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Explore Scotland with 15 trails of historic sites linked to great Scottish surnames. Welcome home.

Following in the family footsteps

Great battles, dark deeds, 

amazing people – this is the start of a journey

deep into the real

history of Scotland.

www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming 

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15 namesake

With heritage trails, your family history is here to be discovered. Follow in the footsteps of the people who shaped the nation’s history. This leaflet is your quick guide to historic sites linked to 15 great Scottish surnames and an insight into the lives of these characters. If you share one of these names then it is a route back through the centuries to your own family roots. All made their mark on Scottish history and many have now spread round the world. The trails are to celebrate Homecoming Scotland 2014 – one of the biggest celebrations of Scottish culture and heritage. Each of the highlighted sites are open to the public (unless otherwise stated). All sites are in care of either Historic Scotland, or the National Trust for Scotland, or the site is a member of the Historic Houses Association. They include a wide variety of castles, palaces, abbeys, mansions and battlefields so you can pick and choose which ones to see according to your tastes, interests and timetable.

Family Names Bruce  3 Campbell  5 Douglas  7 Forbes 9 Fraser11 Gordon13 Graham15 Grant17

www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming 

Hamilton19 Lindsay21 MacDonald23 Maxwell25 Murray or Moray  27 Scott29 Stewart or Stuart 31

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Bruce The Bruces had already come a long way before they settled in southwest Scotland and began their rise to kingship. The name originates from Bruys or Bruis (now Brix) in Normandy. As followers of William the Conqueror they had been part of his invasion of England in 1066. And later they decided to head north. History and Characters

Robert the Bruce, who was inaugurated king of Scotland in 1306, was undoubtedly the most famous member of the family. But his family had long coveted the throne. When Alexander III and his child heir Margaret, Maid of Norway, both died, the succession was left in dispute. Robert’s grandfather Robert de Bruce, Lord of Annandale, claimed he should be king. The claim of the Balliol family was stronger and John I became king. But following Edward I’s invasion of 1296, and Balliol’s subsequent deposition, the Scots embarked on the bloody Wars of Independence. After changing allegiance between the two sides, Robert eventually came out openly against Edward of England in 1304. He was proclaimed King Robert I at Scone in 1306 and commenced a long battle for recognition of his kingship and for Scotland’s independence. This culminated in his spectacular defeat of Edward II’s forces at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Robert agreed a peace treaty with England in 1328 and died the following year. His body is buried at Dunfermline Abbey and his heart at Melrose Abbey. He was succeeded by his son, David II, followed by his grandson Robert II – the first Stewart king – who reigned from 1371 to 1390. The Bruces of Clackmannan were descended from a cousin of Robert I. In 1633, Thomas Bruce of Kinloss, a descendant of the 7th Lord Clackmannan, was created Earl of Elgin, with his chief residence at Broomhall, Fife. Another Great Bruce

Bruces have not all been fighters for Scottish independence, indeed James, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine was a loyal servant of the British Empire. Born in 1811 he became governor of Jamaica, governor-in-chief of British North America (Canada) and Viceroy of India. His career in the east saw him credited with saving British rule in India, cowing the Chinese – he also legalised the opium trade – and achieving a treaty with Japan before returning to Britain as a hero.

the Bruce, who was “Robert inaugurated king of Scotland in 1306, was undoubtedly the most famous member of the family.

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Bruce

Melrose Abbey

Culross

Bannockburn

Key Bruce sites 1

Balvenie Castle

Bannockburn 2 Bothwell Castle

4

Clackmannan Tower

5

Crathes Castle

15

Culross 6 7

Dunstaffnage Castle

8

Dunfermline Abbey and Palace

9

Hermitage Castle

10 Inverlochy Castle 11 Loch Doon Castle 12 Lochleven Castle 13 Lochmaben Castle 14 Melrose Abbey 15 Muness Castle 16 Scone Palace

1

17 Urquhart Castle 17

5 10

7

16

12

4 2

6

8

3 14

11

Key to sites

9 13

Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming 

4

Shetland 150 miles

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Campbell Among the most famous and successful of the Scottish clans, the traditional heartlands of Campbell power were in Argyll – but eventually reached far beyond. The Name

Said to come from the Gaelic, caimbeul, meaning ‘crooked mouth’. The family had its origins in the ancient kingdom of Dalriada and claim descent from the warrior Duibhne. History and Characters

Sir Neil Campbell was a leading supporter of Robert the Bruce during some of his darkest hours and was rewarded with lands confiscated from the MacDougalls of Lorn. In centuries to come the family grew in power through the Highlands and Islands, often as close allies of the Crown. They became Earls of Argyll and Lords of Glenorchy, with branches in many other parts of the country, sometimes gaining notoriety for their success in acquiring lands from others, such as their one-time allies the MacGregors. Among the most famous Campbells was Archibald, 9th Earl of Argyll, who sympathised with the Covenanters and was charged with treason. After escaping from Edinburgh Castle he fled to Holland. Following the death of Charles II, Argyll attempted an invasion in favour of the king’s illegitimate son the Duke of Monmouth but was caught and executed in June 1685. The Glencoe Massacre of 1692 was one of the most notorious episodes in Campbell history. William of Orange offered Jacobite clans a pardon for supporting the deposed James VII if they swore an oath of allegiance. Alastair MacIain, chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, missed the deadline after awaiting word from James VII. The government ordered two companies of the Duke of Argyll’s regiment, one led by Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, to put the MacDonalds of Glencoe to the sword as an example to others. A very different representative of clan history was John Lorne Campbell, 20th century Scottish folklorist who wrote about Hebridean and Gaelic Culture. He and his wife Margaret Fay Shaw bought and lived on the Island of Canna. They created an important national archive of Gaelic literature, photographs and songs which is still in Canna House today. Important Branches

Loch Awe/Argyll: The Campbells of Loch Awe/ Argyll are descendants of Sir Neil’s younger son. They became Earls, then Marquises and Dukes of Argyll. The family moved to Inveraray from an island home at Innischonnell on Loch Awe. Breadalbane: Black Colin of Glenorchy was the first of the line which dates from 1432. In 1681 Sir John Campbell, 11th of Glenorchy, was made Earl of Breadalbane. Cawdor: Muriel Calder, yellow-haired heiress of Cawdor, married Sir John Campbell, son of the Earl of Argyll, in 1510. John Frederick Campbell became Earl of Cawdor in 1827.

to come from the Gaelic, “Said caimbeul, meaning ‘crooked mouth’.

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Campbell

Kilchurn Castle

Glencoe

Castle Campbell

Key Campbell sites 1

Argyll’s Lodging

Burg 2 Canna 3 Carnasserie Castle

5

Castle Campbell

6

Castle Sween

7

Cawdor Castle

8

Crarae Garden

Shetland 150 miles

4

Culloden 9 10 Dunstaffnage Castle 11 Edinburgh Castle Glencoe 12 13 Inveraray Castle 14 Kilchurn Castle 15 Skipness Castle 9

7

3

12 10 2

14

4 8

6

13

1

5

11 15

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Douglas One of Lowland Scotland’s greatest families, the Douglases played a far-reaching role in our history, gaining titles, vast estates and huge wealth. Some of our most impressive strongholds are testament to their might. The Name

Derived from the Gaelic dubhglas, or black water, referring to the River Douglas in South Lanarkshire, where the family’s 12th century origins can be traced. History and Characters

Among the most celebrated Douglases was the Good Sir James, known as ‘the Black Douglas’ after his mane of jet-black hair, a loyal supporter of King Robert Bruce. After the king died in 1329, Sir James set off on a crusade carrying Bruce’s heart but was killed fighting the Moors in Spain. The symbol of Bruce’s ‘bludy hert’ was incorporated into the Douglas arms. In 1388, the 2nd Earl died in battle with no heir and his titles were split between illegitimate members of the family. The senior line was known as Black Douglases and the junior line, Red Douglases. The Black Douglases

From their rise to power during the Wars of Independence until their fall some 150 years later, the Black Douglases were embroiled in battle and feud. The 3rd Earl earned the name Archibald the Grim for his formidable countenance and was famous for wielding a sword so great no other man could lift it. His son, Archibald, 4th Earl, was renowned as one of Europe’s finest soldiers, on whom the French king bestowed the Dukedom of Touraine. William, the 6th Earl, and his young brother were murdered in 1440 after the infamous Black Dinner at Edinburgh Castle due to fears about their power. Twelve years later James II murdered the 8th Earl at Stirling Castle and proceeded to capture all their castles. By 1455 the Black Douglases were history. The RED Douglases

This branch of the family, who possibly got their name from the colour of their hair, began as Earls of Angus and led James II’s army against their own Black Douglas kin at Arkinholm in 1455. However, in 1491 Archibald, the 5th Earl, entered into a treasonable pact with Henry VII of England, only to be brought back into line when James IV besieged his castle at Tantallon. After the abdication of Mary, Queen of Scots in 1567 it was a Douglas who took control of government. This was James, 4th Earl of Morton who acted as Regent on behalf of the infant King James VI. In 1689, James, Earl of Angus and Marquis of Douglas, raised the Cameronian Regiment to fight for William of Orange, while James, 2nd Duke of Queensberry, engineered the 1707 Act of Union that created the United Kingdom.

the most celebrated “Among Douglases was the Good Sir James, known as ‘the Black Douglas’ ”

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Douglas

Edinburgh Castle

Melrose Abbey

Aberdour Castle

Key Douglas sites 1

Aberdour Castle

2

Balvenie Castle

4

Bannockburn 3 Bishop’s & Earl’s Palaces, Kirkwall

5

Bothwell Castle

6

Drumlanrig Castle

7

Edinburgh Castle

8

Falls of Glomach

9

Lincluden Collegiate Church

Shetland 150 miles

4

10 Lochleven Castle 11 Lochmaben Castle 12 Hermitage Castle 13 Melrose Abbey 14 Morton Castle

16

15 St Bride’s Church 16 Spynie Palace

2

17 Stirling Castle 18 Sweetheart Abbey

8

19 Tantallon Castle 20 Threave Castle

10

3 17

1 19

7 5 13

15

6 14 9

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland

20

12 11

18

Historic Houses Association

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Forbes An ancient Aberdeenshire family which can trace its roots back to the 12th century and has its earliest origins linked to a brave hero of folklore. History and Characters

Said to be descendants of Ochonochar, who killed a ferocious bear in the Braes of Forbes in Aberdeenshire, the family’s first recorded member was John Forbes in the time of King William the Lion (1165-1214). A later John Forbes, (whose grandfather fell defending Urquhart Castle against the English in 1303, and whose father fell fighting the English at Dupplin in 1332) had four sons from whom sprang the Forbeses of Pitsligo, Culloden, Waterton and Foveran, and the House of Newe in Strathdon. In the reign of James I (1406-37) John’s descendant, Alexander, became the 1st Lord Forbes. Sir Alexander de Forbes played an important role during the Wars of Independence. When Edward I invaded Scotland in 1296, one of the castles seized by him was Urquhart. After being reclaimed by the Scots, it was attacked again in 1303 by the English who seized it despite a strong defence by Sir Alexander de Forbes, who was killed in the aftermath. In the 16th century, a tragedy, recalled in the traditional ballad of Edom o’ Gordon befell the Forbeses of Corgarff. In 1571, during a bitter feud between the Forbeses and the Gordons, Adam Gordon of Auchindoun, kinsman of the 4th Earl of Huntly, and his men attacked Corgarff Castle. The laird was away and his wife, Margaret Forbes, refused Gordon’s men entry. In retaliation, they burned the castle killing all 24 occupants including Margaret, her family and their servants. A Forbes immortalised for more positive reasons was the educated and well-travelled William Forbes – ‘Willie the Merchant’ or ‘Danzig Willie’ – who made his money trading with the Baltic, Scandinavia and the Low Countries. In the early 17th century, he invested in lands in Aberdeenshire and bought the unfinished Craigievar Castle from the Mortimers, who had run out of money. Forbes dedicated himself to its completion, employing the best architects and masons. Unfortunately he died only a year after the project was finished but today Craigievar, which is largely unaltered, stands as a monument to his vision. Another famous family member was Duncan Forbes, Lord Culloden. As President of the Court of Session, he opposed heavy punishment of the rebels after Culloden, despite the fact that Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender (Bonnie Prince Charlie) had requisitioned the Forbes of Culloden mansion to be his base during the battle. Through the centuries, many different branches or cadets of the Forbes family developed: the Forbeses of Pitsligo, Boyndlie, Callendar, Castleton, Rothiemay, Culquohonny, Culloden, Tolquhon, Waterton, Thainston, Pitnacalder, Foveran, Brux, Ledmacoy, Belnabodach, Kildrummy, Towie, Invernan, Corsindae, Balfluig, Monymusk, Leslie, Corse, Craigievar and Echt. The current chief of the clan, Malcolm, Lord Forbes lives in Aberdeenshire, at Castle Forbes (not open to the public as a visitor attraction). The castle is on the same estate where the family has lived for over 600 years.

family’s first recorded member “The was John Forbes in the time of King William the Lion (1165-1214). ”

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Forbes

Balvenie Castle

Tolquhon Castle

Fyvie Castle

Key Forbes sites 1

Corgarff Castle

2

Craigievar Castle

Culloden 3 Fyvie Castle

5

Tolquhon Castle

6

Urquhart Castle

Shetland 150 miles

4

3

4

6

5

1

2

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Fraser Renowned for their fighting spirit, the Frasers probably descended from followers of William I who invaded England in 1066 and the name may come from La Frézeliere, in Anjou’s Loire Valley. They arrived in Lowland Scotland in the 12th century before moving north to become closely linked with Highland Aberdeenshire. History and Characters

The first recorded Fraser was Simon, who granted an East Lothian church to Kelso Abbey around 1160. By 1200, they were Lords of Oliver (now Tweedsmuir), in Upper Tweeddale. Simon Fraser of Oliver was a key figure in the Wars of Independence, leading the Scots to an unexpected victory at Roslin in 1303 – for which Edward I of England never forgave him. He was captured in 1306, after attending Robert the Bruce’s coronation, and executed. Simon’s body was burned and his severed head displayed, beside that of William Wallace, on a pike at London Bridge. By 1400, the Frasers were established in the Highlands. Fraser of Philorth in Buchan became Lord Saltoun in 1445 and Hugh Fraser became Lord Lovat in 1460. The family had ambitions to spread their power west across the Highlands but their plans were quashed. In 1544, the Frasers took on the MacDonalds in one of the bloodiest clan fights in history, Blar-na-Leine. The name translates as ‘Battle of the Shirt’ supposedly because the battle was fought in such a heat that the clansmen had to strip off. Some 300 Frasers – including their chief and his son – were left dead on the battlefield near Loch Lochy. Another Fraser with ambitions was Alexander Fraser, 7th of Philorth, who in the middle of the 16th century planned to transform the fishing hamlet of Faithlie into a major commercial success. Renaming it Fraserburgh, he built its harbour in 1546. Other notable Frasers included Simon, 6th Lord Lovat, who in 1596 married Jean, daughter of James Stewart, 1st Lord Doune, at Falkland Palace in the presence of James VI. His descendant, Simon, 11th Lord Lovat, regularly switched loyalties between the exiled Stuart dynasty and the Hanoverian George I and George II. At Culloden in 1746 he fought as a Jacobite, for which he was captured and beheaded on Tower Hill, London, the last nobleman in Britain to be given that dubious honour. Countless other Frasers exhibited the family’s fighting spirit in the Scottish Wars of Independence, the Jacobite risings and both World Wars. There is still a Fraser battalion in the Royal Regiment of Scotland. The present chief is Flora Marjory Fraser, 20th Lady Saltoun, an active member of the House of Lords.

first recorded Fraser was Simon, “The who granted an East Lothian church to Kelso Abbey around 1160. ”

www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming 

Fraser

Kinnaird Head Castle Lighthouse

Falkland Palace

Castle Fraser

Key fraser sites 1

Castle Fraser

Culloden 2 Falkland Palace

4

Kinnaird Head Castle Lighthouse & Museum

Shetland 150 miles

3

4

2

1

3

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Gordon From obscure origins in 12th century Berwickshire, the Gordons became the greatest clan in northeast Scotland, wielding great influence from their base in the Huntly area of Aberdeenshire. Their rise to power began in the 14th century and reached its peak 200 years later under the 4th Earl of Huntly. Favoured by royalty, the Gordons held high office and were renowned warriors. History and Characters

Initially supporters of King John Balliol, the Gordons changed their allegiance to Robert I before the Battle of Bannockburn, a move which shaped the family’s destiny. Bruce rewarded Sir Adam Gordon with the Aberdeenshire estate of Strathbogie and trusted him to take the Declaration of Arbroath to Pope John XXII in Avignon, France in 1320. In 1556, Earl George Gordon welcomed Queen Mary of Guise to Huntly Castle with a 1,000-strong guard of honour and excessively lavish hospitality. His efforts to impress backfired, however, as Mary’s French Ambassador urged her to ‘clip the wings’ of the Cock o’ the North, fearing his wealth might challenge the throne. The most famous family member was George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, and British Prime Minister from 1852-55. As the first politician to forge close links with Europe, and in particular, France, he and French Foreign Secretary Guizot coined the expression ‘entente cordiale’. Hamilton-Gordon is most remembered for taking the country into the Crimean War. Greatly criticised for his management of it, he was forced to resign. Queen Victoria, who favoured him, visited Haddo House in 1857 and planted two magnificent Wellingtonia trees which still stand today. Hamilton-Gordon’s son, George, 6th Earl of Aberdeen, succeeded him in 1864. Unwilling to take on the responsibility of running the Haddo Estate at just 23, he escaped to North America and worked, under a false identity, as a lumberjack and a sailor. Although he intended to return home and take on his familial duties he was swept overboard and drowned in Australia in 1871. Today, the clan chief is the Marquis of Huntly, who lives in Aboyne Castle – a private residence which is not open to the public.

most famous family member was “The George Hamilton-Gordon, 4th Earl of Aberdeen, and British Prime Minister from 1852-55.

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Gordon

Huntly Castle

Ruthven Barracks

Haddo House Garden & Country Park

Key Gordon sites Auchindoun Castle

2

Fyvie Castle

3

Glenbuchat Castle

4

Greenknowe Tower

5

Haddo House Garden & Country Park

6

Huntly Castle

7

Inverlochy Castle

8

Ruthven Barracks

9

Threave Castle

Shetland 150 miles

1

10 Threave House & Gardens Torridon 11 12 Urquhart Castle

11

6 1

12

2 5

3 8 7

4

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland

9

10

Historic Houses Association

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Graham Their numbers include the infamous and the celebrated. One Graham assassinated a Scottish king while, centuries later, another sacrificed everything attempting to restore the Stewarts to the throne. History and Characters

In the 12th century King David I granted the lands of Abercorn and Dalkeith, in Lothian, to Sir William de Graham. (The name is derived from a place, probably in France, hence ‘de Graham’ – meaning from a place called Graham.) During the Wars of Independence against England, the ‘gallant Grahams’ included Sir Patrick, the royal standard bearer, who was killed at the Battle of Dunbar in 1296, and Sir John Graham of Dundaff, who fell at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298. James II created Sir Patrick Graham of Kincardine who became the 1st Lord Graham prior to 1445; his grandson was made Earl of Montrose by James IV. Two branches of the family sprang from marriages with the Stewarts. The son of Sir Patrick Graham and Euphemia Stewart was Malise Graham who became Earl of Menteith in 1427. Branches of this family include the Grahams of Gartmore, Redknock, Boquhapple, and the Eskdale Grahams – celebrated as Border reivers in ballad and legend. Sir William Graham of Kincardine married Mary Stewart, a daughter of King Robert II (1371-90), and their five sons founded the Graham families of Fintry, Claverhouse, Duntrune, Garvoch, and Knockdolian. A prominent member of the family was the clan chief James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose (1612-50). He initially supported the Covenant of 1638, which rejected Charles I’s attempts to impose episcopal worship in Scotland. But latterly, Montrose supported the king in the civil war against the Covenanters, leading the Royalist forces to victory at numerous battles including Tippermuir and Kilsyth. His descendant, James Graham, 4th Marquis was elevated to become the 1st Duke of Montrose in 1707. The current holder is James Graham, 8th Duke. Important Figures

In the 15th century Sir Robert Graham was actively involved in a conspiracy to kill King James I. With some of the co-conspirators, he burst into the king’s rooms in Perth in February 1437. The king had hidden in a sewer, but could not escape as he had ordered the exit to be blocked a few days before as he kept losing tennis balls through it. He was discovered and stabbed to death. Sir Robert was caught, tortured and executed. John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, brought the family great fame when he rallied the Highland clans to the cause of the exiled King James VII and II who was deposed in Scotland in 1689. Known as ‘Bonnie Dundee’, he fought for the restoration of James, who had been ousted because he demanded absolute power. Graham led the Jacobites to arguably their greatest victory at Killiecrankie in 1689 but was fatally wounded in the very moment of victory. Another famous Graham, Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham (1852-1936), earned lasting fame as first President of the Scottish Labour Party (1888), first President of the National Party of Scotland (1928) and first President of the Scottish National Party (1934).

of this family include the “Branches Grahams of Gartmore, Redknock,

Boquhapple, and the Eskdale Grahams.

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Graham

Killiecrankie

Huntly Castle

Glamis Castle

Key graham sites Arbroath Abbey

2

Blair Castle

3

Castle Campbell

4

Claypotts Castle

5

Corgarff Castle

6

Glamis Castle

7

Glenfinnan Monument

8

Huntly Castle

9

Inverlochy Castle

Shetland 150 miles

1

Killiecrankie 10 11 St Andrews Castle

8

5 7

9 2

10 6

4

1

11 3

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Grant A Highland clan from the north of Scotland, the Grants helped shape the legal, agricultural and industrial systems of the nation. Tradition says their founder was Gregor Mor MacGregor who lived in 12th century Strathspey. History and Characters

The Grants make their first appearance in historical records during the 13th century with Sir Laurence Grant who was Sheriff of Inverness in 1263. Duncan Grant, younger son of Ian Ruadh Grant, Sheriff of Inverness in 1434, founded the Grants of Freuchie (now Grantown-on-Spey). Later Grants became Earls of Seafield. One of the most important historical figures produced by the clan was the lawyer Sir Francis Grant of Monymusk. During the 1650s he studied Roman law in Holland and was responsible for developing Scotland’s modern legal system. It is due to Sir Francis that the legal systems of Scotland and England operate in different ways. Perhaps ironically he was also responsible for the drafting of the Act of Union with England in 1707. Sir Archibald Grant, son of Sir Francis, was a famed agriculturalist who enclosed and cleared land at Monymusk House for his experiments. He is recognised for bringing together the ideas of Lord Townsend on the rotation of crops and JethroTull on the mechanisation of agriculture – one of the great leaps forward in Scottish farming. Despite the family’s involvement in the birth of the Union, Alexander Grant led a contingent of his clansmen into battle for the Jacobites at Culloden in 1746. His great-grandson William made a very different contribution to history as founder of the whisky company which bears the family name. Thanks to the efforts of Sir James Grant, chief from 1773-1811, the clan was affected much less than most by the Highland Clearances. Sir James established a textile industry in the north and built the town of Grantownon-Spey for the workers. This provided employment for local people so they did not have to emigrate. The current head of the clan is the Rt. Hon. the Lord Strathspey, Sir James Patrick Trevor Grant of Grant, 6th Baron Strathspey, 33rd hereditary clan chief of Clan Grant. Urquhart Castle

The tall and thick-walled Grant Tower is the most impressive remaining feature of Urquhart Castle which stands on the banks of Loch Ness. The castle and its spectacular surrounding countryside were given to the Grants in 1509 by King James IV. His gift was in gratitude for the success of Sir Duncan Grant of Freuchie – known as the Red Bard – in helping to bring order to a wild part of the kingdom.

Archibald Grant is recognised for “Sir bringing together the ideas of Lord

Townsend on the rotation of crops and JethroTull on the mechanisation of agriculture – one of the great leaps forward in Scottish farming.

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Grant

Arniston House

Urquhart Castle

Culloden

Key Grant sites 1

Arniston House

2

Ballindalloch Castle

Culloden 3 Urquhart Castle

Shetland 150 miles

4

3 4

2

1

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Hamilton A powerful family with a claim to the throne of Scotland, the Hamiltons became Earls of Arran and wealthy landowners with estates in Clydesdale, in Ayrshire, and in West Lothian at Kinneil and Kincavil. History and Characters

The family is descended from Walter Fitz-Gilbert of Hameldone who, during the Wars of Independence, was keeper of Bothwell Castle for the English. After he changed sides he was rewarded with the lands of Cadzow – the original name of the town of Hamilton in Lanarkshire. In 1474, James Lord Hamilton married Princess Mary, widow of the Earl of Arran and a daughter of James II. Their son became Earl of Arran in 1503 and his grandson became Marquis of Hamilton. Brodick Castle was the residence of the Hamiltons in their capacity as Earls of Arran. However, the family settled at Hamilton, building the palace (now demolished), Cadzow Castle and Châtelherault Stables – named after the French dukedom given to the family in 1548. The family’s strength, claim to the throne and support for Queen Mary led to several campaigns against their power in the early years of the reign of James VI and the confiscation of Kinneil House. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Hamiltons and Douglases were the main rivals to the Stewarts for the Scottish throne. The families were brought together through marriage, creating a new branch, the DouglasHamiltons, who were the Dukes of Hamilton. Other branches of the family include the Dukes of Abercorn and Earls of Haddington. Two ill-fated members of the family during the 16th century were the Protestant martyr, Patrick Hamilton, and Sir James Hamilton of Finnart, Royal Master of Works. Patrick, an acclaimed intellectual, was accused of heresy by the Archbishop of St Andrews, and burned at the stake. His death marked a turning point in the Reformation. Sir James Hamilton was a mediator after the Douglases gained control of the young King James V and when his royal master escaped their clutches, Finnart firmly supported him. During the 1530s, Finnart was entrusted with the king’s massive building projects, supervising at Linlithgow Palace the remodelling of the entrance façade and the construction of the courtyard fountain, as well as the building of the new royal palace at Stirling. Despite his achievement the king had him executed in 1540, allegedly for his past associations with the Douglases. Other notable figures included John Hamilton, Archbishop of St Andrews (1512-71) and James, 2nd Earl of Arran and Regent of Scotland (1516-75). The 16th Duke of Hamilton and 13th Duke of Brandon is the premier peer of Scotland and Hereditary Keeper of the Palace of Holyroodhouse. Lennoxlove House, East Lothian is the seat of the Dukes of Hamilton.

family is descended from Walter “The Fitz-Gilbert of Hameldone who, during the Wars of Independence, was keeper of Bothwell Castle for the English.

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Hamilton

Brodick Castle

Blackness Castle

Lochranza Castle, Arran

Key Hamilton sites Balmacara Estate

2

Blackness Castle

3

Brodick Castle

4

Cadzow Castle

5

Craignethan Castle

6

Hamilton House

7

Kinneil House

8

Linlithgow Palace

9

Lochranza Castle, Arran

Shetland 150 miles

1

10 St Andrews Castle 11 Stirling Castle

1

10

11 7

9

4

8

2

6

5

3

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Lindsay A spirited and talented clan, they first settled in Scotland when Sir Walter de Lindsay came to Scotland from England in the retinue of David I in the 12th century. Originally based in central Scotland, by the 14th century they had spread to the east coast, north of the Forth. History and Characters

Walter de Lindsay was a member of King David I’s council. His son, William, was Lord of Luffness, in East Lothian, and Lord of Crawford, in Lanarkshire. In 1358 Alexander Lindsay of Crawford acquired Glenesk, in Angus, by marriage to Katherine, heiress of John Stirling of Glenesk. Their elder son, David, was created Earl of Crawford in 1398. The Lindsays, known as ‘the Lichtsome (or carefree) Lindsays’, made their mark on history as warriors, politicians and poets. In the 13th century they were involved in the Crusades; they also fought alongside Wallace and Bruce during the Wars of Independence with England. Following their move to Angus, their chief rivals were the Ogilvies, with whom there was a long and bitter feud. One example of fighting spirit is that when Sir James Lindsay’s wife, Margaret Keith, was besieged at Fyvie Castle by her nephew she ordered all the family pewter to be melted down and the molten metal poured on the heads of the attackers. Leading figures

David, 1st Earl of Crawford, performed so well in a tournament in London in 1390 that rumours went round that he was tied to the saddle – until he leapt off his horse. Tournaments could be about more than entertainment. In 1396 Lindsay organised a large-scale judicial tournament at Perth, known as the Battle of the Clans, to settle a feud between Clan Chattan (Mackintosh) and Clan Kay (Mackay), resulting in the deaths of almost all the contestants. Poet, diplomat and playwright Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount (c.1486-1555) was a much admired courtier who was given special charge of the young King James V. Much of his work called for reform of the clergy, including the play Interlude, a forerunner of his more famous work Ane Satyre of the Thrie Estaitis, which was performed at Linlithgow Palace at Christmas 1540. When Cardinal Beaton was assassinated by a group of Fife lairds who then occupied St Andrews Castle, he was trusted to negotiate between them and the Catholic government. Among the most colourful and controversial members of the family was Alexander Lindsay, 6th Earl of Balcarres (1752-1825). As an officer in the American War of Independence he frustrated an offensive led by Benedict Arnold after the British defeat at Saratoga but was eventually captured and imprisoned. On meeting Arnold in London he called him a traitor – which led to a duel. Arnold shot and missed, whereupon Lindsay walked away without firing. As Governor of Jamaica he was censured for keeping a pig in his official residence.

Lindsays, known as ‘the “The Lichtsome (or carefree) Lindsays’, made their mark on history as warriors, politicians and poets.

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Lindsay

Edzel Castle & Gardens

Interior of Fyvie Castle

Key Lindsay sites Edzell Castle & Gardens

2

Fyvie Castle

3

Glamis Castle

4

Lindsay Burial Aisle

Shetland 150 miles

1

2

4 1

3

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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MacDonald The great clan of the Highlands and Islands, the MacDonalds’ origins lie in the Hebrides and the GaelicNorse empire that emerged from early Viking incursions. The family is descended from the 12th century Somerled, Lord of Argyll, who married Ragnhilde, daughter of Olaf the Red of Norway. The name comes from Donald of Islay, Somerled’s grandson. History and Characters

Donald’s grandson Angus Og (‘young Angus’) was the father of John of Islay who styled himself Lord of the Isles and whose descendants founded many branches of the family. Angus Og supported Robert I at Bannockburn and was rewarded with extensive lands. His son John married a sister of King Robert II in 1371 but relations between the independent Gaelic lordship and the Stewart kings of Scotland were always uneasy. In 1402 Donald, 2nd Lord of the Isles, took the Earldom of Ross by force and would have gone further but was stopped at the Battle of Harlaw in 1411. Thereafter the two dynasties were set for a showdown. In 1429 Alexander, 3rd Lord of the Isles, was imprisoned at Tantallon Castle. In 1431 his supporters defeated a royal army at Inverlochy and negotiated his release. In 1462 John MacDonald, 4th Lord of the Isles, made a treasonable pact with Edward IV of England. He was forced to forfeit his title in 1493. The Lordship of the Isles was ended and never again was there such a powerful base of Gaelic culture. The most tragic event in MacDonald history was the Glencoe Massacre of 1692. Many Highland clans were seen as a threat to William of Orange as they openly supported the deposed Stuart King, James VII. All chiefs were ordered to sign an oath of allegiance to King William. The chief of the MacDonalds of Glencoe, Alexander MacDonald or Maclain, delayed signing until receiving permission from James VII and so missed the deadline. A decision was made to make an example of the clan. Soldiers from the Campbell-dominated Argyll’s Regiment were sent to Glencoe and were sheltered by the MacDonalds in their own homes for 12 days. On 13 February, the soldiers were ordered to slaughter their hosts. Many MacDonalds were murdered and others died of exposure escaping through a blizzard. The MacDonalds later formed a core part of the Jacobite armies that fought for the restoration of the Stuarts at Killiecrankie (1689), at Sheriffmuir (1715), at Glenshiel (1719) and at Culloden (1746). A famous clan member was Flora MacDonald who helped Bonnie Prince Charlie escape after Culloden. Disguised as an Irish maidservant, the prince sailed with Flora from Benbecula to Skye and travelled overland to Portree. She was arrested and imprisoned in Dunstaffnage Castle and then the Tower of London, but released in 1747. She married and emigrated to North Carolina but eventually returned to Skye where she is buried.

most tragic event in “The MacDonald history was the Glencoe Massacre of 1692. ”

www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming 

MacDonald

Urquhart Castle

Glencoe

Key MacDonald sites 1

Castle Sween

Culloden 2 3

Dunstaffnage Castle

5

Glenfinnan Monument

6

Iona Abbey

Shetland 150 miles

Glencoe 4

Newhailes 7 8

Skipness Castle

9

Strome Castle

10 Tantallon Castle 11 Urquhart Castle

2

9 11

5

4 3 6

1

7

10

8

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Maxwell The Maxwells (de Maccuswell) first appear in Southeast Scotland in the 12th century. They became lords of Caerlaverock in the Scottish West March where the family made their permanent home. History and Characters

Sir John de Maxwell, Chamberlain of Scotland, acquired the rich estate of Caerlaverock – which soon became the chief seat of the family – from Alexander II around 1220. Heirless, Sir John was succeeded by his brother Aymer from whom sprang a number of Maxwell branches. A descendant, Herbert, was made Lord Maxwell by James II. As wardens of the West March, the family was entrusted with defending the border with England. Robert, 9th Lord Maxwell, was created Earl of Nithsdale by James VI in 1620. Earl Robert was a builder, diplomat and royalist who created a beautiful Renaissance house within the walls of Caerlaverock Castle. Yet within six years it was under siege. A supporter of King Charles I, he had held Threave Castle in 1639 with a small garrison against the Covenanting army before the monarch authorised his surrender, after which he walked free with honour. Despite this, he continued resistance. In 1640 he and 200 men held Caerlaverock for 13 weeks before the king once again gave permission to surrender. The Maxwells of Pollok, in Glasgow, who were descended from the Earl of Nithsdale, built Pollok House in the mid-18th century. Designed by the architect William Adam, father of the ‘Adam’ style, the house and surrounding parkland were gifted to Glasgow in 1967. Pollok Country Park now contains a purpose-built museum for the Burrell Collection, which includes 9,000 works of art, gifted to Glasgow in 1944 by Sir William Burrell. Caerlaverock Castle

Among the most remarkable Scottish castles, Caerlaverock is triangular in shape and set within an impressive moat. Begun in the 1270s, its strength was put to the test when Herbert de Maxwell and his son John tried to resist the English invasion of 1300. The garrison of 60 resisted valiantly before being forced to surrender to a force of 3,000 soldiers equipped with the latest siege weapons. Some were hanged from the walls, others allowed to go free, but the castle remained the principal seat of the Maxwells for centuries to come. This castle had been built to replace an earlier one dating from the 1220s in a salt marsh just 250 metres away. Today the new and old Caerlaverock castles are a major visitor attraction and are set amidst grounds that are renowned for their plants and wild animals.

Maxwells of Pollok, in Glasgow, “The who were descended from the Earl of Nithsdale, built Pollok House in the mid-18th century.

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Maxwell

Sweetheart Abbey

Caerlaverock Castle

Pollok House

Key Maxwell sites Caerlaverock Castle

2

Drumcoltran Tower

3

Newark Castle

4

Orchardton Tower

5

Pollok House

6

Sweetheart Abbey

7

Threave Castle

Shetland 150 miles

1

3 5

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland

2 7

6 1

4

Historic Houses Association

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Murray or Moray Commanders of the last private army in Europe, the Dukes of Atholl and their Murray clansmen have been leading figures in Scotland’s history. The Name

The name comes from the north-eastern region of Scotland called Moray, though the family are descendants of a Flemish knight called Freskin. History and Characters

In the 12th century much of Scotland was beyond the effective reach of the Crown. Knights, such as Freskin, were granted lands in these areas by the king in return for loyalty. The family originally settled in Strathbrock (now Uphall), in West Lothian, became firmly entrenched in Moray around 1150 and soon began to extend their interests. One of Freskin’s grandsons, Walter ‘of Moray’, Lord of Petty, acquired the great lordship of Bothwell on the Clyde. He was an ancestor of the Murrays of Tullibardine, forebears of the Dukes of Atholl. Another grandson, Hugh, founded the house of Sutherland in the time of William the Lion (1165-1214). The Wars of Independence produced one of the most famous members of the clan, Sir Andrew Murray. In 1297 he was the northern leader of the revolt against English domination which brought together local uprisings in Aberdeen and Speyside. Murray and William Wallace were key figures in the first stage of the wars. Murray, a skilled strategist and tactician, was pivotal in the decision to fight a battle at Stirling Bridge and in winning a victory against overwhelming odds. He died shortly afterwards, probably from wounds. Contemporary letters speak of Murray and Wallace as joint commanders of the army of the kingdom of Scotland, and the community of the realm. There was a major setback in 1362 when the Murrays lost Bothwell Castle to the Douglases through marriage. However, in 1604 Sir John Murray of Tullibardine was created Lord Murray of Tullibardine, and then Earl of Tullibardine in 1606. William Murray, 2nd Earl, married Dorothea Stewart, daughter of Earl John of Atholl, thus merging the earldoms in 1607. The title became a marquisate then a dukedom in 1703, with the family home at Blair Castle, Blair Atholl. Lord George Murray, son of the 1st Duke, served as Lieutenant-General of Prince Charles Edward Stuart’s Jacobite army in the build-up to Culloden. The Duke of Atholl is the hereditary clan chief of Clan Murray. The current holder of the title is the 12th Duke, Bruce Murray, who is also Colonel in Chief of the Atholl Highlanders, Europe’s only remaining private army. The army has its headquarters at Blair Castle and assembles for a full parade under the Duke’s inspection each May. Other branches of the clan include the Murrays of Blackbarony, Dunerne, Ochtertyre, Abercairney and Elibank.

Wars of Independence produced “The one of the most famous members of the clan, Sir Andrew Murray. ”

www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming 

Murray or Moray

Balvaird Castle

Blair Castle

Bothwell Castle

Key Murray sites Balvaird Castle

2

Blair Castle

3

Bothwell Castle

4

Broughton House

5

Edinburgh Castle

6

Huntingtower Castle

7

Murray Isles

8

Scone Palace

9

Strome Castle

Shetland 150 miles

1

Venniehill 10

9

2

8 6 1

5 3

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland

10 7

4

Historic Houses Association

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Scott In the Middle Ages the family was an important power in the Borders, an area rife with banditry and warfare. It claims descent from the sons of a 12th century figure called Uchtred Filius Scoti. One was Richard, the founder of the Buccleuch line and the other was Michael, the ancestor of the Scotts of Balweary. But the kindred’s most famous son was the novelist Sir Walter Scott. History and Characters

Clan power was at its height in the 16th century when the Scotts’ main stronghold was at Branxholm and they could muster 600 fighting men. The Scotts were often caught up in feuding, especially with their neighbours the Kerrs. Centuries of raiding finally ended with a peace agreement in 1602. The title of Duke of Buccleuch was created in 1663 when Anne Scott, 4th Countess of Buccleuch, married James, Duke of Monmouth, illegitimate son of King Charles II. Anne was created Duchess of Buccleuch in her own right following her husband’s execution. The Buccleuch family later acquired homes at Drumlanrig, Dalkeith Palace and Bowhill. The current duke is Richard John Walter Scott, 10th Duke of Buccleuch, 12th Duke of Queensberry. He is the largest private landowner in the UK and his art collections are famous internationally. Important Figures

Sir John Scot of Scotstarvit (1585-1670) was a Privy Councillor and wrote The Staggering State of the Scots Statesmen, a damning indictment of Scotland’s nobility and politicians. He was highly influential in the publication of the first atlas of Scotland, in 1654, which relied heavily on a survey of Scotland in the 1580s-90s by mapmaker Timothy Pont. Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) was the son of an Edinburgh lawyer but spent much of his early childhood at Sandyknowe Farm, by Smailholm Tower, where he was fascinated by Border culture. An education at Edinburgh High School brought him into contact with the sons of aristocrats and political leaders who later became his patrons. He trained as a lawyer and became Sheriff-Depute of Selkirkshire, but immersed himself in literature. His first major publication was the Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border which draws on his time at Sandyknowe. Scott edited and published poems and historical documents from manuscripts throughout his career. His own original work, which included poems and 23 novels, began to earn fame with the Lay of the Last Minstrel. This was followed by Marmion, The Lady of the Lake, Rokeby and the Lord of the Isles. In 1822 he orchestrated George IV’s visit to Scotland. Scott’s final years were blighted by a recession and the threat of bankruptcy which he staved off through continued writing and sale of copyrights. Scott’s writing was hugely popular in his own day and his importance endures for many reasons, not least his championing of Scottish cultural identity.

Scotts were often caught up in “The feuding, especially with their neighbours the Kerrs. Centuries of raiding finally ended with a peace agreement in 1602.

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Scott

Scotstarvit Tower

Hermitage Castle

Smailholm Tower

Key Scott sites 1

Abbotsford House

Bowhill 2 Dryburgh Abbey

4

Hermitage Castle

5

Scotstarvit Tower

6

Smailholm Tower

Shetland 150 miles

3

5

2

1

3

6

4

Key to sites Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Stewart or Stuart The Stewarts ruled Scotland for more than 300 years and their many descendants held positions of great power throughout the country. The spelling of their surname changed to Stuart in the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots who, having been raised in France, used the French form. History and Characters

The family went to England from Brittany with Henry I and Walter fitz Alan was the first to settle in Scotland in the time of David I (1124-53). They were granted estates in Renfrewshire, Ayrshire, East Lothian and the eastern Borders. Their chief was also appointed High Steward to the crown, a post which became hereditary. Walter fitz Alan’s grandson adopted the title as the family surname. In 1315 Walter, the 6th Steward, married Marjorie, daughter of Robert the Bruce. Their son was Robert II, the first Stewart king, who reigned from 1371-90. Robert II’s younger brother, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan – known as the Wolf of Badenoch – was one of the most infamous family members. In June 1390, together with a band of ‘wyld wykkyd Helandmen’, he burned Elgin Cathedral. Bishop Bur excommunicated Alexander – which did little to discourage him from his ways. Earl Patrick Stewart, who built the Earl’s Palace in Kirkwall around 1600, achieved notoriety through mistreatment of the people of Orkney. When tales of violence, starvation and slavery at his hands reached Edinburgh, he was told to appear before the Privy Council. Indicted on seven counts of treason, he was imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle and later executed. The royal descendants of Robert II, the first four Jameses, all suffered violent deaths. James I was murdered at Perth in 1437, James II was killed by an exploding cannon at Roxburgh in 1460, James III died at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488, and James IV was killed at Flodden in 1513. Many of their descendants met tragic ends. James V died, aged 30, shortly after the Scots were defeated by the English at Solway Moss in 1542. His daughter, Mary, Queen of Scots, was executed by her cousin Elizabeth of England in 1587, by which date Mary’s only son James VI was king of Scots. He also became king of England in 1603, uniting the crowns, after Elizabeth I’s death. Charles I was executed by Cromwell in 1649 and James VII was deposed in 1689. The Stewart dynasty ended in 1714 with the death of Queen Anne although the succeeding Hanoverian kings of the United Kingdom faced Stewart uprisings for several generations. The final attempt was the Jacobite rising in 1745-6. Prince Charles Edward Stuart, known as Bonnie Prince Charlie, landed in Scotland and led an army into England but was eventually defeated at Culloden in 1746.

family went to England from “The Brittany with Henry I and Walter fitz

Alan was the first to settle in Scotland in the time of David I (1124-53).

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Stewart or Stuart

Doune Castle

Dumbarton Castle

Falkland Palace

23

Key Stewart sites 1

Balvenie Castle

2

Bishop’s & Earl’s Palaces, Kirkwall

14 2

Culloden 3 Blair Castle

5

Castle Campbell

6

Castle Sween

7

Claypotts Castle

8

Crichton Castle

9

Crookston Castle

25

10 Doune Castle 11 Dumbarton Castle 12 Dumfries House 13 Dundonald Castle 14 Earl’s Palace, Birsay 15 Edinburgh Castle 16 Falkland Palace

3

17 Hermitage Castle

1

18 Glamis Castle 19 Kildrummy Castle

19

20 Linlithgow Palace 21 Lochleven Castle 22 Lochmaben Castle 23 Noltland Castle

4

24 Rothesay Castle 25 Scalloway Castle

18

26 Stirling Castle

10 26

6

11 24

7

16

5

21 20

9

15 8

13 12

17

Key to sites

22

Historic Scotland National Trust for Scotland Historic Houses Association

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Shetland 150 miles

4

Homecoming Scotland Events In 2014 Scotland welcomes the world to join in the exciting Year of Homecoming. We will have lots of events happening across Scotland this year. These give you the chance to find out more about the lives, fashions, weapons and pastimes of your ancestors.

www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming 

The Road to Bannockburn Sat 24 & Sun 25 May, Stirling Castle

The final in our trilogy of events to mark the anniversary of the Battle of Bannockburn. There will be an opportunity to learn about the military tactics used and see combat demonstrations by re-enactors with authentic arms and armour of the period, which will help transport visitors back in time. A series of activities for young visitors will also be taking place. Spectacular Jousting Sat 5 & Sun 6 July, Linlithgow Palace

Witness the wonder of our knights battling it out in their quest to be crowned champion. In a daring display of horsemanship and skill our knights will do all they can to better their opponent. Hear the thunder of hooves and the crack of lances splintering as our knights battle it out in the arena.

Individual costumed performers and small groups of re-enactors will be at dozens of sites during the year reliving events. These intimate events are ideal for all the family and are a great opportunity to chat to the performers and share their knowledge of the characters they play and the times when they lived.

Celebration of the Centuries Sat 9 & Sun 10 Aug, Fort George

With a cast of over 250 performers visitors can enjoy colourful living history camps, watch dramatic presentations in the main arena and experience the music and dance of the 1940s. In 2014 this awardwinning event will have special emphasis on the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of WWI.

This is just a small selection of our Homecoming events for 2014, our full list of events can be found at www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/homecoming

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Contact Us Historic Scotland, Longmore House, Salisbury Place, Edinburgh EH9 1SH Tel: 0131 668 8800 Email: hs.explorer@scotland.gsi.gov.uk www.historic-scotland.gov.uk


Following in the Family Footsteps