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The National Automotive Council Establishment of the National Automotive Council

produce a National Automotive Policy. The draft policy received Presidential approval and Transitional Council


endorsement on the 30th of December 1992 and 10th of

The Automotive Industry constitutes a very potent force

August 1993 respectively and the formal launch took place

in the socio-economic development of a country. The

on the 23rd August 1993.

vital contributions made by this industry led to the rapid

The thrust of the National Automotive Policy is to ensure

transformation of the leading South East Asian economies

the survival, growth and development of the Nigerian

(South East Asian Tigers) from primary under-developed

automotive industry using local human and material

economies to world rated industrial giants, in the second

resources. This is with a view to enhancing the industry’s

half of twentieth (20th) century. This is widely recognized

contribution to the national economy, especially in the

and well documented. The industry had earlier made

areas of transportation of people and goods. The elements

significant contributions to the industrial development of

of this objective include:

developed economies. In Nigeria the auto industry dates back to the early 1960s when private sector initiatives pioneered the establishment of auto assembly plants. The pioneering efforts included those of UAC, Leventis, SCOA, BEWAC and R.T. Briscoe. In the 1970s, the Federal Government became involved in the auto industry, with the establishment of two cars and four truck assembly plants. Government involvement was based on its desire to fast-track Nigeria’s industrial development and to control the strategic sectors of the economy (the Federal Government has since made a reversal and privatized the assembly plants). The Nigerian


Provision of automotive vehicles for urban and rural areas

automotive industry performed well, assembling vehicles

2. Accelerated technological development of the Nigerian economy

with increasing local content until 1986, when its fortunes began to slide, a trend that has continued since. The auto

3. Increased employment opportunities for Nigeria

industry has continued to be undermined by a number of

4. Conservation of scarce foreign exchange

inhibiting factors, which includes – lack of basic industrial

5. Establishment of an integrated automotive industry in Nigeria

infrastructure, high cost of industrial services, erratic supply and high cost of utilities, low tariffs on imported fully built

6. Standardisation and rationalization of the Nigerian automotive industry

units as well as inconsistency in government policy. 7. The National Automotive Policy




The absence of a clear National policy for the sector was

8. Technology acquisition

identified as the cause of its inability to adjust for survival


in the face of changing economic environments. Given this




establishment of the auto industry Creating conducive operational environment through the introduction of appropriate fiscal and monetary incentives

consideration, the Government facilitated a stakeholder meeting through a Standing Technical Committee on

The National Automotive Council

National Automotive Industry (STC on NAI) in 1992, to

The National Automotive Council as a Parastatal of the

Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry was established

Governing Board Committees

by Act 84, 1993 to implement the National Automotive

The Governing Board of the Council has three standing

Policy. The functions of the Council include the following:

Committees. They are: 1. Policy, Planning and Establishment Committee

(i) R egular study and review of the automotive parts/ components development industry in Nigeria;

2. Technical Committee 3. Finance and General Purpose Committee

(ii) D eveloping a local content programme specifying which component parts are to be continuously deleted from

Structure of National Automotive Council

the imported CKD’s

The Secretariat of the Council is charged with the day-

(iii) R ecommending incentives for ensuring compliance with approved local content programmes

to- day administration of the council and is headed by the Director General. It is presently operating with

(iv) Approve and recommend new models of vehicles envisaged for the Nigeria market to ensure model rationalization (v) Inspection and other quality assurance activities

three departments namely: Administration, Finance and Accounts; Policy and Planning and Industrial Infrastructure which are headed by Directors.

in factories, ports and roads in pursuance of other Administration, Finance and Accounts

objectives specified above (vi) R egular evaluation of the pricing structure and quality

The department is responsible for providing and managing

of the products of the Assembly Plants to ensure

the human resources, handling all matters relating to

international competitiveness

appointments, promotions, discipline, training, staff welfare.

(vii) Forecast the demand and supply patterns for various

Other functions of the department include: management

types of automotive vehicles produced in Nigeria and

of funds; payment of staff salaries, allowances and other

the basic raw materials (such as sheet metal alloy and


special steel) (viii) R egular review of the penalties to be imposed for

Policy and Planning Department

non-compliance with the guidelines and programmes

The department is responsible for planning, implementation

specified by it.

and evaluation of the council’s programmes; UNIDO matters, procurement

Vision: To facilitate the production of components and





statistical data, conduct industrial and sectoral studies.

vehicles of international standard at competitive prices by Industrial Infrastructure Department

the Nigerian automotive industry.

The department is charged with the coordination and Mission: To ensure the survival, growth and integrated

implementation of policies to promote the development of

development of the Nigerian automotive industry using

local components and parts, monitoring of the local content

local human and material resources.

deletion programme of auto component, identification and classification of components and parts for standardization.

Organisational Structure Automotive Council



National Funding

The Council is made up of the Governing Board, its

The Act establishing the council provided for the

Committees and the Council Secretariat. Membership of

establishment of a fund which consists of a 2% levy on

the Governing Board is drawn from relevant agencies and

the cost, insurance and freight (CIF) value of all imported

comprises representatives of the following:

fully built units (FBU), auto components, spare parts,

i) N igerian Automotive Manufacturers Association (NAMA)

completely knocked down (CKD) and raw materials

ii) Automobile Local Content Manufacturers Association of

imported for the automotive sub-sector. The fund is meant

Nigeria (ALCMAN)

purely for the administration of the council, staff training,

iii) S tandards Organisation of Nigeria (SON)

direct intervention in the sector in form of soft loans and

iv) R aw Materials Research and Development Council

research. Collection of the levy started in November 1994


and was stopped in May 2007. Total amount in the fund

v) M anufacturers Association of Nigeria (MAN)

on the 31st December, 2009 is in excess of N15 billion

vi)N igerian Society of Engineers (NSE)

which is being managed by Bank of Industry (BOI) under

vii) T he Federal Ministry of Commerce and Industry.

the managed fund agreement whereby NAC continues to meet its budgetary requirement.

Programmes and Projects (i) NAC – Automotive Development Fund (NAC-ADF)

naira only) and Berekotry Industries Nigeria Ltd. project“

A major factor that inhibited the development of the

Production of Auto Lubricating Grease of Various Grades

sub-sector was the absence of long-term funds at

from Petroleum Oils, Hexose Cassava and Saponification

concessionary interest rates. NAC- ADF has substantially

Materials” with N 4.00 million

addressed this issue with the funding of 27 projects out of 70 applications received to date. Total disbursement as at

(iii) Local Content Development Programme

31st July, 2010 stood at N9.9 billion.

Automotive manufacturers produce about 30% of nearly 2,000 parts in a typical car, the rest they purchase from small and medium industries. This will result in huge employment opportunities and acquisition of technology. Local manufacturers have the capacity to meet the demand by both local and foreign assemblers.

Accordingly the

council: (i) H as commissioned the production of project profiles for some bicycle, motorcycle and vehicle parts (ii) D eveloped import deletion programmes for bicycles and motorcycles (iii) Is developing capacity for computer aided design (CAD), engineering (CAE) and manufacture (CAM) (iv) Is providing soft loans for the production of auto parts and components (v) Is providing research and development grant to develop auto parts and components. (iv) Establishment of an Automotive Test Centre NAC want to establish a test centre to achieve the following © Flickr/Ashley Palmero


(ii) Specialised Auto Industry Research Fund

To ensure the safety and health of Nigerians

The council supports R&D work aimed at advancing the

To develop local automotive content

frontiers of technological development in the sub-sector.

To ensure the good operation and maintenance of Nigerian vehicles

A project, “The Developent of Production Tools for the Commercial Production of 3HP Petrol engine” submitted

To obtain capability to conduct homologation tests

by Prof. A. O. A. Ibhadode, University of Benin, Benin City has been funded with N3,335,850.00 (three million, three

The feasibility study for the establishment of the test centre

hundred and thirty five thousand, eight hundred and fifty

has been concluded, and preliminary activities for its

establishment have started.

The council places premium on reliable and timely data

(v) Capacity Building in the Repairs and Maintenance of

to aid policy initiation, formulation, implementation and to

Automobiles inNigeria

assist prospective investors in their investment decisions.

The council in its efforts at capacity building in the repairs

It has therefore developed an internet based platform to

and maintenance of new generation vehicles has, in

capture data from 18 data sources including that of all

collaboration with other stakeholders carried out the

vehicles registered in Nigeria, automotive components


manufacturers, assembly plants, car dealership etc...

(i) D eveloped a curriculum and training manual for teaching automotive mechatronics in the informal sector (ii) Acquired mechatronics diagnostic equipment and tools for training Nigerian auto technicians.

Conclusions With the anticipated conclusion of the merger of the National Automotive Council (NAC) and the Centre for Automotive Design and Development (CADD) plus the long term plan for the automotive industry in 2010, the Council

(vi) Campaign for Patronage of Made in Nigeria Automotive

will develop synergy to actualize the implementation of the


National Automotive Policy. In addition, the establishment

The council has intensified the campaign for the patronage

of the Automobile Test Centre will be pursued to enable

of local automotive products to shore up capacity utilization,

complete testing of vehicle parts and promote the

local content development and employment generation.

production of globally competitive automotive products to sustain domestic demand and take advantage of export

(vii) Industrial Environment Surveys and Sector Studies


The council in its drive to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into the Nigerian auto industry concluded preliminary

The Council will continue to pursue its programmes and

work towards undertaking a national survey of consumer

projects with a view to realizing the potential gains of the

preference profile for automobiles in Nigeria. This has

automotive sector to the Nigerian economy. These include:

remained an essential request by potential investors in the Nigerian automotive industry for years.

Large scale employment generation Acquisition of technological know-how

(viii) National Automotive Data Base

Effective utilization of local raw materials and resources


Policy based Finance as a Strategic Option for funding the Nigerian Automotive Industry A Paper delivered by Luqman Mamudu, the Head of Department of Policy and Planning of the National Automative Council Abuja, Nigeria at the One Day Joint Automotive Forum by the House of Representative Committee on Industry and the National Council held in Abuja on Tuesday the 8th of December 2009.

1. Introduction

developing countries such as Nigeria to grow. A close

This paper discusses the capability of an automotive

study of the development path of emerging economies

industry to lead economic development and why and how

such as of Malaysia, South Korea, Japan, China, India,

some countries have by deliberate policy intervened in

Taiwan, Singapore clearly suggest that the automotive

their financial markets to allocate funding for the sector to

industry represent an opportunity for a developing country

realise its full potentials. The background to the discussion

to quickly diversify into more sophisticated, technically

is set by identifying the state of the Nigerian automotive

demanding activities that support higher rates of economic

industry and how funding has remained a critical challenge

growth. As argued by Dani Rodrick of Harvard University

in meeting clearly defined objectives. The paper concludes

in his draft submission: Industrial Development - Stylised

by suggesting a structure for government intervention.

Facts and Policies .

2. The Automotive Industry as an Engine of Growth

“One reason that latching on to more sophisticated

The automotive industry is widely recognised as an engine of

products have productivity frontiers that are further away

growth and development because of its potential for forward

and therefore present greater room for technological catch-

and backward linkages. The automobile is recorded to be

up. By starting to produce goods that countries much richer

made up of about 10,000 parts and components obtained

than them are currently producing, poor countries enlarge

from companies in petrochemicals, metallurgy, electronics,

the scope of productivity improvements. Convergence

textiles and so on. There is sufficient evidence to suggest

in productivity levels with rich countries becomes an

that the sector led growth and development in the advanced

important force for economic growth�

nations of the world it represents an opportunity for less


National Automotive policy


manufactured products to promote growth is that such

3. The Nigerian Automotive Industry

of assembly plants. This means that with the tools of

It was in recognition of the need to quickly diversify into

model rationalisation and standardisation, trade volume is

the production of sophisticated and technically demanding

provided for the component industry by the local assembly

activities for sustained growth that caused the federal

plant. Passenger car economics prescribes volume per

government of Nigeria to invest heavily in the basic, inter-

year of 100,000 units for a profitable assembly plant in a

mediate and end-user industries in the 1970s and 1980s.

developing economy as Nigeria. Incidentally, the two car

20 years later, however, the growth anticipated was not

assembly plants in Nigeria ( Peugeot Automobile Nigeria

forthcoming because as argued by Engr. Otis Anyaeji, the

and Volkswagen Nigeria) have a combined capacity of

pioneer Chairman of the Governing Council of National

about 100,000 which means that each on the average

Automotive Council (NAC) in his submission to the National

suffers an economic inefficiency rate of 50%. Components

Assembly on occasion of a public hearing in 2007.

of car cost are:

“Towards the end of the 1980s, it became obvious that the

Body and Body parts:


ambitious public sector efforts in various industrial sectors

Engine transmission:


were not making the desired development impact, one

Final Drive/Suspension/Steering/breaks:


of the main reason for this situation was that within the

Others (paint rubber, trim, tyres, glass etc):


industrial sector, the automotive industry in Nigeria was not



fostered to assume the central place it ought to occupy by virtue of its unique potential for forward and backward

Depending on models, it means that the impact of

linkages. It was then known that in both the developed

assembling operations can only represent 15% of total

and developing countries that had succeeded with their

value added. In the case of PAN and VWON that already

industrialisation programmes, the strategic importance of

suffers economic inefficiency due to undersizing, only

the automotive sector was such that the success of the

7.5% can be achieved. This represents a strain on their

overall industrialisation of each of those nations hinged

economic viability. As said earlier, assembly plants provide

critically on the development of their automotive industry.

trade volume for the components parts manufacturers

At about the same period, research had shown that

through model rationalisation and standardisation but

the automotive industry had become characterised by

whereas the practise in the industry in most countries that

globalisation in terms of trade, investment and corporate

have succeeded with automotive development is to have a

attitudes expressible by way of sets of standards�

few assemblers and large component manufacturers, the reverse is the case in Nigeria. Records held at the National

3.1. The Structure of the Nigeria Automotive Industry

Automotive Council (NAC) put the number of assemblers

The structure of the automotive industry is made up of

at 15 and component manufacturers at only 50. Please see

assembly and component parts production. Components

table below:

manufacturing is usually driven by the requirements

Structure/Characteristic of the Assembly/Component industries in select developing countries (1990s) No of

No of










RM split






15-20 of component turnover






10% of component turnover







20-25% of component turnover






Less than 1%







5-10% of component turnover







5-10% of component turnover


Export FBU

Export (Components)

20% of component turnover

The table clearly shows the abnormality characteristic

The attractiveness of this industry in terms of its potential

of the assembly/component industry in Nigeria. The

for contribution to the GDP can be best illustrated by a

trend usually is towards reduction in assembly and

comparison with its equivalent in terms of oil revenue.

increase in components parts manufacturing through the instrumentality of model rationalisation and parts

During this period captured by the table, Nigeria was

standardisation. In very early 1900, the United States

producing just slightly over one million barrels per day

had 2000 firms producing one or more vehicles but this

as a mono export economy. It was in realisation of the

reduced to 100 by 1920, then to 44 in 1929 and by 1976,

tremendous wealth creating capacity of the automotive

the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers Association of America

industry that the Federal Government resolved to develop

had only 11 members - the same trend of consolidation

the industry and position it for self sustained growth.

was noticed in Japan and Europe. The trend indicates an increase in efficiency and competitiveness of the industry.

Equivalent of selected Country’s Automotive Industry Turn Over in Terms of Crude Oil (1990S) Oil Prices was $`10 per Barrel.. Equivalent in Crude

Annual turnover

Equivalent in Crude Oil

(components) US$b

(Million Barrels)

South Korea








> 1.5










≥ 1.4










3.2 The National Automotive Policy

Oil. Million barrels

External sales of FBUs (US$b)

per Day

By 1990, the Automotive industry had virtually collapsed

“the survival, growth and development

in terms of capacity utilisation and the void left in the

of the national automotive industry using

market was quickly filled by massive import of pre-owned

local human and material resources‘’

FBUs. The few component manufacturers that had set up operations to supply the APs closed as existing capacity levels of surviving APs could no longer sustain meaningful

It set a target date of 2017 for a component parts deletion

level of production.

program that will guarantee 100% components parts incorporation and made provision for the creation of the

The reason for this are many and debatable but as analysed

National Automotive Council (NAC) as an institutional

in paragraph 3.1 above, the economically inefficient


structure of the industry and the absence of a specific

administration it drew membership from practitioners so

national automotive industry policy made it vulnerable to

that the process of policy intervention will be guided by

economic shocks that occasioned the structural adjustment

the outcome of continuous interaction between the private

program adopted by the government of the day. In order to

sector and government. Essentially, the Council was to

reverse the trend, government in 1993, launched a national

evolve a local content program and recommend incentive

automotive policy which had as its main thrust

measures to ensure compliance with implementation schedules.






3.3 Funding Requirement for the Nigerian Automotive Industry


At the time of policy launch in 1993, it was estimated that



(million US$)

(Thousand Units)

about $18 billion will be needed to revitalise the industry




with the aim of realising 100% local content development

Major components







by the year 2017. This figure is derived from a simple estimation based on stages of automotive production characteristic sourced from IFC data;

Moderate processed part/ System

If as earlier highlighted in paragraph 3, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and South Korea have between 500 to 1100

Rough processed Parts/Systems

Source: IFC Data

component manufacturers while Nigeria has 50 and a combined assembly capacity of about 100,000 per annum, it means that for a meaningful level of investment, Nigeria will need to invest as follows:


Least investment

Total investment

Scale (Units)

No of Firms





Processed Parts/systems





Rough processed Parts/system





Major components

levels (Million US$)


(Billion US$)


The present assembly plants fall short of prescribed

expected that industry funding will be attracted from local

economic levels of installed capacities. Recall that the

private sector, foreign direct investment, government,

optimum capacity for an assembly plant is 100,000. Yet

bilateral, and multilateral agencies. However, in order to

PAN and VWON has installed capacities of 63,000 and

fund the administration of the National Automotive Council

45,000 respectively. If the estimated cost of a 100,000

and to undertake extensive research to support industry,

units car Plant is $400,000, then both plants will require

the act establishing it made provision for a levy of 2% on

about $250m to scale up. ANAMCCO, Steyr, NTM and

CIF value of all automotive import into Nigeria. As said

Leyland will need US$600m to scale up while other

earlier in this paper, NAC was put in place as a technical

small scale assemblers like Burem, GM, FMI, SCOA and

body capable of initiating, recommending and supervising

Leventis will need support of about US$150m to upgrade

policies and programs for locally manufactured vehicles

facilities. This brings the total investment requirement to

and components.

US$20 billion but this was to be spread over a period of 24 years ending in 2017. The assembly plants will require

Other statutory source of funding include:

$1 billion frontend investment while the component sector

ff Such sums as may be provided to it by government

will require injection of a third of $18.4 billion in the first 6 yrs another third in the second 6 yrs and the rest in the

of the federation for running the affairs of the council; ff Contribution from organised private sector;

last 12 yrs. 3.5. Funding of the Nigeria Automotive Industry 3.4 Sources of Finance for the Nigerian Automotive

Overall information on funding allocated by the Nigerian


Financial market to the automotive industry is not available

Government provided the major investment fund for the

but given the N60b or US$400m plus applications

first six automobile plants in Nigeria but with the dwindling

received by NAC for funding under its NAC-Automotive

fortune of the automobile industry by 1993 when the

Development fund, and the observed reluctance of the

national automotive policy was launched, government

market to lend to the real sector, the industry’s access to

funding is constrained. The total size of NAC fund which

of Japanese parts was 60% more than the international

was accumulated from the 2% levy in 14 years but scrapped

average and the law sought to cut this to 12% by 1960

by act of government in 2007, is just barely N15 billion or

while simultaneously bringing the quality to international

US$100m. This is definitely inadequate considering the

standard. In 5 years the value of production increased from

level of funding required to establish a truly integrated

¥8.5 billion to ¥175.8 billion. By the end of the 1965 financial

automotive industry estimated to require about US$20

year prices had reduced 29.4% lower than those of 1960.

in 24 years. If Nigeria must meet its target of becoming

In monetary terms the value of production quadrupled from

one of the 20 most industrialised countries in the world by

¥206.9 billion in FY 1961 to ¥833 billion in FY 1968 with a

the year 2020, it must urgently seek alternative source of

stable currency. Between 1961 to 1963 for instance, the

funding for this industry on whose part it must tread. At this

JDB and SBFC jointly provided 50% of their financing for

point it is perhaps necessary to take a cursory look at how

specified equipment used by the auto parts industry. The

other nations of the world have engaged this challenge.

cost of loans was severally reversed during the period such that by 1965 interest rate were 7.5% for an average loan

4. Strategies Adopted by some Countries to Develop Their Automotive Industries

period of 5-6 yrs as directed by the Ministry of Finance.

Most students of development economics agree that

4.2. South Korea

some form of government intervention in the financial

South Korea on account of its small domestic market

market is necessary to allocate resources in the form of

adopted an export oriented strategy within an industrial

loans, guarantees or interest rates subsidies to sectors that

and macroeconomic policy framework. Policy oriented

they may consider winners and which the market will not

loans therefore comprised about half of credit extended

ordinarily attend to because of factors bordering on risk

by the domestic financial market. The manufacturing

return trade-off. There are however those who would prefer

sector, especially automotive, received 46% of total bank

that credit decisions are best left to properly functioning

loans. Unlike in japan were credit policies depended on

markets but evidence from developing economies that

fiscal funds, the South Koreans depended heavily on

have attained admirable heights following policy based

central bank credit and deposit mobilised by DMBs. By

financing intervention abound.

controlling financing the South Korean government was effectively a risk partner with industrialists and motivated

4.1 Japan

their risk venture and entrepreneurship. In the same token

Post world war Japan established a policy based finance

they induced the industrialists to take the longer term

system by which funds were channelled to the private

business perspective. The risk partnership arising from the

sector through Fiscal Investment and Loan Programme

South Korean government’s implicit co-insurance scheme

(FILP) and the Japanese Industrial Bank. FILP account

with banks and industry enabled Korea to establish large

was established in tandem with overall general account

internationally competitive industrial firms within a short

whereby funding is allocated to meet national policy

period of time.

objective. By 1963. FILP was approximately 8% of GNP Japan rationalised its industry and strengthened the

5. Recommended Policy Based Finance Structure for the Nigeria Automotive Industry

capital accumulation necessary for rationalisation through

Given the success story of countries that have developed

Enterprise Rationalisation Promotion Law (ERPL)-1952.

through the varying mix of policy based financing,

and 50% of general account. Between 1945 and 1960








A specific policy for fostering an infant automotive

commitment to this development strategy. I say reinforce

industry was equally put in place. In 1956 there was still

because the development history of Nigeria is replete

an imbalance between vehicle assembly plants and

with several attempts to adopt this policy as evidenced

components parts manufacture, therefore it passed the

in the establishment of institutions such as NIDB, NBCI,

law on Machine Industry Promotion law (MIPL). The law

NERFUND, NAC-ADF and some government guarantee

specified automotive parts as designated machinery and

schemes etc. The reason why they have not led to the

gave the Automotive Parts Sub- Committee the powers

expected outcome are extensive and debatable but be

to select the most important and essential parts to be

assured that most have been considered in making the

targeted. The law was aimed at lower costs and improving

following recommendation:

quality by modernising plant and equipment. The price

5.1. NAC-Automative Development Fund

Although the market may not consider non financial goals

The estimated amount required to fund a truly integrated

or social costs in allocating resources, the following factors

automotive industry in the next 24 years is $20 billion

prevents it from operating properly and they should be

or N3 thrillion but only N750 billion may be required as


seed money for the first six years. NACFUND with Bank of Industry can be expanded by this amount with specific

a) Difficult legal and judicial environment;

instruction to finance the automotive industry at a Federal

b) Incomplete regulatory environment;

Ministry of Finance determined interest rate. The fund will

c) Lack of information as there are no credible credit bureaus;

empower local entrepreneurs to meet counterpart funding requirement in forming alliances with foreign component

d) Lack






especially the dearth of experienced risk analysts;

manufacturers already active in the global automotive parts supply chain. Proceeds from this fund may eventually be

e) Inconsistent government policies;

paid back to the fedration account as the industry matures


Unstable currencies

and goes public. 6: References: 5.2. Automotive Industry Credit Guarantee Scheme


NAC Decree No 94 of 1993.

Policy based credit provided from funds generated


The NAC levy as a critical component of the

by Central Bank’s skilful use of her discount rate, and

policy based finance system for the development of Nigeria

funds generated from external borrowing can be used to

Automotive Industry by Engr. Otis Anyaeji,2007;

guarantee loans directed to the industry as may be advised


by specific development program drawn up by government.

by Antonio Vives and Kim Staking, Washington, DC 1997; 5)

‘Financial intermediation and policy based lending’ ‘Structural





5.3. The Nigerian Financial Market

comparative advantage in product space’, Hausman,

The Nigerian financial markets still remain a very significant

Ricardo and Bailey Klinger. Mimeo, Harvard University

stakeholder in the allocation of scarce resources to the real

Press, 2006.

sector including the automotive industry and it should be encouraged to do so.

Aminu Jalal Director-General National Automotive Council

Investment Opportunities Within Nigeria’s Automotive Industry The estimated annual demand for motorcycles and bicycles


is one million units of each. The country has the capacity

The automotive industry in Nigeria has tremendous

to produce these, but locally produced units average only

opportunities in the manufacture of vehicles, spare parts

20 percent in the motorcycle industry and 40 percent in

and components. This paper looks at the auto industry in

the bicycle industry. The Nigerian Government aims to

Nigeria, the potential areas of investment, the incentives

encourage the increased local content in motorcycles to

available to investors in the sub-sector and the raw

50 percent and in bicycles to 100 percent by the end of

materials and manpower situation.

2011. This requires new investment to produce the needed components and spare parts.

The Automotive Industry in Nigeria The automotive industry in Nigeria is over three decades

Investment Opportunities

old and has the capacity to produce 108,000 cars as well as 56,000 commercial vehicles, 6,000 tractors, 1.2 million

Investment opportunities in the manufacture of vehicles

motorcycles and a million bicycles annually. There are over

The high demand for used vehicles translates into a need

50 auto-component manufacturers, some of which are

for new investment in the manufacture of low cost vehicles.

original equipment manufacturers, with others supplying

A low cost utility vehicle would service the needs of the

the after-sales market. Capacity utilisation in the sub-

majority of Nigerians who live in the rural areas. There are

sector, which was 90 percent in 1981, currently stands at

facilities already in the country for the assembly of cars

only at ten percent in automotive assembly and 40 percent

and light commercial vehicles. Most of these facilities are

in components manufacture.

currently under utilized and could be used by potential entrepreneurs. There are also well established component

Demand and Supply of Vehicle and Spares

suppliers who will supply many of the auto components required.

Motor Vehicles The vehicle demand in Nigeria is about 75,000 for new

Investment opportunities in the manufacture of auto

and 100,000 for used vehicles. Over five million vehicles

components and spares

are registered in the country, the majority of which are pre-


owned and would therefore require frequent maintenance.

manufacturing and sub-assembly plants that are fed by

This translates to a heavy demand for spares and

heavy engineering industries. These include casting,

components. Other West African countries also provide a

forging, presswork, plastic moulding, heat treatment,

ready market, which is already exploited by some Nigerian

surface treatment and machining. Considering that about

component manufacturers.

70 percent of over five million vehicles plying our roads







were bought as used vehicles, there is a vast scope for Motorcycles and Bicycles

the manufacture of servicing and replacement parts. Other

areas that need investment are in the establishment of

Raw Materials

industries for making automotive components, like press

The average vehicle has up to 2,000 parts made from

shops, forge shops and precision machine shops.

steel, cast iron, alloy steel, copper, tin aluminium, wood, glass leather and plastics. The Aladja Steel Company

Investment Incentives

produces steel billets, rods and angles. The Ajaokuta Steel

In addition to the general incentives available to investors,

Company, when completed, would produce steel sheets,

there are others that are specific for the automotive

pig iron and alloy steel. The Eleme Petrochemical Complex


produces polypropylene, polyethylene, ethylene and propylene. The Aluminium Smelter Company produces

1. Import duty for ‘Complete Knock Down’ vehicle

aluminium ingots. Though some raw materials would still

assembly is 5 percent, while that for fully built units is

need to be imported, the low labour costs in the country

20 percent

enable even factories with 100 percent of imported raw

2. The Nigerian Government has mandated all its

materials to be economically viable.

ministries, agencies and parastatals to patronise the products of local automotive assembly plants


3. The National Automotive Council has established

There are many technical schools, polytechnics and

an Auto Development Fund to provide soft loans for

universities in Nigeria that produce craftsmen, technicians,

industries that will produce auto parts

technologists and engineers of the highest calibre. The

4. The automotive industry has the status of a ‘pioneer

various motor assembly plants, foundries, steel plants and

industry’, which grants a five year tax holiday anywhere

existing auto parts manufacturers have, over the years,

in the country and seven year tax holiday in any

trained many Nigerian in various aspects of engineering,

economically disadvantaged local government area

design, manufacture and management.

5. Up to 120 percent of expenses on Research and Development is tax deductible. For ‘R&D’ on local raw


materials, 140 percent is allowed







6. Industrial establishments that have in-plant training

investment opportunities in the manufacture of vehicles,

facilities enjoy a two percent tax concession for a

motorcycles and bicycles, their components and spares.

period of 5 years

This is particularly true where the federal Government

7. 20 percent of investment in infrastructure (such as roads, water and electricity) is tax deductible 8. Industries in economically disadvantaged areas would enjoy an additional 5 percent capital depreciation

needs to ensure that more components are produced locally. Nigeria also has the vast potential to become the leading vehicle manufacturing centre for the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).

allowance, over and above the initial allowance 9. Industries with high labour to capital ratios are entitled to the following concessions: Those employing 1,000

For further information contact:

people or more will enjoy a 15 percent tax concession,

The Director-General

those employing 200 or more will have a 7 percent

National Automotive Council

tax concession and those employing 100 persons or more have a 6 percent tax concession 10. Engineering industries with high ‘local value added’ will enjoy a 10 percent tax concession for 10 years

23, Parakou Crescent Off Aminu Kano Crescent, Wuse II P.M.B 320, Garki, Abuja.

11. Expenses incurred on expansion, modernisation and/ or diversification will attract allowances

Tel: +234 (0) 707 220 6911-3

12. Engineering industries using up to 60 percent local

E-mail: a

raw materials in their manufacturing process would

attract a 20 percent tax credit for five years

13. The Federal Government has recently established a bank for the industry in order to provide long-term loans to industrial projects

CREDITS Editor Sylvia Powell for Henley Media Group Ltd.

The National Automotive Council, Nigeria