Old Testament Leadership Principle
Leaders are chosen by God to do extraordinary things, and in turn leaders are to be useful in their leadership to do the things God has called them to do, to lead people to Christ, for their salvation of souls. It is a duty of every leader to lead by example, because actions speak louder than words. This Old Testament leadership Principle by Isaac Luk's Christian Hope Ministry Bible Seminary School of Christian Education, will become a guide to leaders to follow in the example of Christ, as they lead people to Christ, not turning them away from Christ.
ISAAC LUK’S CHRISTIAN HOPE MINISTRY BIBLE SEMINARY SCHOOL OF CHRISTIAN EDUCATION Old Testament Leadership Principles Man will fail God; God forgives and He can use man for his good Rev. Dr. Isaac Luk 2012 2513 N. 73RD STREET, OMAHA, NEBRASKA, 68134. TEL: 402-590-4822. WEBSITE: WWW.LUKBIBLESEMINARYSCHOOL-EDU.ORG Old Testament Leadership Principle 2 LIBERTY UNIVERSITY PROFESSOR DR. JOHN MCGINN CLED 510 OLD TESTAMENT PROJECT BY DIANE BELCHER CARL FELTON JAMES JOHNSON REV. DR. ISAAC LUK DAMIAN STREETZ JONATHON WHITE LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA Old Testament Leadership Principle 3 Genesis Principle: Man will fail God; God forgives and can use man for his good. Key Verses: "Of every tree of the garden you may freely eat; but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat of it you shall surely die" Genesis 2:16 Explanation/Illustration of the Principle The dominate theme of Genesis is Godâ€™s eternal existence and His creation of the world. He created the universe and every living thing. All people, regardless of culture, nationality or language are accountable to the Creator. Adam did not obey God. We all suffer because of this. We are all separated from God because of sin. God introduces us to great leaders in Genesis: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph. In Genesis God told Abraham to travel to a land where God will bless him and all mankind, if we would only follow Gods word, he would bless us too. Isaac and Rebekah are a love story. This story has some similarities in how God works in our lives today. God the Father sends the Holy Spirit, asking us to accept Jesus as Lord, and become the bride of Christ. When he finds us he asks us to leave behind our old life and come join him in a new life as a Christian. We have to decide if we will follow him or not. It is our choice. Jacob and Joseph are also men of God and we see that they fall short of his guidance. He is still willing to forgive them and bring them out of sin. We can trust him to handle all burdens in our lives. With anything hopeless, in his hands, amazing things can be accomplished if we will only trust and obey his word. Terrible and unfair things happen in our lives, but God will always turn them around for a greater good if we have faith in Him and his imperial plan. Old Testament Leadership Principle 4 Exodus Principle: God commands us to follow his word and the listen to His guidance. Key Verses: And God said, “I will be with you. And this will be the sign to you that it is I who have sent you: When you have brought the people out of Egypt, you will worship God on this mountain.” Exodus 3:11-12 Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Moses, a great man/leader of God is introduced to us in Exodus. Moses’ humble beginnings remind us that God can use us no matter where we came from. Through much faith in God, Moses followed Gods orders and saved God’s people. Moses through his life showed us how an intimate relationship with God can reap great things for God’s kingdom. God promises to meet our needs and to forgive us for our transgressions. “Yet, God forgives before we ask — and even when we don’t ask”.1 Many miracles happen in the book of Exodus; God shows us he will protect his people and provides for them even in the harshest conditions. “We are always in the presence of a God who loves us and in whom we can place our trust. God has prepared us not for this life, with its various elements of pain and suffering but for eternity, where we will share God's lifestyle and live in the fullness of the life that God has destined for us”.2. “Let us therefore come boldly to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy and find grace to help in time of need” Hebrews 4:16. “Cast your burden on the Lord, and He shall sustain you; He shall never permit the righteous to be moved” Psalm 55:22 1 God's Mercy. (2010). Priest, 66(5), 27. K.Warrington. (2006). HEALING AND SUFFERING IN THE BIBLE. International Review Of Mission, 95(376/377), 154-164. 2 Old Testament Leadership Principle 5 Leviticus Principle: Coercive and demanding leadership is leading by fear, not by true leadership. Key Verses: Leviticus 19:13, says “You shall not oppress your neighbor or rob him”……… Explanation/Illustration of the Principle As Christians we are to abnegate any form of cruelty. Authoritarian leadership can disguise itself, but it really is oppression. Oppression does not bring out the best in people. Leadership is defined as “an act or instance of leading; guidance; effectiveness”. Using people as tools instead of creating an atmosphere of team work does not allow them to unleash their creativity and open their minds to create new ideas or solutions to problems. It leaves them to primarily carry out the will of the leader. Leaders should be involved in the specifics of overseeing things and make sure things are being done right, but oppressing people for that to happen is not in God’s will. “All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle, that though the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail, that will to be rightful must be reasonable; that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect, and to violate would be oppression.”3 “Ye shall not therefore oppress one another; but thou shalt fear thy God: for I am the LORD your God” Leviticus 25:17. We must not oppress anyone in our dealings, and we must strive to be generous, kindhearted, patient, and forgiving. “Each of you should use whatever gift you have received to serve others, as faithful stewards of God’s grace in its various forms” 1Peter 4:10. 3 Thomas Jefferson, quote Old Testament Leadership Principle 6 Numbers Principle: God teaches us to follow his will and he will bless us. He asks us to be leaders in sharing his word and being grateful for his blessings. Key Verses: Numbers 6:24-26 says, "The LORD bless you and keep you; the LORD make his face shine upon you and be gracious to you; the LORD turn his face toward you and give you peace." Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Those whom God had redeemed from slavery in Egypt and with whom he had made a covenant at Mount Sinai responded not with faith, gratitude and obedience but with unbelief, ingratitude and repeated acts of rebellion. Moses constantly intervened on behalf of the people he was chosen to lead. “And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and cried; and the people wept that night. And all the children of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron” Numbers 14:1-2. We as God’s people are so ungrateful. Today, Just as Moses did, we can intervene for the health and wellbeing of our nation. Just as God took care of the Hebrews on their long journey, he takes care of our needs every day. “The blessing in Numbers becomes intimate if we realize that what is being said is that we belong to God”.4 4 We Are God's. (2011). Priest, 67(12), 26. Old Testament Leadership Principle 7 Deuteronomy Principle: God commands us to follow his word. Key Verses: “Do not add to what I command you and do not subtract from it, but keep the commands of the LORD your God that I give you” Deuteronomy 4:2. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle The chosen people are given the Ten Commandments before crossing over into the Promised Land. His salutation reminded them of the things that happened in the dessert. Moses encouraged them to obey God and God would help them, but if they chose not to, they would suffer the consequences. Our nature as human beings is to look to God when things are getting tough, and to brush God aside when things are going well. Although we are no longer under the Old Testament law, we are still responsible to acquiesce to the will of God in our lives. Simple submissiveness brings blessings, and sin has its own outcome of actions. “All human beings dream of freedom: it is our great hope and our chief ambition. We want to be free of all outside influence; we want to be so free that we can do whatever we please. Our yearning is so great, we sometimes fool ourselves into thinking we are more free than we are.”5 5 P. Jensen, (2004). The Good News of God's Wrath. (Cover story). Christianity Today, 48(3), 45-47. Old Testament Leadership Principle 8 Joshua Principle: Moses’ had great success as a mentor to Joshua. Using that knowledge and faith in God, God allowed Joshua lead His people into the Promised Land. He led them in many successful battles against evil nations. Key Verses: Joshua 1:6-7 says, "Be strong and courageous, because you will lead these people to inherit the land I swore to their forefathers to give them. Be strong and very courageous. Be careful to obey all the law my servant Moses gave you; do not turn from it to the right or to the left, that you may be successful wherever you go. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Joshua was a good leader and was an obedient follower. Joshua continued to grow in faith and military command while serving under Moses. Joshua is a great example of the benefits of a commendable mentor. For years he followed Moses’ lead. If you are alive, you are a mentor just as Moses was; someone, somewhere, is watching you. People are seeing how you live and how you react, they are learning from you. Mentoring is far more than the words that are spoken by the mentor. His or her entire life is on display. Mentoring can have a lifelong effect on others. “A Mentor program is only as strong as the Mentors themselves.”6 We need to be constantly reassured that, no matter the areas of our lives where we are being faced with constant struggle to please God, it doesn’t diminish nor reduce the father’s love for us. 6 R. Power, , B. Miles, A., Peruzzi, & A. Voerman, (2011). Building Bridges: A Practical Guide to Developing and Implementing a Subject-specific Peer-to-peer Academic Mentoring Program for First-year Higher Education Students. Asian Social Science, 7(11), 75-80. doi:10.5539/ass.v7n11p75 Old Testament Leadership Principle 9 Judges Principle: Gods plan is not always revealed; many times we do not understand what he has in store for the future. By faith we are to trust that He will avenge justice in His way, in His time. Key Verses: Judges 6:8 that the LORD sent a prophet to the sons of Israel, and he said to them, "Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel, 'It was I who brought you up from Egypt, and brought you out from the house of slavery. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle The Book of Judges is an appalling account of how God was taken for granted by His children year after year. In Judges, the Israelites were disobedient and idolatrous, leading to their many defeats. Yet God has never failed to open His arms in love to His people whenever they repent from their wicked ways and call upon His name. God honored His promise to Abraham to protect and bless his offspring by appointing judges to bring them back to him. Just as our world is today, tragedy like 9/11 struck and many people, even newscasters would talk about God on the air. Now that time has passed and we have virtually moved on, people no longer talk of God and his blessings. It seems we of the flesh have to be brought to our knees to start looking up again. â€œIn the name of God they came. They came bent on murder and martyrdom. It was as if they rode to earth on the fierce breath of Allah himself, for the sacred scriptures that had nurtured these murderous young men are steeped in images of a violent and vengeful God who wills life for the faithful and horrific torment for unbelievers.â€?7 These men have moved away from God and have chosen to kill others. We need to move closer to God and forgive them as God forgave us. We need not become violent and seek retribution, but look to God to ease our pain and help us to move forward. 7 Moyers, B. (2006). 9/11 AND GOD'S SPORT. Cross Currents, 55(4), 442-455. Old Testament Leadership Principle 10 Ruth Principle: Christian leaders provide solid examples of Godly character and provide hope to those around them. Key Verse: “The Lord recompense thy work, and a full reward be given thee of the Lord God of Israel, under whose wings thou art come to trust ” Ruth 2:12. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle In this scripture Boaz is a representative of Godly leadership. Boaz’s character is significant because leading up to this period of scripture, the last verse in the book of Judges Judges 21: 25 says, “In those days there was no king in Israel: every man did that which was right in his own eyes.” Boaz was wealthy and the favor of the Lord was upon him. He spoke hope and blessing into Ruth’s life on behalf of the Lord. He was able to do so because as a Godly man he knew the ways of God and was able to tell Ruth that the Lord would protect her and give her refuge (v.12). Throughout the Book of Ruth Boaz acted with integrity in all of his dealings with Ruth and Naomi. This is exemplified in him protecting Ruth from the young men, and how he made sure that he redeemed Naomi’s field from the nearer kinsman in the proper way. This Godly union of Boaz and Ruth would produce King David as a great-grandson, and later Jesus Christ through the same lineage. Old Testament Leadership Principle 11 1 Samuel Principle: Look beyond first impressions, and allow the Lord to reveal the essence of a person. Key Verses: “But the Lord said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the Lord seeth not as man seeth; for man looketh on the outward appearance, but the Lord looketh on the heart” 1 Samuel16:7. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle People are often categorized by how they look, speak, who they’re related to, and even where they live. These are just a few examples, many times a new employee may not measure up to the first impression of their resume and job interview. Many times as we meet people we have nothing else to go on but what we see and what’s initially displayed by the person. However, as Christian leaders we have the Spirit of God to lead and guide us. It’s the same way the Lord spoke to Samuel to anoint David as opposed to David’s brothers. Based on the outside appearance Samuel thought the son to anoint would be Eliab, but the Lord told him “look not on his countenance, or on the height of his stature” (v.7). Because of David’s height and age, even David’s father Jesse failed to initially mention David as a son that Samuel should meet. But the Lord had great plans for David. David became a great warrior, and King over Judah and Israel. The Bible says that “David was a man after God’s own heart”1 Samuel 13:14. Old Testament Leadership Principle 12 2 Samuel Principle: The lord will bless the leader and the organization through obedience to him. Key Verses: 2 Samuel 22:21, “The Lord rewarded me according to my righteousness; according to the cleanness of my hands hath he recompensed me.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Throughout this book of the Bible the Lord rewarded David for his obedience and faithfulness to Him. 2 Samuel 5:10 says, “And David went on, and grew great, and the Lord God of Hosts was with him.” Since the Lord was with David he was able to defeat enemies, prosper, and David had favor with his soldiers and the citizens of Judah and Israel. Likewise in leading congregations and companies, as the Christian Leader leads with integrity and pureness of heart, the church, company, whatever the group is; will be blessed. In addition, when there begins to be deviation from what is right and what got them there, things may begin to falter. Even in David’s life, despite the victories of killing Goliath, (1 Sam. 17: 49-51), becoming king of Judah (2 Sam. 2: 7), and Israel (2 Sam. 5: 3, 4), the Lord still punished David when he was disobedient to the Lord (2 Sam. 12: 10-12), (2 Sam. 24: 14, 15). If Christian Leaders remain faithful to the Lord and will finish their tenure of leadership strong without compromising their faith, the Lord will provide a great legacy of ministry and an untarnished name for the leader. Old Testament Leadership Principle 13 1 Kings Leadership Principle: To help ensure the success of an incoming administration, the leader must put his own management team in place. Key Scripture: 1 Kings 4:2, “And these were his officials: Azariah the son of Zadok, the priest; Elioreph and Ahijah, the sons of Shisha, scribes; Jehoshaphat the son of Alilud, the recorder; Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, over the army; Zadok and Abiathar, the priests; Azariah the son of Nathan, a priest and the Kings’s friend; Ahishar, over the household; and Adoniram the son of Abda, over the labor force.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Solomon made all of the proper appointments to make sure that every aspect of the needs of Israel would be met. It was through the wisdom that the Lord had given him, that Solomon knew exactly who the right person for the job would be. Some of the officials covered positions such as the following: scribes and a chief officer over the district officials (Azariah), Benaiah replaced Joab as commander for the army, and head of forced labor. There were a few officials that had remained in office under Solomon, but they were executed due to bad deeds of the past such as Joab (1 Ki. 2:34), Abiathar (Priest, exiled), Shemial (bad treatment of King David, executed), and even Solomon’s brother Adonijah was executed because of conspiracy to become King and other deceitful actions. In business, politics, and sports many leaders of organizations bring in their own management team to lead the entity in a new direction. Old Testament Leadership Principle 14 2 Kings Leadership Principle: Good leadership can turn failing organizations around and cause them to survive through tough times and become successful. Key Scripture: 2 Kings 18: 7, “And the Lord was with him; and he prospered withersoever he went forth: and he rebelled against the king of Assyria, and served him not.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Hezekiah was a Godly king of Judah (727-698 B.C.) who succeeded his father Ahaz. It was only by the grace of God that he was a righteous man because his father followed in the tradition of the prior evil kings (2 Ki. 16:2). However, the Lord rose up Hezekiah to be a Godly king after the order of King David. There were many evil kings over the previous centuries in Judah and the Lord was displeased with Judah. Assyria had continually been more powerful than Judah and the former Kings of Judah were more interested in pleasing the Assyrian Kings than pleasing the Lord. Under Hezekiah’s reign, Hezekiah worshipped the Lord and followed in all His ways. God blessed Judah because of this. Even when Judah was no match for Assyria especially under King Sennacherib (2 Ki. 18:13), the Lord fought Judah’s battle and the angel of the killed 185,000 Assyrian soldiers in one night (Ki. 19:34-35). Because Hezekiah followed the ways of the Lord, God took a nation that was weak in power and idolatrous and they were blessed and protected. Even these days in our economic climate, the Lord can prosper a company and prosper a family despite the negative effects of the economy. Even with others doing evil personally and professionally (corporations), the Lord will sustain and bless his leaders and their followers. Old Testament Leadership Principle 15 1 Chronicles Leadership Principle: In order for a leader to be effective in an organization he must establish order, and whenever God puts a plan together there is always an order. Key Scripture: 1 Chron. 15:13,â€?For because you did not do it the first time, the Lord our God broke out against us, because we did not consult Him about the proper order.â€? Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Originally when David was orchestrating the transporting of the Ark to Jerusalem, it seemed that everything was going well. Unfortunately David had forgotten the Law regarding how the Ark should be transported. The law stated that the Ark was to be transported by poles and that only the Levites could prepare and move the tabernacle (Ex. 25:13-16, Num. 1: 51). Although this was a festive occasion and all motives were pure for those involved, the Ark was being transported on a new cart and it began to fall. Uzza tried to stop the Ark from falling and touched the Ark to keep it from falling, and he was struck dead (1 Chron. 13: 10). Therefore the Lord was angry because He had established order for the transporting of the Ark. God is so detailed that He gave instructions on how to make the Ark what materials should be used and what every measurement should be. Ultimately David was responsible because he was the leader and led the delegation of people who were transporting the Ark. In leadership today the leader is ultimately responsible for adequately conveying the assignments to be done and the order in which the entire project should be completed and presented. Once the leader is sure of what required and what it takes to get the job done, he can delegate to others and articulate what is expected for the completion of the task. Old Testament Leadership Principle 16 2 Chronicles Leadership Principle: Leaders must be able to identify the needs of the organization and hire persons with the expertise to help accomplish short term and long range goals. Key Scripture: 2 Chron. 2: 7, “Therefore send me at once a man skillful to work in gold and silver, in bronze and iron, in purple and crimson and blue, who has skill to engrave with the skillful men who are with me in Judah and Jerusalem, whom David my father provided.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Solomon had the task of completing the building of the temple. Hiram King of Tyre had previously provided men and materials for his father David’s palace (2 Chron. 2: 3). Solomon wrote king Hiram a letter requesting his help in providing a skillful man who would utilize his expertise as a craftsman to assist in building the temple. King Hiram responded and said he was sending Huram his master craftsman who was skilled to work in the areas needed, and who could make any engraving and accomplish any plan which may be given him (2 Chron. 2:13). Solomon also had also fortified his military by gathering 1,400 chariots and 185,000 horsemen (2 Chron. 1: 14). He also began to work on increasing his economic power as well. Raw materials were so abundant that Solomon mad silver and gold as common in Jerusalem as stones (2 Chron. 1:15). Solomon’s reign as King is a great example of several things. It shows how a man and nation are blessed when they have the favor of God, and it also shows that good leadership makes sure that all the pieces are in place when undertaking massive projects. Old Testament Leadership Principle 17 Ezra Principle: Prayer and faith are strong tools against all opposition. Key Verse: Ezra 8:22 stated “The hand of our God is for good on all who seek him, and the power his wrath is against all who forsake him.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Ezra was a scribe and spiritual leader that taught the Hebrew people to trust the word of the Lord and have faith. Ezra believed in the power of prayer and faith. When Ezra journeyed from Babylon to Jerusalem he prayed for a safe journey for his children, goods, followers and himself. This illustrates the leadership that Ezra had over others. Ezra’s followers trusted him enough to lead them to Jerusalem with no security but faith in the Lord’s protection. Trust is important in leadership because people won’t follow leaders they don’t trust. 8 Ezra had stated that he was ashamed to ask the King for protection since he had already told the King “the hand of our God is for good on all who seek him, and the power his wrath is against all who forsake him”Ezra 8:22. Ezra prayed for protection and God provided it to him. In today’s world most of our leaders lead by sight and not by faith. Imagine if the President asked every American to pray for a resolution about the economic situation or the battle on terrorism. Many critics would proclaim him to be a religious fanatic. A true leader must (1) put others needs before themselves, (2) are willing to make sacrifices and take chances as a leader, (3) stand for something they truly believe in and have faith. A simple prayer for God’s help can often turn a bad situation good. I am not saying that prayers alone will help our economic situation in the country, Ezra not only had prayers but too 8 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),50. Old Testament Leadership Principle 18 faith. The hand of our God was on us and he delivered us from the hand of the enemy and from ambushes by the way” Ezra 8:22. Through prayer and study Ezra found his spiritual gift. Ezra showed spiritual leadership and God given ability for service. Nehemiah Principle: A great motivator and organizer in the faith. Key Verse: Nehemiah 2:17, “Come let us build the wall of Jerusalem that we no longer suffer derision.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Nehemiah was appointed to the Kings court and had great responsibilities of “Cupbearer” providing for the health and safety of the King. The duty that Nehemiah was entrusted with proved that he was a man of high moral standards and above reproach. Nehemiah religious beliefs led him on a mission to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem in order to provide security for his people. When Nehemiah faced opposition and even dissension within his ranks he prayed. By calling on the Lord for help even when surrounded by the enemy, Nehemiah proved to be a strong leader. “Do not be afraid of them. Remember the Lord, who is great and awesome, and fight for your brothers, your sons, your daughters, your wives, and your home” Nehemiah 4:14. Nehemiah organized half of his people to work and the other half to provide security against the enemies of Jerusalem that conspired against the Jews. By being having a strong faith in the Lord and being an influential leader and organizer the walls of Jerusalem were completed. An organized leader must not only have the support of the people but also faith, integrity and prayer. No matter what Nehemiah’s enemies plotted against him their plots always failed. That is because the people knew Nehemiah to be a leader with strong (1) integrity (2) character Old Testament Leadership Principle 19 (3) values and (4) organizational skills who had faith in his own decisions. Godly character is the essential ingredient that qualifies Christians to lead.9 If Nehemiah was not known as a man of his word and a strong believer in the Lord then his followers would have never believed he could accomplish a task that others had failed. An example of leadership and rebuilding is during post 9/11. Former President George W. Bush displayed exemplary leadership and ability to rebuild the American spirit during a time of sorrow. Esther Principle: A Servant leader takes a stance in the service to others and while ignoring their own needs. Key Verse: Esther 7:3, “If have found favor in your sight, O King, and if it pleases the King, let my life be granted me for my wish, and my people for my request.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Esther was a beautiful Queen and very beloved by her King. Esther came from a Jewish lineage and never forgot her roots. When the enemies of the Jews plotted to have the Jewish people annihilated for their own selfish reasons, Esther stated that she would go against the law and place herself in jeopardy in order to save the Jews, “I will go to the King, though it is against the law, and if I perish, I perish”, Esther 4:16. Esther proved herself to be a true leader by placing the needs of her Jewish people above her own personal safety. Esther jeopardized a very fruitful relationship with the King and a comfortable lifestyle in order to save thousands of innocent people from slaughter. Esther did influence the King into destroying the enemy of the Jews and allowing the Jews to arm themselves thus saving her people. 9 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),19. Old Testament Leadership Principle 20 Esther displayed a servant leader image defined by Malphurs as a Christian leader with (1) credibility (2) capabilities (3) service, who is able to influence people in a particular context to pursue their God given direction. 10 Many leaders fail to act on causes that are important to millions in today’s world because they fear becoming unpopular and losing political support. One of the main topics is on Immigration. Malphurs stated usually the human tendency is to put one’s personal needs ahead of those of others.11 Either a politician believes in enforcing a strong immigration policy and risks the loss of millions of liberal votes or they believe in a weak immigration policy and lose the support of millions of conservative votes. Today’s politicians never want to take a stand for right or wrong. Esther risked her reputation and life by standing for what she believed in no matter how unpopular at the time her request may have been. Job Principle: A Servant Leader leads through humility and service. Key Verse: Job 1:20says, “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked shall I return. The Lord has gave, and the Lord has taken away.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Job was a very wealthy many that was blessed by God. Job had many riches from cattle and Oxen to servants and children. Blessed and Job was God allowed the devil to test his faith. God allowed the devil to take everything that he had been blessed with away, to include his children and health. Throughout Jobs trials and tribulations he remained faithful to the Lord despite Satan’s torments. Job refused to curse the Lords name and blame the Lord for his 10 11 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),33. Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),47. Old Testament Leadership Principle 21 troubles. Despite the provoking from Jobs spouse and friends to curse the Lords name, Job refused to do so. When Job was confronted by the Lord he showed humility and faithfulness. Job showed forgiveness to his three friends even though they did not morally support him in a time of need. Job prayed “and the Lord restored the fortunes of Job, when he prayed for his friends” Job 42:10. A Christian leader must be a (1) forgiving (2) humble servant of the Lord. There are times when a Christian leader must forgive others for their trespass as he would have others forgive him. Jobs greatest attribute was that he was able to show humility before God even though he knew that the Lord had allowed his misfortune to occur. Jobs humility before the Lord allowed him to pray for the forgiveness of his friends. Malphurs wrote “while some leaders can fool some of their people some of the time, proud leaders rarely fool any of their followers any of the time.”12Forgiveness is a very hard word a times. It is simple to receive forgiveness but at times it is hard to give forgiveness. Job was able to forgive his friends because he knew that God would never forsake him. Job realized that although his flesh is weak was weak his sprit will forever stay strong and never waver in the presence of the Lord. By showing humility to the Lord, forgiveness and prayer for his friends Job was blessed with more than he had lost, long life, fortune e and healthy children. Psalms Principle: Influence of the Holy Spirit provides all to those that believe. Key Verse: Psalm 23:1, “The Lord is my Sheppard; I shall not want Explanation/Illustration of the Principle 12 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),36. Old Testament Leadership Principle 22 Psalms is a testimony of prayers that provides influence and guidance that the Lord is here to protect and keep us as long as we praise his name. Psalms describes the Lords power over man and illustrates how man will receive the Lords blessing through prayer and praising the Lords name. Malphurs wrote that influence involves moving people to change their thinking and ultimately their behavior. 13 In Psalms we are influence to praise the Lord the through examples of glory and grace. Psalm 66:5 states “come and see what God has done he is awesome in his deeds toward the children of man.” Psalms focuses on task behavior of the Lords work. This includes focusing on accomplishments and core values that the Lord has set for man to complete on earth and for his efforts man will be protected and blessed, receiving salvation through the word of the Lord. Psalms also warning the un-believers that God shall scatter his enemies, Psalms 68:1. In today’s secular world it is easy to forget that nothing could be accomplished without God’s praises. Men often either loses faith or fail to properly give blessing to the Lord for all he has done for us on earth. The Psalms reminds man that every decision on earth is not made without God’s blessings. Every breath we take should be in the praise of the Lord. A Christian leader should use Psalms as not only as a testimony to the power of the Lord but also an illustration to (1) influence and (2) motivate people to follow the Lords word. In return for praising the Lord’s name blessing will be received. Let them praise the name of the Lord for his name alone is exalted; his majesty is above earth and heaven, Psalms 148:13. Proverbs Principle: Characteristics of a Spiritual Leader include wisdom, leadership, integrity and compassion. 13 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),93. Old Testament Leadership Principle 23 Key Verse: Proverb 8:6 “Hear for I will speak noble things, and from my lips will come what is right.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Proverbs gives a description of biblical leadership to include wisdom, leadership, integrity, and compassion. Throughout the book of Proverbs it gives the guidelines on how the Lord wants his leaders to lead through passion and temperament behavior and Soul work. Leading through passion focuses on the leader’s emotional side. A Christian leader’s emotional side of leadership involves the strong feelings toward a particular cause and need to serve the Lord. Malphurs wrote “while leader’s gifts provide them with special abilities for ministry, their passion supplies long-term direction and motivation for those gifts.” 14 Temperament is God given leadership behavior style (Malphurs, 2003). Psalms also describes the Soul work or character of a leader. Proverbs 31:4, it is not for kings, OLemuel it is not for Kings to drink wine, or rulers to take strong drink. This describes how everything should be done in moderation. Proverbs 29:13 the poor man and oppressor meet together; the Lord gives light to the eyes of both. This describes compassion and forgiveness in a biblical setting. Psalm’s describes the many qualities that a strong leader must possess. A leader must be (1) beyond approach, (2) self-controlled and (3) respectable. Many of today’s leaders rarely display these characteristics described in proverbs. The character traits that a given a leader are either spiritually given at birth or develop naturally over time. A leader must acknowledge that they will always be held at a high standard and as such they must be prepared to carry the burden of 14 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),78. Old Testament Leadership Principle 24 their followers. Every word of God proves true; he is a shield to those who take refuge in him, Psalms 30:5. Ecclesiastes Principle: Spiritual Leadership through God’s teachings and abide by God’s Covenant. Key Verse: Ecclesiastes 3:1 “For everything there is a season, and a time for every matter under heaven.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Ecclesiastes gives a detailed description of how man should keep God’s covenant on earth. Ecclesiastes is a tool that a spiritual leader will use to teach man how to keep a strong covenant with the lord. Enjoy the life with the one you love, eat your bread with joy, and drink your wine with a merry heart, for God has approved what you do, Ecclesiastes 9:7. A Spiritual leader’s duty is to teach his followers what the Lord wants them to do. The leader must give their followers specific examples on how to live their lives daily in God’s name. A leader must emphasize Godly character and use his power to influence his followers to get closer to the Lord. Power is the ability to exert some control over other people, things, or events. 15 The spiritual leader’s power in Ecclesiastes comes from their ability to teach wisdom through God’s word and educate the followers how to willingly strive for a group objective. Spiritual leaders use (1) influence, (2) persuasion, (3) encouragement and a Godly example to teach their followers. A Spiritual leader teaching will exhibit the power and influence of the Lord through God’s word. The examples given can be found in Ecclesiastes. Persuasion- Those who fear God will do well, Ecclesiastes 8:10. Encouragement- Cast your bread upon the waters Ecclesiastes 11:1. A leader must not only be willing to teach others but at times able to learn 15 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),108. Old Testament Leadership Principle 25 from others. Given the gift of spiritual leadership comes with not only power and influence but too responsibility to God, followers and themselves. Songs of Songs Principle: Love people with passion and commitment as a leader. Key Verse: Songs of Solomon 8:2 “I would bring you to my childhood home, and there you would teach me. I would give you spiced wine to drink, my sweet pomegranate wine.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle The Songs of Solomon demonstrate the love of God for his people. Solomon was a wise man, who asked God for wisdom, and the need for leader to have wisdom in this world is very important. Solomon has wisdom but was not faithful to God in his marital life, he had many wives, which God did not want him to have, because they worshipped idols rather than God. Solomon demonstrated that when the true love for God is not in the heart of a leader it can bring problems. Solomon has married foreign princess who had forged alliance to other gods and nations. This damage Solomon devotion to God and had weaken his faith for God, and trust from the people he lead into the throne of God, as a leader. The prophets had foreseen the relationship between God and his people in the book of Songs, but have cracks. Love for those whom leaders lead is very important. Leaders are to have passion and commitment to them daily. The scripture in (Songs 8: 5-7): “Who is this coming up from the desert, leaning on her lover? Young woman: I aroused you under the apple tree, where your mother gives you birth, where in Old Testament Leadership Principle 26 great pains she delivered you……….” “The friend see the woman approaching, learning on her lover. She recalls how they first made love in his family home, where he himself was conceived and born. She asked him to wear her love like an ornament over his heart and on his arm. She reflects that true love endures forever, as strong as death. It blazes like fire of God. Rivers cannot quench true love, and a fortune can never buy It.” 16demonstrated the kind of love friends have for each other, God has shown us to be his friend. Today’s Leaders should encourage, empowered people who are in need of their help. To Solomon, helping one’s own brother take a heart of sincerity than helping someone whom he cannot trust. The key leadership principle in the book of Songs for Solomon is to express true love for a friend, which drives away fear, and also leaders should lead people on the right path of righteousness, through love and not hatred. Isaiah Principle: Protect, lead with care and give rest to those who are worry by assuring them better results as a leader. Key Verse: Isaiah 40:11 “He will feed his flock like a shepherd. He will carry the lambs in his arms, holding them close to his heart. He will gently lead the mother sheep with their young.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Prophet Isaiah was a counselor to King Ahaz and Hezekiah, during his time as a prophet to the nation of Israel. Prophet Isaiah has warned; foretell the blessings and curses of God for the people of Israel. 16 Andrew Knowles. The Bible Guide: An all-in-one introduction to the book of books. (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 2001) p.273. Old Testament Leadership Principle 27 Prophet Isaiah has followed in the directions of God concerning his people. Leaders are to become sensitive about the problems facing people whom they lead. God spoke to Isaiah through signs and wonders, during the time when the Israelites rebelled against God. Through Prophet Isaiah God spoke to them that if they do not repent, God would allowed their enemies to take them captive into Babylon. Today in the twenty first century, leaders are to become open minded about the risk of losing trust from people they lead if no correct directions are given, and that they failed to listen to the voice of God. Today there are many people who want to listen to what the leaders are saying, but if leaders do not take notice by giving people the right instructions, on how God communicate to them, they can lead people astray. The leadership Principle in the book of Isaiah is about protection of the need of the people, lead with care, and gives rest to those who worry by assuring them better results. Isaiah believes that as leaders, there is a need to guide people to watering places, where they can find pastures. Leaders are to shepherd people in the ways of God. Leaders are to refresh followers when they need food, and lead them on into a journey by stages of live. Today Jerusalem- tomorrow the world: Isaiah exhorts his people, the house of Jacob’ to live in the light of God’s truth. This is the light which shines out to the whole world. (2:5). Leaders are to bring people into the light of God’s truth, which is the word of God. Jeremiah Principle: Leaders are to bear witnesses of the crisis facing the people they lead. Key Verse: Jeremiah 31:9, “Tears of joy will stream down their faces, and I will lead them home with great care. They will walk beside quite streams and not stumble. For I am Israel’s father and Ephraim is my oldest child.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Old Testament Leadership Principle 28 Jeremiah was a disaster and hope preacher prophet. Jeremiah lives in Southern Kingdom of Judah during years leading up to the fall of Jerusalem. For forty years, he preaches that Jerusalem will be destroyed and if the people don’t repent and turn to God, it will be catastrophic. Jeremiah warning comes true when the Israelites were taken into captivity by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Jeremiah has also made clear to the people that in the midst of crisis, if they turn to God, there would be hope. Jeremiah has a passion and pain, while bearing witnesses to the problem facing his people in the hands of their enemies. God’s word burned within him, so that he must preach. But his messages make him become hated by the people, because he was telling the truth despites what happens. At times, Jeremiah is persecuted. He has a hard life- crushed between the pressing truth of God and the resistance of his people. Leaders are to bear witnesses of the crisis facing the people they lead. Jeremiah has a true heart for people and for God at times he is both angry with God and his people. “O Lord, you deceived me and I was deceived; you overpowered me and prevailed. I’m ridiculed all day long; everyone mocks me. Whenever I speak, I cry out proclaiming violence and destruction. So the word of the Lord has brought me insult and reproach all day long. But if say I will not mention him or speak any more in his name, his word is in my heart like a burning fire, shut up in my bones”17 (20:7-9) Today‘s Leaders are to bear alongside those who mourn and cry for help. Leaders should not be carried away by their own zeal, but the zeal of those whom need their help, for the common good of everyone they lead. 17 Andrew Knowles. The Bible Guide: An all-in-one introduction to the book of books. (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 2001) p. 298. Old Testament Leadership Principle 29 Lamentations Principle: Leaders are to correct, rebuked people in the right directions, and be thankful to God in time of needs, and also in time of crisis. Key Verses: Lamentations 3:41 “Instead, let us test and examined our ways. Let us turn again in repentance to the Lord. Let us lift our hearts and hands to God in heaven and say, “We have sinned and rebelled, and you have not forgiven us.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Jeremiah lives in Southern Kingdom of Judah during years leading up to the fall of Jerusalem. For forty years, he preaches that Jerusalem will be destroyed and if the people don’t repent and turn to God, it will be catastrophic. Lamentations are grief stricken poems. They are the laments with which the Jews mourn the terrible destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians armies. God had uses his people’s enemies to punish them for their sins. Leaders are to be watch men for the people, today, as leaders there is a need to be aware of the need to stand up for those who cannot speak up for themselves. Jeremiah, warn the Jews forty years earlier about what was coming to the people, but because they were not concerned about the need to turn back to God, they were destroyed by their enemies. Today, as leaders, there is a need to become people’s watchmen by telling them what they need to hear, concerning sins, and not be afraid to tell them the truth. Leaders are to be thankful to God in time of needs, and also in time of crisis. They are to lift up their voices in happiness for that entire thing God has done in their lives and also in the lives of those whom God has put into their path. They are to support, bear, endure, sustain, and Old Testament Leadership Principle 30 to forgive those who have wronged them. Leaders are to exalt God in all circumstances, as example to those whom they lead. â€œCourage supplies the strength to lead in these difficult circumstances, meaning that courageous leaders are strong and unlikely to quit.â€?18 18 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003),63. Old Testament Leadership Principle 31 Ezekiel Principle: Leaders are to follow God’s way in pursue of truth and should not lean on their own imaginations. Key Verse: Ezekiel 13:3 “This is what the Sovereign Lord says: Destruction is certain for the false prophets who are following their own imaginations and have seen nothing at all!” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Ezekiel was a prophet who was taken into captivity with the Israelites in Babylon, God spoke to Ezekiel in visions concerning the problem facing the Israelites in Babylon and in turn he warns the people to turn away from their sins. Sometimes in today’s world, leaders are to lead people into the truth of God’s word; leaders should not go with the crown, because what people often see as the truth can sometimes become a lie. Leaders are to follow God’s way in pursue of truth and should not lean on their own imaginations. Ezekiel has brought good news to the people in his communications with God in vision, which God was still with them even in their captivity in Babylon. He told them that if they continue following the ways of God, He will not abandon them. He told the people to be faithful to God, and in turn God will restore them into their homeland, Jerusalem. Today, leaders need to be clear in what they are saying, so that when people take their message, it can give them hope in time of crisis. The key in speaking a clear message, to the people when they are in need is to hear from God, and not from men. Ezekiel has heard from God that Israelites will not be abandoned for a long time, if they can return to God. Leaders are to follow on manners that should bring God’s wrath upon the people which they lead. They should walk on the ways of the Lord. Ezekiel warns the Israelites about their waywardness behaviors toward God, concerning idols. Old Testament Leadership Principle Leaders should be loyal to Godâ€™s truth in their leadership. Leaders are to go when God want them to go, leaders are to come when God call them to hear his voice, leaders are to walk with God in their leadership. 32 Old Testament Leadership Principle 33 Daniel Principle: Leaders should be people of prayer, fasting, and leaders should be total dependent on God. Key Verses: Daniels 9:3 “So I turned to the Lord God and pleaded with him in prayer and fasting. I wore rough sackcloth and sprinkled myself with ashes.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Leaders should be people of prayer and fasting when times become hard, Daniel was a man after God’s heart even when his life was in danger. “19Daniel is one of the Bible holiest and wisest men”. Daniel was taken into captivity with the Israelites. Daniel and his friends were thrown into the fire, while they did not weaver at the threat of death upon their lives, by king Nebuchadnezzar. Leaders should be steadfast in what they belief to be true. Sometimes when leaders change sides in matters of loyalty and trust, it is very important to be loyal to God and also to the people whom they served. Daniel in time of crisis went on his knees for God direction concerning the threat of death by Nebuchadnezzar, and in return God intervene in his problems. Sometimes as leaders in today’s world, there is a need to depend on God when things become tough. Just by learning from Daniel’s situation, leaders can see that times after times, when people go to God in prayer and fasting with right motive, God does listen to people’s prayer. Daniel went to God in prayer and fasting, because his life was in danger, and for that reason, God did not allow his enemies to take away his life. Today there are many situations where 19 Andrew Knowles. The Bible Guide: An all-in-one introduction to the book of books. (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 2001) p. 343. Old Testament Leadership Principle 34 leaders who think that their leadership is in danger, takes laws into their own hands, by either putting the life of the people, who opposed their leadership in danger. As leaders there is a need to depend on God when things become hard. Leaders should be people of prayer, fasting. Leaders should be total dependent on God, when times are hard, or even when their leadership is questioned. They should not be wavered by what they hear, see, or feel, but should be people who can trust God on their knees and to have faith in God even when darkness undermines their leadership, light should abounds in the dark. Leaders should not be weary of doing well in the services of their clients. Old Testament Leadership Principle 35 Hosea Principle: A great leader must be willing to set a good example even if it is at a price for them. Key Verse: Hosea 3:1 - Then the LORD said to me, “Go and love your wife again, even though she commits adultery with another lover. This will illustrate that the LORD still loves Israel, even though the people have turned to other gods and love to worship them.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Hosea was a prophet whom God used to teach a mighty lesson about how God still loved Israel even when they sought after other gods. They had prostituted themselves to other nations and God wanted to bring them back to him. God used Hosea as a living example of this situation by calling Hosea to marry a prostitute and then to purchase her again after she left him to return to her former sinful life. Hosea had to be willing to do what God called him to do even though it was costly. It cost him money but it also cost him his reputation. No man would want to be married to a prostitute and know that the intimacy they should be sharing as husband and wife is being defiled by other men in sinful disobedience to God’s law. But even though this was the price Hosea was willing to pay it and live with the consequences since God had called him to do it and redeem his wife. In the same way a great leader must be willing to do the right thing even if it is disadvantageous to them. Malphurs states that a leaders “character must be above reproach.” 20 As a leader one must be willing to do the right thing in every situation even if it means a loss of prestige or a loss of monetary gain. By doing the right thing in all situations a standard will be set 20 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Baker Books, 2003), 19. Old Testament Leadership Principle that brings credibility as well as a reputation for honesty. In the long run this will lead to a greater payoff with larger gains than just money. 36 Old Testament Leadership Principle 37 Joel Principle: A great leader must be willing to say the right thing even when it is unpopular. Key Verse: Joel 1:15 – “The day of the LORD is near, the day when destruction comes from the Almighty. How terrible that day will be!” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Joel was given a charge from God to deliver a message to Israel that God would bring destruction upon them for not following God’s law and seeking him over other false gods. In this situation Joel had to bring bad news to those who would not want to hear it. Perhaps they did not even listen when Joel gave them the words of the Lord but in any case he gave it because God instructed him to do so. No one wants to be the bearer of bad news. Everyone would rather be the person who gives the good news that everyone celebrates with. However, failing to give the poor report will end up in a team or business being ignorant of the reality of a situation which will lead to more problems down the road. The sooner a problem is identified the sooner it can be fixed and the losses can be kept in check. However, too many leaders crumble under the fear of what brining the bad news will mean for them and/or their career. If they tell the team the truth who knows what the consequences may be? They may be replaced or their team may leave for more successful ventures. However, a strong leader is willing to share the good news along with the bad so that the team can face every challenge and grow to be more successful because of it.21 21 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Baker Books, 2003), 93. Old Testament Leadership Principle 38 Amos Principle: A great leader must be willing to speak up even when not in a position of power. Key Verse: Amos 1:1 - This message was given to Amos, a shepherd from the town of Tekoa in Judah. He received this message in visions two years before the earthquake, when Uzziah was king of Judah and Jeroboam II, the son of Jehoash, was king of Israel. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Amos was not a person of power. In fact, he was a lowly shepherd. But God used him to share his message to the people of Israel despite his poor position in the economy. It is humorous that the book of Amos mentions who was in power at the time the message was given to Joel and that the words of God came to Joel and not the monarchs. God chooses to use people from the lower ranks to provide perspective and wisdom and a true leader must be willing to speak up even if they are not in a high position. The reason that Joel was so powerful is that he had very little to lose in telling the truth. If a higher administrator shares information it can always come back to cause more problems so there are simply some things they have trouble facing. Other times leaders in high positions are simply unaware of a problem because it is not in their line of sight. But Joel was willing to go to the nation and share what God had spoken to him and did not hide behind an excuse of position or rank. Like him a good leader must be willing to lead well in whatever position they occupy and allow God to use them to their greatest ability.22 In this way the entire organization will benefit from leaders at all levels and grow stronger as a whole. 22 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Baker Books, 2003), 66 Old Testament Leadership Principle 39 Obadiah Principle: A great leader must be willing to help others they work with to succeed as a team. Key Verse: Obadiah 1:11 - When they were invaded, you stood aloof, refusing to help them. Foreign invaders carried off their wealth and cast lots to divide up Jerusalem, but you acted like one of Israelâ€™s enemies. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle The people of Edom were neighbors to Israel who did not help Israel when they were under attack. Because of this God used Obadiah to bring message of their punishment due to their failure to come to the aid of a friendly nation. The nation of Edom should have used their position of power to help Israel but because they chose to plunder Israel after they were defeated God chose to bring disaster on them. A leader sees the needs of others and comes to their aid.23 They do not only pay attention to their area but they also are observant of their team members and use their strengths to shore up the needs of the team or to make up for another team members weakness. Everyone cannot be great at everything and by sharing the load they can create a team that is successful where others are not. If a leader only stays in their arena they are withholding the opportunity to help others and they will be punished in the long run as the team or organization is not successful. But if they choose to look for areas to help others the team will grow and will be able to conquer challenges they could not ordinarily. 23 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Baker Books, 2003), 44. Old Testament Leadership Principle 40 Jonah Principle: A great leader must be willing to set aside differences to achieve the goal. Key Verse: Jonah 4:11 - But Nineveh has more than 120,000 people living in spiritual darkness, not to mention all the animals. Shouldn’t I feel sorry for such a great city?” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Jonah was the famous prophet who was given a word from God to help save the people of Nineveh but chose to run away from God. Because of this Jonah was swallowed up by a large fish for three days as Jonah learned to obey God even when it causes him to deal with people he did not like. Jonah hated the people who lived in Nineveh because they were the people who had oppressed Israel in the past. Jonah’s hatred caused him to be unwilling to follow God’s directives and it led to his own punishment. A great leader is willing to set aside their problems with other coworkers and outside agencies to accomplish what is best for the team. The fact is that everyone does not love everyone. People are different and will not always see eye to eye. But a good leader is willing to look past the problems and look for ways to work together to achieve the greater good.24 Where God was willing to forgive the people of Nineveh if they turned to him leaders must be willing to work with people they do not like for the opportunity to cultivate an atmosphere or regeneration and forgiveness. 24 Aubrey Malphurs. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. (Baker Books, 2003), 39. Old Testament Leadership Principle 41 Micah Principle: A great leader must be humble and willing to admit their mistakes. Key Verse: Micah 7:9 - I will be patient as the LORD punishes me, for I have sinned against him. But after that, he will take up my case and give me justice for all I have suffered from my enemies. The LORD will bring me into the light, and I will see his righteousness. Explanation/Illustration of the Principle No one is perfect. It is a trite saying but it is also the truth. People make mistakes and errors and there is a consequence for it. However, so many times people (especially leaders) want to ignore their mistakes and act like they never happened. When this occurs they may hide from it for a short or long while but eventually it always comes to bear. In the case of Israel God used Micah to call his people back to the Lord so that they could be restored to him. But for the restoration of Israel to God to happen the nation had to admit their faults and handle the punishment that God had to mete out to them. Their nation would be destroyed but God would eventually bring them back to him and restore their place as Godâ€™s people. Failure to admit their wrongs would result in God taking away his presence from Israel which had been their mark of separation from the world for centuries. In the same away a great leader must be willing to admit their mistakes, handle the consequences, and move forward to work for restoration and eventual integrity with other coworkers.25 Many times a leader is more respected and valued if they admit their faults rather than if they ignore them. A good leader is real to their coworkers and team if they admit their mistakes and work together to solve the problems that mistake caused. 25 Aubrey Malphurs. â€œBeing Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadershipâ€?. (Baker Books, 2003), 34. Old Testament Leadership Principle 42 Nahum Principle: ‘Trust in the Lord’ must be modeled and taught by every leader in every generation. No congregation can please God through the actions and decisions made by previous generations. Key Verse: Nahum 1:7, “The Lord is good, a strong hold in the day of trouble; and he knoweth them that trust in him.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle A Christian Leader must remind and guide each generation of the importance of fully trusting the Lord. Nineveh’s previous generation had repented and trusted in the Lord when the prophet Jonah brought warnings of judgment. Unfortunately, more than a century later, time had passed and so had the faith of the people of Nineveh. Their sinful living exposed them to God’s Wrath and certain destruction.  Many Christian’s in years past have done great deeds in the name of Jesus Christ. Good for them, perhaps many have received eternal salvation from our Lord and Savior. However, the book of Nahum teaches that the people of God in every generation must obediently live a life of faith and trust in the Lord. Each generation, congregation and individual must establish their own legacy with the Lord. Leaders must lead with this in mind. Nineveh’s grandparents couldn’t save them, and our grandparents can’t save us. Habakkuk Principle: Live by faith; trust in the Lord. Key Verse: Habakkuk 2:4, “See, he is puffed up; his desires are not upright - but the righteous will live by faith.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Habakkuk 2:4 is part of God’s response to the Prophet Habakkuk’s complaint about the prevalence of evil and discord in the world. Verse 2:4(b) is probably the most positive and Old Testament Leadership Principle 43 poignant verse contained in this book when God reminds Habakkuk that “the righteous will live by faith.” In this statement God reminds Habakkuk the need for ‘faith’ in a broken world. This is certainly a timeless truth that still holds true today. God will never be obligated to answer all of our questions, but on the other hand we will always be obligated to live by faith. Trust will always be a huge component in the lives of godly leaders and followers.  We will always be exposed to people living lives contrary to God’s ideals, but none-the-less Christians must live by faith. As a leader we must always model trust in the Lord and be righteous in our actions. The temptation will be to follow the way of the world. A leader must not let that happen. Habakkuk asked God why he was allowing the wicked and evil in Judah to exist and why he was using the Babylonians to punish his people. God spoke to Habakkuk and essentially reminded Habakkuk to trust in His providence. God is in control, God has a plan. Zephaniah Principle: It’s not too late to begin living a life of purpose. Lean forward, lives for God. Key Verse: Zephaniah 2:3, “Seek the Lord, all who are humble, and follow his commands. Seek to do what is right and live humbly. Perhaps even yet the Lord will protect you - protect you from his anger on that day of destruction.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Zephaniah reminds Judah that God’s judgment will come to all people someday. The majority of this short 3 chapter book deals with issues surrounding the realities of God’s judgment, but the last eleven verses deal directly of the prophetic hope that is to yet to come from God’s restoration.  For Christian’s today, we can see that Zephaniah’s words were prophetically pointing towards the victory offered through Jesus Christ. Even in the era of the New Covenant, Old Testament Leadership Principle 44 these opposing truths (judgment and hope through restoration) are certainly still true today. As such, today is a great day for leaders to begin modeling and teaching the importance of living a life of purpose and sacrifice for the Lord. Complacency and indifference is not part of God’s plan. May the Day of Judgment be a blessed day for the faithful. Be humble, be active. Live for God. For many Christian’s living in America, Haggai’s message may be a humbling reminder of our responsibilities to the church. In this book and in verse 1:4, scripture challenges and rebukes the people of God for living in comfort while God’s temple remained a rubble heap.  In leadership and in life, we must set our priorities properly. The book of Haggai is consistent with every other book of the Bible in its message that urges the reader to place God as the top priority. Prioritizing God as first will require trust, as committing priorities to God will invariably require some of our time, talents and treasures that we would otherwise have kept for ourselves. Leaders must teach and remind people of God’s perfect plan and desire to bless those who trust in Him. Zechariah Principle: Christians should be humble, as our hope is rooted in God’s Sovereignty.  Just as our Lord Jesus was humble in victory, so should his followers be humble in light of the same victory. Key Verse: Zechariah 9:9, Rejoice, O people of Zion! Shout in triumph, O people of Jerusalem! Look your king is coming to you. He is righteous and victorious, yet he is humble, riding on a donkey - a donkey’s colt.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Because of Jesus Christ’s victory Christian’s have reason to be rejoice, but no reason to be arrogant. Verse 9:9 appears to be an obvious prophetic reference to Jesus Christ that is placed in Old Testament Leadership Principle 45 context between scriptural text that discusses the pending judgment against Israel’s enemies and the Lord’s restoration of His people. We live in the same context today and should heed the lesson from this bit of scripture. Verse 9 highlights the “humility” of our righteous king. Leaders must model humility and expect the same from their followers. As humans we have no reason to be arrogant, as our victory comes from the Lord. Malachi Principle: Christian leaders and pastors should preserve the knowledge of God by teaching and living the truths of the Bible. Key Verse: Malachi 2:1, 7, “Listen, you priests - this command is for you!....The words of a priests lips should preserve knowledge of God, and people should go to him for instruction, for the priest is the messenger of the Lord of Heaven’s Armies.” Explanation/Illustration of the Principle Throughout this book, Malachi reminds the people in Jerusalem of their sinful living strives to convince his people of the need to have a restored his relationship with the Lord. In verse 1:2 of this book, the Lord reminds the reader that he has always loved his people, but questions how his people have loved him in return. The Lord especially takes issue with priests who offer unworthy sacrifices and show contempt for His name.26 It is from this context that the Lord states, “Listen, you priests - this command is for you!....The words of a priests lips should preserve knowledge of God, and people should go to him for instruction, for the priest is the messenger of the Lord of Heaven’s Armies.” (Malachi 2:1, 7) It seems clear from this section of scripture, that the Lord want leaders to rely on God’s knowledge when offering instruction and leading. Christian leaders should always abide in the Word of God and remain faithful to His teachings. Our words and offerings should always honor the Lord. 26 Andrew Hill and John Walton. A Survey of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Mi: Zondervan Publishing, 2000. p.509-511. Old Testament Leadership Principle 46 BIBLIOGRAPHY Holy Bible Hill, A. & Walton, J. . A Survey of the Old Testament. Grand Rapids, Mi: Zondervan Publishing, 2000. Howell Jr., D. N. Servants of the Servant: A Biblical Theology of Leadership. Oregon: Wipf & Stock, 2003. Knowles, Andrew. The Bible Guide: An all-in-one introduction to the book of books. Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 2001. Malphurs, Aubrey. Being Leaders: The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2003.