The Illinois School Board Journal
A bimonthly magazine for school board members and administrators highlighting issues in education.
SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2012 Vol. 80, No. 5 Saving extracurriculars with ‘pay to play’ fees READING • WRITING • ARITHMETIC • BEANS • BALLS • BUSES approaches in this new era of “pay- appropriate” and “foundational” skills to-play” in high school activities. in reading and math that are impor- Either you’ll recognize a policy your tant building blocks for “longer-term, district has adopted, or maybe you’ll higher order skills,” according to Edu- s you open the pages of this edi- get a new idea on price structures or cation Week. tion, you may be asking your- alternatives to “pay-to-play.” A selves the same question that many __________ of us at IASB usually do at this time of the year: Where did summer go? A few other recent items might Whether it’s because we’re get- spur conversations around the board ting older or because the exhaustive table. heat kept us confined to mostly air- A recent TODAY.com article conditioned spaces during June, July reported that “kids who do more and August, it hardly seems possi- homework actually perform worse ble that the buses are rolling again on standardized tests,” according to and it’s time for football and volley- a researcher at Sydney University. ball, marching band and cross coun- Homework only boosts student test try. scores in the final three years of high One critic, however, says this all sounds rather unreasonable to him. “Kids aren’t set on a path that’s immutable from birth or even from kindergarten onward,” said Sam Meisels, president of the Chicagobased Erikson Institute, a graduate school focused exclusively on early childhood development, “and thank goodness that’s the case.” Case in point: look how the characters from the movie “Animal House” turned out! And they were already For many students, school start- school, according to Richard Walk- ed earlier than the ringing of the offi- er, author of “Reforming Homework: cial bell. Athletes and band members Practices, Learning and Policies.” often find themselves in practice at And even then, too much homework A year ago in The Journal, we least a couple of weeks before class- can cause students to have poor men- announced that we would be cutting es begin. And those are the folks that tal and physical health … mostly from down on the amount of information we’re going to talk about in this issue: a lack of sleep. given in the “Milestones” section. in college! __________ students who participate in extracur- Some agree with the theory Contributions have increased again ricular activities and how to cover of assigning 10 minutes of home- to necessitate rolling out a new for- the expenses of those activities. work per grade level up to 90 min- mat with this issue. Information for It can be a “Catch 22” for dis- utes. Have you talked about “achievements” will continue to fea- tricts. You want to provide opportu- district homework policies and ture a picture, if available, and a short nities for your students, but when procedures recently? synopsis of the nature of the award budgets are tight and it costs more To read additional findings, go or career move. Obituaries of past or to refurbish the football helmets or to http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/ current board members will be lim- clean the band uniforms than stu- 48343652/ns/today-back_to_school/. ited to date of death and school board dents pay in fees, then district bud- __________ service. This in no way diminishes gets need to pick up the extra costs. ACT, the well-known test pre- Yes, gate receipts can help. But parers, say they are working to cre- some sports just don’t draw crowds ate “a new series of tests to measure like football and basketball. And many how students — as young as 5 — are music events are offered free to the acquiring the skills and knowledge public. they need to be ready for college and In our cover story, freelance writer careers.” Terri McHugh looks at three Illinois How could this be? It seems ACT districts that are taking different is designing the tests to look for “grade- the time and effort these board members gave to their communities. However, pages in a magazine are like acres on a farm: prime real estate that needs to be put to its best use. Please continue to notify IASB of any achievements or the passing of board members. It’s information that we continue to want to share. TABLE OF CONTENTS COVER STORY 14 | Saving extracurriculars with ‘pay-to-play’ fees Facing uncertain finances, some districts are turning to fees to help continue extracurricular activities. Terri McHugh 16 | Sidebar: A coach’s perspective FEATURE STORIES 4 | Academic game changer … Charting the course for successful implementation The school board can lead the way to successful implementation of new standards by setting a vision of commitment to change. Stuart Yager, Carol Webb, Rene Noppe and Donna McCaw S E P T E M B E R / O C T O B E R 2 0 1 2 Vol. 80, No. 5 8 | On/off-campus lines now blurred by Internet speech In a question-and-answer format, an attorney explains how free speech is evolving in the cyber world. Steven Puiszis 19 | Stand your ground … How to keep the peace at activities, conferences School boards can adopt policies and procedures to address bad conduct on school grounds. Shayne Aldridge 22 | Athletic fields and facilities … Not just extracurricular, but extra value for schools Learn how synthetic turf can add to a district’s flexible use space, while offering durability and increased accessibility. Kevin Havens, Byron Wyns and Craig Polte 25 | EEE awards put emphasis on quality learning spaces The Exhibition of Educational Environments at the 2012 Joint Annual Conference returns to the true intent of the awards. David Henebry 28 | Questions I would ask politicians about education An education researcher would like to see certain questions answered about education policy before the November election. Diane Ravitch REGULAR FEATURES Boiler Room. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Milestones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Ask the staff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside back cover ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL (ISSN-0019-221X) is published every other month by the Illinois Association of School Boards, 2921 Baker Drive, Springfield, Illinois 62703-5929, telephone 217/528-9688. The IASB regional office is located at One Imperial Place, 1 East 22nd Street, Lombard, Illinois 601486120, telephone 630/629-3776. The JOURNAL is supported by the dues of school boards holding active membership in the Illinois Association of School Boards. Copies are mailed to all school board members and the superintendent in each IASB member school district. Non-member subscription rate: Domestic $18.00 per year. Foreign (including Canada and Mexico) $21.00 per year. PUBLICATION POLICY IASB believes that the domestic process functions best through frank and open discussion. Material published in the JOURNAL, therefore, often presents divergent and controversial points of view which do not necessarily represent the views or policies of IASB. James Russell, Associate Executive Director Linda Dawson, Editor Gary Adkins, Contributing Editor Diane M. Cape, Design and Production Manager Dana Heckrodt, Advertising Manager TOPICS FOR UPCOMING ISSUES November/December January/February Third B: Buses School design Cover by Corbin Design, Petersburg BOILER ROOM Sometimes it pays off for tall triangle players by “Gus” Gus, the custodian at Eastside Grammar, is the creation of “Fine! I want to see her RIGHT ust this last summer, I took some J NOW!” vacation days to visit my daugh- ter and her family. Mr. Keck didn’t mind that I was takin’ the time off so “Why is it that I have The assistant librarian went to find the principal. While we sat and Richard W. close to the openin’ of school, as the to pay $150 for my waited, I cautioned my daughter about Smelter, a retired crew and I had worked hard and East- son to be in the losin’ her temper. In about five min- school principal, side was as shiny as a new penny … and ready as it could ever be. marching band, utes, the librarian/cashier returned. now a Chicago- “I couldn’t locate Mrs. Sebast- based college My grandson, Michael, is in the while my next-door instructor and marching band at his high school. neighbor only pays who’s on the school board. Maybe author. Now, like at many schools, there’s a $75 for her daughter you could voice your concerns to him fee attached to participatin’ in the marching band, just like there are to be in the same fees connected to just about every band? Huh? Why?” … the board approves the fee schedules.” “Fine! Mr. Trotter … how is it kind of extracurricular activity in that some parents who have kids in school. the marching band have to pay a higher fee than some other parents who My daughter had a “bone to pick” have kids in the same band? Huh? over the fee schedule and intended to voice her complaint during the to explain something to me.” school’s registration process. She “What?” asked the cashier, who asked me to accompany her for moral was actually an assistant librarian support. I agreed, of course … plus I makin’ extra cash by helpin’ out with always like to see other schools … to registration. see if they’re kept up as well as Eastside. “Why is it that I have to pay $150 Why?” “What instrument does your child play?” Mr. Trotter asked calmly. “He plays the trumpet!” responded my daughter, who couldn’t see what that had to do with anything. for my son to be in the marching band, “Well,” said Trotter. “That explains My daughter moved on down the while my next-door neighbor only the high fee! You see, trumpets are registration line peaceably enough, pays $75 for her daughter to be in the one of the main components in any holdin’ back her temper until she same band? Huh? Why?” marching band. They play pretty reached the table where parents were “Well, I really don’t know,” nearly all the time in any piece of supposed to cough up “pay-to-play” answered the assistant librarian. music. They’re right up there with fees. “Maybe you should see the principal the snare drums … part of the mili- about your concern.” tary tradition behind marching bands! “Hey!” she began. “I want you 2 ian, but I did find Mr. Trotter, here, THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 What instrument does your neigh- he checked his master list of fees. bor’s child play?” “Ah, yes … here it is. The fee to play “The tuba.” the triangle is $27 … $25 to rent the “Well,” replied Trotter, a smile uniform and $2 to play the triangle.” creeping across his face. “That explains “So, if the uniform rental fee is the lower fee. You see, we wanted $25, then the fee to play the trumpet to be fair in our pay-to-play policy. is $125.” We had our band director analyze a “Now you’ve got it!” typical piece of music to see which “Let me see the uniform my son musicians play more than their peers. will be issued. I’ve seen your march- I can tell you, without hesitation, that ing band! The uniforms are supposed trumpet players play about four times to be red, but some of them look as many notes as tuba players. So, pink!” the rationale is that parents who have “The ones that look pink are the children who get to participate more more common sizes … the ones that in extracurricular programs should are rented out the most. The more be assessed a higher fee than parents uncommon sizes tend to retain their who have children who participate original color as they’re rented out less.” less frequently. You see, the constant “You can’t be serious!” quipped my daughter. cleaning and the sun’s rays tend to fade …” “Oh, I’m very serious,” Trotter “Yeah, I get it!” interrupted my replied. “We try to follow this same daughter. “I have to pay a whopping policy in all of our extracurricular fee and my son winds up in a pink activities. In the case of the football uniform!” team, for instance, we actually wait Well, you get it. My daughter left until the end of the season to assess registration angrier than she was the pay-to-play fees. That way, we before. have a clear record of which players spent more time on the field as opposed When I returned to work, I ran this by Mr. Keck. to being benched. Those who wind “Gus, in this business it’s hard up playing more get assessed higher to be fair to everybody. I know one fees. Seems only fair. In the case of thing though …” the marching band, we’ve analyzed “What’s that boss?” the average playing time of all the “Parents of kids who play the tri- instruments. As I stated, trumpets angle end up with a bit more dis- and snare drums are assessed the cretionary income, at least in your highest fees.” daughter’s school district. And, if “Who gets assessed the lowest fee?” “The parents of triangle players … they play even less than the tuba players.” “Exactly how much is that?” President Carolyne Brooks Immediate Past President Joseph Alesandrini Vice President Karen Fisher BOARD OF DIRECTORS Abe Lincoln Roger Edgecombe Lake County Joanne Osmond Blackhawk Jackie Mickley Northwest Ben Andersen Central Illinois Valley Thomas Neeley Shawnee Roger Pfister Cook North Phil Pritzker Southwestern John Coers Cook South Tom Cunningham Starved Rock Simon Kampwerth Jr. Cook West Joanne Zendol Three Rivers / Treasurer Dale Hansen Corn Belt Mark Harms Two Rivers David Barton DuPage Rosemary Swanson Egyptian John Metzger Illini Michelle Skinlo Kaskaskia Linda Eades Wabash Valley Tim Blair Western Sue McCance Chicago Board Jesse Ruiz Service Associates Steve Larson Kishwaukee Mary Stith they’re really short or very tall, at least they’re wearing the right color uniform!” Keck can always get to the heart of things. He has to … he’s the prin- IASB is a voluntary association of local boards of education and is not affiliated with any branch of government. cipal. “Let me see,” replied Trotter, as SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 3 FEATURE ARTICLE Academic game changer … Charting the course for successful implementation by Stuart Yager, Carol Webb, Rene Noppe and Donna McCaw Stuart Yager is an A school district’s journey toward implementation of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) begins Part III: Charting the course sor educational with school board commitment. Ulti- School reform movements are not new to policy and decision leadership at mately, this commitment is focused makers. Each decade seems to have brought at least one new idea Western Illinois on ensuring that high school gradu- or program that would “fix” a system that many believed to be University in ates have the necessary skills to be broken. This is the third in a four-part series giving school board Macomb. Carol college- or career-ready when they members background knowledge on the Common Core State Stan- Webb and Rene complete high school. dards (CCSS), the potential impact these new standards will have associate profes- Noppe are assis- Commitment starts with the tant professors board sharing a vision for CCSS imple- in educational mentation and communicating this leadership at WIU. Donna on teaching and learning, things for boards to look for and district implementation issues. vision to all constituents in the district. to understand the rationale for why does that diploma stand for value? Early on, the school board can we have new standards. Discussion The board also should consider take steps to develop a shared vision at the board table may center on the if the diploma is respected by those for implementing the new standards level at which the district’s graduates who earn it. Often, achieving a high by discussing and collectively answer- works with the are ready for college or to enter a school diploma has little to do with ing essential questions at the board career. From there, the discussion what the graduate knows and can do Common Core table. Answering these important may move in the direction of politi- with the attained knowledge. Fre- Institute. questions during open meetings is cal pressures being placed on public quently, the diploma means attend- the best way to inform the public, education or even global economics. ing school for a specified number of demonstrate commitment and encour- Another top question for the in-class hours and earning a mini- age district employees about imple- board is what their district’s high mum passing grade in the required mentation. school diploma currently means or courses. McCaw recently retired from WIU and currently The public should see the board what it should mean. The board should Another question to consider: reaching consensus regarding a vision ask if high school graduation is seen What evidence is available to indi- for Common Core implementation. by the community as an important cate how successful the district’s grad- However, many essential questions achievement. Is it merely a rite of uates are two, three or even five years exist for the board. passage or does the diploma repre- after graduation? School districts sent a rigorous accomplishment? And should have mechanisms in place to One of the most important is 4 THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 complete feedback loops in order or e-mails. Often it is helpful to have op and incorporate these assessment to study their high school graduatesâ€™ someone attend the meeting to take items into their regular classroom preparedness for college or careers. notes and record the names of those instruction. Board members who This would include data from area asking questions. Follow-up letters understand this will know the impor- employers, college and university containing clear answers and a note admission offices, and satisfaction of thanks to those citizens who ask surveys of graduates. questions will be beneficial. Include stakeholders sessions presented during school Additionally, general awareness Board members must be absolutely Another necessary step for school board meetings can be a great use of clear regarding the commitment and boards to demonstrate support for board meeting time by providing the vision regarding Common Core State the implementation of the new stan- media with key points so that those dards is to provide awareness to all attending see the commitment being stakeholders. This includes parents, demonstrated. students, community leaders, faculty and staff. Standards. Also, after the presentation, the tone should be that of non-judg- Finally, at the start of professional mental listening. development days for all district Often, school board members employees, board members can give forget about the importance of com- opening remarks to communicate municating commitment and vision commitment, vision and support for about change initiatives to students, all in attendance to hear. tance of providing release time for community leaders and non-teach- Clearly, it is important to try to teachers to develop these next-gen- ing staff. This is in contrast to intense- have two school board members pre- eration assessments to use in their ly communicating to teachers and sent at Common Core awareness classrooms. administrators. activities to demonstrate support and In addition to aligning assess- Communicating to stakeholder commitment for implementation. ments, teachers will need consider- groups can often be best accomplished Having groups of two, as opposed to able professional development about in an open format where one or two only one board member, attend speak- how to adjust instruction to the rig- board members attend speaking events ing engagements is a good way to or required in the new standards. to communicate the collective vision demonstrate support and solidarity. New instructional strategies will be and commitment of the board for This strategy provides a level required for students to master the implementation. At each of these of accountability and communicates rigor required by the new standards. forums, an opportunity for question a team approach to all who hear the Finally, teachers will need sup- and answer is vitally important. presentation. And itâ€™s always good to port in mapping the district curriculum Board members must be absolute- have an extra set of eyes and ears to the CCSS. Mapping curriculum ly clear regarding the commitment paying attention to both the content into a scope and sequence aligned and vision regarding Common Core and the process of the dialogue. with the new standards will require considerable release time for teach- State Standards. Also, after the presentation, the tone should be that of Alignment ers. non-judgmental listening. This includes Aligning current district assess- The work of the board to achieve maintaining a relaxed, friendly body ments to the new standards is just as these professional development out- posture, making eye contact and important as creating awareness. Stu- comes is twofold. thanking people for sharing their dents should begin to experience and First, the board must allocate thoughts. practice with the same types of assess- funds to provide this necessary pro- Board members should provide ment that they will encounter later fessional development. This also time for the audience to ask ques- on the new high-stakes tests begin- means providing release time for tions and then encourage people per- ning in 2014. teachers to attend workshops and to sonally to follow-up by phone calls Teachers should learn to devel- SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL develop district materials. 5 Teachers and administrators also and curriculum maps. Principals will menting the work. The board should will need to attend state and even need to develop tools to support their expect periodic updates from teach- national conferences about transi- teachers as the implementation begins ers and administrators at board meet- tion to the CCSS. By attending these and evolves. ings about the implementation process workshops, teachers and adminis- Second, the board must discuss and status. These updates are best trators will learn about the time they with district administrators how to done during board work sessions will need and how to use it to devel- monitor the work of the teachers and where there can be a relaxed dialogue op assessments, instructional units to ensure accountability for imple- between the board and the teacher or administrator presenters. Work sessions should occur about once per quarter and last no more than one hour. This communication process also will inform the public and media present at board meetings STAFF OFFICE OF THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Roger L. Eddy, Executive Director Benjamin S. Schwarm, Deputy Executive Director Meetings Management Patricia Culler, Assistant to the Executive Director Carla S. Bolt, Director-designee Sandy Boston, Assistant Director Office of General Counsel Melinda Selbee, General Counsel Kimberly Small, Assistant General Counsel Executive Searches Donna Johnson, Director Doug Blair, Consultant Dawn Miller, Consultant Thomas Leahy, Consultant ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES Jennifer Feld, Associate Executive Director/Chief Financial Officer Production Services Diane M. Cape, Senior Director ADVOCACY/ GOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS Benjamin S. Schwarm, Deputy Executive Director Deanna L. Sullivan, Director Susan Hilton, Director Advocacy Cynthia Woods, Director IASB OFFICES 2921 Baker Drive Springfield, Illinois 62703-5929 217/528-9688 Fax 217/528-2831 www.iasb.com 6 BOARD DEVELOPMENT/ TARGETING ACHIEVEMENT THROUGH GOVERNANCE Angie Peifer, Associate Executive Director where these updates occur. By connecting the board’s vision for the implementation of the CCSS to the steps above, the board will best be able to ensure expectations for quality implementation. These action Board Development Sandra Kwasa, Director Nesa Brauer, Consultant steps represent a vibrant strategic Targeting Achievement through Governance Steve Clark, Consultant which includes providing frequent COMMUNICATIONS James Russell, Associate Executive Director Gary W. Adkins, Director/Editorial Linda Dawson, Director/Editorial Jennifer Nelson, Director, Information Services Gerald R. Glaub, Consultant FIELD SERVICES/POLICY SERVICES Cathy A. Talbert, Associate Executive Director Field Services Larry Dirks, Director Dean Langdon, Director Patrick Rice, Director Jeff Cohn, Director Barbara B. Toney, Director Laurel DiPrima, Director Policy Services Anna Lovern, Director Nancy Bohl, Consultant Andrea Dolgin, Consultant Jackie Griffith, Consultant Wayne Savageau, Consultant Brian Zumpf, Consultant plan for implementation of the CCSS, communication to the public and the district employees. The steps also specify that resources be provided to teachers to get the job done as well as tools for administrators and teacher leaders for monitoring the implementation. These steps can also help guide the board through any future change processes that will come about as educational technologies advance. The steps outlined here for implementation of the Common Core State Standards — commitment, communication and resources — will support strong change management far into the future. Other parts in the series are: Part I: May/June — Common Core 101 One Imperial Place 1 East 22nd Street, Suite 20 Lombard, Illinois 60148-6120 630/629-3776 Fax 630/629-3940 Part II: July/August — Shifting the focus Part IV: November/December — Eating the elephant THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 FEATURE ARTICLE On/off-campus lines now blurred by Internet speech by Steve Puiszis Steven Puiszis is a partner with ditor’s note: The answers to sive activities invades the rights of student’s Web page that targeted a the following questions, sub- others. fellow student for ridicule and harass- E mitted to the author by The Journal, The Second Circuit, when apply- ment. The court in Kowalski rec- Hinshaw & are based on his article “‘Tinkering’ ing Tinker’s substantial disruption ognized that schools have a Culbertson LLP with the First Amendment’s Protec- test, asks if it was reasonably fore- “compelling interest” in regulating in Chicago, tion of Student Speech on the Inter- seeable that a student’s off-campus speech that involves “student harass- where he serves net,” which is being published in expression might reach the school ment and bullying.” as deputy gener- Volume 29, Issue 2 of the John Mar- and, if so, would it foreseeably cre- The Eighth Circuit also applied al counsel, heads shall Law School’s Journal of Com- ate a risk of substantial disruption a reasonable foreseeability approach the firm’s Elec- puter and Information Law. within the school. in its Hannibal Public School Dis- tronic Discovery Response Team and is a member of its business litigation practice and school law groups. 8 Tinker v. Des Moines Indepen- The Third Circuit, on the other trict decision, which addressed threat- dent Community School District set hand, has rejected a foreseeability ening instant messages between two a precedent for student First Amend- approach. In its Blue Mountain School students. While the Eighth Circuit in ment rights in 1969. How have recent District decision, the Third Circuit, Hannibal held that the instant mes- federal circuit decisions interpreted sitting together to hear the case, sages constituted “true threats,” and that decision regarding Internet specifically observed that speech as a result did not constitute pro- speech? originating off-campus is not trans- tected speech, the court also applied We have to recognize that the formed into on-campus speech sim- Tinker and held that it was reason- Supreme Court’s student speech deci- ply because it foreseeably makes its ably foreseeable that the student’s sions, including Tinker, involved dif- way into a school. The concurring threatening messages would be brought ferent modes of communication that judges in Blue Mountain, however, to the attention of school authorities arose in markedly different contexts were willing to apply Tinker when a and create a risk of substantial dis- than a student’s use of the Internet. student’s off-campus Internet speech ruption. It should come as no surprise, then, was intentionally directed toward that the circuit courts have taken a school. It also is important to note that the Fifth and Eleventh circuits have somewhat divergent approaches as The Fourth Circuit, like the Sec- broadly interpreted the Supreme to when discipline can be imposed. ond, would allow a student to be dis- Court’s “Bong Hits 4 Jesus” decision, By and large, these decisions have ciplined when it was foreseeable that Morse v. Frederick, as granting school focused on Tinker’s substantial dis- the student’s Internet activities would officials greater authority to address ruption test, and have generally failed reach the school via computers, smart threatening speech in order to pro- to consider another aspect of Tinker, phones or other electronic devices. tect students from potential harm. which allows discipline to be imposed The Fourth Circuit in Kowalski v. Those courts base that conclusion when a student’s speech or expres- Berkley County Schools addressed a on Justice Alito’s opinion, which in THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 as the courts? their view constitutes the “control- invade the rights of another student ling” opinion in Morse. On the oth- and, thus, would fall under Tinker’s For school districts, Internet er hand, both the Third and Seventh second prong. There is no constitu- speech poses several unique prob- Circuits view Morse as narrowly decid- tional right to be a bully or to abuse lems. Unlike other forms of media, ed, and the Seventh Circuit in its or intimidate other students. Given the Internet permits free and unfet- Nuxoll decision observed that Justices Alito and Kennedy “joined the majority opinion not just the decision and by doing so they made it the majority opinion not merely, as the By definition, speech that constitutes harassment, bullying or cyber- plaintiff believes (as does the Fifth bullying is speech that would seemingly invade the rights of anoth- Circuit) a plurality opinion.” Please explain the two different “prongs” involved in the Tinker er student and, thus, would fall under Tinker’s second prong. There is no constitutional right to be a bully or to abuse or intimidate other students. decision as they now relate to harassment, bullying and cyberbullying? Typically, when we think of Tinker, we think of its substantial disruption test. Because cyberbullying the potential for Title IX liability in tered discussion of ideas with prac- typically targets a single student or this context for deliberate indiffer- tically no regulation or oversight. The discrete group of students, demon- ence to student-on-student harass- Internet removes the spatial distance strating substantial disruption may ment, Tinker’s “rights of others” prong between the persons posting and view- be difficult to establish. However, Tin- can provide the means to address this ing content on the Web. There are no ker also held that schools can disci- aspect of student Internet speech. geographic or territorial limits on the pline speech that “invades the rights Substantial disruption should Internet. not be required to invoke this aspect Today, any student with a com- Since Tinker was originally decid- of Tinker. Otherwise, there would puter can post information on the ed, the Second, Third, Sixth, Eighth have been no need for the Court in Internet that can be accessed any- and Ninth circuits have mentioned Tinker to mention speech that invades where in the world almost instanta- Tinker’s “rights of others” prong. It the rights of others. Mere teasing and neously. Social networks encourage was the basis of the Eighth Circuit’s name calling would not normally the development of affinity groups decision in Hazelwood, before it went be sufficient to trigger this aspect of that can target individuals in the to the U.S. Supreme Court. Howev- Tinker. However, when one student’s school community. While schools er, because the Supreme Court held speech or expressive activities on the can attempt to block access to vari- that schools could exercise editorial Internet is severe enough that it ous social networking sites on school control over school-sponsored pub- impairs, or predictably could impair, computers, students can use a num- lications, the Court in Hazelwood another student’s educational per- ber of online tools and applications specifically noted that it was not formance, or the student’s ability to to circumvent a school district’s addressing whether the Eight Circuit interact with his or her peers at school, attempt to block access to these types had “correctly construed” Tinker’s or the student’s safety at school, school of sites. “rights of others” prong. officials and their counsel should con- The Internet has expanded sider invoking Tinker’s rights of oth- schools’ boundaries and blurred when, ers prong. where and how students can enter of others.” Protecting the “rights of others” is an underused aspect of Tinker. By the schoolhouse gate. A two-dimen- definition, speech that constitutes harassment, bullying or cyberbully- How does the Internet pose sional view of a school district’s edu- ing is speech that would seemingly unique challenges for schools as well cational setting and limits of its SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 9 authority ignores the modern reali- and social networking sites like Face- a school district’s disciplinary deci- ty of education in light of online col- book and Twitter, any effort to tie the sion. laborative educational tools and the disciplinary authority of school offi- While school districts need not proliferation of Web-based educa- cials to the physical boundaries of a wait until substantial disruption occurs tional programs being offered to stu- school is “a recipe for serious prob- before they act, a disciplinary deci- lems in our public schools.” sion cannot be based on speculation, conjecture or an unsubstantiated fear Courts have been slow to pick up on the distinguishing features of Internet speech, but there seems to be a growing awareness of some of these distinctions in several of the latest federal circuit opinions addressing Internet speech. dents of all ages. Does it make any difference where of future disruption. School admin- the message originated or where it istrators must be prepared to present was read? facts supporting their conclusion that When we lived and worked in a paper world, courts used the on-cam- substantial disruption was reasonably likely to occur. pus/off-campus distinction as a bright The type of facts relevant to the line for when a school administrator issue will vary depending on both could discipline a student for his or the content of the student’s speech her speech or expressive activity. and the context in which it occurs. With Internet speech, that approach However, prior acts of violence, threats is untenable. or confrontations between students Internet speech can reach stu- involving the same type of speech or dents wherever they are so long as expressive activity are highly rele- The concurring judges in the they are carrying a laptop, a tablet or vant. Evidence concerning how the Third Court’s decision in Layshock smart phone. Communications via learning environment in classrooms recognized that, with the prolifera- the Internet can reach into a school was disrupted or the impact on the tion of wireless Internet access, smart in ways not possible even 10 years district’s administrative offices should phones, tablets, laptop computers ago. Courts have been slow to pick be presented. The numbers of stu- up on the distinguishing features of dents involved or the number of Internet speech, but there seems to administrative or teaching hours be a growing awareness of some of impacted should be presented if it is these distinctions in several of the favorable. latest federal circuit opinions address- IASB SERVICE ASSOCIATES The best of everything for schools ing Internet speech. Obviously, the greater the impact on classroom performance, the The concurring judges in the greater number of students and/or Third Circuit’s Blue Mountain deci- the more egregious nature of the sion recognized that whether a stu- speech, the better a district’s chances dent’s Internet speech can be regulated that the disciplinary decision will should not solely depend on where be upheld. the student was located when the speech was originally generated. Also don’t overlook the nature of the speech or expressive activities involved. Remember that “true threats” IASB Service Associates provide quality products and services for schools. Membership is by invitation only. A list of Service Associate firms is on the IASB website and in this Journal. 10 How does the school district deter- are not protected speech, and even mine “material and substantial dis- if a student’s speech does not quali- ruption” as referenced in Tinker? fy as a true threat, where the safety This can be one of the more dif- of a student or members of the stu- ficult aspects of Tinker to navigate. dent body is involved, courts are less It requires school districts and their likely to second-guess an adminis- counsel to collaboratively focus on trator’s decision to discipline or sus- marshaling the evidence to support pend another student. THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 Please define what is meant by a “true threat” and how that might be interpreted in a school setting? The Supreme Court in Virginia v. Black defined a true threat as the WAIT! communication “of a serious expression of intent to commit an act of unlawful violence on a particular individual or group of individuals.” An objective test is applied when determining if a statement meets the truethreat test. The Seventh Circuit evaluates not what a speaker intended, but whether the recipient could have reasonably regarded the statement as a true threat. The Eighth Circuit in its Hannibal decision found one student’s instant messages to another student in which he discussed getting a gun and shooting other students quali- Before you pull out your well-worn copy of the Illinois School Law Survey to find the answer to your school law question, check to see if you have the latest edition.The 12th Edition of the book, written by school attorney Brian A. Braun, is an invaluable legal resource for all school leaders, including superintendents, school board members, principals, and others. fied as a true threat. Several other The latest edition, published in June 2012, answers nearly 1,600 questions and is based on state and federal statutes and case law in force and reported as of Jan. 1, 2012, along with administrative rules and regulations current as of Dec. 15, 2011. circuits have held statements made in student essays or in a student’s notebook describing the student shooting a teacher and/or other students also qualified as true threats. Because a true threat does not constitute protected speech, the First Amendment does not provide any impediment to disciplining a student for making these types of threaten- How do you order the new book? ing statements. • Call IASB at 217/528-9688, ext. 1108 What’s the difference for free • Mail or fax printed order forms to IASB Publications, 2922 Baker Dr., Springfield, IL, 62703 speech rights for high school students and those for elementary students, or is there any? • Go online at: http://www.iasb.com/ shop/ The Seventh Circuit has recognized that the younger the student, the more leeway school administrators have in regulating their speech. In other words, speech that may be inappropriate for a third grader would not be viewed as lewd or vulgar for high school students. Like with any If you have old editions of this book, please remove them and replace with the current edition. The price is $45 (or $35 to IASB members), plus $7 per order for shipping (regardless of how many books are shipped). other First Amendment issue, a conSEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 11 text-specific approach has to be tak- a member of the school community? for misconduct involving the mis- en involving student speech. How does such off-campus speech use of social media or the Internet, find its way to school? students should have some prior What about offensive speech, Anything posted on the Internet notice that the activity is prohibit- such as those issues raised by the can potentially make its way onto a ed, thereby affording the student breast cancer awareness bracelets? school campus simply by students with an opportunity to conform his The breast cancer awareness bringing their smart phones, tablets or her conduct to the school district’s (I love boobies) bracelets pose a dif- or laptops to school. This question code of conduct. Thus, a school ficult question for school districts, strikes at a split in the circuits con- board’s disciplinary policy should and the answer will likely vary cerning when Tinker’s substantial clearly define and prohibit bullying, depending on the age range of the disruption can be applied to student cyberbullying, harassing, threaten- particular student body. At least Internet speech. ing and intimidating speech or Most of the circuits when address- address a school’s ban of these ing this issue have applied a rea- bracelets and the courts reach con- sonable foreseeability test. However, In Illinois, school districts have trary holdings. In one case out of the concurring judges in the Third an obligation to intervene with stu- Pennsylvania, the court held ban- Circuit would only permit Tinker dents whose conduct “puts them at ning the bracelets violated a stu- to be applied when Internet speech risk for aggressive behavior, includ- dent’s First Amendment rights. is intentionally directed toward the ing without limitation, bullying, as However, a district court in Wis- school. A number of lower courts have defined in the [district’s disciplinary] consin rejected identical arguments explained that school administrators policy.” 105 ILCS 5/10-20.14(d). and concluded the ban was per- should not view themselves as cen- Including cyberbullying in your school missible under the First Amend- sors of the Web. district’s definition of bullying pro- communicated. ment. Clearly, this is an example Unfortunately for school districts vides school administrators with a where context has to be considered. in Illinois, the Seventh Circuit has basis to impose appropriate disci- These bracelets would not be not addressed this precise issue. Until pline for the use of social media or considered vulgar or lewd in a high the Supreme Court addresses the the Internet to intentionally intimi- school setting. If an elementary or issue and provides further guidance, date, harass, threaten or otherwise middle school decides to ban these where a student’s Internet speech bully other students. A reference to bracelets, it should consider allow- does not target the school, another speech or the use of the Internet or ing some other means for the stu- student or a member of the school’s social media that invades the rights dents to get out their message about staff, and does not invade the rights of others should be incorporated into breast cancer awareness. of others, school districts should con- the policy. When addressing vulgar or lewd sider using the student’s inappropri- Consider explaining that stu- speech, school districts should remem- ate speech as a teaching moment. dents can be disciplined for their ber that the Supreme Court in Frasi- Bring it to the attention of the stu- Internet speech or the use of social er limited that exception to speech dent and his or her parents, explain media that targets other students for that occurred in a school setting, and why you believe it is inappropriate harassment, intimidation or bully- it is an open question whether Inter- and let the student’s parents take the ing. Students should be warned that net speech that is lewd or vulgar but disciplinary action. their use of the Internet or social media that could foreseeably reach does not meet the test for obscenity can be a basis for student discipline. What should the district’s posi- 12 behavior irrespective of how it is two federal district court decisions How can board policy help ensure the school and could foreseeably cre- that the district is acting within its ate a risk of substantial disruption or scope regarding these First Amend- that invades the rights of others at ment issues? school can provide a basis for disci- tion be about student Internet speech Before a school district can take that is not directed at the school or disciplinary action against a student pline. THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 Register Now! Contact your district superintendent General Sessions Panels Bookstore Networking Workshops Exhibits Delegate Assembly Meet with Colleagues IASB • IASA • IASBO 80 JOINT ANNUAL CONFERENCE th NOVEMBER 16-18, 2012 • CHICAGO Carousel of Panels MORE! COVER STORY Saving extracurriculars with ‘pay-to-play’ fees by Terri McHugh Terri McHugh is I t’s fall. Cross country teams are responsibility with student partici- cation Longitudinal Study. Although running a course through town. pation in extracurricular activities? the analysis couldn’t ascertain defin- Football players are tossing the pigskin. As school boards debate fees, itively whether participation in tions director for Volleyball teams are working on the they often discuss the importance of extracurricular activities leads to School District bump, set and spike. extracurricular activities. increased success at school, the data community rela- 54 in Schaumburg, Illinois. But can every student in the dis- The National Center for Edu- did show that students who partici- trict afford to play? Are there stu- cation Statistics examined the rela- pated in extracurricular activities dents sitting out this season because tionship between extracurricular had better attendance, were more their families can’t afford the athlet- participation and student engage- likely to have a GPA of 3.0 or greater ic fees? ment in school using data from pub- and were more likely to expect to earn a bachelor’s degree. And what can school board mem- lic high school seniors in a 1992 bers do to balance the goals of fiscal National In addition, the U.S. Department Edu- of Health and Human Services recommends at least 60 minutes daily of physical activity for students ages 6 to 17. The Institute of Medicine’s report Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance also recommends that schools provide a significant portion of a student’s physical activity minutes. Extracurricular sports, in addition to physical education classes, help meet those goals. However, school boards also face uncertainty over state funding, property tax appeals and the rising costs of educating today’s students. How can they continue to provide extracur14 THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 ricular activities for all students and updated its routing software with a trict 111 board of education debat- balance the budget at the same time? program that will monitor when bus- ed extracurricular fees this spring. “You’re never going to balance es are idling. King predicts a large Currently, the 2,500 students at the your budget with the fees you charge savings in fuel costs — up to 10 per- two Minooka campuses do not pay a for activities or registration,” said Jeff cent — will be realized by moni- fee for athletics or other extracur- King, chief operations officer for School toring drivers and enforcing more District U-46 in Elgin. The U-46 bud- efficient fuel usage. get is more than $400 million; fees Transportation is a factor in ath- account for only about $2.5 million letic costs as well, as teams travel “You’re never going to balance your in revenue. to other schools for games. By mak- budget with the fees you charge for activities or registration,” said Jeff This year the U-46 school board ing these changes to the transporta- voted to increase the fees for football tion program, U-46 may not have to — the most expensive sport in the charge for transporting athletes home King, chief operations officer for School district — by $50, to $200. The fee after practices or to competitions — District U-46 in Elgin. The U-46 budget for other sports will remain at $150. costs that might make participa- is more than $400 million; fees account King said the only individuals who tion even more prohibitive. spoke against the increase were some of the football coaches. Even with the $50 increase, the for only about $2.5 million in revenue. football fees collected do not even In response, he provided them cover the cost of reconditioning hel- with information that showed par- mets and shoulder pads each year, ricular activities. However, the dis- ents paid up to $325 to enroll their King said. In addition, U-46 waives trict faced a roughly $3.2 million children in the youth feeder football athletics fees for students who qual- deficit for 2012-13 and something programs before the students entered ify for the free lunch program, or needed to change. high school, and some of those fees about 50 percent of the district’s stu- “Our revenue is largely based on didn’t include equipment. For exam- dents. Although this is not state law, property taxes,” said Todd Drafall, ple, the South Elgin youth football it is U-46 board policy. In addition, district business manager. “We had league charges $325 for tackle foot- the district had about $500,000 in a significant drop in revenue due to ball, leaving parents with still need- uncollected fees this year. a drop in EAV (equalized assessed valuation).” ing to purchase a practice jersey and “It’s complicated,” King said. pants, pads for the pants, a cup and “Should the taxpayer be subsidizing The board voted not to imple- a mouthpiece. a student who wants to play football? ment a fee for 2012-13, but looked U-46 has looked at ways to cut On the other hand, should I tell the at other ways to reduce expenditures. costs in the district instead of just boost- free lunch student he can’t play? We Minooka did raise its registration ing extracurricular fees. Last year it are reallocating some resources for fee by $20 to $210. The board consolidated the high school trans- those who don’t have them.” approved cuts to capital expendi- portation program from 1,271 bus stops King recommended that school tures, reduced some administrative to 271 by having high school students boards survey their citizens or bring positions, and made adjustments in walk up to a mile to a local elementary the discussion to a citizen group. He purchased services and supplies. In school or park. With state funding for plans to pursue one or both of those addition, the administration office transportation declining, the district’s options the next time U-46 consid- moved from a leased storefront into transportation fund is expected to have ers a fee increase. Although the dis- one of the district’s schools. a deficit again this year. trict reviews fees every year, the board King said the district may imple- hasn’t increased them each year. This summer, the district also district’s deficit by $2.2 million without cutting any certified staff or adding ment a similar program with middle school bus stops next year. These adjustments reduced the Something has to give The Minooka High School Dis- SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL a fee for extracurricular activities. “The finance committee, which 15 includes board members, had some related to sports participation. ity to pay. concerns about reducing students’ Successful athletic programs also “Any time you charge a fee you options to be a part of athletics and can prove costly. In addition to the create a barrier,” he said. “Our board activities,” Drafall said. “The board costs for coaches and equipment, tries to keep those barriers as low as is very concerned about families’ abil- Minooka has had many teams advance possible.” ity to pay for services and programs. to post-season state competitions in They have tried to keep the educa- the past few years. At that point, the tion costs down for the families at district also covers the cost for trav- these schools. Our goal is to mini- el and hotel accommodations. mize impact to classroom and stu- Another way The board at Dixon Unit School District 170 tried a different tactic. Although Minooka is not charg- The Student Worker Assistance Pro- ing a fee for now, Drafall said public gram (SWAP) allows any student, Minooka’s budget now is esti- sentiment is that if the district is ever regardless of financial need, to work mated to end with a $1 million deficit in a position of cutting extracurric- for the district in the summer in order for 2012-13, but Drafall said the deficit ular programs or charging a fee, that to pay for the student’s athletic fee would be covered with district reserves it should charge the fee. for the upcoming seasons. dents as much as possible.” for the next two years. The option to If the fee should ever become “We knew some of our parents implement athletic fees will come up necessary, he said he would work were struggling with paying the fees, again as the board reviews fees every with the booster club or other spon- especially the athletic fees which are year. sors to help cover the costs for fam- not covered under the federal guide- Although Minooka doesn’t have ilies that cannot afford the fee. In lines of free and reduced lunch,” said a participation fee, many families still Minooka, 10 percent of families qual- Margo Empen, assistant superinten- spend money on summer sports ify for the free lunch program, the dent. camps, equipment and other costs usual determinant for a family’s abil- A coach’s perspective S by Christina Nevitt tudents can choose from a long list of after-school “pay-to-play” situation, these kids get left out. They can’t activities these days: sports, theater, music, church get assistance, because they aren’t bad off enough, but groups, volunteer work, jobs … the list is endless. A they aren’t well off enough to pay the fee to participate. job comes with pay, but the rest come at a cost. For those I was active in high school. I ran cross-country in that are school-related, it is becoming increasingly more the fall, track in the spring, and was a cheerleader through- difficult for districts to figure out a way to foot the bill. out. I also participated in theater and was a member of Some districts have chosen a “pay-to-play” plan for our swing choir. Every year there was a cost for it all. I students interested in participating in athletics at school needed new running shoes for cross country, new spikes in order to help fill the money crunch. That approach for track, a new dress for swing choir, a costume for may solve part of the money issue, but what happens to the musical, and cheerleading … well that topped them students who can’t afford to play? What happens to their all! My parents worked hard to make sure I could do all opportunity? When I first heard about “pay-to-play” at the high of these things, but it was expensive. If I would have had school level, I had mixed emotions. As a teacher and to pay-to-play my sports on top of purchasing all the cheerleading coach at my high school, I know times are things I needed to participate, I am not sure I would have tough for schools where funding is concerned, but what been able to do it all. about my students who don’t qualify for free/reduced lunch, but their families struggle financially? In a 16 Dixon High School charges $125 Dani Molifua is one of my cheer parents. She disagrees with “pay-to-play.” THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 for the first sport and $75 for each in various maintenance, custodial a sport at school, aren’t eligible for additional sport, with a family cap of and summer school jobs. A student the SWAP program. $300. who only plays one sport can earn Students are assigned to a vari- SWAP was the idea of Empen and his or her fee in fewer than 16 hours. ety of jobs including painting, mov- Laura Sward, a student services sec- Dixon High School has about 800 stu- ing classrooms, doing custodial or retary at Reagan Middle School. The dents. light maintenance work, or work- idea emerged as they were discussing Each spring, students who will ing in summer school programs. how to help families in need after a be in high school the following year Because they are employees of the plant in the area closed, putting many receive a letter inviting them to par- district, the students are covered families on unemployment. The num- ticipate in SWAP. (A copy of the let- under the district’s workman’s comp ber of students receiving free and ter and application can be found online insurance but do not receive bene- reduced lunch rose to nearly 50 per- at http://www.dixonschools.org/index. fits. cent. php/students/swap-information.) “One of our goals is that we place “We have to be able to meet the The application includes a contract a lot of eighth-graders into positions needs of our families,” Sward said. which spells out expectations for the at the high school to give them a real- “It’s hard enough being a parent, but students and must be signed by the ly good connection before they start to be a parent in these economic times student and a parent. high school,” Empen said. and give our children what they need More than one-third of students Sward shared a story of one fresh- is very hard. Parents, what are you who play sports participate in SWAP. man who qualifies for special edu- going to do — pay the electric bill or High school students can also work cation services and is a gifted athlete. pay for Danny to go to football?” to pay the cost of sports for a middle She worked in the high school office This summer, 167 students school sibling. Middle school students, this past summer so she will know worked for the district at $8 an hour who must pay $50 to participate in her way around the school and meet “We are a family of six who has always struggled How can we make sure to involve those students who financially. [Pay-to-play] may require a family to have would benefit so much from organized sports/activities? to pick and choose which child (if any) can play and what A right or easy answer to this debate doesn’t exist. they can play,” said Molifua. “Kids need the opportuni- Districts must do what is best financially for the district ty to explore their likes and dislikes to further develop and their students. “Pay-to-play” should be revisited and decide what they want to do with their lives. Play- every year, and districts should have a plan in place for ing sports and being involved in other school activities students who fall through the “can’t-afford-to-pay-but- has required that [my kids] maintain good grades and don’t-qualify-for-assistance crack.” adhere to rules that they might not otherwise have adhered to if not for playing ball.” As a teacher, coach and parent, however, I will continue to try to make sure I can give them every possi- Both of Molifua’s older sons went to college on schol- ble opportunity to participate in what they are passionate arships to play football. If they had been required to pay, about … whether it’s football, baseball, cheerleading, they might not have been able to play, which means they theater, music or even the ping-pong club. would not have been offered a scholarship, and ultimately may not have had the opportunity to go to college at all. Are “pay-to-play” districts creating a disservice to Christina Nevitt teaches journalism and photography and is cheerleading coach at North Star High School in Lincoln, their students who can’t afford to pay, but are also inel- Nebraska. She is the daughter of Journal editor Linda igible for assistance? What if fundraising isn’t an option? Dawson. SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 17 staff members before the first day of it has produced other benefits as well: college students each summer for school. • Parents are using the SWAP pro- painting, general custodial and main- Empen and Sward said they have gram to teach their children to be tenance work. That cost has been received only positive feedback about responsible by having them pay to eliminated. the program. participate in sports. “We could not have hired one “One of the big things we’re hear- • Students have listed Empen and individual for an entire year with full- ing from the state is not only acade- Sward as references when they time benefits for the cost of this pro- apply for other jobs. gram,” Sward said. mically how can we get kids collegeand career-ready, but also on the • Students are taking pride and own- The students never receive mon- social/emotional level,” Empen said. ership in their schools because ey. Rather the money is transferred “We talk to the SWAP kids about their they are helping prepare the schools from the Operations and Maintenance clothing and cell phone usage. We for the next school year or helping Fund to the Education Fund, where have a two-strikes-and-you’re-out prepare younger students acade- athletic fees are normally deposited. policy. After the second warning, the mically. The program only covers the cost of athletic fee becomes the responsi- Although the district is now col- the participation fee. Summer camps lecting fewer athletic fees, it is sav- and other costs are still absorbed by Although SWAP was started to ing money on other expenditures. parents, student fundraisers or the help offset the costs of athletic fees, For example, the district used to hire booster club. bility of the parent.” Empen and Sward are willing to share the details behind the Student Worker Assistance Program with oth- Division Meetings er interested districts. “It’s immeasurable in terms of what this program has done for our community,” Empen said. “I think this is something we would offer even if only 1 percent of our students qual- Invest one evening, gain benefits throughout the year for ... ✔ yourself, ✔ your school board, and ✔ your district Attend an IASB division meeting at a location near you. Division meetings provide opportunities for networking, professional development, peer recognition, participation in Association governance and learning about IASB resources. ified for free lunch. The college and career readiness, the social/emotional benefit, the pride in their school and the pride in the work they’ve done — that’s immeasurable. “We’re teaching kids about life and good work ethics.” And that would seem to be the underlying goal of all extracurricular activities. References Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, Preventing Childhood Mark your calendars now! For fall 2012 dates and locations near you, visit www.iasb.com and click on Events Calendar. Obesity: Health in the Balance, 2005 National Center for Education Statistics, “Extracurricular Participation and Student Engagement,” June 1995, http://nces.ed.gov/pubs95/ web/95741.asp 18 THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 FEATURE ARTICLE Stand your ground … How to keep the peace at activities, conferences by Shayne Aldridge etting district prohibitions usu- Luckily, local school boards can ally poses few problems. No adopt policies and procedures to guns at school, no problem. No drugs, address those who display such con- no problem. No tobacco, no alcohol, duct on school property. S no problem. The Illinois School Code (105 But, prohibiting obscenities from ILCS 5/1 et seq) empowers school being hurled at the referees, umpires, boards with the authority to make line judges, the other team’s coach- and enforce rules for school visitors. es, our own coaches, teachers, the Whether at the Friday night football principal, the superintendent or school game or parent-teacher conferences, board members? Now that’s a prob- school boards (through policy) and lem. administrators (through their actions) events. Any person who violates such rules may be denied admission to school events for not more than one year, provided that written 10 days notice of the violation is given such person and a hearing had thereon by the board pursuant to its rules and regulations. The administration of any school may sign complaints as agents of the school against persons committing any offense at school events. “As a taxpaying resident of this must control and protect the school This code section gives school school district (insert name of any premises, which in most cases, also boards great latitude but little guid- district in Illinois), I have a right to means protecting school staff and ance. The questions become, if a say what I want, where I want and to athletic officials. school board can reasonably limit To do so, school boards can visitor conduct then how far do the restrict visitors from being on school prohibitions extend? Second, what So goes the thinking of many par- property if they have been found in should those “reasonable” rules look ents, grandparents, visitors and oth- violation of the board’s visitation pol- like? And finally, how should the dis- ers who venture onto school property icy rules. School boards can and should trict administration enforce those for school functions. Of course peo- develop reasonable rules for the con- rules at the violation site and beyond? ple become upset when the umpire’s duct visitors demonstrate on school call goes against the home team … property. whom I want. And this school district can’t stop me.” or when a child’s teacher sends home bad news about grades. But no reason excuses unsportsmanlike conduct at an athletic event or rude behavior aimed at a teacher in a parent conference. 105 ILCS 5/24-24 provides, in part: The board may make and enforce reasonable rules of conduct and sportsmanship for athletic and extracurricular school THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 Shayne Aldridge, a former teacher and special education administrator, is a school law attorney from Pleasant Plains. Long arm of the law Section 24-24 does not define its operative language, so school board’s policies should provide definitions needed to enforce the law. PRESS Board Policy 8:40 defines school property as “school buildings, district 19 KEEPING UP IS HARD TO DO With changes to policy that is. buildings not being used as a school, vehicles used for school purposes, any location during a school athletic and other school-sponsored event, and school grounds.” We can all agree that a school board has the right to enforce its policy rules in areas it clearly owns, but this policy goes well beyond the school’s property as it extends to “any location” during a school-sponsored activity. The PRESS policy’s definition of “school property” allows a school board to discipline individuals connected to its district who visit the grounds of another school district to attend a school-sponsored event. That means a parent who attends the IASB can help. Based on IASB’s popular sample updating service, PRESS, and using the information provided by that service, PRESS Plus provides additional assistance in keeping your policy manual up to date by • identifying suggested policy changes for your unique district, • providing quick and easy checklists for policy options, • maintaining and updating legal references, cross references, tables of contents, and indexes, • maintaining a consistent style and format , • providing the word processing support necessary to incorporate policy revisions into your local board policy manual. academic team’s tournament at an opposing school’s building and who violates the “reasonable rules of conduct and sportsmanship for athletic and extracurricular school events” may be asked to leave the building and could face further possible discipline from his or her resident school district. Having authority to promulgate “reasonable” rules of conduct, school districts should express their expectations for “mutual respect, civility, and orderly conduct among all individuals on school property or at a school event.” Local school boards should review their board policies to determine if those policies address the conduct most likely to occur on school property. The policy should cover all prohibited conduct man- For information, contact: Anna Lovern Phone: 217-528-9688, ext. 1125 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org dated in the School Code, and also conduct unique to a school district. For example, if a high school historically had specific misconduct, the board also should include that conduct in its prohibited conduct list. The list, at a minimum, should 20 THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 include the following: school board policy must allow eject- school board then hears the evidence • Injuring, threatening, or intimi- ing the individual from the school and makes a determination of guilt property. and punishment. The offender can dating district staff, sports officials Friday night lights and alcohol or coaches; • Damaging or defacing district property; • Smoking or otherwise using tobacco products in any form; mix like fire and gasoline. At times avoid this public process by waiving the board hearing, if desired. tempers flare, so possessing or being School boards have the author- under the influence cannot be allowed ity and process for denying individ- at school events. uals and students from attending • Consuming, distributing, or being And then, when an individual’s future games, contests and events. It under the influence of alcohol or conduct becomes out of control, some- doesn’t matter if the misconduct was drugs; one from the school must ask the per- at a different school building or prop- son to leave school property. At times, erty; the home school has the abili- individuals refuse to leave, so the pol- ty to ban the offender from all events, icy should include language regard- both home and away. • Possessing dangerous devices or weapons; and • Disrupting or interfering with school activities. ing an attendee’s failure to obey the Yet, with this power comes respon- The above list sets forth specif- instructions of a security officer or sibility. All school boards should have ic misconduct, which when com- school district employee as unsports- such participant policies in place and mitted on school property will result manlike conduct that could result in should review them with all partici- in some type of discipline, whether further disciplinary action. Other pants at the season’s start so that it’s ejection from property, confisca- than kicking the person out of the administrators can stand their ground tion of prohibited items or even police volleyball game, what can a district and keep peace on school property. intervention. do? The misconduct list does not School administrators have to include behaviors considered unsports- take appropriate action to enforce manlike during an athletic or extracur- board policy. However, there are only ricular event. Unsportsmanlike conduct so many ways to handle the violations: may not rise to the culpability levels • asking the individual to refrain in the misconduct list, so the school from the offensive conduct, board should adopt a policy address- • ejecting offender from the site, ing unsportsmanlike conduct for • disciplining under the student con- which an individual may be ejected from the event or even denied admission to future school events for up to one calendar year. duct code, or • calling law enforcement for trespassing. The School Code allows a board of education the extreme option to Specific behaviors “expel” a policy violator for up to one Below are some unsportsman- calendar year. The process begins like conduct examples a school board when a superintendent schedules a may want to include in its policy school board hearing and sends a regarding behavior during a school- hearing notice by certified mail with sponsored event: return receipt requested to the offend- One prolific unsportsmanlike ing party. behavior at athletic events is using The notice must be delivered at vulgar or obscene language. Who has- least 10 days before the school board n’t tossed an epitaph or two at a ref- hearing date, and must contain the eree during a heated contest? But same type of information contained there is a line that, when crossed, the in a student expulsion notice. The SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL “This resume is filled with lies and distortions. How’d you like to write political campaign attack ads?” 21 FEATURE ARTICLE Athletic fields and facilities … Not just extracurricular, but extra value for schools by Kevin Havens, Byron Wyns and Craig Polte Kevin Havens is senior vice presi- chool districts across Illinois tinue offering students a variety of more options for extracurricular activ- are constantly challenged to extracurricular activities without ities in sports, the arts, and special S do more with less and tighten their depleting their shrinking budgets, interest clubs and groups, space lim- dent and director fiscal belts. Yet, at many high schools, school boards and administrators might itations and scheduling are knotty of design, Craig the largest part of their campus (besides want to consider various creative strate- issues. At a number of schools, it’s Polte is construc- the main building) typically receives gies to get more value from all their not uncommon to see track athletes tion project scant attention, even though it’s often athletic fields and related facilities. running in the corridors after regu- manager and both costly and wasteful. Replacing sod fields with synthetic lar hours. Rain or inclement weather can exacerbate the problem. We’re talking about competition turf is one obvious option, which often director of land athletic fields made of natural grass, involves upgrading running tracks, The solution: multi-functional development which lack durability, have high main- bleachers, lighting and/or scoreboards. spaces. As noted, one of the best ways for Wight & tenance costs and require large vol- Renovating field houses is another to “gain” flexible space is by con- umes of water for irrigation. Depending possibility that can provide oppor- verting grass fields to synthetic turf. on the region, a typical grass sports tunities to build fitness centers for stu- This provides a consistent year-round, field can use between 500,000 to one dents and the community. all-weather playing surface built to Byron Wyns is Company, Darien, Illinois. million gallons of water or more each These projects usually are on year. Although space for outdoor activ- extremely tight schedules because ities is limited at many high schools, they can be done only during sum- The latest generation of synthetic this expansive piece of real estate mer break. The keys to success for turf replicates lush natural grass in often lies unused for all but 400 hours such projects are 1) planning to avoid appearance, function and safety for or so each year. problems likely to occur, 2) adapting athletes. Its biggest advantages over Such shortcomings are the main quickly to the unexpected and 3) grass are durability and versatility. reason why many schools are replac- anticipating future needs for students, A heavy rain can render a grass foot- ing their sod with synthetic turf. This as well as the infrastructure. Here are ball field useless for days, and nat- conversion turns a part-time gridiron some of the insights gained and lessons ural grass cannot withstand getting into a multi-purpose venue for oth- learned from our experiences on pro- trampled down and compacted by er sports, PE classes, marching band jects for high schools throughout the hundreds of feet in tight formation. practices and community events. Chicago area. (Now you know why marching bands As districts look for ways to con22 time for recovery. usually practice on paved surfaces!) Some synthetic fields get more than 3,000 hours of use each year. withstand extended use without down- Why synthetic turf With high schools giving students In contrast, high schools can put synthetic turf fields to good use from THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 South High unless its plans complied sunrise until late in the evening. They Extremely tight construction can be used for PE classes, or as schedules demand careful planning makeshift practice fields for other and preparation to avoid costly delays. Our solution was to design the sports such as baseball or softball For example, it’s important to pro- project for two scenarios — one if the when, for example, dirt infields become cure the turf as early as possible (we changes didn’t occur and the other too muddy following a rain. Other usually purchase our turf systems for if they did. This enabled the dis- uses might include middle school clients the previous December) and trict to proceed with construction as sports programs, community groups, schedule the installation with con- scheduled, and, when the new, less summer camps and local youth foot- tractors. restrictive ordinances did go into ball programs. with the existing regulations. Since all high schools are doing effect, it was able to switch plans and Also consider that synthetic turf their field renovations at the same consequently did not have to build fields are less costly to maintain and time and the top turf suppliers get an underground detention vault. have environmental benefits. The the lion’s share of this business, lock- “We avoided spending more than Synthetic Turf Council estimates that, ing down your installation dates $500,000 on this, which gave us the in 2010, the use of synthetic turf con- means you won’t have to wait on con- funds for an extra athletic field,” said served between three billion to six tractors getting tied up on other pro- Martin Schack, director of physical billion gallons of water. It’s no won- jects. plant and operations for CHSD 99. “We also saved money by following der that more than 6,000 multi-use synthetic turf sports fields are now An integrated approach a .recommendation to recycle demol- being used at schools, colleges, parks Thoughtful planning and an inte- ished concrete and asphalt materi- and professional sports stadiums grated approach to design and con- als on-site or ship them between throughout North America. struction not only gain efficiencies schools instead of to a landfill.” in project management, but also can Both projects involved widening provide significant financial benefits. and striping the synthetic fields for Athletic field renovations are not At Community High School District soccer games, resurfacing the run- as simple as re-sodding your lawn. A 99, for example, extensive athletic ning tracks and enhancing the plaza number of factors must be carefully field renovations at Downers Grove areas. These upgrades were a factor considered and effectively managed North and South high schools were in the IHSA’s decision to select the throughout the design, project man- part of a comprehensive site mas- schools to host boys’ and girls’ soc- agement and construction phases for ter plan that touched all areas of their cer sectionals, which enabled boost- such projects. These include: campuses. er clubs to make additional revenues Planning considerations • Turf product selection, procurement and installation By integrating planning, archi- from concession stands. tecture, engineering, estimating and • Accommodating the needs of oth- construction management for new er sports, especially track and field, football fields, running tracks and As extracurricular activities pro- and soccer other synthetic grass and hybrid sur- liferate (Who could have anticipat- • Athletic schedule coordination face athletic fields at both schools, ed the popularity of pep flags?), a • Upgrading bleachers, concession District 99 was able to work through shortage of space can be problemat- areas, lighting and other amenities some difficult planning circumstances ic, even for schools with several aux- beyond its control. iliary gyms. Rethinking areas in terms • Comprehensive scope consider- Rethinking functionality This integrated design-build pro- of their potential functionality can • “Under turf” utilities coordination ject approach helped the school suc- sometimes lead to adaptive repur- • Regulatory compliance regarding cessfully resolve a sticky permit issue. posing that better suits a school’s cur- drainage and stormwater detention Although local stormwater ordinances rent needs. • Applying sustainability best prac- were expected to change in the dis- For example, York High School tices in design, construction and trict’s favor, District 99 could not get in Elmhurst CUSD 205 converted its maintenance a construction permit for the field at auto shop into a fitness center. Lemont ations SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 23 THSD 210, however, went in the oppo- two separate programs in Joliet THSD gleaned from our experiences that site direction with an old spectator 204. may be helpful to high school admin- gym by inserting a mezzanine lev- Common areas also are prime istrators and facilities managers el, which doubled its available floor candidates for repurposing, as involved in these types of projects: space at Lemont High. One level is Naperville CUSD 203 learned. The • Take a big-picture view of your used for dining and food service, while student commons at Naperville Cen- project, encompassing current and the other has practice areas for band tral High School (created from a new- future needs regarding: and orchestra programs. ly enclosed open courtyard) was ✦ Stadium structure, bleachers, At Joliet Central High School, cleared out after school and used as press boxes and concession which is listed on the National Reg- a practice area for pom-pom squads areas; ister of Historic Places, field house and cheerleading teams, which require ✦ Lockers and training facilities; additions designed to blend with the high ceilings for their pyramid rou- ✦ Utilities infrastructure, includ- character of the existing campus tines. ing electronics for scoreboards enabled the school to expand its athletic and intramural programs from a joint program with Joliet West to and timing systems for track and field; Lessons learned Here are some additional ideas ✦ A/V feeds from press boxes back to the school facility for future use; ✦ Pedestrian and vehicular cir- culation and parking. t l e f t r Hea ! s k n Tha School Board Members Day NOVEMBER 15 2012 New Materials • Get construction and project management professionals involved for during the design phase to iden- SCHOOL BOARD MEMBERS DAY lems before they occur in the field. will be available beginning Monday, September 10 at tify and address potential prob• Make sure you and your construction partner are familiar with all applicable regulatory ordinances, as stormwater and drainage issues will likely be your biggest challenges. • Put bids out early, no later than January for a June installation. • Be aware of neighborhood lighting thresholds if you’re installing new lights. • Put in markings that that will make it easy to add temporary striping for other sports (e.g., lacrosse, which is becoming more popular), when installing a new field. By thinking through the district’s current needs and anticipating other possibilities, school boards will be www.iasb.com/sbmd.cfm able to optimize their expenditures while increasing their options for student activities and community use. 24 THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 FEATURE ARTICLE EEE awards put emphasis on quality learning spaces by David Henebry fter several years of partici- the highest of three awards given in made in each category. With that said, pating and observing the jury this program, we believe it clearly here are the six categories for school process for IASB’s annual Exhibit indicates that a certain standard of design projects: of Educational Environments (EEE), excellence must be met to qualify for • New Schools LZT Associates, combined with the evolution of knowl- the recognition. • Major Additions Inc./Larson & • Minor Additions (under 10,000 Darby Group. He A David Henebry is a principal with edge about what education environ- The primary purpose of the jury ments should be, the committee in is to recognize districts that have charge of this conference event decid- invested in providing the best learn- • Major Renovation or Adaptive Reuse of the IASB Invi- ed to revisit how the submissions are ing environments for students to suc- • Special Project — Historic Preser- tational Exhibit of made and juried. ceed. That’s why we refocused the gross square feet) vation or Sensitive Rehab is also chairman Educational Envi- Much of the evaluation previ- judging criteria to look at each school • Special Project — Small Projects ronments on ously was based on technical aspects project as a pliable, flexible instru- under $4 million or single spaces behalf of the and architectural appeal of the school ment for educators to use and adapt Moving from the submissions to design. However, these criteria did with future shifts and change. With the jury side of the discussion, the not fit well into the actual jury dis- an occasional exception, we have committee also reorganized and cussion once the field of projects was found that most architectural firms weighted how the jury scores each narrowed. delivering these qualities tend also project. This serves two purposes: to have exceptional skill at creating (1) to clearly communicate to school aesthetic solutions. boards, administrators and architects at the Joint Annu- In addition, too many of the photographs submitted with the projects IASB Service Associates, which sponsors the school design awards program focused on the building lobby or exte- While we know several new what is expected to achieve an Award al Conference. rior, often leaving the jury guessing schools and major additions always of Distinction; and (2) to give appro- Also serving on and searching the floor plans to deter- will be submitted to the program, the priate weight to a project’s ability the EEE commit- mine if the design provided a quali- other categories tended to vary from to create an exceptional learning envi- tee are: Mark Joli- ty learning environment. year to year. Therefore, the com- ronment. coeur, principal To clarify the process both for mittee decided to expand the cate- To accomplish this, each entrant the judges and the entrants, we have gories in order to: (1) improve the is required to write a short synopsis Will, and Glenn returned to the true intent of the EEE opportunity for recognition and; (2) for each of the five criteria. By fol- Eriksson, presi- awards program. We started with the encourage submissions that other- lowing the suggested characteristics title: “Exhibition of Education Envi- wise would not be entered or would as guidance, submitters have a chance ronments,” which we believe was and have difficulty competing. to “tell the story” behind their pro- is very clear in its intent. Although the EEE program now ject. Here are the five criteria, weight- Next, we examined what the term has three additional categories, there ed grades and characteristics: “Award of Distinction” implied. As is no guarantee that an award will be • Program/Challenge (0-30 pts) THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 with Perkins+ dent, Eriksson Engineering Associates. 25 CORE CREDIT WORKSHOPS: NINE 9 FRIDAY presents WORKSHOPS • The Basics of Governance • Financial Oversight Essentials for School Boards • School Board Accountability: Monitoring District Performance • The Board and its Superintendent: Developing and Maintaining an Effective Relationship (Half-Day Workshop) ELECTIVE CREDIT WORKSHOPS: • Comprehensive Workshop for Board Presidents • An Introduction to Collective Bargaining for School Board Members and Administrators • Diversity and Inclusion Awareness (Half-Day Workshop) • Leading Across Generations at the 2012 80th IASB•IASA•IASBO (Half-Day Workshop) Joint Annual Conference (Half-Day Workshop) • Inspiring Trust November 16, 2012 • Sheraton Chicago Hotel ✦ Functional relationships ✦ Special challenges met • Unique energy efficiency or green ture of the school, the EEE jury looks primarily at the learning spaces and ✦ Community partnerships features (0-10 pts) how the district and architect met ✦ Context: urban/suburban/rural ✦ Green power the challenge of providing students ✦ Innovative design the best and most effective opportu- • How the facility meets 21st century education environmental needs • Safety (N/A to renovation/rehab/spe- nity to learn, through visual stimu- (0-30 pts) cial projects) (0-10 pts) lation, interaction and expression of ✦ Project-based learning ✦ Passive security design systems. ✦ Integrated curriculum ✦ Traffic patterns ✦ Integration of technology with One final change has been made In addition to these narratives, to the 2012 exhibition. Although the curriculum projects are judged by the submitted committee has traditionally recog- ✦ Learning styles/multiple intel- drawings and photographs that sup- nized specific “green” projects, we ligences port the “story” of how they suc- acknowledge that even poorly designed cessfully designed and implemented schools can achieve LEED (Leader- ✦ Context an educational environment to meet ship in Energy and Environmental ✦ Color the needs of that district. Design) certification. With that in • Design (0-20 pts) ✦ Pleasant learning environment ✦ Age appropriate 26 ✦ Furnishings While architectural features and mind, the committee has elected to elements significantly affect the cul- identify all exhibited projects that THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 are LEED-certified Silver or higher with a green tag designation. The Exhibition of Educational IASB Policy Services Environments is an important part of the Joint Annual Conference because it recognizes that it requires an entire “team” to create a solution worthy of distinction. It begins with the school district making a commitment to provide exceptional learning environments and a willingness to invest in their creation. And it continues with the architect providing an exceptional response to the opportunity to create a solution. Using technology to enhance your board effectiveness through online services, such as ... Good luck to all of this year’s entries. Entries for the 2012 Exhibit were due at the IASB office by July 20 and preliminary materials by September 10, to be evaluated on September 13. The judging will be done in Springfield on a blind basis by a jury of three school board members or administrators and three architects, appointed by IASB and experienced in school facilities or design. All awards will be announced at the conference, with awards of distinction to be featured and presented at the first general session. All entries chosen by the jury will be displayed all three days of the conference, Nov. 16-18, in the Columbus Ballroom hallway at the Hyatt Regency, East Tower, next to the conference bookstore. Additional resources For more information about the PRESS, the IASB sample policy and procedure service — A calendar year subscription to PRESS provides easy Internet access 24/7 to sample board policies and administrative procedures, links to legal references and cross references, and an excellent search engine. School Board Policies Online — IASB will publish your board policy manual online for easy Internet access by the board, staff, students, parents and the community. This online manual will have all of the features essential for effectively communicating your board policy, including links to legal references, jumps to cross references, and the same excellent search engine used for PRESS online. BoardBook® — IASB’s newest online service provides for electronic board meetings and board packet preparation and distribution. annual Exhibit of Educational Environments, visit the IASB website at: https://www.iasb.com/jac12/eee. cfm. For more information about IASB Service Associates, visit their link at: Contact IASB Policy Services today for information: 630/629-3776 or 217/528-9688 Ext. 1214 or 1125 email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org https://www.iasb.com/associates/. SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 27 FEATURE ARTICLE Questions I would ask politicians about education by Diane Ravitch Diane Ravitch is a research profes- Question 1: Both Republican can- Question 3: Are you aware that didates and President Obama are enam- Milwaukee has had vouchers for low- ored of charter schools — that is, income students since 1990, and now sor at New York schools that are privately managed state scores in Wisconsin show that University and a and deregulated. Are you aware that low-income students in voucher schools former U.S. assis- studies consistently show that char- get no better test scores than low- tant secretary of ter schools don’t get better results than income students in the Milwaukee education. She regular public schools? Are you aware public schools? Are you aware that has a new blog at that studies show that, like any dereg- the federal test (the National Assess- dianeravitch.net . ulated sector, some charter schools ment of Educational Progress) shows Her article origi- get high test scores, many more get that — after 21 years of vouchers in nally appeared on low scores, but most are no different Milwaukee — black students in the from regular public schools? Do you Milwaukee public schools score on par recognize the danger in handing pub- with black students in Mississippi, lic schools and public monies over to Alabama, Georgia and Louisiana? www.neimanwatchdog.com and is reprinted with the author’s permission. private entities with weak oversight? Question 4: Does it concern you Didn’t we learn some lessons from the that cyber charters and virtual acad- stock collapse of 2008 about the risk emies make millions for their spon- of deregulation? sors yet get terrible results for their Question 2: Both Republican can- 28 students? Don’t miss Diane Ravitch Saturday, Nov. 17, 2012, as keynote speaker for the Second General Session at the IASB/IASA/IASBO Joint Annual Conference that these measures may be strong- didates and President Obama are enam- Question 5: Are you concerned ly influenced by the composition of a ored of merit pay for teachers based that charters will skim off the best- teacher’s classroom, over which she on test scores. Are you aware that mer- performing students and weaken our or he has no control? Do you think it pay has been tried in the schools nation’s public education system? there is a long line of excellent teach- again and again since the 1920s and Question 6: Are you aware that it has never worked? Are you aware there is a large body of research by of the exhaustive study of merit pay testing experts warning that it is wrong Question 7: Although elected offi- in the Nashville schools, conducted to judge teacher quality by student cials like to complain about our stand- by the National Center for Performance test scores? Are you aware that these ing on international tests, did you Incentives at Vanderbilt, which found measures are considered inaccurate know that students in the United States that a bonus of $15,000 per teacher and unstable, that a teacher may be have never done well on those tests? for higher test scores made no dif- labeled effective one year, then inef- Did you know that when the first inter- ference? fective the next one? Are you aware national test was given in the mid- ers waiting to replace those who are (in many cases, wrongly) fired? THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 1960s, the United States came in 12th that closing schools in low-income Question 12: Why is it that politi- out of 12? Did you know that over the neighborhoods will further weaken cians don’t pay attention to research past half-century, our students have fragile communities? and studies? typically scored no better than aver- Question 11: Are you worried that Question 13: Do you know of any age and often in the bottom quartile annual firings of teachers will cause high-performing nation in the world on international tests? Have you ever demoralization and loss of prestige for that got that way by privatizing pub- wondered how our nation developed teachers? Any ideas about who will lic schools, closing those with low test the world’s most successful economy replace those fired because they taught scores and firing teachers? The answer: when we scored so poorly over the too many low-scoring students? none. decades on those tests? Question 8: Did you know that American schools where less than 10 percent of the students were poor scored above those of Finland, Japan ILLINOIS ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BOARDS and Korea in the last international assessment? Did you know that Amer- Executive ican schools where 25 percent of the students were poor scored the same SearchES as the international leaders Finland, Japan and Korea? Did you know that the U.S. is #1 among advanced nations in child poverty? Did you know that more than 20 percent of our children The Gold Standard of Executive Searches live in poverty and that this is far greater than in the nations to which we compare ourselves? Question 9: Did you know that family income is the single most reliable predictor of student test scores? Did you know that every testing program — the SAT, the ACT, the NAEP, state tests and international tests — shows the same tight correlation ent homes have educated parents, Selecting a superintendent is the most important decision you will make as school board members. Our team of highly qualified professionals has both the experience and expertise to ensure your district finds the best candidate. more books in the home, more vocab- IASB is YOUR advocate. ulary spoken around them, better med- • Our executive search team has more than 40 years combined experience in leading searches. between family income and test scores? Affluence helps — children in afflu- ical care, more access to travel and libraries, more economic security — as compared to students who live in poverty, who are more likely to have poor medical care, poor nutrition, uneducated parents, more instability in their lives. Do you think these things matter? • From 2005-2012, more than 250 Illinois school boards chose IASB to facilitate their search for a new superintendent. • IASB's competitive search price means you receive the expertise of a highly specialized team of professionals for a tremendous value. For information contact: 2921 Baker Drive Springfield, IL 62703 217/528-9688, ext. 1217 One Imperial Place 1 East 22nd Street, Suite 20 Lombard, IL 60148 630/629-3776, ext. 1217 www.iasb.com/ executive Question 10: Are you concerned SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL 29 A Directory of your IASB Service Associates IASB Service Associates are businesses which offer school-related products and services and which have earned favorable reputations for quality and integrity. Only after screening by the Service Associates Executive Committee is a business firm invited by the IASB Board of Directors to become a Service Associate. Appraisal Services INDUSTRIAL APPRAISAL COMPANY — Insurance appraisals, property control reports. Oakwood Terrace - 630/827-0280 Architects/Engineers ALLIED DESIGN CONSULTANTS, INC. — Architectural programming, site planning & design, architectural and interior design, and construction administration. Springfield - 217/522-3355 ARCON ASSOCIATES, INC. — Architectural, construction management and roof consulting. Lombard - 630/495-1900; website: www.arconassoc.com; e-mail: email@example.com DLA ARCHITECTS, LTD. — Architects specializing in preK-12 educational design, including a full range of architectural services; assessments, planning, feasibility studies, new construction, additions, remodeling, O&M and owner's rep services. Itasca - 847/7424063; website: www.dla-ltd.com; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org DLR GROUP, INC. — Educational facility design and master planning. Chicago - 312/382-9980; website: www.dlrgroup.com; e-mail: email@example.com ERIKSSON ENGINEERING ASSOCIATES, LTD. — Consulting civil engineers and planners. Grayslake 847/223-4804 FANNING/HOWEY ASSOCIATES, INC. — School planning and design, with a focus on K-12 schools. Park Ridge - 847/292-1039 FGM ARCHITECTS ENGINEERS, INC. — Architects. Oak Brook - 630/574-8300; Peoria - 309/669-0012; Mt. Vernon - 618/242-5620; O’Fallon - 618/624-3364; website: http://www.fgm-inc.com GREENASSOCIATES, INC. — Architecture/construction services. Deerfield - 847/317-0852, Pewaukee, WI - 262/746-1254; website: www.greenassociates. com; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org HEALY, BENDER & ASSOCIATES, INC. — Architects/Planners. Naperville, 630/904-4300; website: www.healybender.com; e-mail: dhealy@healybender. com HUFF ARCHITECTURAL GROUP, INC. — Architects, engineers, construction managers and school consultants. Springfield - 217/698-8250; Champaign 217/352-5887 IMAGE ARCHITECTS, INC. — Architects. Carbondale - 618/457-2128 BAYSINGER DESIGN GROUP, INC. — Architectural design services. Marion - 618/998-8015 JH2B ARCHITECTS — Architects. Kankakee - 815/ 933-5529 BERG ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS, LTD. — Consulting engineers. Schaumburg - 847/352-4500; website: http://www.berg-eng.com KENYON & ASSOCIATES ARCHITECTS — Complete architectural services for education. Peoria - 309/674-7121 BLDD ARCHITECTS, INC. — Architectural and engineering services for schools. Decatur - 217/4295105; Champaign - 217/356-9606; Bloomington 309/828-5025; Chicago - 312/829-1987; website: http://www.bldd.com; e-mail: sam.johnson@bldd. com KJWW ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS — Facility assessments, infrastructure master planning, acoustical engineering, architectural lighting, construction administration, systems commissioning. Naperville - 630/753-8500 BRADLEY & BRADLEY — Architects, engineers and asbestos consultants. Rockford - 815/968-9631; website: http://www.bradleyandbradley.net/ CANNON DESIGN — Architects. Chicago - 312/9608034; website: www.cannondesign.com; e-mail: email@example.com CM ENGINEERING, INC. — Specializing in ultra efficient geo-exchange HVAC engineering solutions for schools, universities and commercial facilities. Columbia, MO - 573/874-9455; website: www. cmeng.com CORDOGAN CLARK & ASSOCIATES — Architects and engineers; Aurora - 630/896-4678; website: www.cordoganclark.com; e-mail: rmont@cordogan clark.com DESIGN ARCHITECTS, INC. — Architecture, engineering, planning and interior design. Hillsboro 217/532-5600; East St. Louis - 618/398-0890; Marion - 618/998-0075; Springfield - 217/787-1199; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org DEWBERRY ARCHITECTS INC. — Architects, planners, landscape architecture and engineers. Peoria 309/282-8000; Chicago - 312/660-8800; Elgin 847/695-5480; website: www.dewberry.com 30 RUCKPATE ARCHITECTURE — Architects, engineers, interior design. Barrington - 847/381-2946; website: http://www.ruckpate.com; e-mail: info@ruck pate.com SARTI ARCHITECTURAL GROUP, INC. — Architecture, engineering, life safety consulting, interior design and asbestos consultants. Springfield 217/585-9111; e-mail: email@example.com WIGHT & COMPANY — An integrated services firm with solutions for the built environment. Darien 630/696-7000; website: http://www.wightco.com; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org WM. B. ITTNER, INC. — Full service architectural firm serving the educational community since 1899. Fairview Heights - 618/624-2080 WRIGHT & ASSOCIATES, INC. — Architecture and construction management. Metamora - 309/367-2924 Building Construction BOVIS LEND LEASE — Construction Management/Program Management. Contact John Doherty. Chicago - 312/245-1393; website: www. bovislendlease.com; e-mail: john.doherty@bovislend lease.com CORE CONSTRUCTION — Professional construction management, design-build and general contracting services. Morton - 309/266-9768; website: www. COREconstruct.com FREDERICK QUINN CORPORATION — Construction management and general contracting. Addison 630/628-8500; webite: www.fquinncorp.com HOLLAND CONSTRUCTION SERVICES, INC. — Full service Construction Management and General Contracting firm specializing in education facilities. Swansea - 618/277-8870 MANGIERI COMPANIES, INC. — Construction management and general contractor capabilities. Peoria 309/688-6845 POETTKER CONSTRUCTION — Construction management, design/build and general contracting services. Hillsboro - 217/532-2507 LEGAT ARCHITECTS, INC. — Architects. Chicago 312/258-1555; Oak Brook - 630/990-3535; Waukegan - 847/263-3535; Crystal Lake - 815/477-4545 PROFESSIONAL CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT, INC. — Construction management. Mundelein - 847/ 382-3680 LZT ASSOCIATES, INC./LARSON & DARBY GROUP Architecture, planning, engineering. Peoria - 309/6733100; Rockford - 815/484/0739; St. Charles, MO 630/444-2112; website: www.larsondarby.com; email: email@example.com S.M. WILSON & CO. — Provides construction management and general construction services to education, healthcare, commercial, retail and industrial clients. St. Louis, MO - 314/645-9595 MECHANICAL SERVICES ASSOCIATES CORP. — HVAC, plumbing and electrical design. Crystal Lake 815/788-8901 MELOTTE-MORSE-LEONATTI, LTD — Architectural, industrial, hygiene and environmental service. Springfield - 217/789-9515 PCM+D — Provide a full range of architectural services including facility and feasibility studies, architectural design construction, consulting and related services. East Peoria - 309/694-5012 PERKINS+WILL — Architects; Chicago - 312/7550770; website: www.perkinswill.com; e-mail: mark. firstname.lastname@example.org RICHARD L. JOHNSON ASSOCIATES, INC. — Architecture, educational planning. Rockford 815/398-1231 THE GEORGE SOLLITT CONSTRUCTION COMPANY — Full-service construction management general contractor with a primary focus on educational facilities. Wood Dale - 630/860-7333; website: www.sollitt.com; e-mail: email@example.com TURNER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY — Referendum assistance, conceptual and master planning, budget assistance or verification, participant in panels, construction management and consulting. Chicago - 312/327-2860; website: http://www. turnerconstruction.com; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Computer Software SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY, INC. — Administrative Software. Tremont - 888/776-3897; website: http:// www.sti-k12.com; e-mail: email@example.com THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 Milestones continued from page 32 Delmar W. Martin, 77, died May 30, 2012. He previously was a member of the Elverado CUSD 196 board. Richard D. Schweighart, 80, died June 25, 2012. He formerly served as president of the Morris CHSD 101 board. EuGene Smith, 67, died July 10, 2012. He had been a member of the Deer Creek-Mackinaw CUSD 701 board. Milton C. Meyer, 89, died July 1, 2012. He had been a member of both the Rankin ESD 98 and Rankin high school board. Burell W. Shull, 88, died June 16, 2012. He served on the Hidalgo school board, as well as the Jasper County CUSD 1 board. John W. “Jack” Snell, 97, died July 12, 2012. He had been a member of the school board in Deer Park CCSD 82, Ottawa. Nancy J. Pesz, 76, died June 15, 2012. She had been a five-term member of the Wauconda CUSD 118 board. Edward “Bud” Smith, 85, died June 12, 2012. He had served on the Burnham school board for eight years. Doris M. Williams, 81, died May 31, 2012. She had served on the Dupo CUSD 196 board. Environmental Services ALPHA CONTROLS & SERVICES, LLC — Facility Management Systems, Automatic Temperature Con-trols, Access Control Systems, Energy Saving Solutions; Sales, Engineering, Installation, Commissioning and Service. Rockford - 815-227-4000; Peoria - 309-688-7411; Springfield - 217-529-3111; Toll-Free - 866-ALPHA-01 CTS-CONTROL TECHNOLOGY & SOLUTIONS — Performance contracting, facility improvements and energy conservation projects. St. Louis, MO 636/230-0843; Chicago - 773/633-0691; website: www.thectsgroup.com; e-mail: rbennett@thectsgroup. com ENERGY SYSTEMS GROUP — A comprehensive energy services and performance contracting company providing energy, facility and financial solutions. Itasca - 630/773-7203 GRP MECHANICAL, INC. — Performance contracting, basic and comprehensive building renovations with a focus on energy and mechanical maintenance services. Bethalto - 618/779-0050 HONEYWELL, INC. — Controls, maintenance, energy management, performance contracting and security. St. Louis, Mo - 314-548-4136; Arlington Heights 847/391-3133; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org IDEAL ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING, INC. — Asbestos and environmental services. Bloomington 309/828-4259 MECHANICAL INCORPORATED — New construction, renovation, comprehensive and basic preventative maintenance service contracts. Freeport - 815/ 235-1955; Hillside - 708/449-8080; Rockford - 815/ 398-1973; Fox Lake - 847/973-1123; website: www. mechinc.com; e-mail: email@example.com OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SOLUTIONS, INC. (OEHS) — Industrial hygiene, microbiological evaluations and ergonomics. Chatham - 217/483-9296 RADON DETECTION SPECIALISTS — Commercial radon surveys. Burr Ridge - 800/244-4242; website: www.radondetection.net; e-mail: kirstenschmidt@ radonresults.com RCM LABORATORIES, INC. — Environmental, health and safety services. Countryside - 708/485-8600 SECURITY ALARM SYSTEMS — Burglar and fire alarms, video camera systems, door access systems, door locking systems, and alarm monitoring. Salem 618/548-5768 Financial Services BERNARDI SECURITIES, INC. — Public finance consulting, bond issue services and referendum support. Fairview Heights - 618/206-4180; Chicago - 800/3678757 BMO CAPITAL MARKETS/GKST, Inc. — Full service broker/dealer specializing in debt securities, including municipal bonds, U.S. Treasury debt, agencies, and mortgage-backed securities. Chicago - 312/4412601; website: www.bmo.com/industry/uspublicfinance/default.aspx; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org EHLERS & ASSOCIATES — School bond issues; referendum help; financial and enrollment studies. Lisle - 630/271-3330; website: http://www.ehlers-inc.com; e-mail: email@example.com FIRST MIDSTATE, INC. — Bond issue consultants. Bloomington - 309/829-3311; e-mail: paul@first midstate.com GORENZ AND ASSOCIATES, LTD. — Auditing and financial consulting. Peoria - 309/685-7621; website: http://www.gorenzcpa.com; e-mail: tcustis@gorenz cpa.com HUTCHINSON, SHOCKEY, ERLEY & COMPANY — Debt issuance, referendum planning, financial assistance. Chicago - 312/443-1566; website: www.hsemuni.com; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; rcoyne @hsemuni.com RAYMOND JAMES & ASSOCIATES, INC. — Full service Investment Banking firm. Chicago - 312/6127814 ROBERT W. BAIRD & CO. INC. — Financial consulting; debt issuance specialist; bond underwriting; referendum assistance. St. Charles - 630-584-4994; website: www.rwbaird.com; e-mail: whepworth@ rwbaird.com SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 / THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL SPEER FINANCIAL, INC. — Financial planning and bond issue services. Chicago - 312/346-3700; website: http://www.speerfinancial.com; e-mail: email@example.com STIFEL, NICOLAUS & COMPANY, INC. — Full service securities firm providing investment banking and advisory services including strategic financial planning; bond underwriting; and referendum and legislative assistance - Edwardsville - 800/230-5151; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org WILLIAM BLAIR & COMPANY — Bond issuance, financial advisory services. Chicago - 312/3648955; e-mail: email@example.com WINTRUST FINANCIAL — Financial services holding company engaging in community banking, wealth management, commercial insurance premium financing, and mortgage origination. Willowbrook - 630/560-2120 Human Resource Consulting BUSHUE HUMAN RESOURCES, INC. — Human resource, safety and risk management, insurance consulting. Effingham - 217/342-3042; website: http://www.bushuehr.com; e-mail: steve@bushuehr. com Insurance THE SANDNER GROUP CLAIMS MANAGEMENT, INC. — Third party administrator for worker's comp and insurance claims. Chicago - 800/654-9504 Office Equipment INTERIORS FOR BUSINESS, INC. — Classroom furniture and classroom technology services, classroom technology assessment, space planning, CEU’s, and ties to the USGBC (U.S. Green Building Council) for additional environmental assessments. Batavia 630/761-1070 Superintendent Searches HAZARD, YOUNG, ATTEA & ASSOCIATES, LTD — Superintendent searches, board and superintendent workshops. Glenview - 847/724-8465 31 MILESTONES Milestones Achievements George Becker, Northbrook/ Glenview School District 30’s supervisor of buildings and grounds since 1992, was recently honored for his excellent service. Superintendent Edward Tivador and board president James Bream presented Becker with a watch at a May 4 board meeting. Becker retired June 30, 2012. Donald Zabski is District 30’s new supervisor of buildings and grounds. Randy K. Crump, former superintendent of Eureka CUSD 140, now has an auditorium at Eureka High School named for him. “The board members wanted to do something special as a lasting tribute to the contributions Dr. Crump has made to our district over the past 22 years,” Teri Ehrenhardt, board president, said of the August 13 resolution. Crump was a band and chorus teacher in LeRoy before he was superintendent, first in LeRoy, then in Eureka. During his time in District 140, Crump was instrumental in the renovation of the EHS auditorium. In memoriam Donald L. Barker Sr., 87, died June 15, 2012. He served six years on the Orangeville CUSD 203 board. ident of the Teutopolis CUSD 50 board. Gilbert F. Bellot, 83, died May 31, 2012. He served on the St. Paul and Odell CCSD 435 boards. Roy G. Burgoyne, 80, died July 16, 2012. He was president of the Georgetown school board for 30 years. John R Biggerstaff, 67, died April 20, 2012. He served on the Enfield school board. George C. DeYoung, 94, died June 15, 2012. He was a former Millburn CCSD 24 board member. Daniel Brandolino, 71, died June 13, 2012. He served on the board of Richland SD 88A, Crest Hill. Ronald J. Dodd, 88, died June 25, 2012. He was a former member and president of the Cissna Park CUSD 6 board. Mary Alice Brian, 83, died June 18, 2012. She served on the Danville CCSD 118 board from 1991 to 2006. Lyle R. Eiten, 87, died June 25, 2012. He previously served as president of the Ladd CCSD 94 board. Cletus A. Brummer, 94, died June 13, 2012. He served and was past pres- William J. Fischer, 88, died June 2, 2012. He was a former Beardstown CUSD 15 board member. J. Thomas Hayes, 92, died July 22, 2012. He served on the San Jose board for eight years. Merle A. Hayward, 89, died July 18, 2012. He served on the Plainfield CCSD 202 board from 1970 to 1984. John W. Jones, 91, died June 5, 2012. He was a former Windsor CUSD 1 board member. Robert H. Kircher, 90, died July 4, 2012. He served on the Triopia CUSD 27 board for nine years. James P. Klover Sr., 80, died June 12, 2012. He was a former board member for Troy CCSD 30C, Plainfield. continued on page 31 32 THE ILLINOIS SCHOOL BOARD JOURNAL / SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2012 ASK THE STAFF Multiple opportunities open for leadership roles by Laurel DiPrima uestion: “How can I get more involved in IASB and its leadership?” Answer: There are a number of ways school board members can become more involved in IASB. At the local board level, every member district has the opportunity to appoint an IASB governing board representative. This individual serves as the primary liaison between his/her local board of education and the Association. A governing board representative receives meeting notices, newsletters and other correspondence from IASB. He/she encourages fellow board members to attend division dinner meetings and other IASB sponsored events. A governing board representative is generally the board member who represents the board at the Delegate Assembly held each November during the Joint Annual Conference in Chicago. The Delegate Assembly considers and votes on resolutions submitted by member districts which, when approved, become the basis for the Association’s stance on legislation and related matters of public policy. The Delegate Assembly also elects the Association’s officers for the coming year. Your division’s bylaws will guide Q member participation at the division level. Typically the governing board representative or designee votes on matters that come before the division membership and, in some divisions, assists in planning programs for division dinner meetings. If you would be interested in serving your board in this capacity, let your fellow board members know. A great way to participate in IASB leadership is to become involved at the division level. IASB divides the state into 21 geographical regions as a basis for governance and for service delivery. Each division has its own governing committee usually consisting of a chair, vice-chair, a resolutions chair and sometimes several “at large” committee members. Most importantly, each division elects a director who serves on the IASB Board of Directors. Not unlike your own school board, the IASB Board of Directors has supervision, control and direction of Association affairs, makes policy decisions and has budget oversight. The Board meets at least quarterly and includes not only the 21 division directors but the Association’s elected officers, the immediate past president, a designee from the Chicago Public Schools board and a member of IASB Service Associates. Division officers are elected according to the bylaws of each division, usually following the biennial school board elections. For more information on the responsibilities of executive committee members, please visit www.iasb.com/divisions. If you don’t feel you have the time to be involved in IASB leadership on an ongoing basis, there are other opportunities to help which may take no more than one day. Each year, our board development department looks for board members interested in evaluating the proposals submitted for the “Share the Success” panels presented at the Joint Annual Conference. Two panels of reviewers, one in the IASB Springfield office and one in the Lombard office, come together for a day to review, evaluate and make recommendations on which panels to consider. Also, from time to time, we look for boards willing to pilot newly developed IASB workshops. The feedback received from these boards is invaluable as we make presentations ready for “prime time.” This is your Association. We value your participation at whatever level you have the time and interest. If you have questions about any of the opportunities mentioned, please contact your field services director. Laurel DiPrima, IASB field services director for the Kishwaukee, Northwest and Starved Rock divisions, answers the question for this issue. NON-PROFIT PRST STANDARD US POSTAGE PAID ILLINOIS ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BOARDS 2921 Baker Drive Springfield, Illinois 62703-5929 Address Service Requested www.iasb.com urgent void in our present system — absence of self-discipline. The arts, inspiring — indeed requiring — selfdiscipline, may be more ‘basic’ to our nation’s survival than traditional credit courses.” “A team is not a bunch of people with job titles, but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a role that is understood by other members.” Meredith Belbin, British researcher and management theorist “Resilient leaders demonstrate an optimistic view about what’s possible. They strive to make something positive out of a negative situation, and they maintain high expectations that something good can come from the adverse circumstances confronting them.” Jerry L Patterson, George A. Goens and Diane E. Reed, Resilient Leadership for Turbulent Times: A Guide to Thriving in the Face of Adversity “One of the things that I’m really convinced of is a local school board that knows how to use data — how to interpret it, and how to communicate its importance to constituents — is the board that will stay in control of its own local government.” Katheryn Gemberling, consultant on data-driven leadership, American School Board Journal, July 2012 “The ‘back-to-basics curricula,’ while it has merit, ignores the most Paul Harvey, syndicated radio show host, 1918-2009 “A group becomes a team when each member is sure enough of himself and his contribution to praise the skills of the others.” Norman G. Shidle, American author, 1895-1978 “Individual commitment to a group effort — that is what makes a team work, a company work, a society work, a civilization work.” as a reason some students drop out of school.” “Get Them Hooked: The Benefits of Extracurricular Activities in Middle School,” http://thephoenixfalls. wordpress.com “Public schools must remain the center of the community in the future as in the past. They may look differently and act differently, but they must continue to serve as the place where people come together to learn and practice democracy and citizenship.” Karen Woodward, “Public Education: What Is Our Vision of the Twenty-FirstCentury Graduate?” in Shift Ed: A Call to Action for Transforming K-12 Education Vince Lombardi, legendary football coach, 1913-1970 “Not only can after-school activities be fun and entertaining, but they can teach important life skills, preparing children to become responsible, well-balanced adults. Many activities continue into adulthood, providing lifelong enjoyment. Encourage your children to put down the video games and get involved.” Charles Davidson, “Six Benefits of After-School Activities,” http://voices.yahoo.com “When students engage in activities, they foster friendships, and stay connected to their school — they are experiencing a sense of belonging, the lack of which could be argued “I understand your computer is down. I’m here to cheer it up.”