Church Life: A Journal for the New Evangelization (Catholic Social Teaching)
The Fall 2012 edition of the Institute for Church Life's journal on Catholic Social Teaching and the new evangelization. This issue was a partnership between the Center for Social Concerns and the Institute for Church Life. Columnists include Deacon Jim Keating, John Cavadini, Fr. Jeremy Driscoll, O.S.B., Michael Hebbeler, and Christian Smith. Articles by Timothy O'Malley, Fr. Dan Groody, C.S.C., Margie Pfeil, Gen Jordan and Nick Albares, David Lantigua, and Pat Reidy, C.S.C.
CHURCH LIFE: A JOURNAL FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING II VOCATIONS FOR TEENS TIM O’MALLEY CHURCH LIFE: A JOURNAL FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION Church Life is published quarterly by the Institute for Church Life University of Notre Dame 372 Geddes Hall Notre Dame, IN 46556 Church Life explores the theological and pastoral roots of the New Evangelization, with particular attention to catechesis, liturgy, adult theological education, a spirituality of vocation, and the formation of ordained and lay ministers. Manuscript submissions may be sent to email@example.com. Columns are 1,000 words, articles no more than 3,000 words, and more substantive essays 5,000-7,000 words. For style, see The Chicago Manual of Style and the USCCB Style Guide. EDITORIAL Editor: Timothy P. O’Malley, Ph.D. Assistant Editor, Art Editor: Carolyn Pirtle Designer: Krista Seidl DIRECTORS OF THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE Director: John C. Cavadini, Ph.D. Assistant Director: Jennifer A. Monahan, M.A. Catholic Social and Pastoral Research Initiative: Brian Starks, Ph.D. Echo: Faith Formation Leadership Program: Colleen Moore, M.Div. Notre Dame Center for Liturgy: Timothy P. O’Malley, Ph.D. Notre Dame Vision: Leonard DeLorenzo, M.A. Satellite Theological Education Program (STEP): Thomas C. Cummings, M.Div. University Life Initiatives: Mary K. Daly © 2012 Institute for Church Life This periodical is indexed in the ATLA Catholic Periodical and Literature Index® (CPLI®), a product of the American Theological Library Association, 300 S. Wacker Dr., Suite 2100, Chicago, IL 60606, USA. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www: http://www.atla.com. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE III COVER IMAGE © Matt Cashore, Our Lady of Mercy Chapel, Geddes Hall, University of Notre Dame IV VOCATIONS FOR TEENS TIM O’MALLEY MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR, TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY DEAR READERS, THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE V DEAR READERS Timothy P. Oâ€™Malley, Ph.D. is director of the Notre Dame Center for Liturg y, a Concurrent Professor in the Department of Theolog y at the University of Notre Dame, and editor of the journal Church Life. Recently, I found myself immersed in the solitary task of grading the mid-term exams of students in my Foundations of Christian Theology course. One of the exam essays asked the students to compare Hosea and Amos, two of the earliest prophets in the Old Testament canon. Almost unanimously, student after student declared that Hosea addressed the religious sins of Israel, while Amos treated the issue of social justice. VI MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY Though undoubtedly the fault of the professor (in this case, me!), the students’ tendency to separate religious and cultic practice from social action is endemic in American culture. “Catholics” are lauded publicly in non-religious media insofar as they engage in heroic feats of social action. And indeed such recognition is encouraging, a sign that Christian discipleship can provoke admiration and conversion of heart even among those who do not operate out of a Christian worldview. Simultaneously, one gets the sense that Catholicism can easily be reduced to a series of social teachings alone, an organization that exists for the betterment of society but not for the salvation of the world. In reality, the separation of “religious practice” from “social action” is profoundly non-biblical. The Law bestowed on Mt. Sinai is not an arbitrary series of commands but instead a tangible sign of God’s own justice, a reminder of the wondrous deeds that God performed in rescuing Israel from the bonds of slavery in Egypt. God declares to Israel: You shall not oppress a stranger, for you know the feelings of the stranger, having yourselves been strangers in the land of Egypt. Six years you shall sow your land and gather in its yield; but in the seventh you shall let it rest and lie fallow. Let the needy among your people eat of it, and what they leave let the wild beasts eat. You shall do the same with your vineyards and your olive groves. Six days you shall do your work, but on the seventh day you shall cease from labor, in order that your ox and your ass may rest, and that your bondman and the stranger may be refreshed (Ex 23:9-12). In this case, the Law itself (concerned with divine justice) becomes an act of divine worship, a bestowal of gratitude offered to God. The oppression of the stranger is not only a failure of societal measures of justice but also a forgetfulness of what God has done. Letting the land lie fallow is not merely the pursuit of ecological justice but a “sacramental” sign that the land is itself a gift from God. Keeping the Sabbath, Israel’s supreme act of worship, is intrinsically tied to care for those who labor. Thus, when the prophets decry Israel’s neglect for the poor, their forgetfulness of the stranger, their blatant disregard for the Law, they do so precisely because they perceive these deeds as bald-faced acts of ingratitude marshaled against the living God of justice. Jesus, the anointed prophet of the Father, announces His own mission of salvation through words echoing the prophet Isaiah. In the Gospel of Luke, Jesus proclaims in the synagogue in Nazareth: ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim release to the captives and recovery of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those who are oppressed, to proclaim the acceptable year to the Lord.’ And he closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant, and sat down; and the eyes of all in the synagogue hearing’ (Lk 4:18-21). THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE VII Our temptation is to read this passage as a reduction of the Gospel to a social or political program. Such a reading is not attentive to the underlying logic of the Gospel of Luke. Indeed, Jesus is concerned about the poor, the oppressed, those in captivity. And Christians who live as if discipleship does not include working to eliminate unjust social structures or offering concrete deeds of charity to those in need require a conversion. But the possibility of this conversion, of a radical opening up of the human heart to the great reversal inaugurated by the Kingdom of God, requires an encounter with Jesus resurrected Messiah, who reigns not from a throne but from the wood of the Cross. Religious practice and social action are intrinsically connected, precisely because only through our entrance into the life of the Church, our rumination upon the Word of God, our eating and drinking the Body and Blood of the Lord, our life of contemplation, can we deepen our encounter with the Christ who expands our capacity for love. And through the Christian life, our gradual incorporation into Christâ€™s life in the Church, our social action can become a sacrament of the kingdom. As St. Paul exhorts: I appeal to you, thereforeâ€Śby the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship. Do not be conformed to this world but be transformed by the renewal of your mind, that you may prove what is the will of God, what is good and acceptable and perfect. (Rm 12:1-2) VIII MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR TIMOTHY P. O’MALLEY In Catholicism, social action is Eucharistic, a presenting of our bodies as an offering of love, a gift poured out for the renewal of the world. Therefore, a necessary goal of the New Evangelization will be an intentional effort on the Church’s part to proclaim and perform the intrinsic union between doctrine, worship, and social action. Our understanding of Christ as the God-man is intimately tied to our commitment to human dignity at all stages of life. We denounce and work to end the injustice of abortion, of sexism, of poverty and homelessness, of conspicuous consumption, of sexual slavery, of jingoism, of war and forced migration, and every injustice that emerges from the kingdom of power and manipulation. We enter into solidarity with those that suffer at the violent hands of Babylon. We examine the Church herself through the sober eyes of faith, hope, and love to see where such injustice has entered into our communal life with one another, whether in our Catholic schools, our forms of leadership, or in the “in-groups” that can deform the beauty of parish life. As Christians, we see such work as part of our own Eucharistic vocation, to give ourselves away in deeds of love, to enter more deeply into the Triune life of God. Yet, we work with those who do not share our profession of faith for the common good of country and society alike. A common good that moves beyond hatred and polarization, political parties and platforms, class warfare and the politics of blame, toward authentic human community. And we do so, not as an accessory to our Catholic faith, but as the deepest expression of our identity as adopted sons and daughters of the living God. This issue of Church Life is an exercise seeking to imagine what a commitment to evangelization and Catholic Social Teaching might look like. We have partnered with the University of Notre Dame’s Center for Social Concerns (CSC), a sister institute of the ICL, to carry out this imaginative experiment. As such, we feature guest columnist Michael Hebbeler (Director of Student Leadership and Senior Transitions), who writes about the Center’s mission of evangelization to Notre Dame’s undergraduates. Through the work of the Center, the proclamation that “God is love” (1 Jn 4:8b, 16b) manifests itself in the physical and spiritual commitment to the common good. Thus, we’re very happy to have them intimately involved in planning this extended issue of Church Life. panoply of issues related to Catholic Social Teaching and the New Evangelization. John Cavadini, in his column, treats the intrinsic relationship between justice and charity. Tim O’Malley offers a Eucharistic reading of Catholic Social Teaching, a reading that might inform the Church’s pedagogy in marriage preparation, ecological formation, and service immersion. Margie Pfeil, assistant professor in the Department of Theology, analyzes the evangelical and Eucharistic function of a food cooperative in the city of South Bend. Nick Albares and Gen Jordan (graduates of the University of Notre Dame and alumni representatives to the Institute for Church Life and Center for Social Concern’s advisory council) describe through narrative how an immersion in Catholic social thought and action is necessary for the Church’s work of the New Evangelization. Pat Reidy, C.S.C., a Holy Cross seminarian, performs a he took to El Salvador, a recognition of the radical cost of love fundamental to priestly formation. David Lantigua, assistant professor at the Catholic THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE IX University of America, situates the development of the language of human rights in the Churchâ€™s own in South America, with particular attention to the solidarity and love shown to the natives by many of the missionaries. Finally, Fr. Dan Groody, C.S.C. addresses the spiritual and theological meaning of migration in the modern world. Thus, each article in this edition of Church Life intends of Catholic Social Teaching. Precisely because, if the New Evangelization is to work, it must become more than an inculcation into the language of Christian doctrine. Rather, the New Evangelization will result in a concrete encounter with the Christ who offers Himself in the stunning poverty of hungry and â€ X VOCATIONS FOR TEENS TIM O’MALLEY TABLE OF CONTENTS IV MUSINGS FROM THE EDITOR Timothy P. O’Malley THE LITURGY WORK OF THE HOLY TRINITY: THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE CHURCH IN THE LITURGY PART I Jeremy Driscoll, O.S.B. SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION John Cavadini LIFE IN CHRIST: THE RIGHT TO CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTION James Keating COMMUNION, CONVERSION, SOLIDARITY Michael Hebbeler TO IMPROVE CATHOLIC HOMILIES, PART III: EXPLAIN THE LITURGY Christian Smith THE EUCHARISTIC FOUNDATIONS OF CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING Timothy P. O’Malley THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE XI CARING FOR THE GOOD NEWS OF CREATION AND ITS FRUITS: FOOD, JUSTICE, AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION Margaret Pfeil THE “NEW” EVANGELIZATION IN THE AMERICAS: ON THE CATHOLIC ORIGINS OF HUMAN RIGHTS David Lantigua THE NEW EVANGELIZATION AND CATHOLIC SOCIAL TEACHING Nick Albares and Genevieve Jordan THE CHURCH AND IMMIGRATION: REFLECTIONS OF A PILGRIM PEOPLE Daniel Groody, C.S.C. LIBERATING CONTEMPLATION: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING ANALYSIS EL SALVADOR Pat Reidy, C.S.C. BOOKS FOR THE NEW EVANGELIZATION Timothy P. O’Malley ECHOES OF CHURCH LIFE Alexa Sifuentes 1 SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION JOHN C. CAVADINI JOHN C. CAVADINI, PH.D. SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION What is the Relation Between Social Justice and Love in the Christian Tradition? ancient, two contemporary. To begin with: St. Augustine, who takes up the question of the relation between social justice and love as the relation between justice and mercy. There is of course no fully developed “social teaching” in the Fathers if by that is meant a systematic analysis of something we now call “society” (“res socialis”) with clearly articulated fundamental principles relating to its well being. Nevertheless, the Fathers did comment extensively on the poor and on the responsibility of full of exhortations to give alms, to care for the poor, and thus to perform works of mercy. There is however no strict separation between mercy and justice. Commenting on Ps 49:5, “Gather his just ones to him,” Augustine comments, “And who are the just? Those who live by faith (see Heb 2:4) and perform works of mercy, for works of mercy are works of justice” (En. in Psalm 49.12). The just are those who have “treated the helpless with mercy and have understood about the needy and poor” (ibid.). John C. Cavadini, Ph.D. is the McGrathCavadini Director of the Institute for Church Life, Professor of Theolog y at the University of Notre Dame, and a member of the International Theological Commission. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 2 In fact, the standard of justice, the justice which “the heavens will proclaim” (Ps 49:6), and the “price” that Christ the Judge will exact for entrance into the Kingdom of Heaven, is the mercy enjoined by Matthew 25: “Come, you whom my Father has blessed, take possession of…” Of what? “The kingdom.” And what price have they paid for it? “I was hungry and you fed me” (Mt 25:34,35). Augustine connects this to the teaching on justice in the exhortation, “Break your bread for the hungry, and take the person with no shelter into your home. If you see anyone naked, clothe him” (Is 58:7, cited at En. in Ps. 49:13). In other words, the “justice” that Christians are obliged to work in the world is not a worldly form of justice, or even one that can be fully understood from the perspective of philosophy or unaided reason, because what one “owes” in “justice” has been recalibrated by God’s acts of mercy in the economy of salvation revealed in Scripture. To put it most succinctly, God’s mercy is His self-emptying solidarity with Incarnation. This self-emptying is so complete that the God who can say, “if I were hungry, I would not tell you, for the round world is mine and all its fullness,” (Ps 49:12) nevertheless “did graciously will to be hungry for our sake” (En. in Ps 49:19) and became “poor” (2 Cor 8:9) for us (similar point in Sermo 113B, on Lazarus and the Rich Man). Because of Christ’s Christ, and our works of mercy on their behalf truly, by His grace, are feeding and sheltering Christ, accepting His economy of mercy as setting the standards of what justice means and what obligations it will impose. For it is not only Christ’s mercy that is revealed in the Incarnation and the associated economy but the poor and needy person as the true icon or image of all of humanity. The Church is in the world as the continuing locus of this revelation: “All the members of Christ, the body of Christ diffused throughout the world, are like a single person asking God’s help, one single beggar, one poor suppliant; and this is because Christ Himself is that poor man, since He who was ‘rich became poor,’ as the Apostle tells us: ‘Though he was rich he became poor, so that by his poverty you might be enriched’” (2 Cor 8:9; En. in Ps 39:28). Christ’s mercy, binding human beings into the unity of “one person,” reveals the worth of humanity as consisting not in any observable human distinctions or even human virtues, but rather its “poverty,” its bare humanness as the object of God’s mercy. Almsgiving is thus to be based on need, and not on the perceived virtue or goodness of any person (Sermo 359A.11), that is, it is based on their humanity as such. And it is thus all the better if one can even remedy the need of someone in person, thus emphasizing the bond in our common humanity (Sermo 259.5), our neediness as seen and revealed from the mercy of Christ, and not in any further virtue, To move to a contemporary developed further in the form of the “preferential option for the poor.” In his book On Job, theologian Gustavo Gutierrez explores the relation between justice and love that is implied in the idea of a preferential option for the poor. Contrary to popular belief, the “preferential option for doctrine about God, and not about the poor: “The ultimate basis of God’s preference for the poor is to be found in God’s own goodness and not in any analysis of society or in human compassion, however pertinent these reasons may be” (On Job, xiii). If the poor and the “little ones” are “the privileged addressees of revelation,” this is “the result not primarily of moral or spiritual dispositions, but of a human situation in which God undertakes self-revelation by acting 3 SOCIAL JUSTICE AND LOVE IN THE CHRISTIAN TRADITION JOHN C. CAVADINI and overturning values and criteria. The scorned of this world are those whom the God of love prefers” (ibid.). We are confronted with a mystery of God’s transcendent love that cannot be reduced to human reason, because it is a “preference,” based in God’s “goodness.” Again, “This special love [for the poor] does not have for its ultimate motive the virtues and merits of the poor, but the goodness and freedom of God, a God who is not simply the guardian of a rigid moral order” (ibid., 88). The Christian must speak in two languages: “mystical language expresses the gratuitousness of God’s love; prophetic language the demands this love makes” (ibid., 95). Ultimately, Gutierrez says, we must learn to join these languages into one language, to speak one language, which, he says, is the “language of the Cross.” Jesus in his cry of dereliction on the Cross spoke in solidarity with all the abandoned in invoking Psalm 22 on the Cross: “His cry on the Cross renders more audible and more penetrating the cries of all the Jobs, individual and collective, of human history” (ibid., 101). Just as in St. Augustine’s case, the revelation in Christ recontextualizes justice from a purely human point of view, and it becomes impossible to refer to justice without a wider and prior reference to God’s mercy. St. Augustine says that Christ, in His cry of desolation on the Cross, gives voice to all of the desolation His. The more desolate and despised the voice we hear, the more we hear Christ Meltem Atkas, St. Vincent and The Beggar, 1995 Rosati House of Chicago; Imago Inc. All rıghts reserved. Used with permission. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 4 speaking in the voice, the more we hear God’s mercy speaking, and the more we are called to “prefer” these voices, hearing in them the one language of justice and mercy which Jesus spoke from the Cross. Without the preferential option for the poor, as grounded in God’s goodness, the language of justice can quickly be truncated into a “sclerotic” (On Job, 88) moralism with no proper connection to anything truly human or humane. This observation leads us to our third source, Pope Benedict the XVI, whose encyclical Deus Caritas Est (God is Love, 2005) carries forward the themes we have already observed in St. Augustine once again, that justice, for the Christian, is contextualized in and by love. “What is justice? The problem is one of practical reason; but if reason is to be exercised properly, it must undergo constant completely free of the danger of a certain ethical blindness caused by the dazzling effect of power and special interests” (DCE, §28a). Truly to see the human person is to see him or her from the perspective of the Eucharistic gift of Christ’s self. From the point of view of communion a “sacramental ‘mysticism’ which is social in character,” such that “union with Christ is also union with all those to whom He gives Himself,” which is every person (§14). Our idea of sacramental mysticism so that it resists all narrowness, and must be supplemented by the awareness that we have not met all human needs if we attempt to exclude love: “There is no ordering of the State so just that it can eliminate the need for a service of love. Whoever wants to eliminate love is preparing to eliminate man as such. There will always be suffering which cries out for consolation and help. There will always be loneliness. There will always be situations of material need where help in the form of concrete love of neighbor is indispensable” (§28). The notion of “justice” withers away into something incommensurate with the fullness of humanity if it is separated from love. The Church “cannot and must not remain on the sidelines in the not mean relinquishing all human caring into the hands of the state, for the state which absorbs all human caring into itself becomes a “mere bureaucracy incapable of guaranteeing the very thing which the suffering person – every person – needs: namely, loving personal concern” (ibid.). The Church’s charitable works, as works of love, are proper to her person and are irreplaceable because they are witness to the wider worth of human beings, beyond their utility to the state, that grounds all struggles for justice in a proper sense of humanity. “Love is the light – and in the end the only light,” in which the needs of human beings can be fully and Love is the light in which we see the true dimensions and scope of social justice. † 5 LIFE IN CHRIST DEACON JAMES KEATING Notre Dame students share a meal at the Catholic Worker House in Detroit, MI during their Urban Plunge Seminar. Photo courtesy of the Center for Social Concerns THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 6 MICHAEL HEBBELER, M.A. COMMUNION, CONVERSION, SOLIDARITY If Christ came to bring the Good News to the poor (Lk 4:18), must one go in search of the poor in order to partake of this News? And who are the poorâ€”them, the materially destitute, or us, the privileged whose lives of superabundance often lead to spiritual impoverishment? Who evangelizes whom? In his apostolic exhortation Ecclesia in America (1999), Pope John Paul II Michael Hebbeler, M.A. is the Director of Student Leadership and Senior Transitions in the Center for Social Concerns at the University of Notre Dame, as well as the staff advisor for VOICE, the student advisory board for the Center for Social Concerns. as central to the Churchâ€™s mission of evangelization. This practice is rooted in the encounter with Christ, both in Scripture and sacrament, and cultivated through the work of justice in response to the needs of the poor. John Paul II calls the Church to see this connectedness and respond accordingly: 7 COMMUNION, CONVERSION, SOLIDARITY MICHAEL HEBBELER ‘Truly, I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me’ (Mt. 25:40). The awareness of communion with Christ and with our brothers and sisters, for its part the fruit of conversion, leads to the service of our neighbors in all their needs, material and spiritual, since the face of Christ shines forth in every human being. Solidarity is thus the fruit of the communion which is grounded in the mystery of the triune God, and in the Son of God who took flesh and died for all. It is expressed in Christian love which seeks the good of others, especially of those most in need. (EA, §52) The Center for Social Concerns at the University of Notre Dame seeks to participate in this mission of evangelization by inviting students into the community—locally, nationally, and internationally— to study unjust structures and build relationships with vulnerable populations oppressed by these structures. Through seminar immersions, service-learning programs and community-based research, the Center conducts academic courses that explore poverty and injustice through the lens of Catholic Social Teaching. Responding to this invitation, students enter into communion with the poor and marginalized, and such action can lead to conversion through the practice of solidarity. Because poverty and “the poor” are too often abstracted from their particular contexts, it is vital for our students to displace themselves physically into these contexts. Christ did not encounter the poor in the abstract. Rather, he gave sight to Bartimaeus while leaving Jericho (Mk 10:46-52) and in Capernaum healed the centurion’s servant (Mt 8:5-13). And so students go to Immokalee, Florida, to encounter migrant farmers; to Chicago’s South Side to understand the lives of gang members; to East Africa to meet victims of civil war. Students also travel to a place where often it is toughest to face poverty— their own backyard. While Notre Dame, Our Mother, radiates in gold atop the famed dome on campus, Our Lady of the Road stands two miles away in the city of South Bend as a drop-in center for the homeless. Here dozens of people enter from off the streets seeking a meal, a warm shower, and clean laundry. Students enrolled in this seminar focusing on homelessness in South Bend enter the discussion through the framework of Catholic Social Teaching. They begin to discover that solidarity requires an understanding of one’s connectedness to social structures and therefore also one’s responsibility for the poverty and injustice that results from these structures. Erica, a senior level student, notes, “The dignity of the human person is at stake in our society. There is a problem when ‘the having of a few can be to the detriment of the being of many others’ (Sollicitudo rei socialis, §31). Through the reading and discussion in class, I was forced to face my own personal responsibility in contributing to and consuming in THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 8 this society that is leaving many in breadlines.” Just as the poor are not an abstract concept, neither do they exist in a vacuum. The principle of solidarity seeks to remove the barriers that separate us from them and holds all accountable for creating a society that privileges the rich and oppresses the poor. Engaging this principle in the classroom, however, remains an intellectual exercise unless the classroom extends into the community. One cannot encounter Christ theoretically. He or she must go to the hungry and thirsty, the sick and imprisoned (Mt 25:35-36). Here the “awareness of communion” that John Paul II references in Ecclesia in America manifests itself experience at Our Lady of the Road (an apostolate of the St. Peter Claver Catholic Worker), stating, “We are called not just to serve food, but to sit and eat with our brothers and sisters and know Christ in the breaking of the bread. I think the best way to describe my time at the drop-in and what it has done in my heart is that it feels a bit like home. It feels right, as if I am participating in what I was created to do— participating in an exchange of love.” While the act of serving initiated her contact with plates and into a relationship with men and women through the sharing of bread. She alludes to the Emmaus story (Lk 24:13-35), of which Dorothy Day was fond, identifying the feeling in her heart that arises from the recognition of the faces crowded around the table. Erica feels home amongst a group once made up of strangers. Yet the burning in her heart, while inspiring, does not comfort her for long. Rather, it creates discomfort. A space for conversion has opened within her, and that which she has seen and encountered beckons her upon a path that takes great courage to travel. Vulnerable, desirous, yet fearful, she admits, “During our last class session, I felt almost paralyzed by a sinking feeling in my stomach. The call to live in community and solidarity is clear. confronted with the reality that I have to change. My actions, plans and ideas of what I think it means to live as a Christian must change. I don’t think I’ve fully said yes to that yet; I still need the grace to let go of the things at which I am grasping.” From the aisle in the Basilica to the breadline outside the drop-in center, we say yes to communion, to encounter with Christ, whose Good News makes our heart burn with the desire to love the least of these. The students wrestle with these newfound insights, easing one another’s anxiety through conversation and prayer, yet holding one another accountable to live their convictions and enter more deeply into the practice of solidarity. The road is not easy, but sometimes grace comes cloaked in a stranger who walks alongside God’s faithful disciples. † 9 EVANGELIZING CULTURE CHRISTIAN SMITH El Greco, Pentecost, c. 1596-1600 Museo del Prado BY JEREMY DRISCOLL, O.S.B. THE LITURGY WORK OF THE HOLY TRINITY: THE HOLY SPIRIT AND THE CHURCH IN THE LITURGY PART I THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 10 In previous columns I commented on those parts of the Catechism of the Catholic Church that concern the distinct roles of the Father and the Son in the liturgy. In this present column I would like to begin to treat the section entitled “The Holy Spirit and the Church in the Liturgy” (§1091-1109). It is striking that after considering the role in the liturgy of the Father in Himself and of Christ in Himself, these next paragraphs of the Catechism treat the Holy Spirit together with the Church. This is seen already in the title of the section, and the reasoning behind this is immediately explained: “The desire and work of the Spirit in the heart of the Church is that we may live from the life of the risen Christ” (§1091). The Spirit is, as it were, looking in two directions: toward the risen Christ and toward the Church. He “takes” from the risen Christ and makes what he takes the Church’s own. When the faith which he has aroused,” then the liturgy in fact can become “the common work of the Holy Spirit and the Church” (§1091). This is something marvelous. The liturgy is something that God does, and it is something that the Church does. It is at one and the same time a divine work and a human work. A huge claim follows, even if it is expressed in deceptively simple language. It is that in the liturgy “the Holy Spirit acts in the same way as at other times in the economy of salvation” (§1092). This means that the divine action of the Spirit that unfolded through all the centuries of both the Old and the New Testaments is concentrated now in the event of the liturgy. Four verbs summarize the Spirit’s action: the Spirit prepares the Church to meet Christ, recalls Christ, makes present His mystery, and unites the Church to Him. Each of these dimensions is developed under separate subtitles. This whole section of the Catechism on the Holy Spirit and the Church in the liturgy is twice as long as the sections on the Father’s and the Son’s roles. For this reason we will need to divide our analysis into several installments. For the the four subtitles. Fr. Jeremy Driscoll, O.S.B. is a monk of Mount Angel Abbey in St. Benedict, OR. He is a professor of theolog y at Mount Angel Seminary Sant’Anselmo in Rome. 11 THE LITURGY JEREMY DRISCOLL, O.S.B. The Holy Spirit prepares for the reception of Christ. This title, this sentence, exactly describes the action of the Spirit in two places: in the economy of salvation and in the what I called a “huge claim,” namely, the convergence of Spirit’s work in salvation history with Spirit’s work in the liturgy. Throughout the Old Covenant, the Spirit was preparing a people for Christ’s coming. Now, in the why “the Church’s liturgy has retained certain elements of the worship of the Old Covenant…” (§1093). Three as reading the Old Testament and praying the Psalms. The third element is more complex. It is “recalling the which she understands the Old Testament and uses it in the liturgy. In reality, the Church’s understanding of the Old Testament is “Paschal catechesis,” and its original and authoritative practitioner is the risen Lord Himself. A footnote in this paragraph refers the reader to Luke 24:13-49 where, in two different Resurrection appearances, the Lord indicates that the Messiah’s Death and Resurrection is the meaning of Moses and the prophets and the Psalms, of the entire Old Covenant. The Apostles, the Catechism contends, build their understanding of the mystery of Christ on His own “Paschal catechesis,” and the Church Fathers follow in the pattern of the Lord and the Apostles. The Catechism states that this way of interpreting the hidden meaning of the letter of the Old Testament has a technical name: “It is called ‘typological’ because it reveals the newness of Christ on the basis of the Underlying this expression is the notion of feast as understood in the religion of Israel. Feasts consisted in “recalling saving events,” which, precisely because they were God’s deeds, could become present again in the celebration of their memory. These events cumulatively build up an inner meaning, which the Catechism calls “promise and covenant, Exodus and Passover, kingdom recall those events and realities in the liturgy that the That is, the warrant for this method of scriptural interpretation is in the Scriptures themselves, as the Catechism then demonstrates with examples from the New Testament. Typological interpretation of Scripture is not the invention or intrusion of a later period or a different culture — say, that of the patristic Church. No, the Fathers continued what was begun by the risen Lord and the Apostles, and they extended it to all parts of the Scriptures. All of this explains why in her liturgy the Christian Church continues to celebrate the great deeds of God from Israel’s past. Just as the Holy Spirit was preparing Israel for the coming of Christ, now the same Spirit prepares the liturgical assembly for the coming of Christ. The Catechism puts forward the various liturgical seasons as prime examples of this: “For this reason the Church, especially during Advent and Lent and above all at the Easter Vigil, re-reads and re-lives The next paragraph defends this concept, or in any of the two Testaments.” The Catechism is on this harmony of the two Testaments that the Paschal catechesis of the Lord is built, and then, that of the Apostles and the Fathers of the Church” (§1094). The term “Paschal catechesis” provides important THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 12 the great events of salvation history in the ‘today’ of her liturgy” (§1095). All of us who hear these Old Testament readings proclaimed during Advent, Lent, and especially at the Easter Vigil, will certainly listen if we keep in mind that by means of them the Holy Spirit is actively preparing us to meet Christ in the very liturgy in which they are proclaimed. The phrase “above all at the Easter Vigil” deserves our attention. The Catechism does not develop it in this particular paragraph, but it does provided us with a crucial element of what is needed to understand more deeply this part of the “mother of all Vigils” (Missale Romanum, “Rubrics for the Easter Vigil,” §20). The Holy Spirit is active in the liturgical assembly precisely by means of the details of what is read. The seven Old Testament readings of the Easter Vigil are representative texts that proclaim whole blocks of essential Old Testament theology, moving from important reading, the Exodus; four subsequent readings announce pivotal themes of the prophets. An understanding of these texts in relation to the Paschal Mystery, which is so explicit in the Easter Vigil, can serve also when these or similar readings appear at other times in the liturgical year. The Collects that follow each reading are a rich resource for understanding these links between Old Testament These express with simplicity and clarity the Church’s profound Christological and sacramental understanding of the Old Testament texts. Catechism on the Holy Spirit and the Church in the liturgy concludes by returning to the word “prepare” from its title, highlighting again the notion of the liturgy as a common work of both the Holy Spirit and the Church. “The assembly should prepare itself to encounter its Lord and to become ‘a people well disposed.’ The preparation of hearts is the joint work of the Holy Spirit and the assembly, especially of its ministers” (§1098). We can hope that this work of the Holy Spirit in us, together with our own disposition to be open to his inspirations, will make of our liturgies what they are truly meant to be in the plan of God: a divine work and the work of the Church. † 13 LIFE IN CHRIST BY DEACON JAMES KEATING, PH.D. THE RIGHT TO CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTION “The law of God entrusted to the Church is taught to the faithful as the way of life and truth. The faithful therefore have the right to be instructed in the divine saving precepts that purify judgment and, with grace, heal wounded human reason.” (Catechism of the Catholic Church, §2037) Church and then the dynamism (“the way of life and truth”) of the content of God’s law. It is also a statement about the power of truth and grace to heal and purify owed to the faithful regarding catechesis. The Catechism of the Catholic Church (CCC) constitutes the moral law as God’s “fatherly instruction” (§1950). When this instruction is lived out by Catholics, it results in their happiness. “Fatherly instruction” is an attractive description of the law as it expresses its personal origins. The law of moral truth, as revealed by Moses and Christ, Deacon James Keating, Ph.D. is Director of Theological Formation in The Institute for Priestly Formation at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. THE INSTITUTE FOR CHURCH LIFE 14 Cosimo Rosselli and Piero di Cosimo, Sermon on the Mount and Healing of the Leper, detail, 1482 Sistine Chapel, Vatican 15 THE RIGHT TO CATECHETICAL INSTRUCTION DEACON JAMES KEATING and detected dimly by wounded reason has its source in the Father’s heart. God wants us to have the deepest communion with Him and so “labors” to reveal those behaviors and dispositions which will speed and secure that communion. Obviously the Catholic Church believes that there are some behaviors and dispositions that can threaten and destroy communion with the Holy Trinity—sin. The Church prompts those entrusted with the work of catechesis in moral truth to embrace their duty to teach only those things that can “[put] people in communion with Jesus Christ” (CCC §426, citing John Paul II’s apostolic exhortation Catechesi tradendae (1979)). All parishioners, then, have a right to learn those truths that purify judgment this salving of reason happens within the arena of grace, within the security of the sacramental womb. Developing and wounded persons need security. Wounded ones ought not to be exposed to that which makes them weaker. Love wants to protect and not expose wounds to further injury. I lived through the 1970s as a teenager and recall that my mind was not secured by catechists within the sacramental womb but basically opened and left exposed to “new ideas.” These ideas did not originate within the sacramental womb, but in fact were born within the speculation of university professors. My catechist had read these professors’ latest ideas and heard their latest lectures and mistook these for “fatherly instruction.” I do not remember being Later, I remember being embarrassed as an undergraduate when I spoke these ideas as if they were Church t