IMAGE © Matt Cashore, Our Lady of Mercy Chapel, Geddes Hall, University of Notre Dame III IV VOCATIONS FOR TEENS / TIM O’MALLEY MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR, TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY DEAR READERS, THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE DEAR READERS Timothy P. Oâ€™Malley, Ph.D. is director of the Notre Dame Center for Liturg y, a Concurrent Professor in the Department of Theolog y at the University of Notre Dame, and editor of the journal Church Life. Recently, I found myself immersed in the solitary task of grading the mid-term exams of students in my Foundations of Christian Theology course. One of the exam essays asked the students to compare Hosea and Amos, two of the earliest prophets in the Old Testament canon. Almost unanimously, student after student declared that Hosea addressed the religious sins of Israel, while Amos treated the issue of social justice. V VI MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY Though undoubtedly the fault of the professor (in this case, me!), the students’ tendency to separate religious and cultic practice from social action is endemic in American culture. “Catholics” are lauded publicly in non-religious media insofar as they engage in heroic feats of social action. And indeed such recognition is encouraging, a sign that Christian discipleship can provoke admiration and conversion of heart even among those who do not operate out of a Christian worldview. Simultaneously, one gets the sense that Catholicism can easily be reduced to a series of social teachings alone, an organization that exists for the betterment of society but not for the salvation of the world. In reality, the separation of “religious practice” from “social action” is profoundly non-biblical. The Law bestowed on Mt. Sinai is not an arbitrary series of commands but instead a tangible sign of God’s own justice, a reminder of the wondrous deeds that God performed in rescuing Israel from the bonds of slavery in Egypt. God declares to Israel: You shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the feelings of the stranger, having yourselves been strangers in the land of Egypt. Six years you shall sow your land and gather in its yield; but in the seventh you shall let it rest and lie fallow. Let the needy among your people eat of it, and what they leave let the wild beasts eat. You shall do the same with your vineyards and your olive groves. Six days you shall do your work, but on the seventh day you shall cease from labor, in order that your ox and your ass may rest, and that your bondman and the stranger may be refreshed (Ex 23:9-12). In this case, the Law itself (concerned with divine justice) becomes an act of divine worship, a bestowal of gratitude offered to God. The oppression of the stranger is not only a failure of societal measures of justice but also a forgetfulness of what God has done. Letting the land lie fallow is not merely the pursuit of ecological justice but a “sacramental” sign that the land is itself a gift from God. Keeping the Sabbath, Israel’s supreme act of worship, is intrinsically tied to care for those who labor. Thus, when the prophets decry Israel’s neglect for the poor, their forgetfulness of the stranger, their blatant disregard for the Law, they do so precisely because they perceive these deeds as bald-faced acts of ingratitude marshaled against the living God of justice. Jesus, the anointed prophet of the Father, announces His own mission of salvation through words echoing the prophet Isaiah. In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus proclaims in the synagogue in Nazareth: ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year to the Lord.’ And he closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant, and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue hearing’ (Lk 4:18-21). THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Our temptation is to read this passage as a reduction of the Gospel to a social or political program. Such a reading is not attentive to the underlying logic of the Gospel of Luke. Indeed, Jesus is concerned about the poor, the oppressed, those in captivity. And Christians who live as if discipleship does not include working to eliminate unjust social structures or offering concrete deeds of charity to those in need require a conversion. But the possibility of this conversion, of a radical opening up of the human heart to the great reversal inaugurated by the Kingdom of God, requires an encounter with Jesus resurrected Messiah, who reigns not from a throne but from the wood of the Cross. Religious practice and social action are intrinsically connected, precisely because only through our entrance into the life of the Church, our rumination upon the Word of God, our eating and drinking the Body and Blood of the Lord, our life of contemplation, can we deepen our encounter with the Christ who expands our capacity for love. And through the Christian life, our gradual incorporation into Christâ€™s life in the Church, our social action can become a sacrament of the kingdom. As St. Paul exhorts: I appeal to you, thereforeâ€Śby the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. Do not be conformed to this world but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may prove what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect. (Rm 12:1-2) VII VIII MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY In Catholicism, social action is Eucharistic, a presenting of our bodies as an offering of love, a gift poured out for the renewal of the world. Therefore, a necessary goal of the New Evangelization will be an intentional effort on the Church’s part to proclaim and perform the intrinsic union between doctrine, worship, and social action. Our understanding of Christ as the God-man is intimately tied to our commitment to human dignity at all stages of life. We denounce and work to end the injustice of abortion, of sexism, of poverty and homelessness, of conspicuous consumption, of sexual slavery, of jingoism, of war and forced migration, and every injustice that emerges from the kingdom of power and manipulation. We enter into solidarity with those that suffer at the violent hands of Babylon. We examine the Church herself through the sober eyes of faith, hope, and love to see where such injustice has entered into our communal life with one another, whether in our Catholic schools, our forms of leadership, or in the “in-groups” that can deform the beauty of parish life. As Christians, we see such work as part of our own Eucharistic vocation, to give ourselves away in deeds of love, to enter more deeply into the Triune life of God. Yet, we work with those who do not share our profession of faith for the common good of country and society alike. A common good that moves beyond hatred and polarization, political parties and platforms, class warfare and the politics of blame, toward authentic human community. And we do so, not as an accessory to our Catholic faith, but as the deepest expression of our identity as adopted sons and daughters of the living God. This issue of Church Life is an exercise seeking to imagine what a commitment to evangelization and Catholic Social Teaching might look like. We have partnered with the University of Notre Dame’s Center for Social Concerns (CSC), a sister institute of the ICL, to carry out this imaginative experiment. As such, we feature guest columnist Michael Hebbeler (Director of Student Leadership and Senior Transitions), who writes about the Center’s mission of evangelization to Notre Dame’s undergraduates. Through the work of the Center, the proclamation that “God is love” (1 Jn 4:8b, 16b) manifests itself in the physical and spiritual commitment to the common good. Thus, we’re very happy to have them intimately involved in planning this extended issue of Church Life. panoply of issues related to Catholic Social Teaching and the New Evangelization. John Cavadini, in his column, treats the intrinsic relationship between justice and charity. Tim O’Malley offers a Eucharistic reading of Catholic Social Teaching, a reading that might inform the Church’s pedagogy in marriage preparation, ecological formation, and service immersion. Margie Pfeil, assistant professor in the Department of Theology, analyzes the evangelical and Eucharistic function of a food cooperative in the city of South Bend. Nick Albares and Gen Jordan (graduates of the University of Notre Dame and alumni representatives to the Institute for Church Life and Center for Social Concern’s advisory council) describe through narrative how an immersion in Catholic social thought and action is necessary for the Church’s work of the New Evangelization. Pat Reidy, C.S.C., a Holy Cross seminarian, performs a he took to El Salvador, a recognition of the radical cost of love fundamental to priestly formation. David Lantigua, assistant professor at the Catholic THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE University of America, situates the development of the language of human rights in the Churchâ€™s own in South America, with particular attention to the solidarity and love shown to the natives by many of the missionaries. Finally, Fr. Dan Groody, C.S.C. addresses the spiritual and theological meaning of migration in the modern world. Thus, each article in this edition of Church Life intends of Catholic Social Teaching. Precisely because, if the New Evangelization is to work, it must become more than an inculcation into the language of Christian doctrine. Rather, the New Evangelization will result in a concrete encounter with the Christ who offers Himself in the stunning poverty of hungry and â€ IX X VOCATIONS FOR TEENS / TIM O’MALLEY TABLE OF CONTENTS IV MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR Timothy P. O’Malley 9 THE LITURGY— WORK OF THE HOLY TRINITY: THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE CHURCH IN THE LITURGY (PART I) Jeremy Driscoll, O.S.B. 1 SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION John Cavadini 13 LIFE IN CHRIST: THE RIGHT TO CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTION James Keating 5 COMMUNION, CONVERSION, SOLIDARITY Michael Hebbeler 17 TO IMPROVE CATHOLIC HOMILIES, PART III: EXPLAIN THE LITURGY Christian Smith 21 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING Timothy P. O’Malley THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 41 CARING FOR THE GOOD NEWS OF CREATION AND ITS FRUITS: FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION 75 THE “NEW” EVANGELIZATION IN THE AMERICAS: ON THE CATHOLIC ORIGINS OF HUMAN RIGHTS David Lantigua Margaret Pfeil 57 THE NEW EVANGELIZATION AND CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING 85 THE CHURCH AND IMMIGRATION: REFLECTIONS OF A PILGRIM PEOPLE Daniel Groody, C.S.C. Nick Albares and Genevieve Jordan 67 LIBERATING CONTEMPLATION: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING ANALYSIS—EL SALVADOR 93 BOOKS FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION Timothy P. O’Malley Pat Reidy, C.S.C. 98 ECHOES OF CHURCH LIFE Alexa Sifuentes XI 1 SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION / JOHN C. CAVADINI JOHN C. CAVADINI, PH.D. SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION What is the Relation Between Social Justice and Love in the Christian Tradition? ancient, two contemporary. To begin with: St. Augustine, who takes up the question of the relation between social justice and love as the relation between justice and mercy. There is of course no fully developed “social teaching” in the Fathers if by that is meant a systematic analysis of something we now call “society” (“res socialis”) with clearly articulated fundamental principles relating to its well being. Nevertheless, the Fathers did comment extensively on the poor and on the responsibility of full of exhortations to give alms, to care for the poor, and thus to perform works of mercy. There is however no strict separation between mercy and justice. Commenting on Ps 49:5, “Gather his just ones to him,” Augustine comments, “And who are the just? Those who live by faith (see Heb 2:4) and perform works of mercy, for works of mercy are works of justice” (En. in Psalm 49.12). The just are those who have “treated the helpless with mercy and have understood about the needy and poor” (ibid.). John C. Cavadini, Ph.D. is the McGrathCavadini Director of the Institute for Church Life, Professor of Theolog y at the University of Notre Dame, and a member of the International Theological Commission. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE In fact, the standard of justice, the justice which “the heavens will proclaim” (Ps 49:6), and the “price” that Christ the Judge will exact for entrance into the Kingdom of Heaven, is the mercy enjoined by Matthew 25: “Come, you whom my Father has blessed, take possession of…” Of what? “The kingdom.” And what price have they paid for it? “I was hungry and you fed me” (Mt 25:34,35). Augustine connects this to the teaching on justice in the exhortation, “Break your bread for the hungry, and take the person with no shelter into your home. If you see anyone naked, clothe him” (Is 58:7, cited at En. in Ps. 49:13). In other words, the “justice” that Christians are obliged to work in the world is not a worldly form of justice, or even one that can be fully understood from the perspective of philosophy or unaided reason, because what one “owes” in “justice” has been recalibrated by God’s acts of mercy in the economy of salvation revealed in Scripture. To put it most succinctly, God’s mercy is His self-emptying solidarity with Incarnation. This self-emptying is so complete that the God who can say, “if I were hungry, I would not tell you, for the round world is mine and all its fullness,” (Ps 49:12) nevertheless “did graciously will to be hungry for our sake” (En. in Ps 49:19) and became “poor” (2 Cor 8:9) for us (similar point in Sermo 113B, on Lazarus and the Rich Man). Because of Christ’s Christ, and our works of mercy on their behalf truly, by His grace, are feeding and sheltering Christ, accepting His economy of mercy as setting the standards of what justice means and what obligations it will impose. For it is not only Christ’s mercy that is revealed in the Incarnation and the associated economy but the poor and needy person as the true icon or image of all of humanity. The Church is in the world as the continuing locus of this revelation: “All the members of Christ, the body of Christ diffused throughout the world, are like a single person asking God’s help, one single beggar, one poor suppliant; and this is because Christ Himself is that poor man, since He who was ‘rich became poor,’ as the Apostle tells us: ‘Though he was rich he became poor, so that by his poverty you might be enriched’” (2 Cor 8:9; En. in Ps 39:28). Christ’s mercy, binding human beings into the unity of “one person,” reveals the worth of humanity as consisting not in any observable human distinctions or even human virtues, but rather its “poverty,” its bare humanness as the object of God’s mercy. Almsgiving is thus to be based on need, and not on the perceived virtue or goodness of any person (Sermo 359A.11), that is, it is based on their humanity as such. And it is thus all the better if one can even remedy the need of someone in person, thus emphasizing the bond in our common humanity (Sermo 259.5), our neediness as seen and revealed from the mercy of Christ, and not in any further virtue, To move to a contemporary developed further in the form of the “preferential option for the poor.” In his book On Job, theologian Gustavo Gutierrez explores the relation between justice and love that is implied in the idea of a preferential option for the poor. Contrary to popular belief, the “preferential option for doctrine about God, and not about the poor: “The ultimate basis of God’s preference for the poor is to be found in God’s own goodness and not in any analysis of society or in human compassion, however pertinent these reasons may be” (On Job, xiii). If the poor and the “little ones” are “the privileged addressees of revelation,” this is “the result not primarily of moral or spiritual dispositions, but of a human situation in which God undertakes self-revelation by acting 2 3 SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION / JOHN C. CAVADINI and overturning values and criteria. The scorned of this world are those whom the God of love prefers” (ibid.). We are confronted with a mystery of God’s transcendent love that cannot be reduced to human reason, because it is a “preference,” based in God’s “goodness.” Again, “This special love [for the poor] does not have for its ultimate motive the virtues and merits of the poor, but the goodness and freedom of God, a God who is not simply the guardian of a rigid moral order” (ibid., 88). The Christian must speak in two languages: “mystical language expresses the gratuitousness of God’s love; prophetic language the demands this love makes” (ibid., 95). Ultimately, Gutierrez says, we must learn to join these languages into one language, to speak one language, which, he says, is the “language of the Cross.” Jesus in his cry of dereliction on the Cross spoke in solidarity with all the abandoned in invoking Psalm 22 on the Cross: “His cry on the Cross renders more audible and more penetrating the cries of all the Jobs, individual and collective, of human history” (ibid., 101). Just as in St. Augustine’s case, the revelation in Christ recontextualizes justice from a purely human point of view, and it becomes impossible to refer to justice without a wider and prior reference to God’s mercy. St. Augustine says that Christ, in His cry of desolation on the Cross, gives voice to all of the desolation His. The more desolate and despised the voice we hear, the more we hear Christ Meltem Atkas, St. Vincent and The Beggar, 1995 Rosati House of Chicago; Imago Inc. All rıghts reserved. Used with permission. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE speaking in the voice, the more we hear God’s mercy speaking, and the more we are called to “prefer” these voices, hearing in them the one language of justice and mercy which Jesus spoke from the Cross. Without the preferential option for the poor, as grounded in God’s goodness, the language of justice can quickly be truncated into a “sclerotic” (On Job, 88) moralism with no proper connection to anything truly human or humane. This observation leads us to our third source, Pope Benedict the XVI, whose encyclical Deus Caritas Est (God is Love, 2005) carries forward the themes we have already observed in St. Augustine once again, that justice, for the Christian, is contextualized in and by love. “What is justice? The problem is one of practical reason; but if reason is to be exercised properly, it must undergo constant completely free of the danger of a certain ethical blindness caused by the dazzling effect of power and special interests” (DCE, §28a). Truly to see the human person is to see him or her from the perspective of the Eucharistic gift of Christ’s self. From the point of view of communion a “sacramental ‘mysticism’ which is social in character,” such that “union with Christ is also union with all those to whom He gives Himself,” which is every person (§14). Our idea of sacramental mysticism so that it resists all narrowness, and must be supplemented by the awareness that we have not met all human needs if we attempt to exclude love: “There is no ordering of the State so just that it can eliminate the need for a service of love. Whoever wants to eliminate love is preparing to eliminate man as such. There will always be suffering which cries out for consolation and help. There will always be loneliness. There will always be situations of material need where help in the form of concrete love of neighbor is indispensable” (§28). The notion of “justice” withers away into something incommensurate with the fullness of humanity if it is separated from love. The Church “cannot and must not remain on the sidelines in the not mean relinquishing all human caring into the hands of the state, for the state which absorbs all human caring into itself becomes a “mere bureaucracy incapable of guaranteeing the very thing which the suffering person – every person – needs: namely, loving personal concern” (ibid.). The Church’s charitable works, as works of love, are proper to her person and are irreplaceable because they are witness to the wider worth of human beings, beyond their utility to the state, that grounds all struggles for justice in a proper sense of humanity. “Love is the light – and in the end the only light,” in which the needs of human beings can be fully and Love is the light in which we see the true dimensions and scope of social justice. † 4 5 LIFE IN CHRIST / DEACON JAMES KEATING Notre Dame students share a meal at the Catholic Worker House in Detroit, MI during their Urban Plunge Seminar. Photo courtesy of the Center for Social Concerns THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE MICHAEL HEBBELER, M.A. COMMUNION, CONVERSION, SOLIDARITY If Christ came to bring the Good News to the poor (Lk 4:18), must one go in search of the poor in order to partake of this News? And who are the poorâ€”them, the materially destitute, or us, the privileged whose lives of superabundance often lead to spiritual impoverishment? Who evangelizes whom? In his apostolic exhortation Ecclesia in America (1999), Pope John Paul II Michael Hebbeler, M.A. is the Director of Student Leadership and Senior Transitions in the Center for Social Concerns at the University of Notre Dame, as well as the staff advisor for VOICE, the student advisory board for the Center for Social Concerns. as central to the Churchâ€™s mission of evangelization. This practice is rooted in the encounter with Christ, both in Scripture and sacrament, and cultivated through the work of justice in response to the needs of the poor. John Paul II calls the Church to see this connectedness and respond accordingly: 6 7 COMMUNION, CONVERSION, SOLIDARITY / MICHAEL HEBBELER ‘Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me’ (Mt. 25:40). The awareness of communion with Christ and with our brothers and sisters, for its part the fruit of conversion, leads to the service of our neighbors in all their needs, material and spiritual, since the face of Christ shines forth in every human being. Solidarity is thus the fruit of the communion which is grounded in the mystery of the triune God, and in the Son of God who took flesh and died for all. It is expressed in Christian love which seeks the good of others, especially of those most in need. (EA, §52) The Center for Social Concerns at the University of Notre Dame seeks to participate in this mission of evangelization by inviting students into the community—locally, nationally, and internationally— to study unjust structures and build relationships with vulnerable populations oppressed by these structures. Through seminar immersions, service-learning programs and community-based research, the Center conducts academic courses that explore poverty and injustice through the lens of Catholic Social Teaching. Responding to this invitation, students enter into communion with the poor and marginalized, and such action can lead to conversion through the practice of solidarity. Because poverty and “the poor” are too often abstracted from their particular contexts, it is vital for our students to displace themselves physically into these contexts. Christ did not encounter the poor in the abstract. Rather, he gave sight to Bartimaeus while leaving Jericho (Mk 10:46-52) and in Capernaum healed the centurion’s servant (Mt 8:5-13). And so students go to Immokalee, Florida, to encounter migrant farmers; to Chicago’s South Side to understand the lives of gang members; to East Africa to meet victims of civil war. Students also travel to a place where often it is toughest to face poverty— their own backyard. While Notre Dame, Our Mother, radiates in gold atop the famed dome on campus, Our Lady of the Road stands two miles away in the city of South Bend as a drop-in center for the homeless. Here dozens of people enter from off the streets seeking a meal, a warm shower, and clean laundry. Students enrolled in this seminar focusing on homelessness in South Bend enter the discussion through the framework of Catholic Social Teaching. They begin to discover that solidarity requires an understanding of one’s connectedness to social structures and therefore also one’s responsibility for the poverty and injustice that results from these structures. Erica, a senior level student, notes, “The dignity of the human person is at stake in our society. There is a problem when ‘the having of a few can be to the detriment of the being of many others’ (Sollicitudo rei socialis, §31). Through the reading and discussion in class, I was forced to face my own personal responsibility in contributing to and consuming in THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE this society that is leaving many in breadlines.” Just as the poor are not an abstract concept, neither do they exist in a vacuum. The principle of solidarity seeks to remove the barriers that separate us from them and holds all accountable for creating a society that privileges the rich and oppresses the poor. Engaging this principle in the classroom, however, remains an intellectual exercise unless the classroom extends into the community. One cannot encounter Christ theoretically. He or she must go to the hungry and thirsty, the sick and imprisoned (Mt 25:35-36). Here the “awareness of communion” that John Paul II references in Ecclesia in America manifests itself experience at Our Lady of the Road (an apostolate of the St. Peter Claver Catholic Worker), stating, “We are called not just to serve food, but to sit and eat with our brothers and sisters and know Christ in the breaking of the bread. I think the best way to describe my time at the drop-in and what it has done in my heart is that it feels a bit like home. It feels right, as if I am participating in what I was created to do— participating in an exchange of love.” While the act of serving initiated her contact with plates and into a relationship with men and women through the sharing of bread. She alludes to the Emmaus story (Lk 24:13-35), of which Dorothy Day was fond, identifying the feeling in her heart that arises from the recognition of the faces crowded around the table. Erica feels home amongst a group once made up of strangers. Yet the burning in her heart, while inspiring, does not comfort her for long. Rather, it creates discomfort. A space for conversion has opened within her, and that which she has seen and encountered beckons her upon a path that takes great courage to travel. Vulnerable, desirous, yet fearful, she admits, “During our last class session, I felt almost paralyzed by a sinking feeling in my stomach. The call to live in community and solidarity is clear. confronted with the reality that I have to change. My actions, plans and ideas of what I think it means to live as a Christian must change. I don’t think I’ve fully said yes to that yet; I still need the grace to let go of the things at which I am grasping.” From the aisle in the Basilica to the breadline outside the drop-in center, we say yes to communion, to encounter with Christ, whose Good News makes our heart burn with the desire to love the least of these. The students wrestle with these newfound insights, easing one another’s anxiety through conversation and prayer, yet holding one another accountable to live their convictions and enter more deeply into the practice of solidarity. The road is not easy, but sometimes grace comes cloaked in a stranger who walks alongside God’s faithful disciples. † 8 9 EVANGELIZING CULTURE / CHRISTIAN SMITH El Greco, Pentecost, c. 1596-1600 Museo del Prado BY JEREMY DRISCOLL, O.S.B. THE LITURGY WORK OF THE HOLY TRINITY: THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE CHURCH IN THE LITURGY (PART I) THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE In previous columns I commented on those parts of the Catechism of the Catholic Church that concern the distinct roles of the Father and the Son in the liturgy. In this present column I would like to begin to treat the section entitled “The Holy Spirit and the Church in the Liturgy” (§1091-1109). Fr. Jeremy Driscoll, O.S.B. is a monk of Mount Angel Abbey in St. Benedict, OR. He is a professor of theolog y at Mount Angel Seminary Sant’Anselmo in Rome. It is striking that after considering the role in the liturgy of the Father in Himself and of Christ in Himself, these next paragraphs of the Catechism treat the Holy Spirit together with the Church. This is seen already in the title of the section, and the reasoning behind this is immediately explained: “The desire and work of the Spirit in the heart of the Church is that we may live from the life of the risen Christ” (§1091). The Spirit is, as it were, looking in two directions: toward the risen Christ and toward the Church. He “takes” from the risen Christ and makes what he takes the Church’s own. When the faith which he has aroused,” then the liturgy in fact can become “the common work of the Holy Spirit and the Church” (§1091). This is something marvelous. The liturgy is something that God does, and it is something that the Church does. It is at one and the same time a divine work and a human work. A huge claim follows, even if it is expressed in deceptively simple language. It is that in the liturgy “the Holy Spirit acts in the same way as at other times in the economy of salvation” (§1092). This means that the divine action of the Spirit that unfolded through all the centuries of both the Old and the New Testaments is concentrated now in the event of the liturgy. Four verbs summarize the Spirit’s action: the Spirit prepares the Church to meet Christ, recalls Christ, makes present His mystery, and unites the Church to Him. Each of these dimensions is developed under separate subtitles. This whole section of the Catechism on the Holy Spirit and the Church in the liturgy is twice as long as the sections on the Father’s and the Son’s roles. For this reason we will need to divide our analysis into several installments. For the the four subtitles. 10 11 THE LITURGY / JEREMY DRISCOLL, O.S.B. The Holy Spirit prepares for the reception of Christ. This title, this sentence, exactly describes the action of the Spirit in two places: in the economy of salvation and in the what I called a “huge claim,” namely, the convergence of Spirit’s work in salvation history with Spirit’s work in the liturgy. Throughout the Old Covenant, the Spirit was preparing a people for Christ’s coming. Now, in the why “the Church’s liturgy has retained certain elements of the worship of the Old Covenant…” (§1093). Three as reading the Old Testament and praying the Psalms. The third element is more complex. It is “recalling the Underlying this expression is the notion of feast as understood in the religion of Israel. Feasts consisted in “recalling saving events,” which, precisely because they were God’s deeds, could become present again in the celebration of their memory. These events cumulatively build up an inner meaning, which the Catechism calls “promise and covenant, Exodus and Passover, kingdom recall those events and realities in the liturgy that the The next paragraph defends this concept, or in any of the two Testaments.” The Catechism is on this harmony of the two Testaments that the Paschal catechesis of the Lord is built, and then, that of the Apostles and the Fathers of the Church” (§1094). The term “Paschal catechesis” provides important which she understands the Old Testament and uses it in the liturgy. In reality, the Church’s understanding of the Old Testament is “Paschal catechesis,” and its original and authoritative practitioner is the risen Lord Himself. A footnote in this paragraph refers the reader to Luke 24:13-49 where, in two different Resurrection appearances, the Lord indicates that the Messiah’s Death and Resurrection is the meaning of Moses and the prophets and the Psalms, of the entire Old Covenant. The Apostles, the Catechism contends, build their understanding of the mystery of Christ on His own “Paschal catechesis,” and the Church Fathers follow in the pattern of the Lord and the Apostles. The Catechism states that this way of interpreting the hidden meaning of the letter of the Old Testament has a technical name: “It is called ‘typological’ because it reveals the newness of Christ on the basis of the That is, the warrant for this method of scriptural interpretation is in the Scriptures themselves, as the Catechism then demonstrates with examples from the New Testament. Typological interpretation of Scripture is not the invention or intrusion of a later period or a different culture — say, that of the patristic Church. No, the Fathers continued what was begun by the risen Lord and the Apostles, and they extended it to all parts of the Scriptures. All of this explains why in her liturgy the Christian Church continues to celebrate the great deeds of God from Israel’s past. Just as the Holy Spirit was preparing Israel for the coming of Christ, now the same Spirit prepares the liturgical assembly for the coming of Christ. The Catechism puts forward the various liturgical seasons as prime examples of this: “For this reason the Church, especially during Advent and Lent and above all at the Easter Vigil, re-reads and re-lives THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE the great events of salvation history in the ‘today’ of her liturgy” (§1095). All of us who hear these Old Testament readings proclaimed during Advent, Lent, and especially at the Easter Vigil, will certainly listen if we keep in mind that by means of them the Holy Spirit is actively preparing us to meet Christ in the very liturgy in which they are proclaimed. The phrase “above all at the Easter Vigil” deserves our attention. The Catechism does not develop it in this particular paragraph, but it does provided us with a crucial element of what is needed to understand more deeply this part of the “mother of all Vigils” (Missale Romanum, “Rubrics for the Easter Vigil,” §20). The Holy Spirit is active in the liturgical assembly precisely by means of the details of what is read. The seven Old Testament readings of the Easter Vigil are representative texts that proclaim whole blocks of essential Old Testament theology, moving from important reading, the Exodus; four subsequent readings announce pivotal themes of the prophets. An understanding of these texts in relation to the Paschal Mystery, which is so explicit in the Easter Vigil, can serve also when these or similar readings appear at other times in the liturgical year. The Collects that follow each reading are a rich resource for understanding these links between Old Testament These express with simplicity and clarity the Church’s profound Christological and sacramental understanding of the Old Testament texts. Catechism on the Holy Spirit and the Church in the liturgy concludes by returning to the word “prepare” from its title, highlighting again the notion of the liturgy as a common work of both the Holy Spirit and the Church. “The assembly should prepare itself to encounter its Lord and to become ‘a people well disposed.’ The preparation of hearts is the joint work of the Holy Spirit and the assembly, especially of its ministers” (§1098). We can hope that this work of the Holy Spirit in us, together with our own disposition to be open to his inspirations, will make of our liturgies what they are truly meant to be in the plan of God: a divine work and the work of the Church. † 12 13 LIFE IN CHRIST BY DEACON JAMES KEATING, PH.D. THE RIGHT TO CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTION “The law of God entrusted to the Church is taught to the faithful as the way of life and truth. The faithful therefore have the right to be instructed in the divine saving precepts that purify judgment and, with grace, heal wounded human reason.” (Catechism of the Catholic Church, §2037) Church and then the dynamism (“the way of life and truth”) of the content of God’s law. It is also a statement about the power of truth and grace to heal and purify owed to the faithful regarding catechesis. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) constitutes the moral law as God’s “fatherly instruction” (§1950). When this instruction is lived out by Catholics, it results in their happiness. “Fatherly instruction” is an attractive description of the law as it expresses its personal origins. The law of moral truth, as revealed by Moses and Christ, Deacon James Keating, Ph.D. is Director of Theological Formation in The Institute for Priestly Formation at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Cosimo Rosselli and Piero di Cosimo, Sermon on the Mount and Healing of the Leper, detail, 1482 Sistine Chapel, Vatican 14 15 THE RIGHT TO CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTION / DEACON JAMES KEATING and detected dimly by wounded reason has its source in the Father’s heart. God wants us to have the deepest communion with Him and so “labors” to reveal those behaviors and dispositions which will speed and secure that communion. Obviously the Catholic Church believes that there are some behaviors and dispositions that can threaten and destroy communion with the Holy Trinity—sin. The Church prompts those entrusted with the work of catechesis in moral truth to embrace their duty to teach only those things that can “[put] people in communion with Jesus Christ” (CCC §426, citing John Paul II’s apostolic exhortation Catechesi tradendae (1979)). All parishioners, then, have a right to learn those truths that purify judgment this salving of reason happens within the arena of grace, within the security of the sacramental womb. Developing and wounded persons need security. Wounded ones ought not to be exposed to that which makes them weaker. Love wants to protect and not expose wounds to further injury. I lived through the 1970s as a teenager and recall that my mind was not secured by catechists within the sacramental womb but basically opened and left exposed to “new ideas.” These ideas did not originate within the sacramental womb, but in fact were born within the speculation of university professors. My catechist had read these professors’ latest ideas and heard their latest lectures and mistook these for “fatherly instruction.” I do not remember being Later, I remember being embarrassed as an undergraduate when I spoke these ideas as if they were Church teaching and was gently corrected that such were simply the thoughts of one theologian. Whether one is a teenager or an adult in an RCIA class, it his or her “right” to have instruction that expresses healing and purifying truths. Such is the nature of catechesis. At the university level, all sorts of conversations occur as to the relationship between theology and catechesis. The conversation usually ends with university theologians concluding that they are not “catechists.” So true. Ultimately I would say that theologians have a freedom (a “right”) to “play.” They are “owed” space within the Church to tinker and dabble and toy with ideas. Catechists simply do not have this right. by instructing those assembled in the ways of “fatherly” teaching. This teaching is one that is concerned with the student’s personal salvation, the development of his or her moral conscience, his or her participation in the sacraments, and most vitally, the eventual public witness to which all laity are called as they advance the beauty and healing of the Catholic faith as a social good. It is a known fact that the speculations of university theologians can yield ideas that have been recognized by the Magisterium as having developed the Catholic “way of life and truth.” Analogically, then, theologians are like children creating art in the family playroom. Occasionally one will come out of the playroom (research) and the mother will post his art on the refrigerator door (classroom lectures). All place where our lost family socks go. Rarely, a child will emerge from the playroom with a piece of art that is truly remarkable; in this case, the mother might even frame the work and place it in the living room for all to see. The parents will then show this creation to visitors, discuss its origins, and relate how the art affects the family. Closing the analogy, then, it is this art—the one hanging in the living room, not the one on the refrigerator—to which the faithful have a “right.” It is this art over which those who usher others into beauty—catechists—ought to linger. It is this art which can heal when contemplated. It is this art which THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE is beautiful, which radiates goodness, and which furthers the “way of life and truth” of the family. It is this art which is both held by and passed on to generations of family members. Remarkably, it is not the child himself who makes the judgment that his art is worthy to be framed in the living room; only the parents make that judgment. The parish is our “living room.” There are other rooms (graduate schools) in the house (Church) within which much raucous play can be had, but the living room is where “fatherly instruction” occurs. This instruction is given with the personal salvation of each person in mind. It is given in a sacred manner: a manner which recognizes that what is being passed on has been acknowledged as “fatherly instruction” and is not simply the considered speculation of a university classroom. In this place, the parish, truth is owed because love is foremost. Catechetical instruction in moral living bears truth to the souls of us who need healing. When the doctrine is borne accurately and joyfully to parishioners, the Truth Himself also enters the heart to “purify judgment” and “heal wounded human reason.” † 16 17 VOCATIONS FORCULTURE EVANGELIZING TEENS / TIM / CHRISTIAN O’MALLEY SMITH Raphael, St. Paul Preaching in Athens, c. 1515-6 Victoria and Albert Museum EVANGELIZING CULTURE BY CHRISTIAN SMITH, PH.D. TO IMPROVE CATHOLIC HOMILIES PART III: EXPLAIN THE LITURGY THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE I have in prior installments dedicated to improving Catholic homilies suggested two major pieces of advice. First, avoid home only one important point per homily. Second, avoid sentimental moralism by grounding every homily message in the Good News of what God has done for us as the foundation of anything we might need to do. Christian Smith, Ph.D. is the William R. Kenan, Jr. Professor of Sociolog y and Director of the Center for the Study of Religion and Society at the University of Notre Dame. Smith’s research focuses primarily on religion in modernity, adolescents, American evangelicalism, and culture. I might in addition suggest a handful of other ideas to help improve Catholic homilies. One would be simply to make time to prepare homilies. Priests are often so busy that preparing homilies can get short shrift. But focused preparation is essential to a good homily. I might also suggest keeping homilies to less than ten minutes long. There again, the adage “less is more” pertains when it comes to communicating a key point effectively. But I think one other substantive suggestion is particularly important. Homilies should take advantage of opportunities to explain various parts of the Church’s liturgical practices throughout the Church year. Many priests may take for granted that parishioners understand the meaning of the various words, movements, colors, vestments, elements, and gestures of the liturgy. But many do not comprehend or appreciate them. Some Catholics surely understand what is going on in the liturgy. But many Catholics have only a vague idea, yet would never ask about it. Others are largely ignorant. At the University of Notre Dame, I have the privilege of teaching many smart and accomplished undergraduate students from Catholic backgrounds. But many of them readily admit that they do not know what is going on during Mass. They grew up with it. It feels familiar. But they have little idea what any of it means. Nobody ever explained it, they report. So it’s all a mystery to them. That’s a problem. Celebrating the Liturgy of the Word and Eucharist is the central practice of faith among the 18 19 TO IMPROVE CATHOLIC HOMILIES / CHRISTIAN SMITH practice in faith is a spiritually, theologically, morally repeated behavior. The role of the body and material elements in liturgy are crucial, of course. But so is understanding. Practices like the liturgy need in some real way to be them. Otherwise, they become rote, empty behaviors. Liturgy certainly forms people, by God’s grace and Spirit. But liturgy’s formative power is enhanced when My suggestion here is simple. When appropriate, priests should utilize their homilies well, creating opportunities to explain the abundant meanings of various parts of the liturgy, especially as related to particular times of the Church year. It simply cannot be taken for granted that people in attendance—especially young people—know and understand those meanings. They need to and can be taught in winsome, inviting, and compelling ways. requires teaching. Does this third piece of advice for improving Catholic I have observed parishes where the liturgy is continually being explained in subtle but enlightening and interesting ways. It does not take much. Simple reminders here and there of what we are doing in liturgy and why are usually enough. Priests in such parishes seem to love the liturgy, are proud of it, and want the faithful to enter into it deeply. Gradually, worshippers in such congregations become more literate about liturgy and more meaningfully involved in it. In an upward spiral of growth, I have observed that people’s understanding of, formation by, and participation and interest in the liturgy increases. necessarily. Over a span of weeks, even months, it is entirely possible for a homilist to illuminate parts of the liturgy, while keeping each homily focused only on a single important point, weaving liturgy and Scripture together. Such explanations, rather than wandering off into distracting side points, can often indirectly or directly help to reinforce the homily’s central point. Over time, preaching that unites the Scriptural and liturgical life of the Church helps to convey a more comprehensive, integrated sense of what the Church and faith are all about. I have also observed parishes, however, where the meaning of the liturgy is not actively cultivated, where its beauty and power are seemingly not appreciated or highlighted. I have even witnessed priests who seem embarrassed by some of the elements involved in the liturgy. I remember one case in particular when a priest presiding at Mass in a major cathedral casually apologized for having to wear rose-colored vestments on Gaudete Sunday (the Third Sunday of Advent), saying that he felt uncomfortable “in pink,” so people could just ignore the vestments. Rather than being the liturgy as it unfolds across the Church’s liturgical year, those in attendance were confused and alienated from it. We can do better. Does the practice of explaining parts of the liturgy in homilies contradict my second suggestion, to avoid sentimental moralism by grounding every homily message explicitly in the Gospel? No. The liturgy and the Gospel are naturally interpenetrating. Thoughtfully prepared homilies can both explain the liturgy and ground their content in a Christocentric, Trinitarian message of new evangelization. Homilies of such a caliber are what will most effectively strengthen the faith and practice of the people of God. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE In sum, instead of imagining that people in the pews understand the meaning of the Church’s liturgical practices—which many in fact do not—homilists should proactively seek appropriate opportunities to draw their hearers into a deeper understanding and appreciation of the meaning of the liturgy. Over time, this ought to produce a people more in love with the Church’s liturgy, sacraments, and worship— and therefore, more in love with God. † Fra Angelico, St. Stephen Preaching to the People of Jerusalem, detail, 1448 Cappella di Niccolò V, Vatican Palace 20 21 VOCATIONS FOR TEENS / TIM O’MALLEY Last Supper, 1150 Chartres Cathedral THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING BY TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY, PH.D. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE In the early summer of 2006, I attended the nuptial liturgy of two friends at a parish in Evanston, Illinois. Outside of the palpable delight of being present at a wedding in which the bride and groom were high school sweethearts, those in attendance also witnessed a number of Filipino wedding rituals; in particular, the giving of coins to one another as a sign of the coupleâ€™s willingness to welcome the poor. For most couples, the obligation enacted by this tradition is forgotten as the Eucharistic liturgy gives way to the festal joy of the reception. During the singing of the Agnus Dei, a shabbily dressed woman walked in and proceeded toward the altar. The priest, becoming aware of the unplanned interruption of the Eucharistic rites, greeted the woman, introducing her to the bride and groom whose faces indicated genuine delight at this unexpected encounter. Placing a chair next to his own, the priest spoke to the woman during the remainder of the liturgy, inviting the couple to serve as Eucharistic ministers of so noble a feast. At the conclusion of the liturgy, the woman joined the rather large wedding party in its recessional from the church. Indeed, Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world. 22 23 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY Timothy P. O’Malley, Ph.D. is director of the Notre Dame Center for Liturg y, a Concurrent Professor in the Department of Theolog y at the University of Notre Dame, and editor of the journal Church Life. My career as a liturgical and sacramental theologian, as brief as it may be thus far, has been dedicated to an understanding of the sacramental event that took place this day. If theology is “faith seeking understanding”, savoring the mystery through an intellectual and loving contemplation of the signs of faith, then the liturgical theologian seeks this mystery through the sacramental life of the Church. The couple’s love for one another visibly manifested that day became Eucharistic through a plenitude of divine gifts—the pattern of divinehuman love imaged through the Scriptures, the sacramental union effected through the Rite of Marriage, the Eucharistic presence of Christ, and the unknown woman who became an icon of the sweet responsibilities of Eucharistic love. And those attentive to the grammar of divine love employed that day in the Church’s rites left committed to an imitation of that love of all Christian vocation. They tasted the fruits of the sacrament, becoming what was received in the sacramental celebration. Yet, one may rightly wonder, what would it take for all Catholics, not only those privy to attend this unique nuptial event, to make such an explicit connection between Eucharistic worship and the love of neighbor in each liturgical celebration, in every act of service? One possible means is through an appropriation of Catholic social doctrine vis-à-vis an understanding of its Eucharistic foundations. To unfold this thesis, the heart of this claim, including the relationship between the Church’s social doctrine and theology, as well as the mission of evangelization intrinsic to ecclesial identity. Second, I articulate the Eucharistic foundations of Catholic social doctrine in two sections. identity of the Church. The second explores the sacramental mysticism, apply the Eucharistic pedagogy of Catholic Social Teaching to three aspects of formation in Catholic social life: marriage, ecological consciousness, and service learning. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE ND students serve hot meals at the Catholic Worker House in Detroit, MI during their Urban Plunge Seminar. Photo courtesy of the Center for Social Concerns Catholic Social Teaching and the Eucharist A cursory reading of Catholic Social Teaching, from Leo XIII’s Rerum Novarum in 1891 to Benedict XVI’s Caritas in veritate in 2009, may lead the reader to the following conclusion: the Eucharist, though mentioned occasionally in the monuments1 of Catholic Social Teaching, is certainly not foundational to the corpus as a whole. Neither Rerum Novarum (1891) nor Pius XI’s Quadragesimo Anno (1931) has any Eucharistic references, though the latter does address the Mystical Body of Christ—an ecclesiological term with Eucharistic implications2. John XXIII’s Mater et Magistra (1961) employs a single mention of the Eucharist in the context of a broader discussion of rest and the Sabbath, declaring the wisdom of the Church’s teaching renews the memory of divine redemption and at the same time imparts its fruits to the souls of men.”3 Paul VI, though by no means devoting extensive attention to the Eucharist, does include an implicit Eucharistic reference in Populorum Progressio (1967),4 a Eucharistic trope in Humanae Vitae (1968),5 a passage emphasizing the 24 25 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY importance of Eucharistic participation in educating for justice in Iusticia in Mundo (1971),7 and an account of the Eucharist as part of the Church’s mission of evangelization in Evangelium Nuntiandi (1975). John development of the social doctrine of the Church is in Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (1987). Toward the conclusion of the document, he writes: The kingdom of God becomes present above all in the celebration of the sacrament of the Eucharist, the fruits of the earth and the work of human hands—the bread and wine—are transformed mysteriously, but really and substantially, through the power of the Holy Spirit and the words of the minister, into the Body and Blood of the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God and Son of Mary, through whom the Kingdom of the Father has been made present in our midst.8 Eucharistic participation, a union of the human person the Eucharist, is the source of the Church’s martyria or witness within the world.9 John Paul II likewise mentions the sacraments, though not the Eucharist contributing to human dignity in Centesimus Annus (1991).10 Though widely ignored as a part of the Church’s social doctrine among commentators of Catholic Social Teaching, both Veritatis Splendor (1993)11 and Evangelium Vitae (1995)12 also address the Eucharist. Finally, Benedict XVI’s Caritas in Veritate (2009) is without an explicit Eucharistic reference, though his Deus Caritas Est (2006) and Sacramentum Caritatis (2007) offer a Eucharistic theology intrinsically connected to love of neighbor—a sacramental mysticism that implicitly informs his more recent social encyclical. Thus, with Charles E. Curran, one may conclude that “an essential connection exists between liturgy and life, but the documents of Catholic Social Teaching pay no attention to it,” because of the need to speak to dual audiences, those within the Church as well as men and women of good will.13 That is, Catholic Social Teaching does not address the relationship between liturgical worship and love of neighbor because one part of its audience (the non-believer) would not be persuaded by ad intra theological arguments. Of course, Curran’s claim operates out of its own assumption, worthy of some critical examination; namely, Catholic social doctrine may be analyzed apart from other monuments of the Catholic Tradition. Thus, in his introduction to Catholic Social Teaching, he engages only in a limited way with Lumen Gentium,14 Vatican II’s dogmatic constitution on the Church, while extensively treating Gaudium et Spes, the same Council’s pastoral constitution on the Church in the modern world. But to do so is to ignore the very Eucharistic foundation of Gaudium et Spes when viewed through the lens of Lumen Gentium, as well as the implicit social nature of Lumen Gentium Thus, if I am to argue that an essential quality of Catholic social doctrine is its Eucharistic structure, I will need to operate out of a set of assumptions distinct from Curran. First, Catholic Social Teaching is fundamentally theological in its vision, and thus cannot be fully explained The theological depth of Catholic social doctrine is particularly evident beginning with John Paul II and John Paul II’s second encyclical Dives in misericordia (1980) treats the nature of divine mercy as incarnate in Jesus Christ, one that becomes sacramentally present in the life of the Church. Divine mercy is made manifest in the self-gift of Christ upon the Cross, such the Father,’ means believing that love is present in THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE the world and that this love is more powerful than any kind of evil in which individuals, humanity, or the world are involved. Believing in this love means believing in mercy.”15 At the conclusion of the encyclical, as John Paul II turns toward an account of how the Church is called to merciful love, he describes how the divine mercy mediated through the Church might form Christians capable of merciful love in both marriage and social relations through the practice of forgiveness.16 Thus, John Paul II’s theological and integral to the person’s social relationships in the family, the polis, and society as a whole. Theological teaching is social teaching.17 And, to the attentive reader of ecclesial social doctrine, the converse is also true: the Church’s social teaching is theological. This claim is correct not because every social analysis is a matter of divine revelation, but as the the grief and anguish of the people of our time,”18 she does so as “endowed with light from God.”19 When the Church states that the human person has dignity, being made in the image and likeness of God, she is making a claim based not upon empirical evidence That is, left to our own resources, either through the disciplines of natural theology or the biological sciences, humanity could not have known the fullness of love that God has for the human person and the dignity, and thus responsibility, that comes with this gift. The function of Catholic Social Teaching, even empirical analysis, is at the service of this revelation: The Church sees in men and women, in every person, the itself in the mystery of Christ, the Perfect Image of God, the One who reveals God to man and man to himself. It is to these men and women, who have received an incomparable and inalienable dignity from God himself, that the Church speaks, rendering to them the highest and most singular service, constantly reminding them of their lofty vocation so that they may always be mindful of it and worthy of it.20 Hence, when Catholic social doctrine claims that the Church is an “expert in humanity,”21 it does so not Jesus Christ, who manifests the fullness of truth regarding human nature: we are made for the gift of love.22 As the Church proclaims the importance of subsidiarity as a principle of Catholic Social Teaching, she does so because subsidiarity enables a true community of persons capable of free self-gift, not out of limited government.23 The believer, gazing upon such truth with the eyes of faith, will recognize the theological anthropology at the heart of this claim. The men and women of good will can recognize the truthfulness of the same teaching through the depths of their own religious experience or knowledge acknowledging the theological reality expressed through the sign. This is why the communication of the Church’s social doctrine, though always theological, from both philosophy and the social sciences.24 The second assumption is that formation in Catholic Social Teaching is most effective when understood as integral to the Church’s mission of evangelization. For the most part, Catholic social doctrine is as well known to members of the Church as the doctrine of the Trinity, a theological approach to creation, or a Eucharistic theology of transubstantiation; that is, it is at best misunderstood and at worst unknown. Further, too 26 27 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY often there is disharmony between a commitment to high Eucharistic theology and practice and love of neighbor. This disconnect is the precise gap between faith and practice that Gaudium et Spes addressed with such clarity: “Therefore, let there be no false opposition between professional and social activities on the one part, and religious life on the other. The Christian who neglects his temporal duties neglects his duties toward his neighbor and even God, and jeopardizes his eternal salvation.”25 Of course, though the document does not address it, the same problem exists not simply for those who neglect love of neighbor but also for those who fail to receive the divine gift of love in the Eucharistic life of the Church, taking part in action without contemplation.26 This intrinsic connection between acts of neighborly charity and the Eucharistic life of the Church is best expressed through the Church’s mission of evangelization. Evangelization, according to Paul VI, consists of two aspects that are interconnected with one another: the richness of an interior life united with God and the transformation of a society in light of this interior renewal. In Evangelium Nuntiandi (1975), he writes: For the Church, evangelizing means bringing the Good News into all strata of humanity, and from within and making it new … The purpose of evangelization is therefore precisely this interior change, and if it had to be expressed in one sentence the best way of stating it would be to say that the Church evangelizes when she seeks to convert, solely through the divine power of the Message she proclaims, both the personal and collective consciences of people, the activities in which they engage, and the lives and concrete milieux which are theirs.27 This “gospelization” of human existence and culture is not merely a matter of geography or quantity of converts, but of attending to authentic human development—an integral humanism that defends the transcendent dignity of the human person, as well as our capacity for freedom and for love.28 Proclamation of the Church’s social doctrine is the Church manifesting her evangelical identity, offering herself to the world as a witness to Christ.29 In a recent account of evangelization, the Church notes regarding the of unfruitfulness in evangelization and catechesis today can be seen as an ecclesiological problem which concerns the Church’s capacity, more or less, of becoming a real community, a true fraternity and a living body, and not a mechanical thing or enterprise.”30 Hence, Catholic Social Teaching is part and parcel of how the Church expresses her identity within the world as an evangelical agent. Yet, this means that the social doctrine of the Church requires an appropriation of a robust ecclesiology, one that properly accounts for the Church’s relationship with the world. And this ecclesiology, as the second section of this essay will show, is profoundly Eucharistic. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE The Eucharistic Identity of the Church and Sacramental Mysticism Thus far, I have argued for the relationship between the social doctrine of the Church and theology, in addition to acknowledging the profound connection between Catholic Social Teaching and evangelization. In the second section of this essay, I begin to construct the Eucharistic foundations of Catholic social doctrine from two related perspectives: the Eucharistic identity of the Church and the of the previous section, I assemble this Eucharistic account of Catholic social doctrine beginning with theology and then moving toward anthropology and social implications. The point of such an approach is not to place an insurmountable obstacle between the two, as if one could engage in theological inquiry without saying something about human nature and relationship in the process. But rather, the two-fold approach shows how the Eucharistic theology, and thus the anthropology, of Catholic social doctrine are evident to those who study and appropriate it with the eyes of faith. Lumen Gentium. identity as “a sacrament—a sign and instrument, that is, of communion with God and of the unity of the entire human race….”31 Commenting upon this selfLumen Gentium, the Catechism of the Catholic Church states, “The Church’s inner union of men with God. Because men’s communion with one another is rooted in that union with God, the Church is also the sacrament of the unity of the human race.”32 This is not a minor ecclesiological claim. Through participation in the life of the Church, the human person enters into the divine life of the Triune God and thus becomes a sign of human unity for all men and women. Such participation is particularly manifested in the Eucharistic communion of the Church: Really sharing in the body of the Lord in the breaking of the Eucharistic bread, we are taken up into communion with him and with one another. “Because the bread is one, we, though many, are one body, all of us who partake of the one bread” (1 Cor 10:17). In this way all of us are made members of his body (see 1 Cor 12:27), “individually members one of another” (Rom 12:5).33 28 29 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY Eucharistic participation is, therefore, intrinsically connected to the identity of the Church, as one can see through attending to two prominent ecclesial images employed by Lumen Gentium: the Mystical Body of Christ and the People of God. The Mystical Body of Christ, and its Eucharistic overtones, is featured in the latter half of chapter one of Lumen Gentium, as well as the opening chapter of Sacrosanctum Concilium (1963), the constitution on the sacred liturgy. The latter, promulgated a year earlier than Lumen Gentium, states: The liturgy, then, is rightly seen as an exercise given expression in symbols perceptible by the senses and is carried out in ways appropriate public worship is performed by the mystical body of Jesus Christ, that is, by the Head and his members.34 The Church is capable of performing worship that is truly sacramental, in which Christ’s redeeming works are made present and effective, because of her own sacramental identity as “human and divine, visible but endowed with invisible realities, zealous in action and dedicated to contemplation, present in the world, yet a migrant, so constituted that in it in the human is directed toward and subordinated to the divine, the visible to the invisible, action to contemplation, and this present world to that city yet to come…”.35 The Church is the Mystical Body of Christ, for Christ is the Head of each member, similar to the way that the soul provides life to the human body.36 Yet, these two facets of the Church, “the visible society and the spiritual community, the earthly church and the church endowed with heavenly riches, are not to be thought of as two realities.”37 When the Church acts in the world through historical means, including in her alleviation of poverty and her contribution to human world of her own redemption in Jesus Christ.38 She acts as the Body of Christ, a confession of faith akin to the Christological claim that Jesus is both fully God and fully human. But, since the Church is a mystery of faith, a single union between Christ and believers. The Church is also the People of God, “established by Christ as a communion of life, love, and truth.”39 This image of People of God is related to the theme of covenant among both the People of Israel and the new covenant established through Christ’s gift upon the Cross. Such covenantal language is profoundly Eucharistic. The covenant, which gathers the People of God into a holy nation, a royal priesthood (1 Pet 2:9-10), is nothing less than Christ’s self-gift to the world upon the Cross, one that establishes a new pattern of human relationship based in graciousness and mercy.40 As a member of the People of God, each person shares in within the world but His capacity to give Himself fully out of love. Through baptism, the faithful “are consecrated as a spiritual house and a holy priesthood, that through all their Christian activities they may offer has called them out of darkness into his wonderful light (see 1 Pet 2:4-10).”41 The body of the faithful, by sharing source and summit of the Christian life, they offer the divine victim to God and themselves along with him. And so it is that, both in THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE the offering and in holy Communion, in their separate ways, though not of course indiscriminately, all have their own part to play in the liturgical action. Then, strengthened by the body of Christ in the Eucharistic communion, they manifest in a concrete way that unity of the 42 Of course, the People of God is also prophetic, becoming a living and persuasive sign of the truth and beauty of the Kingdom of God.43 The Church is royal when she exercises her faith within the world: “to make the church present and fruitful in those places and circumstances where it is only through them that it can become the salt of the earth.”44 Gaudium et Spes presumes both of these images of the Church,45 further developing their Eucharistic implications for Church-world relations. In its discussion of the role of the Church in the modern world, the document refers to the mission of the Church to serve “as a leaven and a kind of soul for human society as it is to be renewed in Christ and transformed into God’s family.”46 This, indeed, is the Eucharistic vocation of the Church. For example, by recognizing what is worthy in the social movements of the world: [S]he shows the world that an authentic union, social and external, results from a union of minds and hearts, namely from that faith and charity by which her unity is unbreakably rooted in the Holy Spirit. For the force which the Church can inject into the modern society of man consists in that faith and charity put into vital practice, not in any external domination exercised by merely human means.47 The Church acts within the modern world as a leaven through manifesting her Eucharistic, and thus evangelical, identity in her proclamation and witness of self-gift and love.48 Of course, such a transformation of the world through preaching and witness is not merely spiritual, “but in the context of the history and of the world in which man lives. Here mankind is met by God’s love and by the vocation to cooperate in the divine plan.”49 For this reason, the Eucharistic nature of Catholic social doctrine is linked, profoundly, to the secular nature of the lay vocation. This secular quality does not mean that the layperson assumes no responsibility for the evangelical mission of the Church. Rather, the lay Christian has a particular responsibility to overcome the distinction between faith and life, one that is a scandal to the proclamation of the Kingdom of God. As Paul VI notes in Populorum Progressio when addressing human development: [I]f the role of the hierarchy is to teach and to interpret authentically the norms of morality to be followed in this matter, it belongs to the laymen, without waiting passively for orders and directives, to take the initiative freely and to infuse a Christian spirit into the mentality, customs, laws, and structures of the community in which they live.50 offers God’s love for the transformation of society, of culture, of human relationships.51 It is this spiritual worship, fostered by the Eucharistic life of the Church, that the lay Christian offers in his or her vocational gift to the world, a mystery to be lived that “commits us, in our daily lives, to doing everything for God’s glory.”52 30 31 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY Such a teaching is particularly evident in the dignity of the worker, a theme addressed throughout the corpus of Catholic social doctrine. In Rerum Novarum, relationship between labor and capital, one inspired not by class warfare but the bonds of love.53 In a society which was profoundly Christian at least in culture if not in deed, such a reminder was based upon the knit together worker and laborer in a single divine family. Pius XI’s Quadresimo Anno further expands the nature of human work as a creative, gratuitous act in which the worker uses soul and body in developing the created order.54 Yet it is John Paul II who makes the most explicit contribution to the Eucharistic vocation of the human person through the act of work in Laborem Excercens (1981). How so? John Paul II provides a distinction between the objective and subjective nature of human work. The former constitutes the human vocation to subdue the earth, to use the material world in order to foster human development.55 The latter, on the other hand, is the identity of the human person as image of God, “a subjective being capable of acting in a planned and rational way, capable of deciding about himself and with a tendency to self-realization … these actions must all serve to realize his humanity, 56 Work is both a development of the material world and an authentic sustain, to transform.57 The dignity of the worker, whether threatened by the development of new technology or systems of capital that treat the worker as an expendable resource, is meant to protect the Eucharistic vocation of the human person to receive the gift of creation and transform it through the gift of free, creative activity. As the Compendium makes clear: By his work and industriousness, man—who has a share in the divine art and wisdom—makes creation, the cosmos already ordered by the Father, more beautiful. He summons the social and community energies that those who are neediest. Human work, directed to for contemplation, it becomes devout prayer, vigilantly rising towards and in anxious hope of the day that will not end.58 In this way, work becomes an expression of the divine covenant between humanity and God, of the redemption of Christ in his self-gift upon the Cross, of the manifestation of the Kingdom of God. This is the offering that the worker is to make both in the Eucharistic celebration of the Mass, as well as the Eucharistic offering of one’s creativity, imagination— one’s very gift of self to the world. Unions and worker associations are meant to protect these rights of the worker, and to provide a place where the worker may exercise this Eucharistic capacity of promoting justice and solidarity among all workers through relationship. 59 Related to the Eucharistic identity of the Church and the secular vocation of the lay person is the development of a sacramental mysticism necessary for appropriating Catholic doctrine in an evangelical Benedict XVI, in his encylical Deus Caritas Est, writes: Jesus gave this act of oblation an enduring presence through his institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper. He anticipated his death and resurrection by giving his disciples, in the bread and wine, his very self, his body and blood as the new man (cf. Jn 6:31-33). The ancient world had dimly perceived that man’s true food—what truly nourishes him as man—is ultimately the Logos, eternal wisdom: this same Logos now truly THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE becomes food for us—as love. The Eucharist draws us into Jesus’ act of self-oblation. More than just statically receiving the incarnate Logos, we enter into the very dynamic of his self-giving. The imagery of marriage between God and Israel is now realized in a way previously inconceivable: it had meant standing in God’s presence, but now it becomes union with God through sharing in Jesus’ self-gift, sharing in his body and blood. The sacramental “mysticism,” grounded in God’s selfcondescension towards us, operates at a radically different level and lifts us to far greater heights than anything that any human mystical elevation could ever accomplish.60 Sacramental mysticism is thus the union of wisdom and love embodied in the gift of Christ upon the cross, made present in the sacramental remembering of that act, and then assimilated into the human body itself through eating and drinking in faith. To consume the Body of Christ in this manner is a social reality, for “I can belong to him only in union with all those who have become, or who will become, his own. Communion draws me out of myself towards him, and thus also towards unity with all Christians.”61 Eucharistic worship, as the practice expressive of this sacramental mysticism, is inconceivable without a union of faith, of adoration, and of love of neighbor: “A Eucharist which does not pass over into the concrete practice of love is intrinsically fragmented.”62 One receives the Eucharistic gift of love, a sacramental sign of God’s condescension toward us in creation, in redemption, and in a hoped-for eschatological transformation, and thus we are to become what we have received in the Eucharistic sign. This sacramental mysticism, one that perfectly unites praise and thanksgiving of God and service to neighbor requires This total transformation of human existence through of Christians. It is an ethics of delight, but not of ease. In Sacramentum Caritatis, Benedict notes: Thus, our formation in communal life, in virtue, in deeds of justice and love is nothing else but a Eucharistic formation in divine charity. It is carrying out the love of God and neighbor, no longer as a duty, but as a gift we desire to give, “a freely-bestowed experience of love from within, a love which by its very nature must then be shared with others. Love grows through love.”63 Even in an ideal society, one where justice is always performed, charity remains a necessary virtue. For, caritas is not simply about bestowing material needs but a giving of our very selves, our “loving personal concern.”64 One can then see the implicit Eucharistic context of Caritas in Veritate. For it is not enough for the Church to foster human development, understood only as an acquisition of material goods, creating an adequate political structure, or reforming economic systems.65 This economy of exchange is not the essence of human personhood or community. Rather, “economic, social and political development, if it is to be authentically human, needs to make room for the principle of gratuitousness as an expression of fraternity.”66 In fact, Benedict XVI’s argument is both anthropological and theological in this regard—taking up the theme of solidarity best expressed by John Paul II in Sollicitudo Rei Sociallis.67 Solidarity, according to Benedict, is that sense of responsibility on the part of everyone to engage in just action, to contribute to the common good.68 Such solidarity arises not because of social institutions but because of love: 32 33 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY In reality, institutions by themselves are not enough, because integral human development is primarily a vocation, and therefore it involves a free assumption of responsibility in solidarity on the part of everyone. Moreover, such development requires a transcendent vision of the person, it needs God: without him, development is either denied, or entrusted exclusively to man, who falls into the trap of thinking he can bring about his own salvation, and ends up promoting a dehumanized form of development. Only through an encounter with God are we able to see in the other something more than just another creature, to recognize the divine image in the other, thus truly coming to discover him or her and to mature in a love that “becomes concern and care for the other.”69 Thus, a just social life is only possible if we ourselves have become just, loving, capable of giving ourselves to another because we perceive God in them, because we love them. Solidarity is a Eucharistic virtue, and the key to Catholic social doctrine as a whole.70 As the Church in history promotes the virtue of solidarity, she is manifesting her Eucharistic identity to the world. Hence, the Eucharistic nature of social doctrine operates at both a micro and macro level. As the Church embodies solidarity with the world, she is being Eucharistic; as the particular Christian carries out his or her mission of solidarity through love of neighbor, that person is taking up the Eucharistic vocation of the human person. The Church’s social doctrine is necessarily Eucharistic. What the Church receives in the Eucharist, she gives to the world. Teaching the Eucharistic Foundations of Catholic Social Doctrine Of course, it is one thing to articulate the Eucharistic foundations of Catholic Social Teaching, including the Eucharistic identity of the Church’s mission to the world and a sacramental mysticism; it is another to teach these foundations in parishes, propose several implications for formation in Catholic Social Teaching through the Eucharistic pedagogy of the Church unfolded above. I focus on three areas: marriage preparation, ecology, and service learning. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Perugino, Marriage of the Virgin Mary, detail, c. 1503-4, MusĂŠe des Beaux-Arts, Caen Eucharistic Marriage Preparation An unfortunate aspect of neglecting the social responsibilities of married life is an inadequate attention to teaching Catholic social doctrine in marriage preparation. If the family is the vital cell of society,71 the privileged locale for humanization, then developing a civilization of love begins with relationships cultivated within the family. Accordingly, it seems essential to provide adequate formation in the theological and anthropological roots of Catholic social doctrine for engaged couples. Presently, marriage preparation programs on a diocesan and parish level generally treat sexuality, communication, religious practice, and domestic economy as a series of topics to be covered either over an extended weekend or through a six-week period of classes. For the most part, these topics lack an integrating narrative of what Yet, such an approach need not be the only one. Another possible entrĂŠe into marriage preparation is a weekend retreat or a series of classes forming the engaged couple in Catholic social doctrine through attending to the Eucharistic identity of the Church and cultivating a domestic sacramental mysticism. An initial session of 34 35 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY such a retreat/course would consider the nature of might become a sacrament of divine love for the measure their own relationship vis-à-vis Christ’s selfgift intrinsic to the Eucharistic life of the Church. This session would provide an introduction to Eucharistic theology and a conception of marriage emerging out of this Eucharistic doctrine. Then, the program would deliberate upon the Eucharistic vocation of the laity, that transformation of all of human existence through the couple’s priestly, prophetic, and royal nature in Christ. Issues pertaining to domestic economy, sexuality, and communication would be discussed but under the purview of the Eucharistic the virtue of solidarity through the married vocation. Welcoming the poor, considering adoption or foster care, abiding within a spirituality of gratitude. This last session would treat the primary virtue necessary for all social life, solidarity—reminding the couple that their married love is ultimately not about themselves (despite what a variety of romantic comedies portray) but about the poor, the homeless, the sick, the weak, and anyone in need of the divine gift of love fruitfully cultivated through the joys and sorrows, the griefs and anxieties of married life. Eucharistic participation for the married couple then becomes the sustaining sacrament of the spiritual worship offered in the union of divine aspect of the formation program would touch upon how to develop a sacramental mysticism within one’s marriage. Indeed, exhortations for frequent Eucharistic participation are important. However, equally essential is for the couple to discern not how they might be prepared for marriage, but rather how their marriage Christian marriage. Eucharistic Ecological Consciousness One important feature of Benedict XVI’s Caritas in Veritate is its discussion of ecology and the human person. In this document, he notes, “Our duties towards the environment are linked to our duties towards the human person, considered in himself and in relation to others. It would be wrong to uphold one set of duties while trampling on the other.”72 That is, for Benedict, the salve for the ecological crisis is not the seeking of sources for green energy but rather the development of virtues of gratitude whereby each person in the world perceives all as divine gift, part of a created order given to us by God.73 Such a virtue of gratitude extends into all of human social relationship—not only our interaction with the environment. Yet, most formation into an ecological consciousness approaches the environment differently. Beginning from a sense of fear that we are destroying our planet at the expense of future generations, it suggests a series of “duties” that one may carry THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE start a compost pile, take shorter showers, etc. But, of commandments or a utopian sense that humanity can affect a type of ecological “salvation” through its own efforts in developing technology. Further, such an approach to developing an ecological consciousness risks becoming misanthropic, perceiving human interaction with the created order as a necessary evil not as a divine gift. Eucharistic foundations of Catholic social doctrine may serve as a more fruitful means of developing this ecological consciousness within Catholic parishes and schools. Rather than beginning with a series of “things” to avoid, this approach to ecological formation would form parishioners or students in Catholic social doctrine by attending to a Eucharistic theology of creation, characterized by a spirituality of gratitude.74 Creation is a loving gift from God, and human beings through the sin of pride rebelled against this divine gift, introducing disharmony into both interpersonal relationships and our attitude toward non-personal creation. In this sin, we become less capable of gratitude, of perceiving the signifying power of the entire created order. Through Christ’s self-gift upon the Cross made available to Christians through the Eucharistic life of the Church, humanity is offered the possibility of re-creation, relationships of love, of peace, of unity. One becomes capable of true gratitude, of receiving the world as a divine gift and then offering this gift to one’s neighbor—the Eucharistic vocation of the Christian. The practices of the Eucharistic liturgy, including the act of praise, and of “being sent” form the Christian in a proper relationship to the created order. Study groups of the Scriptures and the liturgical texts could present this Eucharistic theology of creation. In addition, a series of talks given on the lives of the saints may demonstrate how this Eucharistic theology of creation is transformative of the human vocation, leading to true holiness, a life that has become This general narrative would then inform the parish/ school’s formation into a priestly pedagogy of creation, one in which the parish/school would teach the virtue of solidarity. The parish/school would organize meals, advocating for clean water, decreasing energy use, supporting local economies, and setting time aside for true leisure—all exercises of our priestly role within creation. Yet, in claiming the priestly quality of these practices, the parish/school would not be romanticizing them; rather they would be seeing them in their truest light. To live in such a way that the self-giving love of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, manifested in the life of Christ, sacramentally re-presented in the Eucharistic life of the Church, painful endeavor. After all, self-giving love often is: the husband and wife, who give to one another in continual wonder, despite the often commonplace nature of domestic life. The parent, who answers the constant barrage of questions from the child, seeking to know all things immediately. The teacher, who assists the student in the act of learning, despite the costs. out of a wellspring of love. So too, as the Christians through the Eucharist, loving the God-person Jesus Christ with greater fervor, then this work of caring for sacramental expression of our love for the God who is in the process of creating and redeeming this sublimely splendid world. 36 37 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. Oâ€™MALLEY Eucharistic Theology and Service-Learning At Catholic high schools and colleges, students often participate in service-learning. Such courses within theology generally include the reading of foundational texts in the social doctrine of the Church in conjunction with texts or other media that allow one to understand the society to which one offers service, teaching a kind of disposition of social analysis (see, judge, act); as well as either extended experiences of service within the community or an immersion event. These courses are undoubtedly effective in educating students in the foundations of the social doctrine of the Church, as well as forming them in the desire for service and the transformation of unjust social structures. Yet, do such courses necessarily lead to the development of the sacramental mysticism intrinsic to a Catholic approach to living the social doctrine of the Church? One way of educating for this foundational disposition would be a service-learning course that included not only a reading of social doctrine texts but also a simultaneous introduction into Catholic Eucharistic theology. of Eucharist, a Eucharistic ecclesiology, etc. Then, social doctrine itself would be studied in light of these Eucharistic foundations, moving from the theological claims of the Tradition to anthropological questions, especially the human capacity for self-gift. In conjunction with this formal study, students would perform 8-12 hours of service per week at a local site and participate in a Eucharistic retreat, being invited to develop the sacramental mysticism unfolded in the course. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Conclusion At the beginning of this essay, I asked a question: how might one teach Christians be perceived as connected to one another? The proposal of this essay is that such a union between faith and life is possible through the appropriation of the Eucharistic foundations of Catholic social doctrine, including the Eucharistic identity of the Church and a sacramental mysticism. The task of the Catholic educator, whether performing his or her ministry within a parish or a school, is to assist students in this act of appropriation. Marriage, ecology, and service-learning are three areas in which such a formation may be pursued. Yet, however one may approach this education, its fundamental purpose is nothing less than a formation into a means of sacramental perception. One in which the signs of bread and wine are, despite all appearances to the contrary, the Body and Blood of Christ. One in which the neighbor, seemingly so lowly, is in fact Christ Himself. One in which human action gift of self in love, the commitment to the virtue of solidarity. The Catholic educator cannot guarantee that such perception is achieved. For indeed, this sacramental perception is itself a divine gift. Nevertheless, the educator can provide the matter for this transformation, including the richness of the Church’s Eucharistic theology in conjunction with the theological and anthropological insights of Catholic social doctrine. For the possibility of any societal transformation, of “new things” coming in order, as Benedict XVI notes, is profoundly Eucharistic: The substantial conversion of bread and wine into his body and blood introduces within creation the principle of a radical change, a sort of “nuclear of all being, a change meant to set off a process which transforms reality, a point where God will be all in all (cf. 1 Cor 15:28).75 By taking up this Eucharistic vocation, this capacity to give ourselves to the world, Catholic Social Teaching becomes itself an extension of the Eucharistic identity of the Church. In some sense then, Catholic Social Teaching becomes itself vocation of the human person. † 38 39 THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY NOTES 19 Ibid., §12. The term “monument” is applied by Yves Congar in describing the Scriptures, the liturgical rites, magisterial documents, and theological texts that are witnesses to the Tradition but not 20 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §105. 21 Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, §13. 22 Compendium on the Social Doctrine of the Church, §34. 23 Ibid., §185. 24 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§76–78. 25 Gaudium et Spes, §43. 1 historical life. See, The Meaning of Tradition, trans. A.N. Woodrow (San Francisco: Ignatius, 2004), 152–53. Pius XI, Quadragesimo Anno, §90 in Catholic Social Thought: The Documentary Heritage, rev. ed., David J. O’Brien and Thomas A. Shannon (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2010). Unless stated otherwise, all documents are from O’Brien and Shannon. 2 3 John XIII, Mater et Magister, §251. 4 Paul VI, Populorum Progressio, §79. Benedict XVI, Deus Caritas Est, §§12–15. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/encyclicals/ documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20051225_deus-caritas-est_en.html. Accessed July 7, 2011. 26 27 Benedict XVI, Caritas in Veritate, §11. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/encyclicals/ documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20090629_caritas-in-veritate_ en.html. Accessed July 7, 2011. 5 28 Peace’s Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church (Washington, D.C.: USCCB, 2004), §§232–33. 29 Paul VI, Humanae Vitae, §§25, 28. Though not acknowledged as part of the corpus of social teaching by O’Brien and Shannon, 6 Synod of Bishops, Iusticia in Mundo, §58. 7 Paul VI, Evangelium Nuntiandi, §14. See also, §28. 8 John Paul II, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, §48. 9 Ibid. 10 John Paul II, Centensimus Annus, §55. John Paul II, Veritatis Splendor (Boston: Pauline Books and Media, 1993), §21. 11 John Paul II, Evangelium Vitae, §25 in The Theology of the Body: Human Love in the Divine Plan (Boston: Pauline Books and Media, 1997). 12 Charles Curran, Catholic Social Teaching: A Historical, Theological, and Ethical Analysis (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown, 121). 13 14 Ibid., 103–105. John Paul II, Dives in misericordia, §7. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/encyclicals/ documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_30111980_dives-in-misericordia_ en.html. Accessed July 7, 2011. 15 Evangelium Nuntiandi, §18. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §67. Lineamenta, XIII Synod of Bishops, The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Catholic Faith, §2. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/synod/documents/rc_synod_doc_20110202_lineamenta-xiii-assembly_en.html. Accessed July 7, 2011. 30 31 Lumen Gentium, §1. Catechism of the Catholic Church (New York: Doubleday, 1997), §775. 32 33 Lumen Gentium, §7. 34 Sacrosanctum Concilium, §7. 35 Ibid., §2. 36 Lumen Gentium, §7. 37 Ibid., §8. 38 Ibid. 39 Ibid., §9. Lumen Gentium, §9; Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §29. 40 16 Ibid., §14. 41 Ibid., §10. 17 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §74. 42 Ibid., §11. 43 Ibid., §12. 44 Ibid., §33. Gaudium et Spes, §1, in Austin Flannery, O.P., ed. Vatican Council II: Constitutions, Decrees, Declarations, (Northport, N.Y.: Costello Publishing, 1996). 18 THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 45 Gaudium et Spes, §40. 71 Ibid., §209. 46 Ibid. 72 Caritas in Veritate, §51. 47 Ibid., §42. 73 Ibid., §52. John Paul II, Ecclesia de Eucharistia, §23. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/special_features/encyclicals/documents/hf_jp-ii_enc_20030417_ecclesia_eucharistia_ en.html. Accessed July 7, 2011. 48 49 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §60. 50 Populorum Progressio, §81. Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §542; John Paul II, §14. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/apost_exhorta51 Benedict XVI, Sacramentum Caritatis, §79. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/apost_exhortations/documents/hf_ben-xvi_exh_20070222_sacramentumcaritatis_en.html. Accessed July 7, 2011. 52 53 Leo XIII, Rerum Novarum, §21. 54 Quadresimo Anno, §53. 55 John Paul II, Laborem Excercens, §5. 56 Ibid., §6. 57 Ibid., §9. 58 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §266. 59 Ibid., §§305–309. Benedict XVI, Deus Caritas Est, §13. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/encyclicals/ documents/hf_ben-xvi_enc_20051225_deus-caritas-est_en.html. Accessed July 7, 2011. 60 61 Ibid., §14. 62 Ibid. 63 Benedict, XVI, Sacramentum Caritatis, §18. 64 Ibid., §28b. 65 Caritas in Veritate, §9. 66 Ibid., §34. 67 John Paul II, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, §38. 68 Caritas in Veritate, §38. 69 Ibid., §11. 70 Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §580. See Timothy P. O’Malley, “Catholic Ecology and Eucharist: A Practice Approach,” Liturgical Ministry (Spring 2011): 68-78. 74 75 Sacramentum caritatis, §11. 40 41 VOCATIONS FOR TEENS / TIM O’MALLEY Stephanie Storer, a member of the Monroe Park Food Co-op, purchases her groceries from volunteers Carrie Doyle and Al Warner. Photo courtesy of the Center for Social Concerns CARING FOR THE GOOD NEWS OF CREATION AND ITS FRUITS FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION BY MARGARET R. PFEIL, PH.D. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Margaret R. Pfeil, Ph.D. is an assistant professor of Moral Theolog y at the University of Notre Dame and a Faculty Fellow of the Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies. She is a founder and resident of the St. Peter Claver Catholic Worker Community in South Bend, Indiana, and received the Greenville Clark Award in May 2012. In preparation for the XIII Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, “The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith,” the Lineamenta document calls attention to the economy as an important sector for the Church’s evangelizing mission: “On many occasions, the Magisterium of many Popes has denounced the growing disproportion in the northern and southern hemispheres in access to resources and their distribution as well as the damage to creation.” In the civic and political sphere, it continues, evangelization needs to attend to “the stewardship of creation and the commitment to the future of our planet.”1 The Lineamenta relies heavily on Benedict XVI’s more extensive treatment of these issues in his 2009 encyclical letter, Caritas in veritate. God’s creation and its fruits are part of the Gospel, the Good News, that the Church seeks to spread, and caring for them properly, therefore, is at the heart of evangelization. 42 43 FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION / MARGARET R. PFEIL pastoral letter, Economic Justice for All (EJA), the U.S. bishops also addressed the intersection of economic and ecological signs of the times in service of the evangelizing mission of the Church. They emphasized the concept of justice understood as participation of all members of society in service of the common good. Cooperative economic practices, they suggested, exemplify justice as participation. Since their letter, the imperiled state of the world’s ecosystems has generated increasing concern about local food systems, representing an urgent issue of justice at the present time and sparking new questions the demands of justice. In a globalized industrial economy, food production and consumption practices have become dependent upon the capacity of large agricultural and food corporations to manufacture and ship goods around the world at the cheapest price, burning up scarce energy supplies and further threatening Earth’s ecological integrity. At the same time, disparities of power have rendered healthy food relatively inaccessible to certain populations, resulting in disproportionate health risks for poor people of color in urban U.S. communities. The bishops’ pastoral letter, together with Scripture, liturgy, and other resources of the Christian tradition, offer a way of addressing these global food, energy, and ecological signs of the times in light of the demands of justice as participation. By understanding creation humans may see themselves as God’s co-workers. This basic theological concept serves to ground cooperative economic practices in support of more localized food systems. Local food cooperatives bring together urban residents and regional growers as co-workers with one another and with God. As they forge relationships among themselves and with the land about them, they bear witness to the radical interdependence of God’s creation, manifested so clearly in the interconnection among all living members of a particular ecosystem. Supporting the integrity, or wholeness, of God’s creation through cooperative local food practices represents the work of justice as participation in service of the common good.2 Cooperation In the introduction to their pastoral letter, the bishops state, “All people have a right to participate in the economic life of society. Basic justice demands that people be assured a minimum level of participation in the economy” (§15, italics in the original). Building on this foundational point, chapter 4 (§§295–325) emphasizes the value of cooperation in effecting justice as participation with a view toward serving the common good. In highlighting cooperative practices, the bishops draw from a deep wellspring in the Christian social tradition, beginning with Scripture. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE In 1 Cor 3:7–9, Paul addresses discord within the Corinthian church: Therefore, neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but only God, who causes the growth. The one who plants and the one who waters are equal, and each will receive wages in proportion to his labor. For we are God’s co- The original Greek word for the phrase “God’s co-workers” is synergoi. So, by emphasizing the value of cooperation, EJA invites readers, particularly U.S. Catholics, to discern how all might become synergoi, people who work cooperatively toward fuller economic participation, particularly of the poorest and most vulnerable, a very countercultural vision then and now.3 The bishops write: The biblical vision of creation has provided one of the most enduring legacies of Church teaching. To stand before God as the Creator is to respect God’s creation, both the world of nature and of human history. From the patristic period to the present, or appropriation of them by a minority of the world’s population betrays the gift of creation since ‘whatever belongs to God belongs to all.’ (EJA, §34)4 The concept that God’s creation belongs to all is known in Catholic social thought as the principle of the universal destination of created goods. It serves as a means to adjudicate questions of material possessions and advocate practices of economic sharing. In his 2009 encyclical letter, Caritas in veritate (Truth in Love), Pope Benedict XVI used the principle of the universal destination of created goods to frame his appeal for a “people-centered” economic ethic, suggesting cooperatives as a promising practice.5 In doing so, he appealed to Populorum progressio (On the Development of Peoples), Pope Paul VI’s 1967 encyclical letter. In that document, Paul VI cited Vatican II’s Gaudium et spes (Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World), by way of applying the principle of the universal destination of created goods to the global context: God intended the earth and all that it contains for the use of every human being and people. Thus, as all men follow justice and unite in charity, created goods should abound for them on a reasonable basis.” All other rights whatsoever, including those of property and of free commerce, are to be subordinated to this principle. They should not hinder but on the contrary favor its application. It is a grave and urgent social duty to redirect them to their 6 Populorum progressio §23 continues this theme, recalling St. Ambrose’s injunction dating from the fourth century: “You are not making a gift of your possessions to the poor person. You are handing over to him what is his. For what has been given in common for the use of all, you have arrogated to yourself.” That is, private property does not constitute for anyone an absolute and keeping for his exclusive use what he does not need, when others lack necessities.7 44 45 FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION / MARGARET R. PFEIL Though the principle of the universal destination of created goods represents an important ethical criterion in Catholic social thought, the signs of the present time speak to its disregard. According to of the U.S. population receives 17.1 percent of the receives 4.9 percent.8 520 times greater than that of the average worker in 2007.9 Globally, it is estimated that “women perform 66 percent of the world’s work, produce 50 percent of the food, but earn 10 percent of the income and own 1 percent of the property.”10 Since the 2008 recession, black households have experienced the largest decline in median income of any racial or ethnic group, at 4.4 percent. Women across racial and ethnic groups continue to earn less than men, but the gap in median income is greatest for black and Hispanic women.11 These data demonstrate the value of systemic analysis in discerning the requirements of justice, focusing attention on the dynamics of class, gender, and race to highlight economic power disparities. They also reveal the need for more vigorous cultivation of cooperative economic practices in light of the Catholic social tradition’s emphasis on the universal destination of created goods. In the context of the New Evangelization, this Lineamenta text notes that the Church “is the fruit of her own evangelizing activity, because she is certain that the entire process is not in her hands but in the hands of God, whose Spirit guides her in the course of history.”12 Along with the other fruits of God’s sacramental creation, the Church herself as sacrament also bears witness to God as Creator. Recognition of the proper ordering of relationship between God and God’s creation, including the Church, informs and vitalizes the Church’s evangelizing mission. As in 1 Cor 3:9, at the heart of Jesus’ Good News is the missionary charge to His disciples to serve as co-workers with God in bringing God’s creation to fruition. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Food Justice: Cultivating Relationships between Urban and Rural Local Communities The accessibility of food, as a fruit of God’s creation, has become a central point of ethical concern. In chapter 3, §§216–50, EJA devotes considerable attention to food and agriculture as one of the most pressing issues of economic policy. Reading this from a contemporary standpoint, the bishops’ sobering assessment of the trend toward industrialization of agriculture proved all too accurate. Indian physicist Vandana Shiva sharply summarizes the current dilemma: We are now facing a triple convergence of crises, each of which threatens our survival. CLIMATE Global warming threatens our very survival as a species. ENERGY Peak oil spells the end of the cheap oil that has fueled the industrialization of production and the globalization of consumerism. FOOD A food crisis is emerging as a result of the convergence of climate change, peak oil, and the impact of globalization on the rights of the poor to food and livelihood. Of the three crises, the emerging food crisis poses the most immediate threat to the survival of the poor. 46 47 FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION / MARGARET R. PFEIL The food crisis stems directly, she argues, from the long-term process of industrialization of agriculture and the more recent dynamics of globalization, including liberalization of agricultural trade policies.13 One billion people are without food because industrial monocultures robbed them of their livelihoods in agriculture and their food entitlements. Another 1.7 billion are suffering from obesity and food-related diseases. Monocultures lead to malnutrition—for those who are underfed as well as those who are overfed…. Farmers are being destroyed because prices of farm products are driven down through a combination of monopolistic buying by global corporations and dumping of subsidized products.14 These dynamics of climate, energy, and globalization of food production span the globe but have profound effects upon local communities precisely in their particularity. Moving toward localization of food economies, Shiva concludes, is an ethical imperative. The bishops may have anticipated her insight when they advocated “cooperation of rural and urban interests in resolving the challenges and problems facing agriculture” (EJA, §250). Surprisingly, though, they did not draw any explicit connection between the industrialization of agriculture and the reality of malnutrition as a mark of urban poverty, especially among the one in four children, and one of every two black children, under the age of six who were growing up in poverty in the United States at that time (EJA, §172 and 176ff).15 The pastoral letter makes reference to food security only in global terms as a matter of agricultural trade policy (EJA, §239). Though the bishops addressed the perduring problem of racism in U.S. society and in the farming economy EJA, §§229–30), they did not make a direct connection to food security in the manner that the current language of “food justice” connotes, that is, locating “the need for food security—access to healthy, affordable, culturally appropriate food—in the contexts of institutional racism, racial formation, and racialized geographies.”16 The West Oakland Food Collaborative, for example, is located in an area of northern California with one grocery store serving 40,000 residents, primarily low-income and black. the urban black community and the region’s black farmers. Based upon their ethnographic research, Alison Alkon and Kari Norgaard report that members of the collaborative “attribute the historic decline of black farmers nationwide to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)’s denial of loans, subsidies, and other support that enabled white farmers to transition to mechanized agriculture.”17 Even the sustainable agriculture movement that has blossomed since the bishops’ pastoral letter, which ostensibly holds as one of its main goals the promotion of justice for those engaged in agriculture, has not considered the race-based systemic injustice visited upon black farmers and low-income urban residents. Instead, Mark Winne reports, it has focused on “the farmer’s place; his or her use of sustainable, if not organic, production methods; and the size of his or her farm,” but the criterion of social justice is notably absent in the movement’s efforts.18 One of its proponents acknowledged, “As a mostly white movement, we were largely blind to hunger, race, and class issues.”19 By contrast, in conscious response to precisely these issues, the West Oakland Food Collaborative offers an important urban market venue for black farmers, while also addressing the systemic roots of the dearth of healthy, affordable food options THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE in their local community. As Alkon and Norgaard note, “With nearly 1.5 times as many corner liquor stores as the city average as well as an abundance of fast food establishments, West Oakland is typical of low-income, African American food deserts in other cities.”20 Creating an alternative, local food system that affords urban black residents access to healthy, locally grown food and provides black farmers with market space serves the end of food justice by transforming the structures of institutionalized racism and white supremacy. To the extent that the poorest and most vulnerable members of society, like the residents of West good of the entire society. As the bishops stated in their pastoral letter, “From the Scriptures and church teaching we learn that the justice of a society is tested by the treatment of the poor” (§16).21 When some members of society experience deprivation of that which is necessary for their integral well-being, the common good of all suffers. Attending to right relationship as part of the adjudication of justice contributes to the restoration of the integrity, or wholeness, of God’s creation. Linking Cooperation, Food, Liturgy, and the Integrity of Creation: Justice as Right Relationship Since the economic justice pastoral letter, Catholic Social Teaching texts have understanding of its radical interdependence.22 These treatments have typically Benedict XVI offered perhaps the most compelling account of the current ecological signs of the times and their ethical implications in his 2010 message for the World Day of Peace: Can we remain indifferent before the problems associated with such realities in vast agricultural areas, the pollution of rivers and aquifers, the loss of biodiversity, the increase of natural catastrophes and the deforestation of equatorial and tropical regions? Can we disregard the growing phenomenon of “environmental refugees,” people who are forced by the degradation of their natural habitat to forsake it—and often their possessions as well—in order to face the dangers and uncertainties of forced displacement? Can we remain natural resources? All these are issues with a profound impact on the exercise of human rights, such as the right to life, food, health and development.23 48 49 FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION / MARGARET R. PFEIL For Benedict XVI, indifference, lack of regard, and passivity in the face of ecological crisis violate the demands of justice as part of the common good. If all aspects of creation stand in mutual relationship, as the intricate balance of ecosystems reveals, then violation of any one part disrupts the integrity of the whole. The emphasis on justice as participation in EJA represents a promising starting point for generating ethical actions of solidarity and restoration in the face of environmental degradation. But, looking back on the 1986 pastoral letter, deeper connections among the themes of cooperation, food justice, and the radical interdependence of creation emerge. I suggest that a synthesis and further development of these concepts leads to reconsideration of the bishops’ concept of justice as participation. A restorative model of justice rooted in right relationship, one that includes the value of participation but also requires interrogation of the existing economic systems, would better ensure that participation does not inadvertently lead to perpetuation of injustice. To test this point, the example of the supermarket industry in the United States proves illuminating. Today, food security is not only a global concern but also a U.S. problem, particularly in food deserts, in the U.S. with limited access to affordable and nutritious food, particularly such an area composed of predominantly lower-income neighborhoods and communities.”24 One research study notes, “Both median income and population density have a close relationship to the amount of supermarket capacity that can be found in a given community, with the former bearing a somewhat stronger correlation to the pattern of store locations than the latter.”25 This Research Service data showing that “low-income households in rural areas and poor central cities have less access to reasonably priced, high-quality food than other households.”26 Furthermore, there is a direct correlation between lack of healthy, affordable food choices and the incidence of diet-related diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cancer, and heart disease, which disproportionately affect low-income blacks and Latinos.27 These data have prompted one group of researchers to suggest that the term food swamp may be more appropriate than food desert, since the most pressing issue in U.S. urban settings is not inundation of low-income communities of color with unhealthy, energy-dense snack foods through corner “quick marts.”28 Even if low-income communities were successful in wooing supermarkets to their backyards, would that necessarily support a healthier diet or a more just economy? One could argue that by organizing effectively to bring about this outcome, a particular community would have enacted justice as participation. But, viewed systemically, such an outcome might actually undermine the goal of food justice in that community, due to the structure of the food economy. As a vendor in the West Oakland Food Collaborative bluntly put it, “‘I don’t want Safeway or Albertson’s. They abandoned the inner city. They sell poison. They pay crap wages.’”29 A recent longitudinal study, in fact, has found that greater access to supermarkets generally does not lead to improved quality of diet.30 In the context of a holistic understanding of justice as right relationship, the pastoral letter’s emphasis on justice as participation may be too narrow to address the systemic aspect of food security facing local communities around the world. Equity of participation alone does not satisfy the demands of justice when the economic system that structures THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE participation has been fundamentally corrupted by gross disparities in power. Where food is concerned, the supermarket industry economy,” in which everything “has a price and is for critical choices that once belonged to individuals or communities become the property of corporations.”31 Two of the marks of a total economy are ignorance and vulnerability, he notices: [O]ne does not know the history of the products that one uses. Where, exactly, did they come from? Who produced them? What toxins were used in their production? What were the human and ecological costs of producing them and then of disposing of them? ... Though one is shopping amid an astonishing variety of products, one is of economic ignorance it is not possible to choose products that were produced locally or with reasonable kindness toward people or toward nature…. To be a consumer in a total economy, one must agree to be totally ignorant, totally passive, and totally dependent on distant supplies and self-interested suppliers.32 Ignorant, passive, and dependent—these are just the sort of responses that Benedict XVI’s World Day of Peace message excluded as unethical in the face of the current ecological crisis and its implications. But, Berry poignantly illustrates the pervasive systemic forces at work to ensure the future of industrial food production and consumption, prompting the question: What course of action would be ethically appropriate and possible? To elude the anesthetizing tentacles of the total economy, local initiatives like the West Oakland Food Collaborative seek to create an alternative food system that affords full participation directed toward the end of food justice. One person interviewed by ‘[It’s about] building a community that takes care of each other’s needs. And we can self sustain outside of the dominant system…. We want to buy and sell from each other … in a way that helps us sustain our neighborhoods or our communities. That’s different than consuming in a way that sustains a mega business that’s separate and distinct from us.’33 Active participation in the cultivation of an alternative food system directed toward food justice not only fosters relationships between local urban residents and regional farmers but also serves to re-member the web of relationships connecting humans with the rest of God’s creation. As humans have greater opportunity to practice conscious eating, remembering the farmer who grew that particularly luscious tomato, having perhaps helped her to till the land and bring the crop to the local urban farmer’s market, we may become more attuned to the sounds of distress in our local ecosystems.34 No longer is it just another video image on the nightly news of a collapsing ice shelf in the Antarctic or an apocalyptic statistic racing across the bottom of a muted screen in an airport. Now, we become aware that the soil suffering erosion is right beneath our feet and courses like a vein through our city, sustaining—or contaminating—all life forms in and around it. No longer are we industrial eaters, Berry’s term for “one who does not know that eating is an agricultural act, who no longer knows or imagines the connections between eating and the land.”35 Through cooperative work to bring about an alternative food system, we know we are inextricably related to the land and the 50 51 FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION / MARGARET R. PFEIL humans who cultivated it, bound together with the other fruits of God’s creation that sustain our lives. For the bishops’ audience of U.S. Catholics, these connections between eating and the land carry further the land is the gift of God’s creative abundance. In their letter, the bishops readily connected liturgy and justice through food: “From the Lord’s command to feed the hungry, to the Eucharist we celebrate as the Bread of Life, the fabric of our faith demands that we be creatively engaged in sharing the food that sustains life. There is no more basic human need” (§282). Jesus demonstrated the essential relationship among food, liturgy, and justice by eating and drinking His way through ministry—dining, forgiving, and healing, in turn, followed His directive to remember Him by commemorating the Last Supper in a liturgy of thanksgiving, the Eucharist. As Benedictine scholar Virgil Michel indicates, the act of offering as part of the Eucharistic liturgy is radically social.36 In ancient practice, each person would bring a gift as part of the communal offering of all for all, including those present and absent, living and dead, to be shared with the poor in solidarity. These gifts represented the fruits of the worshippers’ physical labor exercised with intentionality: as synergoi, God’s co-workers, they produced bread and wine from grain and grapes, the fruits of God’s creation. Participants in the Christian liturgy of Eucharist recognize all of material creation as a sacrament of communion with God, the Creator—receiving all creation as gift and offering it back to God, through the dynamic, creative exercise of each person’s vocation as one made in the image of God.37 In giving thanks, the human person becomes more fully himself or herself before God. In Eucharistic Communion, God responds by giving God’s own Son, Jesus Christ, as food to sustain God’s people. By taking, eating, and drinking as Jesus invited His disciples to do, Christians become Christ’s Body in the world, united with Him and with one another, and ready to participate in the restoration of the integrity of God’s creation.38 Alexander Schmemann has observed that the original meaning of the Greek word leitourgia referred to “an action by which a group of people become something corporately which they had not been as a mere collection of individuals—a whole greater than the sum of its parts.”39 In the Eucharistic liturgy, the ecclesial community eats and drinks God’s love, enabling them by God’s grace to offer that love in return to God, neighbor, and all of creation, the basis for justice as right relationship. Practicing Eucharistic liturgy shapes participants to become synergoi, people ever more attuned to injustice as a violation of love, people who work together with God toward restoration and healing.40 THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Member Stephanie Storer does her grocery shopping at the Monroe Park Food Co-op. Photo courtesy of the Center for Social Concerns The Monroe Park Grocery Cooperative Desiring to trace the connections among liturgy, food, and justice further, in Spring 2011, I taught a community-based research course at the University of Notre Dame called â€œSynergoi: The Theological Ethics of Food Cooperatives.â€? Students directed their research efforts toward collaboration with neighbors of Monroe Park in South Bend, Indiana, to start a cooperative grocery store. Monroe desert, being located more than a mile from any full-scale grocery store. It also choice for children in the neighborhood. Local farmers are cooperating with neighbors to bring fresh, locally grown produce to the co-op at affordable prices, and members may purchase these goods with food stamps. The farmers, including members of the Amish community, value access to a much-needed market venue for their goods, while the neighbor members are able to purchase enough produce to feed their families. 52 53 FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION / MARGARET R. PFEIL Neighbor members of the co-op invest three hours of work per month, and one of the areas of labor involves tending the community gardens in the neighborhood.41 The produce from these gardens is available to everyone free of charge. In this way, the co-op hopes to extend the availability of fresh produce as much as possible while also building neighborhood cohesion. The Monroe Park Grocery Cooperative values participation as part of justice, as the bishops’ pastoral letter advocated. But, like the West Oakland Food Collaborative, it seeks to cultivate a local food economy as an alternative to the global system of industrial food production and trade. If the dominant concerns raised by the U.S. bishops in 1986 and decried more recently by Benedict XVI and Vandana Shiva, among others, then justice as participation ought not to reinforce that system; rather, justice will require new practices of right relationship and exploration of creative economic alternatives, like local food cooperatives. Over the longer term, the co-op membership hopes to collaborate with other grassroots efforts in the region to give shape to South Bend as a “transition community,” part of a movement among local communities that began in Ireland and England about a decade ago. Faced with the urgent need to scale down their level of energy consumption and to develop renewable sources of energy, “transition communities” around the world are exploring ways to retool, re-skill, and reconnect with one another in order to build “the capability to produce locally those things that we can produce locally.”42 The transition movement seeks to foster communities of resilience in solidarity with other local in Catholic social thought between the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity. Subsidiarity encourages satisfaction of social needs at the most local level possible, while solidarity urges attention to the wellbeing of each and every member of the community, because, as Pope John Paul II put it in his 1987 encyclical letter, “we are all really responsible for all.”43 The movement also emphasizes the value of distributive justice considered in terms of systemic right relationship, situating socioeconomic structures within the larger framework of ecological systems.44 Taking seriously the warnings of Shiva and other experts, its theoretical departure point is the radical interdependence of living systems, which gives shape to the ethical imperative of human cooperation toward holistic restoration. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Conclusion For Christian communities, the interdependence of God’s creation provides the of realizing the common good. Local, cooperative practices directed toward food justice represent an urgent creative response to the ecological, social, and economic degradation wrought by a globalized industrial food system. These initiatives afford the opportunity for greater participation, as the U.S. bishops urged more than 25 years ago, but they also address the matrix of gender, race, and class issues as required by an understanding of justice as right relationship. Ultimately, as each part of creation thrives, it will be better able to contribute to the integrity of creation as a whole. As in Eucharistic liturgy, and for Christians, through that liturgy, members of creation collaborating together as synergoi have the opportunity to notice that by living ever more deeply into the reality of interdependence, we live more fully in God’s love, the ground of justice as right relationship. Testifying to the reality of this personal and communal encounter with God represents the essence of evangelization. Caring for God’s creation and its fruits is indeed Good News. † 54 55 FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION / MARGARET R. PFEIL NOTES Synod of Bishops, XIII Ordinary General Assembly, “The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith,” Lineamenta, §6. 11 Women of Color Policy Network, “Income and 1 This present essay is an adapted version of another piece, “Becoming Synergoi: Food, Justice, and Economic Cooperation,” in Economic Justice, ed. Mark J. Allman (Winona, Minnesota: Anselm Academic, 2012). 2009 U.S. Census Bureau Data,” September 2010, 2–3, IncomeAndPovertyInCommunitiesofColor.pdf. 2 See, for example, ch. 4, §24. Catholic Social Thought, expanded edition, ed. David J. O’Brien and Thomas A. Shannon (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2010). Unless otherwise noted, all subsequent references to Catholic Social Teaching documents will be taken 3 12 Synod of Bishops, Lineamenta, §3. 13 Vandana Shiva, Soil Not Oil (Boston: South End Press, 2008), 2–3. 14 Ibid., 122–3. In 2009, the number of black (35.3 percent) and Hispanic children (32.5 percent) under age 18 living in poverty in the United States reached an all-time high, three times greater than that of white and Asian children. See Women of Color Policy Network, “Income and Poverty,” September 2010, 2. 15 Alison Hope Alkon and Kari Marie Norgaard, “Breaking the Food Chains: An Investigation of Food Justice Activism,” Sociological Inquiry 79, no. 3 (August 2009): 289–305, at 289. 16 Italics are in the original. Quote is from St. Cyprian, “On Works and Almsgiving,” §25, trans. R.J. Deferrari, “St. Cyprian: Treatises,” §36 (New York: Fathers of the Church, 1958), 251. 4 5 Caritas in veritate, §§45, 66–7. Paul VI, Populorum progressio, §22, quoting Gaudium et spes, §69. Caritas in veritate, in turn, cites this passage in §6. For further treatment of the universal destination of created goods in recent Catholic social teaching, see also Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, §§446, 481–5. 6 The citation from Ambrose is De Nabuthe (On Nabuth) c. 12, §53 (P.L. 14, 747). In his 2010 World Day of Peace message, Benedict XVI also cites Gaudium et spes §69 to emphasize the principle of the universal destination of created goods in addressing environmental degradation. 7 Arloc Sherman and Chad Stone, “Income Gaps between Very Rich and Everyone Else More than Tripled in Last Three Decades, New Data Show,” Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, June 25, 2010, available at http://www.cbpp.org/cms/?fa=view&id=3220. 8 International Labor Organization, “World of Work Report 2008: Income Inequalities in the Age of Financial Globalization,” available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/ bureau/inst/download/world08.pdf. 9 UNICEF, “Gender Equality—The Big Picture,” summarizing State of the World’s Children 2007: The Double Dividend of Gender Equality, available at http://www.unicef.org/gender/ index_bigpicture.html. 10 Ibid., 294. On this point, they cite Jess Gilbert, Gwen Sharp, and Sindy M. Felin, “The Loss and Persistence of Black-Owned Farms and Farmland: A Review of the Research Literature and Its Implications,” Southern Rural Sociology 18 (2002): 1–30. They note that all the black farmers involved in the West Oakland Food Cooperative have roots among Southern sharecroppers. 17 Mark Winne, Closing the Food Gap: Resetting the Table in the Land of Plenty (Boston: Beacon Press, 2008), 132. 18 Ibid., 133. See also Alkon and Norgaard, “Breaking the Food Chains,” 291. 19 Alkon and Norgaard, “Breaking the Food Chains,” 295, citing California Alcoholic Beverage Control, “Fact Sheet: Oakland Alcohol Retailers,” http://Z;\Community Safety and Justice/ Alcohol outlets\Website\Factsheet_1.24.6.doc, and Jason P. Block, Richard A. Scribner, and Karen B. DeSalvo, “Fast Food, Race/Ethnicity, and Income: A Geographic Analysis,” American Journal of Preventative Medicine 27 (2004): 211–7. 20 21 See also §8 and ch. 2, §§28 and 38. See EJA, Working Group, “Fate of the Mountain Glaciers in the Anthropocene” May 11, 2011, available at 22 THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 23 Benedict XVI, “If You Want to Cultivate Peace, Protect Creation,” World Day of Peace, January 1, 2010, §4, available at http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/messages/ peace/documents/hf_ben-xvi_mes_20091208_xliii-world-daypeace_en.html. 37 Donald Rose and others, “Deserts in New Orleans? Illustrations of Urban Food Access and Implications for Policy,” a prepared for University of Michigan National Poverty Center/ USDA Economic Research Service Research Conference, “Understanding the Economic Concepts and Characteristics of Food Access,” February 2009, 10, citing the 2008 US Farm Bill, available at http://www.npc.umich.edu/news/events/foodaccess/rose_et_al.pdf. 38 24 Winne, Closing the Food Gap, 87, quoting the 2006 Hartford Food System report, “Connecticut Supermarkets: Can New Strategies Address the Geographic Gaps?” 25 26 Ibid., 92. Ibid., 92, 124. See also Alkon and Norgaard, “Breaking the Food Chains,” 295–6. 27 28 D. Rose and others, “Deserts in New Orleans?” 15. Quoted in Alkon and Norgaard, “Breaking the Food Chains,” 296. 29 Janne Boone-Heinonen and others, “Fast Food Restaurants and Food Stores: Longitudinal Associations with Diet in Young to Middle-Aged Adults: The CARDIA Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine 171, no. 13 (July 11, 2011): 1162–70. 30 Wendell Berry, “The Idea of a Local Economy,” in In the Presence of Fear: Three Essays for a Changed World (Great Barrington, MA: The Orion Society, 2001), 11–31, at 25. 31 32 Ibid., 28. Quoted in Alkon and Norgaard, “Breaking the Food Chains,” 296. 33 34 Groppe, Eating and Drinking (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2011). Wendell Berry, “The Pleasures of Eating,” in Bringing It to the Table: On Farming and Food (Berkeley, CA: Counterpoint, 2009), 228. 35 Virgil Michel, “The Social Nature of the Offertory,” in The Social Problem, Book Four: The Mystical Body and Social Justice, compiled by St. John’s Abbey (Collegeville, MN: Order of St. Benedict, 1938), 5–10. 36 See Kallistos Ware, “The Value of Material Creation,” Sobornost 6, no. 3 (1971): 154–65, and Elizabeth Theokritoff, “From Sacramental Life to Sacramental Living: Heeding the Message of the Environmental Crisis,” Greek Orthodox Theological Review 44, nos. 1–4 (1999): 505–24. See Alexander Schmemann, For the Life of the World: Sacraments and Orthodoxy (Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir’s Seminary, 1973), 23–46, at 39–40, and Virgil Michel, “The Social Nature of Communion,” in The Social Problem, Book Four: The Mystical Body and Social Justice, compiled by St. John’s Abbey (Collegeville, MN: Order of St. Benedict, 1938), 11–6, at 13–5. 39 Schmemann, For the Life, 25. Walter J. Burghardt, “Just Word and Just Worship: Biblical Justice and Christian Liturgy,” Worship 73 (1999): 386–98, at 392. 40 For more information on South Bend’s Unity Gardens, two of which are in Monroe Park, see http://www.theunitygardens. blogspot.com/. 41 Rob Hopkins, The Transition Handbook: From Oil Dependency to Local Resilience (White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2008), 68. 42 43 John Paul II, Sollicitudo rei Socialis (On Social Concern), §38. 44 On distributive justice, see EJA, §70. 56 57 Members of the JustFaith community engage spirituality. Photo courtesy of Nick Albares THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE THE NEW EVANGELIZATION AND CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING BY NICK ALBARES AND GENEVIEVE JORDAN Nick Albares is the Parish Social Ministry Coordinator at Catholic Charities in the Archdiocese of New Orleans. He graduated from the University of Notre Dame with a B.A. in Peace Studies. Genevieve Jordan is the Executive Director of Romero Center Ministries. She graduated from the University of Notre Dame with a B.A. in the Program of Liberal Studies, and an M.A. in Theolog y through the Institute’s Echo: Faith Formation Leadership program. The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to bring glad tidings to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the oppressed go free, and to proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord. (Lk 4:18–19) In Luke 4:18, Jesus announces the reign of God by re-presenting the words of the prophet Isaiah. As we begin to think about the New Evangelization and social justice, it is important to return to Jesus’ focused on liberation, restoration, freedom, and healing. Our call now is to carry this message to all people. Since 1891 with Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical Rerum Novarum, the Church has built a body of social doctrine that relates Jesus’ mission statement and Gospel teachings to the concrete signs of the times. Moreover, the sacramental life of the Church animates the Church’s social teaching and action. In the encyclical Deus Caritas Est (2005), Pope Benedict XVI 58 59 THE NEW EVANGELIZATION / NICK ALBARES AND GENEVIEVE JORDAN Gospel, celebrating the sacraments, and practicing Eucharist – the source and summit of the life of the Church – that connects these elements of the Church’s mission, calling all people to join in the banquet in mutual self-giving love and affection. with all people giving and receiving love, and all working in harmony for the common good. This with those who are hungry, homeless, naked, sick, and imprisoned (Mt 25:31–46). In order for the Eucharistic vision to be realized, we must extend hospitality and welcome to those who are marginalized and oppressed. Catholic Social Teaching (CST) invites us into relationship both with those who are oppressed and those living on the margins of society. The social teaching of the Church also invites us to transform systems and structures of injustice in order to facilitate the healing of society. The National Directory of Catechesis (NDC, 2005) states that the “New Evangelization” is directed toward three main areas: 1) The New Evangelization is “directed to the Church herself.” This includes those who have been baptized but who never really heard the Gospel message, those who have never made a personal commitment to Christ and the Gospel, those who were formed by values of the secular culture, those who have lost a sense of faith, and those who have in some way been alienated from the Church. 2) The New Evangelization is “directed to all human cultures so that they might be open to the Gospel and live in harmony with Christian values.” 3) The New Evangelization is “aimed at personal transformation,” including personal relationship with God and sacramental worship, maturation of one’s ethical and social conscience and a life-long integration of faith into all aspects of one’s life. (§17A) We, Nick Albares and Genevieve Jordan, have experienced both professionally and personally how CST brings about these three components of the New Evangelization by renewing the Church herself, upholding the rights of all human cultures, and inspiring personal transformation. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE The Church Herself Catholic Social Teaching, with its particular call to faith in action in solidarity with our brothers and sisters in need, offers a New Evangelization to faithful Catholics. It invites them to make a deep and inconvenient commitment to follow Christâ€™s demands in the Gospel. It also challenges the values of the secular culture, including a fear of the other that divides us from our oppressed and marginalized brothers and sisters. I (Genevieve) am the Executive Director of Romero Center Ministries, a Catholic education and retreat center based in Camden, New Jersey. Two years ago, we launched a young adult ministry for people in their 20s and 30s in the suburbs of Camden and Philadelphia, with a particular charism of putting faith into action through service and social justice. I saw the New Evangelization at work through young adult retreat was hosted in collaboration with Romero Center Ministries. The planning committee was made up of young adults who had been actively engaged in leadership in the diocese for several years. We held our planning meetings at the Romero Center in Camden, a city which always ranks near the top of the poorest American cities, despite its location in one of the richest states per capita in the country. The planning committee resisted venturing into the city for a meeting, fearful of what might happen to them there. A Notre Dame student assists in the clean up of New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina as part of the Environmental Justice and Human Rights in the Gulf Coast Social Concerns Seminar. Photo courtesy of the Center for Social Concerns 60 61 THE NEW EVANGELIZATION / NICK ALBARES AND GENEVIEVE JORDAN Still more threatening, however, was the idea of hosting the retreat at a social justice education center. With its focus on social justice, Romero Center Ministries was not “Catholic” enough. The planning committee feared a dearth of real prayer and retreat experiences for participants. Held over Passion Sunday weekend, the retreat was and service with our brothers and sisters in the Camden community. The theme was “A Passionate Life: Deepening Relationships with God, Self, and Others,” and it rooted the retreat in the CST principle of solidarity put forth by the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, which states: “We are one human family whatever our national, racial, ethnic, economic, and ideological differences. We are our brothers’ and sisters’ keepers, wherever they may be. Loving our neighbor has global dimensions in a shrinking world.” Participants in the retreat spent a few hours expression that felt most comfortable to them, which included: Taizé prayer, praise and worship, Eucharistic adoration, social justice Stations of the Cross, the Rosary, and even the chance to sit outside, Camden streets. The retreat also included a day of service in the city. Retreatants had the opportunity either to spend time with people at a homeless day shelter, assist in a street clean up, or visit the elderly. By the end of the retreat, the committee and participants alike could name people and share stories of those who lived in Camden. They started to voice an awareness that their deepened relationship with God required a deepened solidarity with others— especially others rejected by society. The retreat ended with Palm Sunday Mass and an open invitation for participants to come back and celebrate the Triduum with the local parish, which is 85% Latino. Every Good Friday, members of that parish process in a live Stations of the Cross. Hundreds of people follow “Jesus” through the streets of Camden. The procession winds its way through drug corners and streets lined with abandoned buildings. As I made my way through the crowd on the Good Friday after the retreat, I spotted one of the members of the retreat planning committee walking by himself. Weeks before, he would not drive himself into Camden for the planning meetings; he would only attend if he could ride with someone else. He had also expressed discomfort with the content of the retreat, voicing concern about whether or not it was Catholic enough. On Good Friday, he had driven into Camden by himself without knowing whether anyone from the retreat would be present. He walked through the streets of the poverty-ridden city amid a sea of people he didn’t know, praying in a language he didn’t speak. Just a few weeks later he told me, “Gen, I think we should do the retreat at the Romero Center again next year. And maybe next time the time the retreat could be about integrating faith, service and justice.” Catholic Social Teaching offers a New Evangelization to faithful Catholics, by inviting them to commit more deeply to the demands of the Gospel. It also challenges those formed by values of the secular culture to reevaluate their worldview in light of Gospel values. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE The National Directory of Catechesis notes that the New Evangelization of the Church herself includes not only those whose values have been formed by secular culture, but also those who have lost a sense of faith or have been alienated from the Church. According to a study by the Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA), 64% of millennial Catholics (ages 18-29) indicated that, aside from weddings and funerals, they attend Mass less than once a month. Only 30% considered themselves practicing Catholics. However, 90% of respondents said that as Catholics, helping the poor is very important to them. The Church has lost her relevance to many young people. And yet service to the poor, a charism highly valued by CST, is very important to 90% of millennial Catholics—even though nearly half of them do not consider themselves to be practicing Catholics. This makes service a crucial locus of the New Evangelization for those who have a thin involvement in the life of the Church. Chris Haw, a young adult who has been a leader in some of Romero Center Young Adult Ministry’s programming, published a book this past October entitled From Willow Creek to Sacred Heart: Rekindling My Love for Catholicism. Chris has lived for several years in an intentional community at Sacred Heart Church in Camden. His book chronicles his own return to from the Church. It was the invitation to live in a community of great need that challenged his view of the Church and ultimately led to his conversion. The message of CST invites us out of theory and into relationship with Christ in our brothers and sisters in need. In turn, these relationships shake us up and call us back to the central truths of Catholicism. As we are jolted by this call, we yearn for Church—for a community of believers to support us on the journey of faith. 64% MILLENNIAL CATHOLICS ATTEND MASS LESS THAN ONCE PER MONTH 30% MILLENNIAL CATHOLICS CONSIDER THEMSELVES PRACTICING CATHOLICS 90% MILLENNIAL CATHOLICS CONSIDER HELPING THE POOR AS VERY IMPORTANT TO THEM 62 63 THE NEW EVANGELIZATION / NICK ALBARES AND GENEVIEVE JORDAN All Human Cultures On May 16, 2011, the 50th anniversary of Pope John XXIII’s encyclical Mater et Magistra (1961), Pope Benedict XVI addressed participants in a meeting promoted The social question today is without a doubt one of world social justice… Furthermore, it is a question of the just distribution of material and non-material resources, of the globalization of substantive social and participatory democracy. For this it is indispensable that the new evangelization of society highlight the implications of a justice that should be achieved at a universal level. The corpus of CST is written “for all people of good will” and highlights the need for and congruence of both spiritual renewal and systemic healing. The New Evangelization is needed on a macro-level of social consciousness and ought to inform how we craft our social and economic policies. I (Nick) work with Catholic Charities in the Archdiocese of New Orleans as Parish Social Ministry Coordinator. I seek to inculcate the social teaching of the Church in Catholic parishes through transformative education and formation. I also work with leaders to build programs that carry out the Church’s social mission through direct service, community organizing, and advocacy. Prior to the October 2012 Synod of Bishops, a gathering entitled “The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith,” the Vatican released an Instrumentum laboris (working or preparatory document), which states that “parishes have the responsibility to become real centres for propagating and bearing witness to the Christian experience and places for attentively listening to people and ascertaining their needs” (§81). This challenge calls our communities of faith to think globally and act locally in building solidarity and social justice, fruits of the New Evangelization. In order to work toward the thoroughly Catholic vision of social and distributive justice, our parishes, schools, universities, religious orders, and all ministries of the Church ought to see global social justice as an integral part of the New Evangelization. One way in which I recently saw this principle put into practice was on a two-week trip to Kenya as a member of a Catholic Relief Services (CRS) advocacy delegation. During our time in Kenya, we built relationships with local people while witnessing CRS agricultural, sanitation, and water projects. These projects were all funded by the United States Agency for International Development and implemented by CRS THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Fig. 1: Integral Human Development Model Our purpose in viewing these projects was to return to the United States to advocate for their continued funding. As one leader in the Ghale community of Kenya told us, “The United States has many fruits. Please share your fruits with us.” This is one small example of the Church’s action on behalf of global distributive justice. As outlined in Pope Benedict XVI’s encyclical Caritas in Veritate (2009), deeper systemic change is needed with global institutions seeking distributive justice. In each of our localities, however, we can work towards advancing God’s vision and our prayer that God’s “kingdom come on earth as it is in heaven.” On the local level, in New Orleans, we are part of the paradoxes of all human life: devastation and hope, suffering and perseverance, exploitation and partnership, violence and peacemaking, death and life. How does the New Evangelization touch the lives of the child whose father is incarcerated? Or the mother whose seven-year-old was killed by stray the Lower Ninth Ward who has rebuilt their house but with no nearby neighbors, no grocery store, and no healthcare services? What does it say to the women and men imprisoned by a system that has a The New Evangelization calls us to bring forward a message of healing. As the Church preaches and lives out this teaching on local and global levels, we advance the New Evangelization. The Catholic social life and dignity of every human being. It calls us to solidarity, to the realization that we truly are one human family. This compelling vision is important 64 65 THE NEW EVANGELIZATION / NICK ALBARES AND GENEVIEVE JORDAN to represent as we journey in faith. Through this, we simply through communication and tradeâ€”but through deep familial bonds that are at the core of our humanity. I stand as witness to the Church living out the Good News through parish-based mentoring programs: the Cornerstone prisoner re-entry ministry, and the Catholic Campaign for Human Development, which supports groups bringing services such as grocery stores and health care to underserved communities. By growing in relationship with others, especially people who are oppressed and marginalized, we awaken to the reality that the Church has a special role in facilitating experiences that bring about transformation, build community, and incorporate Personal Transformation Often, the deepening of relationships with our brothers and sisters who are oppressed provides an experience of metanoia (conversion). Moreover, a disciplined allows for true growth in solidarity, love, and faith in our communion. We have seen these occur through the immersion experiences at the Romero Center Orleans. JustFaith program in the Archdiocese of New Orleans. This process of 30 weekly meetings intends to ground participants in a deeper understanding of CST and also offers four opportunities for engagement with the community. In these four immersion experiences, the program challenges participants to leave their comfort zones and form new relationships with oppressed and marginalized people. Among their many experiences, groups have spent time at the local Catholic Worker house, talked with people who are homeless over a meal, stood in vigil with families devastated by the murder of a loved one, traveled to the Lower Ninth Ward to stand witness to the destruction and hope, and celebrated Mass with recent immigrants. Through JustFaith, hearts expand and people express a desire to live the Gospel more authentically in the context of their local community. In conversing with participants in the program, I have learned that all of them discovered a new and deeper meaning of their faith through their immersion experiences. Some people have left lucrative careers in the private sector to THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE become volunteers or to work for the Church. One group revitalized the St. Vincent de Paul outreach ministry in their parish. Other participants have become leaders in a community organizing effort supported by the Catholic Campaign for Human Development. The JustFaith graduates of St. Maria Goretti Parish spearheaded an effort to form a solidarity-based partnership with a parish in Haiti, faith, but also in their shared experience of natural disaster. Conclusion In an oft-misrepresented Gospel passage, we hear Jesus rebuke the disciples when a woman seeks to pour oil on Jesus’ head. The disciples, having taken Jesus’ message to heart, ask Him why the oil should not have been sold to help those in need. Jesus’ reply, “The poor you will always have with you,” (Mk 14:7) ought not brothers that do not look critically upon unjust social structures. No, we are called to see Jesus’ observation as a statement of where our Christian social location should lead us, where our hearts, minds, and feet should be planted. As the Instrumental laboris for the Synod of Bishops states, “The dedication and solidarity of many Christian communities towards the poor, the charitable works in which they are engaged and the simplicity of their life-style in a world which places great the Gospel and witnessing to our faith” (§71). This social location and location of consciousness enlivens the CST principle of the preferential option for the poor. This option calls us to make every decision in our lives, both as individuals and as members of a communal society, based upon how those decisions will affect those who are most vulnerable, oppressed, and marginalized. Our evangelization ought to extend to all people, modeling the evangelization of Christ, who sat at table with people who were poor, rich, tax collectors, and prostitutes. Catholic Social Teaching is an integral element in the New Evangelization. It opens new doors for Catholics to live the faith, challenging us to prioritize those who are most vulnerable in every decision we make. We are called to build God’s kingdom and to work for global social justice. By living out this vision, we further Christ’s Gospel proclamation of liberation, restoration, freedom, and healing to all those oppressed, and in so doing, we “proclaim a year acceptable to the Lord.” † 1 We are indebted to Jack Jezreel, MDiv for this insight in his Louisville, KY speech on August 1, 2012 66 67 VOCATIONS FOR TEENS / TIM O’MALLEY LIBERATING CONTEMPLATION: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING ANALYSIS— EL SALVADOR BY PAT REIDY, C.S.C. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE If they kill me, I shall arise in the Salvadoran people” –Oscar Romero Monument to Memory and Truth, San Salvador; Photo courtesy of Pat Reidy, C.S.C. 68 69 LIBERATING CONTEMPLATION / PAT REIDY, C.S.C. Less than ten months after returning from the country dedicated to Our Savior, El Salvador, I continue to hold these questions close to my heart, seeking their answer in my prayerful remembrance of realities seen and shared throughout my week-long immersion in the summer of 2011 with represents one recollection that furthers my growth as a Christian, as a human person, and (in ways both delightful and terrifying) as a seminarian each moment I remember it: namely, my contemplation of Oscar Romero’s last Sunday homily during our visit to the Metropolitan Cathedral of San Salvador. in my high school education. Through their lived experience and conviction, our teachers at Regis Jesuit (both lay and religious) offered the Salvadoran martyrs as a model for Christian discipleship, as well as a challenge to the assumption of wealth and status into which most Regis students (including myself) had been born. Words and stories from El Salvador structured our contemplation as we discerned how God called us to be “men for others.” On graduation day, our teachers called us to dwell often on the witness of the martyrs: the witness of Church themselves to keep their children from harm, of farmers and laborers who sought a greater realization of God’s Kingdom here and now. Many of those same teachers also encouraged me to make pilgrimage to El Salvador after I entered religious formation with the Congregation of Holy Cross (whose Constitutions call religious to minister “amid the same sin and pain” that Christ entered by becoming human1). The experience of pilgrimage would help open my imaginative contemplation to the humanizing (if bloodstained) truth of the country’s reality, and its embodiment in the lives of the poor majority of Salvadorans.2 My current recollection of the upper church in San Salvador’s cathedral bears few marks of the architecture, the artwork, or even the sanctuary space itself. Fixed in my memory remain only the ambo, from which Romero preached, and the presider’s chair, beside which Romero’s seminarian acolytes (or deacons) would have sat – the sanctuary furniture upon which my imagination rested as I knelt in prayer that Sunday afternoon in May of last year.3 I found myself in a cathedral palpably tenser than my present surroundings, on a different Sunday over twenty years earlier (March 23, 1980), a seminarian in formation for the Archdiocese Pat Reidy, C.S.C. is a thirdyear professed seminarian in the Congregation of Holy Cross. He holds degrees from the University of Notre Dame in Theolog y and Political Science (B.A. 2008), and will graduate with a Master of Divinity in 2013. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Wall etchings of the disappeared, Memorial Park, San Antonio Los Ranchos; Photo courtesy of Pat Reidy, C.S.C. of San Salvador serving as acolyte for the episcopal liturgy. Looking out from my elevated seat in the sanctuary, I studied the crowds of people, mostly campesinos (peasant farmers), who had gathered to hear the words of their fellow Salvadoran and pastor, Archbishop Oscar Romero.4 Their faces betrayed a weariness and pain wrought by so many months of abuse and oppression; yet despite my beloved archbishop’s encouragement, I struggled to share the suffering of their situation. Like most seminarians for the archdiocese, I came from a family wealthier than the majority of our congregation, one that casually ‘arrangement.’5 The Church’s social teaching seemed (to me) more inconvenient than problematic; as the seminary joke goes, “give me justice, but not yet!” Listening to Romero preach, I found myself feeling not compassion for the people he loved and defended, but palpable anxiety, even fear. One always heard “God’s offer of love to the poor” and their “aspiration for liberation” in Romero’s preaching, but this Sunday’s homily seemed startlingly critical, much more direct than any he had given before: I would like to appeal in a special way to the army’s enlisted men and in particular to the ranks of the Guardia Nacional and the police – those in the barracks. Brothers: you are of part of our own people. You kill your own campesino brothers and sisters. Before an order to kill that a man may give, God’s law must prevail: Thou shalt not kill! No soldier is obliged to obey an order against the law of God. No take back your consciences and to obey your consciences rather than the orders of sin. The Church, defender of the rights of God, of the law of God, of human dignity, of the person, cannot remain silent before such abominations. We want the government to understand seriously that reforms are worth nothing if they are stained with so much blood. In the name of God, and in the name of this suffering people, whose laments rise to heaven each day more tumultuous, I beg you, I beseech you, I order you in the name of God: Stop the repression!6 70 71 LIBERATING CONTEMPLATION / PAT REIDY, C.S.C. Panic welled up in my chest. Does he know what he’s saying? After all the death threats, all the attacks, all the murders – the government’s going to shoot Romero, and me along with him! I had not entered seminary to be a martyr, nor was I prepared to incur Romero’s fate.7 With a classmate’s tap on the shoulder, my contemplation ended almost as abruptly as it had desolation and lingering anxiety about my imagining. Romero preached “the beautiful but harsh truth” found at the core of Catholic social teaching: namely, that “Christian faith does not cut us off from the world, but immerses us in it.” Drawing on the Second Vatican Council’s Gaudium et Spes, Romero claimed that: The essence of the Church lies in its mission of service to the world, in its mission to save the world in its totality, and of saving it in history, here and now. The church exists to act in solidarity with the hopes and joys, the anxieties and sorrows, of men and women.8 Humanity’s salvation “in history” involves “integral liberation” from sin, both personal and social. Following the teaching of Medellín and Puebla, Romero taught that structural injustice, institutionalized violence, and social sin cannot be eradicated in the absence of personal conversion; indeed, the “roots of this social sin” can be found “in the heart of every human being.”9 This liberation by Jesus Christ must “envisage the whole man, in all his aspects, right up to and including his openness to the absolute, even the divine Absolute.”10 Hence, while Romero claimed that “it would be the most profound blasphemy [to the name of Jesus] to forget and to ignore the basic levels of life, the life that begins with bread, a roof, a job,” he continued to teach that “the superabundant fullness of life is to be achieved only in the kingdom of the Father.”11 Christians who heed sincere love of neighbor” discover an interior freedom by which true solidarity—“to give of one’s life, even to give one’s life itself”—becomes possible.12 Solidarity undergirds what Romero labeled “the political dimension of the faith,” the Church’s response to “the demands made upon it by the de facto socio-political world in which it exists”: Because the Church has opted for the truly has opted for those who really are oppressed and repressed, the Church lives in a political through politics. And since this “service to,” “siding with,” and “defense of” El Salvador’s poor majority by members of the Church (from priests and religious, to catechists and lay ministers – even other campesinos) involved denunciation of “institutionalized violence” and socioeconomic injustice “which cries to the heavens,” the Church’s “taking upon itself the lot of the poor” occasioned its persecution.13 In a country where fourteen families owned more than sixty percent of the arable farmland, the Church preached a “social mortgage on private property.”14 On behalf of factory workers “who [had] no labor rights” and farmers who regularly faced “starvation wages” and “job uncertainty,” the Church helped create worker unions (distinct from other voluntary associations, e.g. political parties).15 The implication of one campesino union (FECCAS) in the murder of Eduardo Orellana (a prominent landowner in Aguilares) led to the retributive murder of Fr. Rutilio Grande (along with two campesinos); the abduction of Mauricio Borgonovo (El Salvador’s Foreign Minister) was likewise blamed on the Church’s alleged agitation of rural unions, THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Only children have known Chalatenango as a peaceful place, Former FMLN Stronghold, Chalatenango; Photo courtesy of Pat Reidy, C.S.C. leading to the abduction and/or murder of “over twenty percent of San Salvador’s presbyterate” in 16 The Church thus “organized and united…around the hopes and anxieties of the poor” must (in Romero’s estimation) be prepared to incur “the same fate as that of Jesus and the poor”: death.17 Willingness to die, to give up one’s own life, became for Romero “the greatest sign of faith in a God of life” who has power over “the idols of death” – idols of wealth, of private property, of political power, of personal security (institutionalized in national security regimes).18 Since these structures of sin “produce the fruits of sin” – namely, “the death of Salvadorans” – neutrality before the preaching of Romero (and the Catholic Social Teaching upon which it builds) must be considered impossible: “Either we serve the life of Salvadorans, or we are accomplices in their death.”19 Yet even Romero would admit that hope in the God of life and courage in the face of death come slowly. Romero’s own ‘evolution in pastoral fortitude’ gives witness to hope “learned daily” by trying to follow, and “in all modesty” living into, Jesus’s own story.20 For in the “fullness of life” that Christ the Calvary of El Salvador lies our Easter, our resurrection. This is the Christian people’s hope.”21 † 72 73 LIBERATING CONTEMPLATION / PAT REIDY, C.S.C. NOTES 8 Romero, “Louvain Address,” 178; cf. Gaudium et Spes, 1. Romero, Homily of March 23, 1980; Medellín Documents, “Justice,” 4; The Puebla Final Document, 482, 1134, 1140. From Holy Cross Constitution 8 (“The Cross, Our Hope”): “Je- 9 the torment but gave us joy in return. We whom He has sent to minister amid the same sin and pain must know that we too shall man being who suffers is for us the face of Jesus who mounted the cross to take the sting out of death. Ours must be the same cross and the same hope” (114). 10 Evangelii Nuntiandi, 33-34. 11 Romero, “Louvain Address,” 185. 1 Imaginative contemplation (also known as “Ignatian Prayer”) seeks to discern feelings of joy and sorrow, peace and distress (“consolation” and “desolation,” within the writings of St. Ignatius of Loyola) as important indicators of one’s deeper 2 union with God, and one’s path toward fruitful decisions. While one may take structured meditations (e.g. Ignatius’s own Spiritual Exercises) as a guide for imaginative prayer, focusing on scriptural scenes or moral choices, a more general form of this contem‘place’; b) considering other ‘actors’ in the scene; c) ‘playing’ the feelings of consolation or desolation felt within the contemplation-desolation for one’s relationship with God and neighbor. My contemplation in the San Salvador cathedral presumes this imaginative pattern. 3 Here begins the account of my contemplation. Romero often referred to himself in this way, seeking to unite his “experience as a pastor and as a Salvadoran” with that of “his people,” particularly those “men and women who are poor and oppressed” (“Louvain Address,” 178-179). 4 5 Msgr. Jesús Delgado (chief postulator for the cause of Rome- diocesan seminary (31 May 2011) that most seminarians during Romero’s episcopate came from wealthier families – families that largely disagreed with Romero’s “overturning of the socioeconomic status quo.” While I keep this passage in my personal journal (29 May 2011), the entire homily’s text (translated) may be found at: http://www.romerotrust.org.uk/homilies/162/162_pdf.pdf. 6 Having visited the chapel at Hospital Divina Providencia just days earlier (26 May 2011), I could not avoid returning to images of Romero gunned-down at the altar. Here ends the account of my contemplation. 7 Justice in the World, 310; Romero, “Louvain Address,” 185 (cf. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38: “a commitment to the good of one’s neighbor with the readiness, in the gospel sense, to ‘lose oneself ’ for the sake of the other instead of exploiting him, and to ‘serve him’ instead of oppressing him for one’s own advantage”). 12 Romero, “Louvain,” 179, 182, 186; Medellín Documents, “Justice,” 1 and “Peace,” 16; The Puebla Final Document, 28-29. 13 The Puebla Final Document, 492; cf. Mater et Magistra, 119-121; cf. Gaudium et Spes, 69-71. 14 The existence of which had been defended in Catholic social teaching since Rerum Novarum. 15 16 Statistic provided by Msgr. Jesús Delgado (31 May 2011). 17 Romero, “Louvain,” 182-183. 18 Ibid., 183. 19 Ibid., 185. Romero, “Louvain Address,” 185; cf. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis, 38 (“presupposing the help of divine grace”). 20 21 Romero, “Louvain Address,” 185; Romero, Homily of March 2 THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Upper Church, Metropolitan Cathedral of the Holy Savior, San Salvador. Photo courtesy of Pat Reidy, C.S.C. 74 75 VOCATIONS FOR TEENS / TIM O’MALLEY THE “NEW” EVANGELIZATION IN THE AMERICAS ON THE CATHOLIC ORIGINS OF HUMAN RIGHTS BY DAVID L ANTIGUA, PH.D. Iglesia San Esteban; Salamanca, Spain. Photo courtesy of David Lantigua THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE The introduction of human rights language into the social mission of the Catholic Church evident in Pope John XXIII’s encyclical Pacem in terris (1963) is often seen as a delayed response to the modern world. From this perspective, Vatican II’s Declaration on Religious Freedom rode on the back of David Lantigua recently earned his Ph.D. in Moral Theolog y and Christian Ethics at the University of Notre Dame. He currently serves as a member of The Society of Christian Ethics and the American Academy of Religion. the modern social encyclicals, Pope Leo XIII’s Rerum novarum (1891), has been characterized by some as a Catholic redaction of liberal theories of individual rights to property. But the Catholic vision of human rights, in fact, is neither “liberal” nor “American” nor “modern” for that matter. The plausibility of this rather unconventional claim rests on whether or not it can be shown that the commitment to human rights so essential to the social doctrine of the Church today has its roots in a debate internal to the Catholic tradition, rather than developing as a delayed response to a modern political order external to it. A turn to the evangelization of the Americas in the sixteenth century provides a historical standpoint from which to observe located within ecclesial tradition. The Spanish Catholic mission to the New World began with arrival of to his journal, the purpose of his voyage was to ascertain “the manner which should be used to bring about their conversion to our holy faith.” Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic monarchs of Aragon and Castile, had entrusted Columbus with a letter permitting him to travel in order to extend the faith. When the Admiral returned back to the Old World oversight of island commerce, which would almost immediately begin to 76 77 THE “NEW” EVANGELIZATION IN THE AMERICAS / DAVID LANTIGUA Before Columbus embarked on his second voyage to the New World, Pope Alexander VI blessed the Spanish mission and conferred to the crown the authority to preach the Gospel to the unbelievers across the Atlantic in the so-called letter of papal donation, Inter caetera (1493). The crown already possessed a right of royal patronage over the Spanish Church and with it the power to appoint bishops and construct churches and hospitals. As the Reconquista of Granada followed by the conquests of the Canaries and the Caribbean, it maintained royal patronage over ecclesiastical matters. Royal administration of the Church may have had the advantage of making important spiritual and moral reforms rapidly, but it necessarily placed clergy in a compromised position of being subordinate to commercial interests. Not unlike the situation of Gregory VII in the Middle Ages, the Spanish Church of the Renaissance struggled to maintain its ecclesiastical freedom. While secular clergy were in a position of greater passivity to colonial interests, the religious orders were not. Their institutional orientation put them in a position where they could place the spiritual demands of the Gospel above economic and material concerns. In particular, their vow of poverty would provide the most important spiritual lens for not only recognizing the great injustices and abuses unfolding across the Atlantic, but also seeking solidarity with the oppressed Indians. The Spanish Dominicans were The Dominican mission to the New World began when the Master General of the Order of Preachers, Tommaso de Vio Cajetan, mandated the Spanish provincial to send his best friars across the Atlantic under the threat of eternal damnation. Three friars left the Dominican priory of San Esteban from Salamanca, Spain, and arrived on the island of Española in 1510. Their names were Pedro de Córdoba, Antón Montesino, and Bernardo de Santo Domingo. What these friars witnessed on the island was nothing short of appalling. Rivers of gold were degenerating into rivers of blood and disease. Following the failed governance of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean, the condition on the islands had quickly devolved into a brutal Spanish colonial system of enslavement. The encomienda institution of forced great commission to preach and educate unbelievers. Indians would be required to work and pay tribute to Spain while their local masters focused on their spiritual and physical well-being. In reality, however, the institution failed in every respect. The purportedly “free and servile” Indians, as Queen Isabella once referred to them, were literally worked to death. The Taíno natives neither had their basic needs met, nor did they receive instruction in the faith. But none of this mattered anyhow, according to the Dominican missionaries. In their view, the only World was to preach the Gospel, not to conquer and exploit the natives and their lands. For over a year, as more Dominicans arrived from Spain, they patiently learned of the violence perpetrated by Christians on the island. The religious community prayed and fasted while discerning what action to take instead of standing by idly. Their strict ascetical discipline, fostered by a spiritual and intellectual renewal of the Order back in Spain, opened their hearts and eyes to see the painful reality of suffering before them. year anniversary of a pivotal moment in the pastoral life of the Church with regard to the history of THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE human rights. On the Fourth Sunday of Advent in 1511, Antón Montesino, the most gifted preacher of the Dominican missionaries, stood before a crowded church in Santo Domingo and spoke the prophetic words of John the Baptist: “I am a voice crying in the desert [Ego vox clamantis in deserto]” (Jn 1:23). He continued preaching: I have come here to make you aware. I am the voice of Christ in the desert of this island. It would be wise of you to pay attention and to listen with your whole heart and with every fabric of your being… You are all in mortal sin. You live in it, you die in it. All because of the cruel tyranny you exercise against these innocent peoples. Tell me, by what right and with what justice do you so violently enslave these Indians? By what authority do you wage such hideous wars against these people who peacefully inhabit their lands, killing them by unspeakable means? How can you oppress them, giving neither food nor medicine and by working them to death, all for your insatiable thirst for gold? And what care are you providing them spiritually in teaching them about their God and creator, so they are baptized, hear Mass, and keep holy days? Are they not human beings? Do they not have rational souls? Are you not obligated to love them as you love yourselves? Do you not understand or feel this? How can you remain so profoundly asleep? Immediately after the liturgy, there was upheaval on the island. Diego Columbus, the current governor and the son of the Admiral, threatened to notify King Ferdinand of this “new” doctrine of evangelization. A mob of angry Spaniards gathered around the Dominican house of prayer and demanded that Montesino recant. Fray Cordóba calmed the crowd and assured everyone that the decision to preach the radical message was unanimous among the missionaries. The following Sunday, this time before an even larger congregation, the Dominicans repeated their admonishment of slave-holders as mortal sinners. But they also raised the stakes in a way that was as scandalous as it was Christian: anyone who refused to free their laborers and make restitution would be denied absolution in Confession. According to the Order of Preachers on the island, excommunication was the last resort to effectively address such widespread injustice entrenched among members of the Church. The fruit of the Advent 1511 sermon was nothing short of revolutionary in the religious and political history of the Latin West. The event mobilized a concerted, tireless effort to promote solidarity and a not in spite of the Gospel but in genuine service to it. Preaching the Gospel peacefully would become inseparable from defending the freedom and rights of those who received it. Achieving this aim required most famous of those converted by the radical message was Bartolomé de las Casas. Las Casas had come over as a young man on the same the Inca Empire. As a secular priest, Las Casas had Indian laborers and participated in the Spanish conquest of Cuba. After witnessing the many horrors awakened. His conversion began during the Feast of Pentecost while reading the divinely-inspired words of Sirach 34:19-22: 78 79 THE “NEW” EVANGELIZATION IN THE AMERICAS / DAVID LANTIGUA The Most High approves not the gifts of the forgive their sins. Like the man who slays a son from the possessions of the poor. The bread of charity is life itself for the needy; he who withholds it is a man of blood. To take away another’s living is to commit murder; to deny a laborer wages is to shed blood. Within a decade, Las Casas professed his vows as a Dominican and would dedicate the rest of his life to defending the natives before the Council of the Indies and the Spanish crown. He became known to friend and foe alike as the “Protector of the Indians.” Dominicans was “new” in comparison to the preaching that characterized the Latin Christian past. The medieval Crusades and the Iberian conquests of the Canaries and North Africa had linked war and evangelization as complementary procedures of Christian expansion. Popes from Innocent IV, Eugenius IV, and Nicholas V had provided the theory and practice for consolidating economic, humanitarian, and religious interests into a missionary warfare policy that could subjugate pagan populations to superior Christian rulers for the purpose of converting and civilizing them. When imperial Spain carried its mission across the Atlantic with the backing of a papal donation, its representatives claimed to offer the cure to Indian depravity in social and religious life—superior Spanish civilization. The popular Spanish chronicles of Bernal Díaz del Castillo and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo painted the natives as lazy or hostile barbarians naturally prone to abominable evils such cultures were deemed irrational at best, sub-human at worst. Either way, they needed superior Spanish culture and its true religion because the natives were considered guilty for having committed acts contrary to the natural law that merited punishment and discipline. Evangelization by political conquest or by enslavement became the road most traveled by the civilizing project of the conquistadors and the clergy who served it. In direct contrast to the civilizing project of the conquistadors, the project of peaceful evangelization promoted by the Dominicans recognized the preacher as the greatest obstacle to conversion, not the unbeliever. They considered a life marked by gentleness, charity, and truth as the only way to evangelize by persuasion and miracles. Christ and the Apostles provided the norm and the method. According to this teaching, the use of war, force, or terror obstructs rather than facilitates the conversion of others. The greed of the Spaniards was by far the worst form of idolatry that brought scandal to the faith. While this method of preaching was no different from the instruction of the Lord, the Spanish Dominicans were able to extend that original Gospel message of peaceful evangelization through the inculturation of a faith that asked “by what right” and “with what justice”. They asked those questions not on behalf of themselves, but for their persecuted Indian neighbors. The sixteenthcentury Spanish Dominicans fused their doctrine of rights for all persons made equally in the image of God with a profound spiritual awareness rooted in works of charity in service to truth and justice. This unprecedented vision for the love of the unbelieving neighbor made in the image of God unsettles the aspirations breaking free from the parochial shackles THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE of Latin Christendom. The doctrine of human rights is therefore not a product of the modern world, but a theological insight that emerged from the spiritual practices of religious orders during the crucible of Spanish conquests. Sixteenth-century Spanish America was a rights culture in a robust sense even though it was not characteristically modern. The royal court and the Council of the Indies would regularly hold juntas (debates) concerning the lawfulness of certain policies, and these juntas always included the opinions of theologians and jurists. Historically, the Spanish legal tradition had produced the Siete Partidas (The Seven Divisions or The Seven-Part Code) of King Alfonso “the Wise,” which emerged out of a period of scholastic humanism in theology and canon law in the Middle Ages. During the Renaissance, Spanish scholastic-juristic thought experienced a profound renewal, especially at the famous University of Salamanca, located just steps away from the Dominican priory of San Esteban. Montesino and company brought this scholastic-juristic legacy to bear on their spiritual lives so that they could preach an orthodox message of solidarity, love, and justice for the oppressed. contributed to the discourse of Amerindian natural rights and political autonomy expressed through the writings and lectures of Francisco de Vitoria, Domingo to identify the image of God imprinted in every individual as the foundation for rights talk in the West. Antonio Castellanos, Antón Montesino, 1982, Santo Domingo 80 81 THE “NEW” EVANGELIZATION IN THE AMERICAS / DAVID LANTIGUA The interpenetration of mission and theology, and preaching and the defense of rights, is most apparent in the scholarly and administrative life of Las Casas. The “new” evangelization promoted by the Spanish Dominicans and especially Las Casas not only acumen, and missionary experience contributed to voluminous writings and testimonies that deserve Following a series of juntas concerning mass baptism, forced labor, and evangelization in Mexico in 1536, the Dominican Bernardino de Minaya went to Rome to speak directly with Pope Paul III concerning the affairs of the Indies. He brought along a parecer (document) prompted by Dominicans but also signed by Franciscans condemning religious wars of conquest and enslavement of the Indians. The human rights in the Americas. The most important theological treatise he ever wrote promoting the Christian ethic of evangelization inextricable from a doctrine of rights was De unico vocationis modo (The Only Way), dating from 1530. This treatise drew principally upon Scripture, ancient philosophy, patristic sources, canon law, and Thomas Aquinas, to condemn the freedom of all persons to receive or deny the Gospel as well as their political autonomy. When Las Casas was appointed bishop of Chiapas in the 1540s, he brought a group of Dominicans from Salamanca to peacefully evangelize La Tierra de Guerra (The Land of War), a region in Guatemala notorious for inhospitable natives. It is a testament to their sincerity of faith and discipline that the land came to be known as Verapaz (True Peace), as it is still called today. Eventually, Las Casas was chased out of his bishopric by Spanish colonialists for having implemented that same uncompromising practice of ecclesiastical censure which had transformed his own life. His enemies across New Spain and Peru had on the formation of the New Laws in 1542 promulgated by Emperor Carlos V. These laws temporarily abolished the encomienda institution and all wars of conquest in an effort to secure Indian rights by making impoverished natives vassals under the direct protection of the crown not subject to tributes and taxation. unbelievers to receive the faith without coercion as well as their political freedom to govern themselves independently of Spain. Las Casas, who was actually present at the Mexico juntas, exerted an unmistakable purportedly brought an early draft of The Only Way as he related to the pope all the injustices that were taking place across the Atlantic. The pastoral response of Paul III came in the form of three papal letters addressing the issues raised in of Española. The most important of these letters, Sublimis Deus, of this papal bull for the history of Catholic Social three core teachings with Las Casas’ The Only Way. Sublimis Deus and equal nature of humanity; (ii) the promotion of peaceful evangelization and the condemnation of missionary war; (iii) and the defense of the natural freedom and rights of every human being. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Paul III began the letter with the Christian claim that all human beings were created out of love for the sake of eternal life with God. The Pope then went on to provide a most profound theological insight into the dignity of human nature: It is necessary to confess that man is of such a condition and nature that he is able to receive the faith of Christ, and whosoever possesses Neither is it credible that anyone can be so inept as to want to obtain the end of believing and be denied the most essential means of attaining it. It is the capacity to receive the Gospel that is the greatest mark of the dignity of human nature. Christ’s great commission to “Go teach all nations” (Mt equality of human nature to receive the Gospel. This refers to everyone, no exceptions. And it is Christ, “Truth itself [Veritas ipse],” who provides the form and method of bringing the Gospel to all peoples. The Pope held that the Gospel could only be genuinely presented to people if their freedom was indebted to the Spanish Dominican experience in the Americas. He then warns of Satan and his satellites, who have invented a method of preaching that denies both equality and natural freedom in order to enslave and subjugate those who are outside the Church. The remarkable claim about human freedom: Those Indians and all unbelievers who will be discovered by Christians in the future, although they are outside the faith, should neither be deprived of their freedom nor their dominium over things. Indeed, they can use, control, and enjoy their liberty and dominium freely and lawfully, and should not be reduced to slavery. Three and a half centuries before Rerum novarum and more than four hundred years before Pacem in terris, Sublimis Deus equal freedom and human rights on the basis that every person is capable of receiving the Gospel. This fact challenges the narrative impasse between progressivists and traditionalists within the Church. For progressivist-leaning Catholics, the Church’s language of human rights thoroughly proclaimed at the Second Vatican Council was a welcome reversal of tradition. For traditionalist-leaning Catholics, it was an act of betrayal. Ironically, both share the same narrative that the embracement of human rights, especially religious freedom, was a watershed in Church history. However, the lesson of the sixteenth-century project of peaceful evangelization demonstrates continuity rather than reversal within the tradition. The modern popes retrieved and developed a tradition of rights that extended back into the sixteenth century, and even further back into the scholastic-juristic thought of the Middle Ages. It would be a dishonor to the history of our faith, a travesty even, to forget what those Dominicans did in 1511 and how their successors such as Las Casas and Paul III carried on in the generations that followed. Their legacy is as important as ever for the Church of the New Evangelization. 82 83 THE “NEW” EVANGELIZATION IN THE AMERICAS / DAVID LANTIGUA When the father of the modern social encyclicals, Pope Leo XIII, wrote his letter In Plurimis abolishing the institution of slavery in 1888, he explicitly referred to the human rights legacy of Paul III and the Spanish Dominicans. According to Leo XIII, this ecclesial tradition declared that “all had a just and natural right of a threefold character, namely, that each one of them was a master of his own person, that they could live together under their own laws, and that they could acquire and hold property for themselves” (§16). But Leo notes that Paul III did something more, which was a direct contribution of in the Americas. Paul III prohibited the sacraments to Christians as a disciplinary measure for those who refused to change their evil ways. From the perspective of Leo XIII, the ecclesial tradition of themselves, their political order, and their property was supported by the religious orders as much as the papacy in the sixteenth century. Finally, a grave political temptation of our day is to subordinate the Gospel to a project of human rights or even natural law that can persuade the whole world of its universal message. The Spanish Dominicans and Pope Paul III teach us that the doctrine of human rights, as part of a long tradition of natural law, must always be in service to the Gospel. Furthermore, it is a doctrine directed through their lives the immeasurable worth of every human being made in the image of God and redeemed by the blood of Christ. The defense of human rights or natural law should never become a mechanism for reining in or disciplining individuals and communities outside the Church who do not conform to Gospel values. Respect for human rights may be a requirement for a fuller articulation of Christ’s message in the era of the New Evangelization, but it is certainly not a replacement of the Gospel. Christians can and must demonstrate this truth by following the Lord in being ready and willing to renounce their own freedom and rights, which ultimately belong to God and not to any human authority, in order to express their love toward others, even their enemies. Only then will the Gospel become a source of salvation rather than scandal to unbelievers. † THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Cloister, Convento de San Esteban; Salamanca, Spain. Photo courtesy of David Lantigua 84 85 THE CHURCH AND IMMIGRATION REFLECTIONS OF A PILGRIM PEOPLE BY DANIEL G. GROODY, C.S.C., PH.D. Migration makes headlines in many newspapers around the world, but in multiple ways it is not a new issue. Since the dawn of humanity people have been on the move. However, the current scope, scale and magnitude of the issue are unprecedented. According to the International Organization for Migration, approximately 214 million people today—or one out of every 33 people around the world—are living away from their homelands. Approximately 42 million are forcibly uprooted, including 16 million refugees and 26 million who are internally displaced. In many respects migration is a sign of our times, so much so that some scholars refer to this point in history as “the age of migration.” Even though it is interwoven into our biological and spiritual origins, migration is still one of the most complex and controversial issues of our day. Amidst the incendiary debates, the Church over the years has articulated a consistent position on immigration. The Church has something to say about migration because it goes to the core of her identity and what is most important to her. In this brief essay I would like to highlight some of the rationale behind this teaching and its connections to what we do in the Eucharist. My hope is that it will give us not only more information but also a new imagination about how we think about this issue and especially the people most affected by it. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Daniel G. Groody, C.S.C., Ph.D. is an Associate Professor of Theolog y and the Director of the Center for Latino Spirituality and Culture at the Institute for Latino Studies at the University of Notre Dame. Notre Dame students interview refugees waiting to receive their asylum papers in South Africa Photo courtesy of the Center for Social Concerns 86 87 REFLECTIONS OF A PILGRIM PEOPLE / DANIEL G. GROODY, C.S.C. Migration and Human Dignity The starting point of the Church’s position about migration is rooted in God’s movement to us in the Incarnation and His journey into the sinful territory of our broken human existence. Jesus’ life, Death and Resurrection in turn make possible our return migration to a homeland, a place where at last we will know what it means to be fully connected to God and reconciled to one another. This perspective takes for granted that that summons us to walk this road as pilgrims in a spirit of faith, hope, and love. Along this road we not only see darkly through a mirror but are also riddled by forces that constantly tear at the fabric that stitches together our human community. As she grapples with the complex challenges posed by the central human issues at stake. Though the economic costs related to migration need to be addressed, the primary concern is the human costs. When migrants are most of them—despite the grueling physical journeys they take—do not talk about the physical hardships but the deeper insults to their human worth. They may go without food as they stow away on trains and buses. They may gasp for air as they hide in cargo containers of ships. They may thirst for water as they cross the vast stretches of desert. They may suffer in the mountains are, many migrants often say that no physical suffering is worse than being treated as if you were a dog, as if you were not even a human being, as if you were no one to anyone. The reason why the Church cares so much about the issue of migration is because migrants are so frequently deprived of their God-given human dignity. Consequently, the Church invests much of her energy trying to respond to the injustices migrants face. At of Catholic Bishops in Washington, D.C., more than one hundred of their three hundred employees work on migration issues. The United States resettles more refugees than any other country in the world. Through various agencies like Catholic Relief Services and Catholic Charities, the Catholic Church resettles more refugees than any other organization in the United States, meaning that the American Catholic Church resettles more refugees than all other world organizations, as many as 20,000 per year. In addition to resettling refugees, the Church also gives a great deal of attention to the plight of undocumented, economic migrants. In response to the challenge of immigration, the bishops from the United States and Mexico published a joint document in 2003 called “Strangers No Longer: Together on a Journey of Hope,” jointly issued by two separate countries. This initiative solidarity” manifested through closer ties among the of the current economic order. The Church recognizes that human dignity is integrally related to work, so as she responds to the personal struggles of migrants, she addresses structural issues that impact their situation. The root causes of economic migration stem principally from underdevelopment and unemployment; thus, part of the Church’s advocacy effort focuses on obtaining more work visas. But more visas are not enough. Because these workers also have families whose welfare depends on their employment status, the issue of migration takes on a social component in addition to the economic considerations, and the Church’s efforts encompass both facets of this complicated issue. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE This social consideration is what often drives migrants to leave their home country. Family members need food, clothing, shelter and medicine, and the problems of underdevelopment and unemployment keep workers meet. Not uncommonly, a member of the family obtain visas because they are unskilled laborers, they work in rural Mexico, I was struck by the number of villages inhabited only by women and children. Most of the men were north, looking for work, while most of the women and children stayed behind. In these villages, migration causes the disintegration of families—the most basic cell of society. It is this social disintegration that greatly concerns the Church, because its costs to the human family are enormous. documentation. In the context of my own pastoral Migration and the Incarnation The Church cares about migration because the issue mirrors its own story. Migration is in our spiritual genes. From the call of Abraham to the Exodus, from Exile to Return, from the birth of Jesus to His Ascension, from Jesus’ call to the disciples to “follow Him,” to His sending them out into all nations, the theme of movement and migration are interwoven into the fabric of our journey with and to God. In fact, the Second Vatican Council refers to the Church’s own self-identity as that of “pilgrims in a strange land” (Lumen Gentium, §7). We come from God and we are called to return to God, and from beginning to end the Scriptures reveal to us a God who migrates to His people, eliciting a response in faith to a homeward journey. teaching come from its awareness of the gratuity of God manifested in His migration to us in the Incarnation. Another way of saying this is the Church’s position is guided by a different notion of the economy. The Church realizes that migration does not have to do principally with a monetary system but fundamentally with how the goods of the earth are arranged. The Greek word economia does not refer principally to concern is directed towards how the whole household of God is arranged. At the very least, this means that each human being within this planetary household should have systems of the world should be ordered to the good of all people and not just the 88 89 REFLECTIONS OF A PILGRIM PEOPLE / DANIEL G. GROODY, C.S.C. and its asymmetry with the designs of a loving Creator. At present, 19 percent of the world’s people live on less than a dollar per day. 48 percent live on less than $2 per day. 75 percent live on less than $10 per day. 95 percent live on less than $50 per day. The top 1 percent has as much wealth as the poorest 57 percent, and the three richest people have as much as the poorest 48 nations.1 These disorders are rooted in unjust structures, but as the Second Vatican Council observed, they are also rooted in the disorders of the human heart (Gaudium et Spes, §10). Migration, rightly understood, is not a problem in itself but a symptom of much deeper imbalances. Arguments about the economic, political and social human face of the migrant, or else the core issues at stake become easily become distorted. If we cannot see the human face of the migrant, then nothing else will matter. To put it another way, the bishops have insisted that the economy be made for human beings and not human beings for the economy. The bishops recognize that one of the fundamental ways through which society must be ordered is according to economic justice, which measures like Gross National Product or stock prices, but in terms of how the economy affects the quality of life in the community as a whole (Economic Justice for All, §14). is the issue of legality. Not uncommonly people say, “I have no problem with immigrants but just that they have come illegally.” Underneath this objection is a valid concern for the rule of law. When we look at countries in other parts of the world where the judicial systems are corrupt, and violent social upheaval is great, we come to appreciate all the more the necessity of the rule of law. The lawlessness of cartels within Mexico is but one example of what happens when the binding role of a legal system loses its coherence. But when it comes to immigration, it is important to see there is more to the law than a civil ordinance that requires punishment when there is a transgression. 19% OF THE WORLDS POPULATION LIVE ON LESS THAN $1 /day 48% OF THE WORLDS POPULATION LIVE ON LESS THAN $2 /day 75% OF THE WORLDS POPULATION LIVE ON LESS THAN $10 /day 95% OF THE WORLDS POPULATION LIVE ON LESS THAN $50 /day THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE From a theological perspective, different laws are at work in the problem of immigration, and changing enforcement policies alone is not enough to achieve comprehensive immigration reform. Thomas Aquinas distinguished four kinds of laws: 1) natural laws, 2) civil laws, 3) divine laws, and 4) eternal laws. While the political debate deals mostly with civil laws, the Church is concerned with these other laws as well. While the Church has concern for the national common good of respective countries, she is also concerned with the universal common good of all of Godâ€™s people. With regard to immigration, natural laws deal with parents needing to feed their families; civil laws pertain to ordinances utilized by society for the common good. Divine laws, known through Scripture, relate to the Gospel imperative to provide for the hungry, thirsty, naked, sick, imprisoned, and estranged; eternal laws deal with how God keeps the universe in motion. When these laws interrelate in such a way that one However, when civil laws exist that exclude the poor without any regard for issues of natural law like underdevelopment, injustice abounds. In some cases, injustice can become legalized when the structures of society enrich the privileged few and exclude the needy. To clarify, the Church does not argue for open borders. The social teaching recognizes that there is a need and a duty to protect national borders, but it does not see this as an absolute right. The Church recognizes that the needs of distributive justice must be taken into account as a government formulates its border policies and enacts its laws. Because we confuse illegality with criminality, we end who are looking for work, and prosecuting those whose only crime at its core has to do with providing for their families. It is striking that some who are scandalized by migrants breaking civil laws are not proportionally more scandalized by the living and working conditions perspectives about immigration have more to say about us than about migrants. To be clear, there is a need for enforcement at the border, especially among the cartel violence that has skyrocketed in the last few years. But the tragedy of the border now is that many of our resources are directed toward chasing down those who are simply looking for work. The Church teaches that the ideal arrangement is for migrants to stay in their homeland, but when there Church argues that migrants have a right to look for work, even if this search entails crossing borders without 90 91 REFLECTIONS OF A PILGRIM PEOPLE / DANIEL G. GROODY, C.S.C. Migration and Conversion When I was about eight years old, I came across a provocatively-titled pamphlet from a Church community. It read: “Did you know that you could miss heaven by eighteen inches?” It went on to say that the distance between the head and the heart of most people is only eighteen inches. The point of the pamphlet was that, more than just a mental concept, God is a mystery who invites us to encounter Him in the depths of our souls as well as our intellect. In a similar way, Native American elders hold that the long journey of life is the one from the head to the heart and back to the head again. I would add that the borders and barriers we erect along the inner road of the heart are more obstinate and states. The deeper challenges of the migration issue are rooted not simply in political issues but spiritual ones as well. Since spirituality has to do with what we most value, migration—seen from a spiritual perspective— means moving into a new kind of life and a new way of being in the world, which is the goal of every Christian and the hope of all who believe. Nothing is more needed in immigration than a new imagination about who we are before God and before the injustices of the modern world. When John the Baptist opened the way for Christ in the desert, he called people to repent because the Kingdom of God is at hand. The word repentance has such heavy overtones But at its core it calls not only for a change of heart but also a change of thinking, taking on a new vision of life and allowing one’s whole imagination take shape not according to the logic of political pragmatism or economic utilitarianism but according to God’s grace. We might say that repentance means migrating in a new direction with one’s life. Learning to see as God sees and to move over into His way of thinking is one of the most central ways of participating in the life of God and human transformation. The Church cares about immigration because immigration is central to her own identity. One only need to visit the National Shine of the Basilica of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception—the Mother Church for U.S. Catholics—to see how much immigration has shaped the Church’s development in the United States and in turn how migrants have shaped the spiritual, devotional, and apostolic life of American Catholics. The Shrine has side altars dedicated to many of the ethnic groups that left their homelands and came to the United States looking for new opportunities. In the end, the Church’s concern about migrants aims at promoting a Eucharistic community that fosters human solidarity. Since so much of the debate around immigration stems from fear, the Church challenges people not to let themselves be governed by fear, especially fear of those perceived as “the other.” The movement of divine life into a human body is the ultimate migration into the space of “otherness” and a theological perspective. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Conclusion: Migration and Christian Solidarity Thomas Aquinas speaks of exitus et reditus, the notion that we come from God and are called to return to God. We believe that in the face of the sinful human condition that road-blocked our return migration, God, in Jesus, so loved the world that He migrated into the far and distant territory of our broken world so that we, in turn, could migrate back to our homeland. This means that migration is not about “us” citizens and “those” foreigners but about all of “us,” who are pilgrims in this world. As St. Paul described it: “So then you are no longer strangers and aliens, but you are citizens with the saints and also members of the household of God” (Eph 2:19). Paul urges Christians not to limit their sense of citizenship to the political realm of this world but to see the land that lies beyond us at the end of our earthly migration. Augustine would reiterate that our earthly life is one of “resident aliens” and that we are just passing through this world in route to our true homeland. Even so, not a few people remain walled in constrictive notions about migration, and it remains one of the fundamental tasks of the Church’s mission to break down the walls that divide, alienate, exclude, discriminate and dehumanize. Some seek to break down these barriers in creative ways along the border. One community decided to have a volleyball game with respective teams on both sides. Another held a picnic and shared food between the holes in the fence. And in various communities, some hold Eucharistic liturgies where the congregation joins the altar together from both sides of the border wall. This Eucharist is not simply a political statement but an eschatological and a social one, stating not only that these walls will come down when Christ comes again but also that we are already united because of who we are as the Body of Christ. Migration is not simply a social, political and economic matter but a theological and spiritual issue as well. According to professor Bill Ong Hing, we deport something of our souls when we fail to welcome the stranger (see Hing’s Deporting Our Souls: Values, Morality and Immigration Policy). Not only do the walls of selfsecurity not keep us truly safe, but in the process of erecting those walls, we lose touch with our own vulnerability in this earthly sojourn and most of all our interconnectedness with the Body of Christ. Our fundamental identity rests not on the creed of a nation but on who we are before God. The presence of a new wave of immigrants brings new challenges. As a birth process it inevitably brings pain but also it brings new life as well. For example, as Latino immigrants to the United States bring the riches of their culture, they also bring a strong tradition of devotion, faithfulness and family-centeredness that transforms and enriches the Church. In their ability to believe in God despite the unbelievable trials they endure, immigrants hold an important key not only to a nation’s strength but also to the Church’s renewal. † For more on these statistics and their sources, see Daniel G. Groody, “Globalization, Spirituality and Justice: Navigating a Path to Peace,” Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 3-10. 1 92 93 BOOKS FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION BY TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY, PH.D. of the rites of initiation performed at the Easter Vigil. While such an approach is intrinsic to the R.C.I.A., mystagogical catechesis is often lacking for those Catholics who are baptized in their infancy (that is, most of us). Fr. Timothy Radcliffe, O.P.’s Take the Plunge is, in some ways, a response to the dearth of mystagogical texts on the sacraments of baptism and Take the Plunge: Living Baptism and Confirmation by Timothy Radcliffe New York Bloomsbury Press, 2012 Mystagogy (if it is practiced at all), in the post-conciliar era, has at times been dedicated exclusively to promoting a deeper understanding spirituality. Simultaneously, Radcliffe’s robust liturgical spirituality is a model for a renewed approach to mystagogy in the life of the Church. In some ways, the structure of Take the Plunge is traditional to the art of mystagogical catechesis. The seventeen chapters of the text move slowly through the presuming infant initiation as the pastoral norm. While there has been a renaissance in recent years in the liturgical and theological normativity of the rite of infant initiation (see Kimberly Belcher, Participation in the Trinitarian Mystery), rite are a further contribution to deeply upon their own experience of infant initiation. In fact, infant initiation is viewed positively as a response to an individualism that operates in much present religious discourse. Fr. Radcliffe questions directed to parents at the beginning of the rite: It is often asserted that faith is only authentic if it is grasped in a mature, adult THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE and individual way. In some traditions, the crucial moment is when you confess Jesus Christ to be your personal saviour. But our appropriation of our faith may take the form of innumerable small decisions to walk in the light of the gospel. My acceptance of divine life may be as gradual and imperceptible as my acceptance of my human life, beginning long before I am mature or adult. My mother was raised in a profoundly Christian home. She never had, to my knowledge, a Damascus experience. That did not make her faith inauthentic. Her ‘Yes’ to God consolidated slowly as she grew in the free atmosphere of a Christian home, beginning even before she could speak a word (11). Consistently throughout Take the Plunge, one’s theological imagination is enriched as poetry, literature, the Scriptures, the experience of liturgical rites shapes one’s understanding of the sacrament as carried out in the context of the modern world. And this use of poetry and literature is not accidental. Mystagogy is not simply our experience of the rites; rather, it is coming to see how the sorrows and joys of the human condition the context of the liturgical and sacramental life of the Church. The evocative language, the stories interspersed throughout the book, demonstrate the bodily and historical nature of baptism in our lives. Simultaneously, the words and gestures of the rites of initiation through the contemplative eye of Fr. Radcliffe become signs, revealing the depths of divine love to the human person, an invitation to join with the saints in a common pilgrimage toward holiness of life. Fr. Radcliffe, in particular, meditates upon the simply as a historical anomaly in which the rite of baptism and as the sacrament of maturity, of growth into the virtues of the saints themselves (261). Take the Plunge should be required reading for all those involved in preparing Christians for initiation; they move toward receiving the sacrament; for parents of newlybaptized infants; for preachers seeking to practice mystagogy throughout the liturgical year; and for all those Christians in the world whose lives have received a radical re-orientation through the sacramental life of the Church. True Reform: Liturgy and Ecclesiology in Sacrosanctum Concilium by Massimo Faggioli Collegeville, MN The Liturgical Press, 2012 In the subsequent years since the Second Vatican Council, interpretations of the four major constitutions have tended to isolate theological treatments of the Church to either Lumen Gentium (the Constitution on the Church) or Gaudium et Spes (the Pastoral Constitution on the Church in the Modern World). Such an approach, as Massimo Faggioli (an assistant professor of theology at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul) ably argues, fails to acknowledge the centrality of ecclesiology in the liturgical document Sacrosanctum Concilium. Faggioli writes, “only a hermeneutic based on the liturgy 94 95 BOOKS FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY and the Eucharist, as developed in the liturgical constitution, can preserve the riches of the overall ecclesiology of Vatican II without getting lost in the technicalities of a ‘theological jurisprudence’” (16). Sacrosanctum Concilium makes available to the Church a Eucharistic ecclesiology, one that manifests the true genius of the Second Vatican Council. Faggioli’s unfolding of this argument is a work of solid scholarship, attentive to a vast array of Italian, English, German, and French literature. According to Faggioli, the liturgical reforms enacted by the Council are not simply aesthetic but rather a return to liturgical sources intended “to reset the cultural and ideological garment of Catholicism in the modern world in order to start over from the core essence of Christianity, closer to the ancient liturgical traditions of the Eastern Churches and of the Roman Church” (57). Sacrosanctum Concilium was fundamentally a “conservative” document, restoring “the simplicity and the splendor of the rites on the basis of a more biblical set of readings and a patristic concept of celebration” (47). The reforms are not antiquarian but instead are an exercise in listening to the Fathers, work of liturgical renewal. The liturgical reforms enacted by the liturgical constitution also Church. Faggioli comments: It is therefore clear that the ecclesiology of Sacrosanctum Concilium does not contradict but ushers in and anticipates the communion ecclesiology of Vatican II as a pillar of the liturgical reform: the Church as a communion of life thanks to the grace, the expression of the communion in the life of the Trinity; the power of the grace, received in faith and through the sacraments, especially the Eucharist, that people of God and Mystical Body of Christ; a people of God, walking toward the kingdom of God, but also active witnesses of Christ in the world, visible in its ecclesial institutions and led by the bishops in the local churches and the pope (84-85). Importantly, Sacrosanctum Concilium does not succumb to a stark differentiation between a “people of God” and “mystical Body” ecclesiology, but rather presents a vision of the Church as a sacrament of Christ’s own Eucharistic love for the life of the world, especially within the context of the local Church. Such a liturgical ecclesiology affects the Church’s own understanding of her relationship to the world, ecumenism, and Judaism itself (chapter 3). Therefore (as Faggioli concludes) the recent arguments against the liturgical reforms of the Second Vatican Council are not simply aesthetic in structure but an implicit dismissal of the ecclesiology enacted by the Council (chapters 4 and 5 in particular). In some sense, Faggioli is correct. The liturgical rites renewed by the Second Vatican Council offer a performed vision of the Church’s ecclesiology, including “a new life for lay ministers in the Church, a new discovery of the liturgical assembly, concelebration as a sign of unity in the priesthood, the new role for the Word of God in the eucharistic celebration” (143). Those that argue for a reform of the reform, understood as an exclusive restoration of the 1963 Missal of John XXIII at the expense of the Missal of Paul VI, are inattentive to the ecclesiology implicit in the reformed rites. Revisionist narratives of the Council (such as found in Nicola Bux’s Benedict XVI’s Reform: The Liturg y Between Innovation and Tradition) ignore the genuine ecclesial renewal that has occurred in light of the liturgical THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE rites promulgated through the Second Vatican Council. And such revisionists often employ a naïve use of history itself, whereby the purpose of liturgical reform is to “re-enact” what has occurred in the past, rather than to think with the Fathers about how liturgical prayer can function in the present (see John Baldovin, Reforming the Liturg y: A Response to the Critics, 135). Yet, is it really the case that many of those attracted to the 1963 Missal of John XVIII (the extraordinary form) are dismissive of the ecclesiology brought about by the Second Vatican Council? Or is it not often true that those fascinated by “the reform of the reform” are disenchanted with certain features of the implementation of the reform itself? Liturgical rites and music, which focus almost exclusively upon the community gathered in a particular space but are blind to the interrupting and transcendent presence of the Triune God. Liturgical spaces that look more like gymnasiums than places of worship. A desperate fear of silence in liturgy, in addition to preaching that focuses almost exclusively upon the priest’s own narrative at the expense of the Gospel. A wide swath of undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame (whose liturgical sensibilities ranged from the now classical repertoire of folk music to Renaissance polyphony) recently expressed to me the fear that Eucharistic celebrations in the dorm are so centered upon the community, upon entertaining music, upon the charism of the priest, upon a sign of peace that lasts ten minutes, that students have grown forgetful about the remarkable encounter with Christ that takes place in receiving the Eucharist itself. Remarking upon this phenomenon, Joseph Ratzinger (Benedict XVI) notes: True liturgical education cannot consist in learning and experimenting with external activities. Instead one must be led toward the essential actio that makes the liturgy what it is, toward the transforming power of God, who wants, through what happens in the liturgy, to transform us and the world” (The Spirit of the Liturg y, 175). I have found that undergraduates in particular, who begin to attend the extraordinary form of the Eucharist, do not do so out of a disdain for local councils of bishops, for lay forms of ministry, but rather because they experience within the extraordinary form “the transforming power of God”. Is not such diversity of liturgical rites itself a consequence of the ecclesiology of the Second Vatican Council? If the extraordinary form of the Eucharist is practiced in a different theological and cultural environment, will it necessarily communicate the same theological vision to the participant as it once did? These are questions which are not treated by Faggioli. Thus, Faggioli’s work is important for discerning the subtle and theologically pivotal function of the Church in Sacrosanctum Concilium, as well as the manner in which the ecclesiology of this document comes to inform later conciliar developments. Simultaneously, it is an articulate, clear response to those that seek to reject the liturgical renewal of the Council as inauthentic, antiquarian, and modernist. Nonetheless, the work is not always attentive to the various gradations of liturgical critique, and the ecclesiological consequences of these concerns. Despite this gap, Faggioli’s text is a must read for all those seeking a deeper understanding of the Second Vatican Council and the liturgical renewal of the Church. 96 97 BOOKS FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION / TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY Imaginative Apologetics: Theology, Philosophy, and the Catholic Tradition edited by Andrew Davison Grand Rapids, MI Baker, 2012 Often when Catholics speak about apologetics, they mean a series of rational arguments intended to buttress faith claims to a world that is incapable of accepting the particularities of Catholic faith at face value. While there is undoubtedly a rational aspect of the art of apologetics, Imaginative Apologetics: Theolog y, Philosophy, and the Catholic Tradition outlines a more substantive, culturally engaged, and theologically sophisticated form of apologetics, one essential to the Church’s work of the New Evangelization. John Hughes, collection, writes: Christian faith can articulate itself only through an engagement with culture. All God-talk, from formal theology, to the liturgical proclamation of the Word, to the conversations in pubs and cafes, should be apologetic; not in the sense of establishing common neutral foundations for faith, but in setting forth the Christian faith in a way that engages with, criticizes and responds to the other views that are current in our world, and that is attractive and persuasive in itself (10-11). The project of a culturally sensitive, theologically suasive apologetics is the ribbon that connects each of the essays in this collection. Andrew Davison contributes an essay discerning how Christianity elevates and through engagement with the patterns of thought and practices in the Christian community. Alison Milbank situates the imagination in apologetics as that faculty of the human person that awakens her to a religious sensibility, to the wonder proposed by the mysteries of Christian faith. Graham Ward proposes a process of cultural interpretation, intrinsic to the work of apologetics, one that analyzes both popular and intellectual culture as “…systems of interpretable signs, gestures, and behaviours…” (118). Each essay in the volume enables the catechist or preacher to perceive anew how “apologetics” as the shaping of a world view is intrinsic to cultivating Christian faith in a postmodern, postChristian context. What makes the volume particularly attractive, beyond the intelligent and clear writing of the authors, is the extensive bibliography provided at the end of the text. Professors looking to teach courses in apologetics would do far worse than beginning with this bibliography, assigning students foundational works, such as Henri deLubac’s The Drama of Atheist Humanism or Dorothy L. Sayers’ Creed or Chaos. Through this engagement with an imaginative, affective, and reasonable apologetics, one may begin to discern how catechesis in the present is more than an intellectual persuasion toward the particularities of Christian doctrine; it is an act of wooing the imagination to sense the extraordinary gift offered to what it means to be human in the doctrines and practices of Christian faith. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE ECHOES OF CHURCH LIFE BY ALEXA SIFUENTES, M.A. The Spirit comes to the aid of our weakness; for we do not know how to pray as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes with inexpressible groanings. (Rom 8:26) When I read this Scripture passage, I also hear: “for we do not know how to evangelize as we should, but the Spirit himself intercedes in our weakness…”. Alexa Sifuentes, M.A. is the Director of Religious Education of St. Pius X Parish in Indianapolis, Indiana. She graduated from the University of Notre Dame with Bachelor’s degrees in Theolog y and Studio Art (2005), as well as an M.A. in Theolog y through the Institute’s Echo: Faith Formation Leadership program (2007). Furthermore, evangelization requires from us a sizeable amount of both fortitude and humility. Add to this the frequency of our human fumbling, and evangelization almost seems hopeless. Yet – the Spirit comes to our aid! The Catechism of the Catholic Church makes it very clear that the Church does not exist separately from the Holy Spirit: “The Holy Spirit, whom Christ the head pours out on his members, builds, animates, and 98 99 ECHOES OF CHURCH LIFE / ALEXA SIFUENTES I want to share a story, which almost didn’t happen. One fall Sunday as I was strolling the halls of St. Pius X Catholic School during Sunday Religious Education, a catechist on her way to get supplies stopped me outside her room. “Alexa, I know you work with RCIA, and my daughter Anna is engaged to a young man who is not Catholic. I don’t even think he’s been baptized. Anyway, they preparation, and they asked the receptionist about Justin becoming Catholic. I told Anna to ask for you. Well, apparently she told them: ‘Alexa only works with Catholics.’ So they left. And now I don’t know what to do.” Speechless. Sputtering. That was my response to this woman. And a wave of relief that the Holy Spirit had planned our encounter that Sunday morning so I could thankfully do damage control. I called her daughter, Anna, the very next day. She was shy, uncertain, and confused, but she seemed glad that I had called. I heard the whole story again, in Anna’s words. As painful as it was to believe, the volunteer receptionist (not our regular secretary) had in fact used that phrase: “Alexa only works with Catholics.” After our phone conversation, Anna and Justin began attending RCIA. Justin, never baptized, never raised with any sort of faith, a child of a split home, simply soaked up the love of God in the Catholic Church. To overuse an analogy, he was a sponge that held much Living water, at that! Truly, that was the easy part. Justin was ready, and once our Church opened the doors, he ran in, and his metanoia (conversion) also brought his cradle-Catholic are stalwarts of young adult ministry in the parish and beyond! They have become good friends to my husband and me, frequently offering to babysit our toddler so we can have a date night. The tedious part of this situation was in responding everyday parishioner evangelize. For I never wanted a situation like that to ever happen again! And part of me felt as though I had failed – wasn’t the parish supposed to be our biggest and best RCIA team member? So with the support and encouragement of our Associate Pastor (my supervisor), we converted the “Faith Formation Commission” into the “Evangelization and Faith Formation Commission.” I felt like a broken record at staff meetings, using the word evangelization whenever and however possible! Our “new” commission spoke at Parish Council meetings, where we realized just how far we had to go – people nearly shuddered at the word evangelization, pigeonholed it as a turn-off, and discouraged us from including it in our commission name. Unfazed, the Evangelization and Faith Formation Commission forged on to teach this new language to the staff and leaders of the parish. We didn’t feel it taking hold until about six months later, when St. Pius X began a parish strategic planning process. The beginnings of this process involved several parish “retreats” which spent the better part of a day discussing three questions: 1) What is important to you about being Catholic? 2) How do you experience that at St. Pius X parish? 3) What do you wish for St. Pius X in the future? As responses to these questions poured forth, I began to jump up and down (internally), for they were exhortation of Pope Paul VI, Evangelii Nuntiandi (EN, 1975): “celebrating the Eucharist…” “passing on the faith…” “living as a Christian…” “having THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Creation of the World, detail, 13th century, St. Mark’s Cathedral, Venice our children baptized…” “hearing the Word of God…” “bringing new people into our Church…” One of the Evangelization and Faith Formation Commission members caught my eye and mouthed the word “evangelization!” and I knew he realized it too. We must preach Christ, proclaim Christ, bear witness to Christ, teach Christ, and celebrate Christ’s sacraments (EN, §17). These are the essential elements of evangelization – our Church’s identity! The most amazing part was realizing that our parish could already speak the language of evangelization; they had been well equipped by their participation in Church life! In this experience was the reassurance I so (humanly) needed – God was showing me, “Remember evangelization is a process and my Spirit is in the life of the Church, until the end of the age.” Regardless of a receptionist’s misspeak, or the doubt of parish leaders, or my own lack of faith, the truth of the Church is continuing on, as the breath of the Spirit draws God’s people in, and, exhaling, sends them out as evangelists. The everyday parishioner is already evangelizing – praise God! However imperfect our evangelization efforts may be, we call on the intercession of the Holy Spirit to perfect it. Then we trust. For as we hear in Philippians 1:6, “I work in you will perfect it until the day of Christ Jesus.” † 100