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Rocky Boy powwow to celebrate culture John Paul Schmidt jpschmidt@havredailynews.com The 50th Annual Rocky Boy Celebration will have its first Grand Entry Friday, Aug. 1, at 6 p.m., and dancing will continue until Sunday. There will be three more Grand Entries after Friday’s: noon and 6 p.m. Saturday and 3 p.m. Sunday. Dustin Whitford, one of the main organizers of the powwow, said Saturday evening’s grand entry is usually and will probably be the most popular Grand Entry of the threeday event. “We are expecting a huge crowd,” Whitford said. The head dancers are all from Rocky Boy, but the male head dancer, Wesley Windy Boy, now lives in Tuba City, Arizona. The head woman dancer, Anita Top Sky will be bringing something new to the powwow this year. “She will be hosting a cowboy hat and boot special,” Whitford said. Havre Daily News/File photo A small girl in a jingle dress walks among men's fancy dancers during the Friday Grand Entry at last year's Rocky Boy Celebration powwow on Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation.

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is distinguished by its two large, colorful feather bustles on the dancer's back, and the dance has larger motions and spins not seen in other dance styles.

Men’s Grass Dance Men’s grass dance features fluid, graceful, sweeping movements. Their colorful outfits are hinged with yarn, ribbon or cloth. This dance style originated from the plains. The dancers move as if they are smoothing down the tall grass; hence, the name. There are several stories about the origin of grass dancing. Many people say that the dance started among the young men who where sent out to flatten the prairie grass to form a dance arena. Rather than just stomp down the grass, they turned the chore into a dance. It is also said that they tied bundles of sweet grass to their belts, and tried to imitate the movement of the tall prairie grass swaying in the wind. Thus, in the dance today, you can see the dancers swaying and moving in the "wind," as well as seeing motions that look like they are moving through or stomping down the grass. The grass dance outfit today is far more colorful than it has been in the past. The original bundles of grass have been replaced with ribbons, yarn or cloth strips. When dancing, the dancers try to get the entire fringe in their outfit moving constantly in the swaying motion of the prairie.

Women’s Traditional Dance In women’s traditional dance, the feet never completely leave the ground, which symbolizes women's close ties with mother earth. When Indians acquired cloth from white traders, they began to make much of their clothing from it. Many eastern woodland, plains and southwestern people make cloth shins and blouses, leggings, etc. that are elaborately decorated with ribbons and silver buttons. Ribbons are cut, folded and appliquéd to create geometric or abstract floral designs. Our people still make beautiful dresses out of buckskin. The most treasured buckskins are Indian tanned. Using traditional methods, the Indian tanning process makes the hides very white and soft as velvet. A tan color is achieved by smoking the hide. When the dress is finished, many hours of beading begins. Beading ranges from fully beaded tops — common among the Sioux — to beaded strips across the front shoulders and around the button of the dress — Southern Plains. The ladies' traditional style is actually a combination of four styles: northern buckskin, northern cloth, southern buckskin and couthern cloth. While similar in many ways, each of these styles has its own distinct style of dress and dancing. Like all dance styles, these have strong roots in customs and traditions that have been passed down for years. The outfits are based on traditional

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clothing from specific tribes, and thus there is a great deal of variation from one dancer to the next. The dancing itself also varies widely based on the tribe represented, but always focuses on the grace and dignity of the dancer. The outfit often includes fringe on a shawl or the dress itself, along with other accessories, which must move in perfect time to the song.

Women’s Fancy Dance Women's fancy dance features very elaborate footwork and lots of beadwork. In the fancy dance categories, it is very important to know all the songs to stop exactly on the last beat. The women wear hinged shawls and try to match all accessories. Ladies' fancy shawl is the newest style of ladies' dancing, and is similar in several ways to men's fancy dance. Women's fancy dance emerged in the 1950s and 1960s — and became vastly more popular over the next 20 years — among young women who were looking for a more stylistic, and energetic, dance style. The dance is light, graceful and very athletic. The dancers move much like a butterfly, and their outfits are bright and colorful to match. Particular emphasis is given to the shawl, which is worn over the shoulders and spread out along the arms like wings.

Women’s Jingle Dress Women's jingle dress dancers wear very simple but beautiful cut-cloth dresses decorated with tin cones that jingle as they move. There are several stories about the origin of the jingle dress, but they mostly agree that it was first seen in a dream and was intended as a way to heal those who were ill. As one tradition tells it, this style of dance had its beginnings in a young Chippewa woman's dream, then grew into society. Another says after a medicine man's grand-

daughter became very ill, he had a dream that showed him how to make the dress and which instructed him to have her dance in it. When the dress was made, she wore it and danced, very weakly at first, but becoming stronger as she went until she was healed. Today, jingle dance specials are sometimes requested by those with friends or relatives who are sick. The dress is made with a large number of tin lids — originally from the tops of snuff cans but now made from tin lids off chewing tobacco cans — rolled into cones and attached to the dress. Some traditions call for 365 cones, one for each day of the year. As the jingle dancer moves, her dress makes a very distinctive sound. The Chippewa Cree Events Committee adds other dance style categories as a sign of respect and hospitality to visiting tribes, styles like men's prairie chicken, men's crow belt, men's southern straight and women's elk tooth crow style.

Powwow Etiquette Etiquette for spectators and newcomers: Listen to the master of ceremonies. If you do nothing else on this list, at least do this. The benches in the arena are normally reserved for dancers. Be prepared to provide your own chairs. Ask permission to take photos or videos of individual dancers — shots of groups or the arena as a whole are usually fine. Listen to the MC for times that you should not take pictures. Always stand, if able, during social honoring songs. These will be announced by the MC. Gentlemen should also remove their hats. All pets and food should be kept outside the dance arena at all times, even between dance sessions. Only dance during intertribal songs or when you are invited to dance. Do not dance during competition. If you have a question, ask. If you are honestly interested and curious, most people will be happy to answer your questions.

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Etiquette For Dancers Listen to the master of ceremonies and, most importantly, listen to the arena director. Respect the positions of the head dancers. Don't dance before the head dancers start dancing. Seats on the benches may be reserved with a blanket. Never move or sit on someone else's blanket without permission. Be on time and ready to dance in full regalia. Dress properly in appropriate dance clothes — if you don't know what's appropriate, ask. Respect the protocol of the group sponsoring the powwow. This often includes dancing around the arena in a particular direction. Stand for all specials and other honoring songs. Certain items should only be used by those who are qualified according to the traditions of their tribe. These include war bonnets, rattles, whistles and religious items. Firearms — even nonoperational ones — lances with points and unsheathed knives should not be carried while dancing for safety reasons. If you feel you must carry one of these items, speak with the arena director ahead of time. All specials must be coordinated with the MC. You may be required to have it at a certain time or dance session. This is to benefit the entire powwow, so please be understanding. Never come to a powwow with alcohol, under the influence of drugs or intoxicated.

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Head Staff To be selected as one of the head people is a high honor. The head people are selected not only for ability, but also for personal qualities and actions.

The Head Man And Woman Dancer The head man and head woman guide and direct all the dancers throughout the powwow weekend. The other dancers wait in respect until the head man and woman dancer start each song.

The Head Singer The head singer of each drum must know all the songs to be sung. The head singer either starts the drumming/singing or selects another "lead" singer to begin the song. All other singers/drummers must wait for the signal for them to join in.

The Head Veteran The head veteran has the honor of carrying in the Indian flag at the very front of the precession of the dancers during Grand Entry. He also has the responsibility of "Retreating the Colors" at the end of each dance session.

Dancers Most dances seen at powwow today may have had different meaning in earlier days, but have evolved into the social dances of today. Although, dance style and content have changed, their importance to Indian People has not. You will see no religious

dancers at powwows today.

Men’s Traditional Dance The traditional male dancer keeps in older dance style and expresses his own individuality by combining both contemporary and traditional styles in costumes. Although dance style varies depending on the individual, tribal and/or regional ties, there are certain items of apparel, which are common among most traditional male dancers. The traditional dancers execute a very graceful and dignified dance closely resembling styles of early days. The traditional dance style — also called contemporary traditional — emerged from the Northern Plains. It is based on the same traditions as old style, but became identifiably different sometime around the mid-1900s. Traditional outfits tend to use more modern materials, more feathers and ribbons, and larger bustles than old style outfits. The dancing itself tends to involve more movement and action. The dancing often resembles two things: the movements of animals, particularly birds, found in the Northern Plains, and the movements of a warrior showing off his ability and accomplishments in battle.

Men’s Traditional Southern Straight The straight dance comes originally from the Southern Plains, and has its origins in the dances of the warrior societies of several tribes. Often called the Indian tuxedo, the straight outfit looks much more tailored than those of other dance styles. There are few feathers and no bustles, which are instead replaced with cloth and ribbon work, giving the outfit a very sleek, clean appearance. Today, many bright colors and silver go into the outfit, providing the flash that is found in other outfits. Straight dancing tends to be smoother and involves less motion than other dance styles. It reflects the older, experienced warrior moving with the grace

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The cowboy hat and boot special has not been performed at the Rocky Boy powwow previously. In this style, dancers will be wearing western attire with their beaded regalia and will dance with ropes and lassos, Whitford said. “It’s a crowd pleaser,” he added. Top Sky is slated to perform her special dance at Saturday’s evening dance, and Windy Boy will be performing a special dance for the event as well. Whitford said the powwow committee usually reserved Saturday evening for the head dancers to perform their specials. “When you pick a head dancer, their job is to be the first one on the dance floor and the last one off,” Whitford said.

■ Continued from page 9 After the sixth verse, the honored veteran will pick the feather up with his left hand and give a war whoop to acknowledge the capture of the spirit of the feather. The veteran then returns the Eagle feather to its owner and the owner give him a gift in appreciation of the services that the veteran has performed for him.

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Prairie chicken dance is Friday

Havre Daily News/File photo Men's prairie chicken dancers line up for the Grand Entry during the 2013 Rocky Boy Celebration powwow at the powwow grounds on Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation. and ease of long practice as he surveys everything around him and sees that it is good.

Men’s Fancy Dance Men’s fancy dance is a modern-style dance that has its roots in old grass dance. This exuberant style of dance is fast paced and features elaborate footwork and high jumps. Fancy dancers wear sheep or sleigh bells to help maintain the rhythm of the dance and two feather bustles worn on the neck and back. These were at one time made of eagle feathers. Today, many are made of white and dark eagle feathers decorated with small colorful

feathers called hackles. Men's fancy dance has its origins in the old Wild West shows of Buffalo Bill Cody and others. The managers of these shows felt that the dancing being done by the Indians in their shows was not interesting enough to hold the attention of the spectators, so they had the dancers create more colorful outfits and dance faster and with more motions. Since then, fancy dance has grown considerably, in large part with the help of contest powwows. The dance has become more and more colorful and faster over the years, with larger bustles, the additional of ribbons and, of course, all manner of dance steps intended to outdo all other dancers. The fancy outfit

After the Friday grand entry, the prairie chicken dance special is scheduled to begin. The prize for best prairie chicken dancer will be $4,000. As of July 22, there was not an exact schedule of when each category of the powwow will happen. Whitford said that he is hoping that the powwow will be bigger than last year’s. He said he has received more calls from competitors and vendor requests than last year, so he is hopeful. The vendors of the powwow will be mostly selling Native American art and food. “We have to kind of pick and choose,” Whitford said. “Being that it’s a Native event, we would like to promote Native artists and cooking. There’s so many people who want to come sell their crafts and food.  “ Whitford said the powwow committee is pushing to have solely Native booths at the fair, but if they do not fill up all  the vendor slots, they will allow others to take the places. Throughout the powwow, drum groups

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will be singing and playing their drums. This year, the powwow is bringing in big names in the drum circle world. The host drum is Young Spirit from Alberta, Canada, and Whitford said “they get a really good response from the crowd.” He added that there are a lot of requests for them to take part in powwows due to their abilities, and they will be a highlight at the powwow this year.

National champion drummers

Drum Group Feather Tail, which has won the drum competition at Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque four times, will also be at the powwow. “We’re lucky they accepted the job and we get to have them,” Whitford said. The judges, or tabulators, of the powwow dancers are from C & P Tabulations, a company from Saskatchewan that specializes in judging powwows. “Normally, a powwow committee has to get a few people together to tackle the tabs,” Whitford said. C & P Tabulations use computers to scan barcodes on the competitors’ numbers to keep track of them and judged the powwow last year as well. Whitford said they are very transparent and professional. A special guest will be attending the powwow in addition to the politicians that come e v e r y y e a r. T h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Saskatchewan Metis, a tribe recognized by Canada and to which the Chippewa Cree was ancestral ties, will be attending. The powwow is often visited by Montana state representatives, senators, congressmen and others as well. Whitford said the powwow should be a joyous and fun event for visitors. “We’re not all gloom and doom here on the reservation,” he said. “It’s a great event. Everything that happens here, we still have to move on with our culture and our language. We have to have this powwow.”

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Rocky Boy Celebration schedule of events Monday, July 28: 9 a.m. — Rodeo School — calf roping, team roping, steer wrestling — Sybil SangreyColliflower Memorial Arena (may change due to scheduling) Tuesday, July 29: 9 a.m. — Rodeo School — calf roping, team roping, steer wrestling — Sybil SangreyColliflower Memorial Arena (may change due to scheduling) Wednesday, July 28: Powwow preparation and setup, no events scheduled Thursday, July 31: 8 a.m. — Team Redskins three-on-three youth basketball jamboree — Stone Child College 9 a.m. — Rodeo School — bareback and saddle bronc — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena TBA — Youth Powwow — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 4 p.m. — 2014 CCRA Youth Rodeo — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena. Friday, Aug. 1 9 a.m. — Sobriety Walk — Agency to Powwow Grounds. 11 a.m. — Ultimate Warrior Challenge — Bonneau Dam 1 p.m. — 2014 Mary LaMere Memorial Tie-Down Roping — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 6 p.m. — 2014 CCRA INFR Tour Rodeo, first PERF — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 6 p.m. — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds Saturday, Aug. 2 8 a.m. — The Memorial, a four-man golf tournament — Signal Point Golf Course, Fort Benton Noon — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds 6 p.m. — 2014 CCRA INFR Tour Rodeo, second PERF — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 6 p.m. — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds Sunday, Aug. 2 1 p.m. — 2014 INFR Tour Rodeo, Championship Round — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 3 p.m. — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds

Men’s Southern Straight 18-59

Teen girls 13-17 and Junior girls 7-12: Traditional Jingle Fancy

Women’s Crow Style 18-59

Tiny tots 6 and under

Senior Men’s 35-54 and Junior Men’s 18-34: Traditional Grass Fancy Prairie Chicken

Specials throughout the powwow are: $4,000 Men’s Prairie Chicken Dance Special 18 and over Head Woman’s Dance Special Head Man’s Dance Special Outgoing Jr. Princess Special: Jr. Girl’s Fancy Teen girls’ and women’s fancy Feed and Giveaway at the Whitford Camp Men’s Fancy Feather Dance North vs. South Honoring the Past 50 Years of Powwow (category to be announced) Men’s Prairie Chicken Dance Honoring Dancers from Canada and USA $1,000 Mother/Daughter Special Other specials to be announced

The dance categories this year are:

Golden Age Men age 55 and older Golden Age Women age 55 and older

Senior Women’s 35-54 and Junior Women’s 18-34: Traditional Buckskin Traditional Cloth Jingle Fancy Teen boys 13-17 and Junior boys 7-12: Traditional Grass Fancy Prairie Chicken

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2014 CCRA Rodeo set at Rocky Boy Pam Burke community@havredailynews.com While the Rocky Boy powwow celebrates Native American culture during the first weekend in August, another area tradition will see a great deal of action that weekend, as well as the week leading up, too: Rodeo. T h e 2 01 4 C h i p p ewa C re e Ro d e o Association INFR Tour Rodeo is set for Friday through Sunday, Aug. 1-3. The event starts at 6 p.m. Friday and Saturday, with slack at 9 a.m. Saturday. The top 10 competitors in each event will come back for the short-go on Championship Sunday starting at 1 p.m. with a special grand entry that will include Native dancers, said Dustin White, lead organizer of the event.

All the action will take place at the Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena about 3 miles east of Box Elder. The route will be marked with signs. “The CCRA INFR Tour Rodeo that we put on is typically one of the biggest tour rodeos in the circuit that they have across the country,” said White. “Back in 2008-2009 we were tour rodeo of the year for the INFR. The last couple of years Polson has gotten that, so we would like to try to get that title back. Starting this year we’re rebuilding the rodeo back up to be one of the best in the country. “We’re looking forward to a lot of events and it should be a fun time for people to come and enjoy. You’re going to see some of the top cowboys and cowgirls in the country,” he said. In years past, the rodeo has had contes-

tants who have gone on to the Wrangler National Finals Rodeo, as well as state championships, and could see that again this year, White added. White said 250 to 350 competitors from the U.S. and Canada will be on hand vying for money in rough stock, roping and timed events. Competitors will also earn points toward qualifying for the Indian National Finals Rodeo which will take place in Las Vegas Nov. 4-8.

Additional action Along with the standard lineup of competition, the rodeo will include the 2014 Mary LaMere Memorial Tie-down Roping with a $2,000-added purse. LaMere, who passed away unexpectedly three years ago, was the mother of rodeo competitors Eric P. Watson and Marty Watson.  The LaMere family has been hosting this annual memorial event to encourage youth and adults to engage in rodeo activities that promote physical fitness, family values and cultural traditions, White said in an email.   The event — which is open to all ropers — begins at 1 p.m. Friday, but registration begins at noon at the arena. White said he and the other rodeo organizers are working to get other sponsored competitions The 2014 Bear Paw Youth Rodeo will be Thursday, July 31, with registration at 4 p.m. and the event starting at 5 p.m. This rodeo is open to competitors from ages 5 to 17 in a variety of events from barrel racing to sheep and steer riding, poles and junior bull riding. The primary sponsor for the CCRA Rodeo

this year, along with other rodeo activities, is the Washington Redskins Original Americans Foundation, White said. “We’re pretty honored to be sponsored by the Washington Redskins Original Americans Foundation,” said White, adding that they have been a big support with the rodeo, schools and Team Redskins. The foundation sponsors a team of 33 Native American cowboys — 18 adults and 15 youth primarily from Rocky Boy — called Team Redskins who will compete at 13 Indian rodeos by the end of summer, said White. The foundation is also helping to sponsor a series of rodeo schools prior to the Youth Rodeo and the CCRA Rodeo. These schools are open to everyone, youth to adults, at a cost of only $50. They are being held at the Sybil SangreyColliflower Memorial Arena, and interested people can call 395-5439 to register, White said. A team roping, steer wrestling and calf roping school was held Monday and Tuesday, July 28-29. The lead instructor for the school was Nolan Conway of Browning who is ranked in the top 10 for the INFR in all three disciplines. A bareback and saddle bronc school is slated for Thursday, July 31, with Buck Lunak and Jesse Colliflower instructing. Lunak is No. 2 in the INFR rankings in bareback, and Colliflower, the current INFR saddle bronc champion, is No. 3 in this year’s standings. To register for the schools, people can call 395-5439. And for more information on any of the rodeos, people can call 395-4478 during office hours.

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their outfits — the term costumes is seen by some as derogatory — and their dance steps letting them who watch know whom they are and what they can do. This may vary from tribe to tribe or powwow to powwow. When the grand entry song ends, there is a flag song, an equivalent of the national anthem. Then there is an invocation blessing the gathering. After the eagle staff — always positioned above the American Flag to signify the first nation — is tied to the pole in the center of the arbor or brought to the announcers’ stand. A welcome is extended. and then there may be a few words by various dignitaries. When this portion of the ceremony is completed the dancing can begin.

Songs The flag song is the Indian equivalent of the national anthem. In recent years, nearly every tribe has composed a flag song, dedicated to the men and women who have served in the armed forces in various wars. There is no dancing to this song, but all stand in respect. Certain women may traditional dance in place for their father, brother, or son who is or was a combat veteran. The flag song is sung at the beginning of most Indian activities. The honor songs are special songs dedicated to honor a particular person or persons. It is customary to stand in silence to show respect when an honor song is sung. The give-away song is one way of honoring certain individuals or groups among Indian people. Here the gesture is more important than the value of the gift. It is an honor to give and it usually takes great preparation.

The Eagle Feather If the eagle feather is dropped during a powwow everything comes to a halt until the feather is honored. Eagle feathers are treasured and precious to Indian people. Historically and traditionally, it is the right

Havre Daily News/File photo A line of women's traditional dancers lines up during last year's Grand Entry at Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation powwow grounds. of any wounded warrior to retrieve a fallen eagle feather. The eagle feather is the spirit of a fallen warrior and can only be matched in power by the same. Recording and photographing such a ceremony is strictly forbidden. Those tribes that adhere to strict traditions and customs will allow only wounded veterans to carry and retrieve the spirit of the father. The powwow of today uses four veterans, represent-

ing the four cardinal directions to dance around the feather. The first two verses are straight verses with no down beat, paying respect to the Creator and the spirit of the fallen warrior. The next four verses will have the dancers charge the feather on the downbeat. The downbeat represents the cannon and gunfire in any song, so in the case of this ceremony, the veterans are charging the

gunfire of the enemy. Each will charge with his right hand extended to touch or take coup. Those who have not taken coup will use an eagle feather fan, because they are not strong enough to touch the spirit. Again, this is very important to follow, because of the grave consequences to be paid if one insults the spirit.

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A guide to the Rocky Boy powwow The history, the dances and powwow etiquette (Presented with information courtesy of the Chippewa Cree Tribe.) The Rocky Boy Celebration powwow again will bring crowds from around the continent to Hill County this year in a massive celebration of Native American heritage. The origin of the word powwow comes from a mispronunciation of the Algonquian word that referred to a gathering of medicine men and spiritual leaders. The term became used for any sort of large gathering of Native Americans, including celebrations that many tribes held for successful hunts or harvest, weddings, or any other purpose. For many years, even into the 1920s, many such gatherings were frowned upon or even banned by the government. At the same time, there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Native American culture and heritage. As a result, many tribal customs for specific ceremonies or gatherings were lost, and many tribes decreased dramatically in size. Thus, in the 1930s and 1940s, when gatherings were once again tolerated, many tribes began to share their customs with each other and to open up their gatherings to members of other tribes in order to preserve the culture. The end of World War II is seen by many as a turning point, when many Indians returned as veterans and heroes. The civil rights movements of the 1960s also served to help rebuild a sense of identity and pride. It was around this time that the powwow took on its modern form, and most of the dance styles were established as distinct categories. Powwows have grown considerably in number and popularity since that time, and can be found in all parts of the United States and Canada — and often in other countries as well — every weekend of the year.

The powwow today The modern-day powwow can be traced to the grass dance societies that formed around the turn of the last century. The

Havre Daily News/File photo A group of Rocky Boy drummers play during a Saturday Grand Entry at the 2013 Rocky Boy Celebration powwow. grass dance is known by many different names among the various tribes and has an interesting history. It can be traced back to the war dances and victory celebrations of an earlier era. Originally only experienced warriors could belong to the grass dance societies. Throughout the years, the powwow has evolved into a tradition exemplifying generosity and giving, as we come into the circle with honor and respect for each other and the drum. Powwow time gives us a chance to reflect on who we are as Indian people and to celebrate our rich heritage. Powwow singers are held in high regard by our people as the keepers of our songs. We are grateful that our young people continue to learn the old songs. As different tribes gathered together, the use of vocables —

words that are a combination of certain sounds without regard to meaning — evolved so singers could share songs. Today, some songs are sung completely in vocables. Yet these songs, like songs with words, still hold significant meaning to those who know them. Songs are still being composed today. Songs still exist from pre-colonial times as well as recent wars. War, bravery, love and friendship are a few favorite themes.

The Grand Entry Although powwows may differ, depending on the location of type, the following is a system used by many powwows throughout the plains area. Many powwows use the following format:

First the eagle staff is carried into the circle, followed by the American, Canadian, Montana and tribal flags. The titleholders from tribal pageants and — if present — Miss Indian America candidates. Other invited dignitaries are next, followed by the men traditional dancers first, then grass dancers and fancy dancers. Women come next, followed by traditional dancers, fancy shawl and jingle dress dancers. Next are the teen boys, then girls and then junior boys and girls in the same order as the adults. The last to enter are the tiny tot boys and girls. The dancers dance sun wise, or clockwise, around the arbor, showing the audience that they are ready to begin showing

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Rocky Boy celebration brings economic celebration Tim Leeds tleeds@havredailynews.com The annual powwow at Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation brings more celebration than just the traditional activities south of Havre — local businesses also celebrate the people it brings who stay, shop and visit in Havre and the area, with many becoming repeat customers. Debbie Vandeberg, executive director of the Havre Area Chamber of Commerce, said the impact is obvious. “With so many out-of-area and out-ofstate participants coming to Rocky Boy to partake in the event, businesses from motels to gas station, the retail businesses, notice the uptick in traffic,” she said, adding, “The powwow continues to share the rich culture and traditions of all Native Americans for both visitors and residents to enjoy.” The annual event at Rocky Boy is one of the top-rated powwows each year, with organizers saying tens of thousands of people are expected to attend. The people come from coast to coast and from north of the Canadian border to participate in the competitions and ceremonies at the event. It is a top draw for participants, but also for people who just want to watch and enjoy the hospitality. The annual event gives local residents and visitors a chance to see Native American cultural events ranging from dancers in full traditional regalia and drum groups performing to the stick game, where teams try to outguess each other as to where markers are being held, along with eating locally cooked food, enjoying a high level of hospitality and other offerings. Part of the draw is other events such as the youth powwow, youth rodeo and all-Indian rodeo held in conjunction with the annual Rocky Boy powwow.

The Indian National Finals Rodeosanctioned rodeo is expected to have an even bigger draw this year, with the spons o rs h i p o f t h e Wa s h i n g to n Re d s k i n s National Football League franchise’s foundation. And the draw of the event quickly spills out past the borders of the reservation. Some hotels start seeing reservations months — even a year — in advance, again from locations as far away as the southern border states, the East Coast, the West Coast and Canada. Hotels, restaurants and stores in the region see the impact, with representatives of businesses ranging from major chains like Kmart, Walmart and Big R to familyowned local businesses saying they see an increase in traffic and sales. Business owners report they might see an increase of 10 percent to 15 percent or more in business during the powwow. Hotels see people from across the nation and from Canada staying during the event, and restaurants also report people eating in local restaurants, as well as enjoying the food out at Rocky Boy. Ruby Christian, general manager of AmericInn, said the Rocky Boy powwow is the biggest event of the year for that hotel. People checking out at the end of the powwow sometimes reserve rooms for the next year, she said. “We don’t have any other event like that … ,” Christian said. “It definitely makes an impact.” The event fills up hotels across the region, she said. She said the AmericInn has guests for the powwow from Canada to New Mexico, and often has repeat customers the hotel staff members get to know over time. They often come back for other reasons as well, including to attend other powwows and to visit family. Scott Young of Norman’s Ranch and

Havre Daily News/File photo A vendor has signs for indian tacos, fried chicken, funnel cake and more during Rocky Boy's Annual Celebration at the powwow ground on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation. Sportswear said his store sees people come in every year, shopping and buying clothes and boots and more, and just visiting. He sees people “from Florida all the way on” every year, Young said. “A lot of it, I think, is it’s just kind of a meeting place for them. They come in and they visit and visit, which is great, we love

to have them,” he said. And, he said, it has made friends for him from across the country with people coming back year after year. It is an interesting experience, he added. “It’s great to have them in and to see everybody again that time of year,” Young said.

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A guide to the Rocky Boy powwow The history, the dances and powwow etiquette (Presented with information courtesy of the Chippewa Cree Tribe.) The Rocky Boy Celebration powwow again will bring crowds from around the continent to Hill County this year in a massive celebration of Native American heritage. The origin of the word powwow comes from a mispronunciation of the Algonquian word that referred to a gathering of medicine men and spiritual leaders. The term became used for any sort of large gathering of Native Americans, including celebrations that many tribes held for successful hunts or harvest, weddings, or any other purpose. For many years, even into the 1920s, many such gatherings were frowned upon or even banned by the government. At the same time, there was a concerted effort to remove all traces of Native American culture and heritage. As a result, many tribal customs for specific ceremonies or gatherings were lost, and many tribes decreased dramatically in size. Thus, in the 1930s and 1940s, when gatherings were once again tolerated, many tribes began to share their customs with each other and to open up their gatherings to members of other tribes in order to preserve the culture. The end of World War II is seen by many as a turning point, when many Indians returned as veterans and heroes. The civil rights movements of the 1960s also served to help rebuild a sense of identity and pride. It was around this time that the powwow took on its modern form, and most of the dance styles were established as distinct categories. Powwows have grown considerably in number and popularity since that time, and can be found in all parts of the United States and Canada — and often in other countries as well — every weekend of the year.

The powwow today The modern-day powwow can be traced to the grass dance societies that formed around the turn of the last century. The

Havre Daily News/File photo A group of Rocky Boy drummers play during a Saturday Grand Entry at the 2013 Rocky Boy Celebration powwow. grass dance is known by many different names among the various tribes and has an interesting history. It can be traced back to the war dances and victory celebrations of an earlier era. Originally only experienced warriors could belong to the grass dance societies. Throughout the years, the powwow has evolved into a tradition exemplifying generosity and giving, as we come into the circle with honor and respect for each other and the drum. Powwow time gives us a chance to reflect on who we are as Indian people and to celebrate our rich heritage. Powwow singers are held in high regard by our people as the keepers of our songs. We are grateful that our young people continue to learn the old songs. As different tribes gathered together, the use of vocables —

words that are a combination of certain sounds without regard to meaning — evolved so singers could share songs. Today, some songs are sung completely in vocables. Yet these songs, like songs with words, still hold significant meaning to those who know them. Songs are still being composed today. Songs still exist from pre-colonial times as well as recent wars. War, bravery, love and friendship are a few favorite themes.

The Grand Entry Although powwows may differ, depending on the location of type, the following is a system used by many powwows throughout the plains area. Many powwows use the following format:

First the eagle staff is carried into the circle, followed by the American, Canadian, Montana and tribal flags. The titleholders from tribal pageants and — if present — Miss Indian America candidates. Other invited dignitaries are next, followed by the men traditional dancers first, then grass dancers and fancy dancers. Women come next, followed by traditional dancers, fancy shawl and jingle dress dancers. Next are the teen boys, then girls and then junior boys and girls in the same order as the adults. The last to enter are the tiny tot boys and girls. The dancers dance sun wise, or clockwise, around the arbor, showing the audience that they are ready to begin showing

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Rocky Boy celebration brings economic celebration Tim Leeds tleeds@havredailynews.com The annual powwow at Rocky Boy’s Indian Reservation brings more celebration than just the traditional activities south of Havre — local businesses also celebrate the people it brings who stay, shop and visit in Havre and the area, with many becoming repeat customers. Debbie Vandeberg, executive director of the Havre Area Chamber of Commerce, said the impact is obvious. “With so many out-of-area and out-ofstate participants coming to Rocky Boy to partake in the event, businesses from motels to gas station, the retail businesses, notice the uptick in traffic,” she said, adding, “The powwow continues to share the rich culture and traditions of all Native Americans for both visitors and residents to enjoy.” The annual event at Rocky Boy is one of the top-rated powwows each year, with organizers saying tens of thousands of people are expected to attend. The people come from coast to coast and from north of the Canadian border to participate in the competitions and ceremonies at the event. It is a top draw for participants, but also for people who just want to watch and enjoy the hospitality. The annual event gives local residents and visitors a chance to see Native American cultural events ranging from dancers in full traditional regalia and drum groups performing to the stick game, where teams try to outguess each other as to where markers are being held, along with eating locally cooked food, enjoying a high level of hospitality and other offerings. Part of the draw is other events such as the youth powwow, youth rodeo and all-Indian rodeo held in conjunction with the annual Rocky Boy powwow.

The Indian National Finals Rodeosanctioned rodeo is expected to have an even bigger draw this year, with the spons o rs h i p o f t h e Wa s h i n g to n Re d s k i n s National Football League franchise’s foundation. And the draw of the event quickly spills out past the borders of the reservation. Some hotels start seeing reservations months — even a year — in advance, again from locations as far away as the southern border states, the East Coast, the West Coast and Canada. Hotels, restaurants and stores in the region see the impact, with representatives of businesses ranging from major chains like Kmart, Walmart and Big R to familyowned local businesses saying they see an increase in traffic and sales. Business owners report they might see an increase of 10 percent to 15 percent or more in business during the powwow. Hotels see people from across the nation and from Canada staying during the event, and restaurants also report people eating in local restaurants, as well as enjoying the food out at Rocky Boy. Ruby Christian, general manager of AmericInn, said the Rocky Boy powwow is the biggest event of the year for that hotel. People checking out at the end of the powwow sometimes reserve rooms for the next year, she said. “We don’t have any other event like that … ,” Christian said. “It definitely makes an impact.” The event fills up hotels across the region, she said. She said the AmericInn has guests for the powwow from Canada to New Mexico, and often has repeat customers the hotel staff members get to know over time. They often come back for other reasons as well, including to attend other powwows and to visit family. Scott Young of Norman’s Ranch and

Havre Daily News/File photo A vendor has signs for indian tacos, fried chicken, funnel cake and more during Rocky Boy's Annual Celebration at the powwow ground on the Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation. Sportswear said his store sees people come in every year, shopping and buying clothes and boots and more, and just visiting. He sees people “from Florida all the way on” every year, Young said. “A lot of it, I think, is it’s just kind of a meeting place for them. They come in and they visit and visit, which is great, we love

to have them,” he said. And, he said, it has made friends for him from across the country with people coming back year after year. It is an interesting experience, he added. “It’s great to have them in and to see everybody again that time of year,” Young said.

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2014 CCRA Rodeo set at Rocky Boy Pam Burke community@havredailynews.com While the Rocky Boy powwow celebrates Native American culture during the first weekend in August, another area tradition will see a great deal of action that weekend, as well as the week leading up, too: Rodeo. T h e 2 01 4 C h i p p ewa C re e Ro d e o Association INFR Tour Rodeo is set for Friday through Sunday, Aug. 1-3. The event starts at 6 p.m. Friday and Saturday, with slack at 9 a.m. Saturday. The top 10 competitors in each event will come back for the short-go on Championship Sunday starting at 1 p.m. with a special grand entry that will include Native dancers, said Dustin White, lead organizer of the event.

All the action will take place at the Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena about 3 miles east of Box Elder. The route will be marked with signs. “The CCRA INFR Tour Rodeo that we put on is typically one of the biggest tour rodeos in the circuit that they have across the country,” said White. “Back in 2008-2009 we were tour rodeo of the year for the INFR. The last couple of years Polson has gotten that, so we would like to try to get that title back. Starting this year we’re rebuilding the rodeo back up to be one of the best in the country. “We’re looking forward to a lot of events and it should be a fun time for people to come and enjoy. You’re going to see some of the top cowboys and cowgirls in the country,” he said. In years past, the rodeo has had contes-

tants who have gone on to the Wrangler National Finals Rodeo, as well as state championships, and could see that again this year, White added. White said 250 to 350 competitors from the U.S. and Canada will be on hand vying for money in rough stock, roping and timed events. Competitors will also earn points toward qualifying for the Indian National Finals Rodeo which will take place in Las Vegas Nov. 4-8.

Additional action Along with the standard lineup of competition, the rodeo will include the 2014 Mary LaMere Memorial Tie-down Roping with a $2,000-added purse. LaMere, who passed away unexpectedly three years ago, was the mother of rodeo competitors Eric P. Watson and Marty Watson.  The LaMere family has been hosting this annual memorial event to encourage youth and adults to engage in rodeo activities that promote physical fitness, family values and cultural traditions, White said in an email.   The event — which is open to all ropers — begins at 1 p.m. Friday, but registration begins at noon at the arena. White said he and the other rodeo organizers are working to get other sponsored competitions The 2014 Bear Paw Youth Rodeo will be Thursday, July 31, with registration at 4 p.m. and the event starting at 5 p.m. This rodeo is open to competitors from ages 5 to 17 in a variety of events from barrel racing to sheep and steer riding, poles and junior bull riding. The primary sponsor for the CCRA Rodeo

this year, along with other rodeo activities, is the Washington Redskins Original Americans Foundation, White said. “We’re pretty honored to be sponsored by the Washington Redskins Original Americans Foundation,” said White, adding that they have been a big support with the rodeo, schools and Team Redskins. The foundation sponsors a team of 33 Native American cowboys — 18 adults and 15 youth primarily from Rocky Boy — called Team Redskins who will compete at 13 Indian rodeos by the end of summer, said White. The foundation is also helping to sponsor a series of rodeo schools prior to the Youth Rodeo and the CCRA Rodeo. These schools are open to everyone, youth to adults, at a cost of only $50. They are being held at the Sybil SangreyColliflower Memorial Arena, and interested people can call 395-5439 to register, White said. A team roping, steer wrestling and calf roping school was held Monday and Tuesday, July 28-29. The lead instructor for the school was Nolan Conway of Browning who is ranked in the top 10 for the INFR in all three disciplines. A bareback and saddle bronc school is slated for Thursday, July 31, with Buck Lunak and Jesse Colliflower instructing. Lunak is No. 2 in the INFR rankings in bareback, and Colliflower, the current INFR saddle bronc champion, is No. 3 in this year’s standings. To register for the schools, people can call 395-5439. And for more information on any of the rodeos, people can call 395-4478 during office hours.

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their outfits — the term costumes is seen by some as derogatory — and their dance steps letting them who watch know whom they are and what they can do. This may vary from tribe to tribe or powwow to powwow. When the grand entry song ends, there is a flag song, an equivalent of the national anthem. Then there is an invocation blessing the gathering. After the eagle staff — always positioned above the American Flag to signify the first nation — is tied to the pole in the center of the arbor or brought to the announcers’ stand. A welcome is extended. and then there may be a few words by various dignitaries. When this portion of the ceremony is completed the dancing can begin.

Songs The flag song is the Indian equivalent of the national anthem. In recent years, nearly every tribe has composed a flag song, dedicated to the men and women who have served in the armed forces in various wars. There is no dancing to this song, but all stand in respect. Certain women may traditional dance in place for their father, brother, or son who is or was a combat veteran. The flag song is sung at the beginning of most Indian activities. The honor songs are special songs dedicated to honor a particular person or persons. It is customary to stand in silence to show respect when an honor song is sung. The give-away song is one way of honoring certain individuals or groups among Indian people. Here the gesture is more important than the value of the gift. It is an honor to give and it usually takes great preparation.

The Eagle Feather If the eagle feather is dropped during a powwow everything comes to a halt until the feather is honored. Eagle feathers are treasured and precious to Indian people. Historically and traditionally, it is the right

Havre Daily News/File photo A line of women's traditional dancers lines up during last year's Grand Entry at Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation powwow grounds. of any wounded warrior to retrieve a fallen eagle feather. The eagle feather is the spirit of a fallen warrior and can only be matched in power by the same. Recording and photographing such a ceremony is strictly forbidden. Those tribes that adhere to strict traditions and customs will allow only wounded veterans to carry and retrieve the spirit of the father. The powwow of today uses four veterans, represent-

ing the four cardinal directions to dance around the feather. The first two verses are straight verses with no down beat, paying respect to the Creator and the spirit of the fallen warrior. The next four verses will have the dancers charge the feather on the downbeat. The downbeat represents the cannon and gunfire in any song, so in the case of this ceremony, the veterans are charging the

gunfire of the enemy. Each will charge with his right hand extended to touch or take coup. Those who have not taken coup will use an eagle feather fan, because they are not strong enough to touch the spirit. Again, this is very important to follow, because of the grave consequences to be paid if one insults the spirit.

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Head Staff To be selected as one of the head people is a high honor. The head people are selected not only for ability, but also for personal qualities and actions.

The Head Man And Woman Dancer The head man and head woman guide and direct all the dancers throughout the powwow weekend. The other dancers wait in respect until the head man and woman dancer start each song.

The Head Singer The head singer of each drum must know all the songs to be sung. The head singer either starts the drumming/singing or selects another "lead" singer to begin the song. All other singers/drummers must wait for the signal for them to join in.

The Head Veteran The head veteran has the honor of carrying in the Indian flag at the very front of the precession of the dancers during Grand Entry. He also has the responsibility of "Retreating the Colors" at the end of each dance session.

Dancers Most dances seen at powwow today may have had different meaning in earlier days, but have evolved into the social dances of today. Although, dance style and content have changed, their importance to Indian People has not. You will see no religious

dancers at powwows today.

Men’s Traditional Dance The traditional male dancer keeps in older dance style and expresses his own individuality by combining both contemporary and traditional styles in costumes. Although dance style varies depending on the individual, tribal and/or regional ties, there are certain items of apparel, which are common among most traditional male dancers. The traditional dancers execute a very graceful and dignified dance closely resembling styles of early days. The traditional dance style — also called contemporary traditional — emerged from the Northern Plains. It is based on the same traditions as old style, but became identifiably different sometime around the mid-1900s. Traditional outfits tend to use more modern materials, more feathers and ribbons, and larger bustles than old style outfits. The dancing itself tends to involve more movement and action. The dancing often resembles two things: the movements of animals, particularly birds, found in the Northern Plains, and the movements of a warrior showing off his ability and accomplishments in battle.

Men’s Traditional Southern Straight The straight dance comes originally from the Southern Plains, and has its origins in the dances of the warrior societies of several tribes. Often called the Indian tuxedo, the straight outfit looks much more tailored than those of other dance styles. There are few feathers and no bustles, which are instead replaced with cloth and ribbon work, giving the outfit a very sleek, clean appearance. Today, many bright colors and silver go into the outfit, providing the flash that is found in other outfits. Straight dancing tends to be smoother and involves less motion than other dance styles. It reflects the older, experienced warrior moving with the grace

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The cowboy hat and boot special has not been performed at the Rocky Boy powwow previously. In this style, dancers will be wearing western attire with their beaded regalia and will dance with ropes and lassos, Whitford said. “It’s a crowd pleaser,” he added. Top Sky is slated to perform her special dance at Saturday’s evening dance, and Windy Boy will be performing a special dance for the event as well. Whitford said the powwow committee usually reserved Saturday evening for the head dancers to perform their specials. “When you pick a head dancer, their job is to be the first one on the dance floor and the last one off,” Whitford said.

■ Continued from page 9 After the sixth verse, the honored veteran will pick the feather up with his left hand and give a war whoop to acknowledge the capture of the spirit of the feather. The veteran then returns the Eagle feather to its owner and the owner give him a gift in appreciation of the services that the veteran has performed for him.

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Prairie chicken dance is Friday

Havre Daily News/File photo Men's prairie chicken dancers line up for the Grand Entry during the 2013 Rocky Boy Celebration powwow at the powwow grounds on Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation. and ease of long practice as he surveys everything around him and sees that it is good.

Men’s Fancy Dance Men’s fancy dance is a modern-style dance that has its roots in old grass dance. This exuberant style of dance is fast paced and features elaborate footwork and high jumps. Fancy dancers wear sheep or sleigh bells to help maintain the rhythm of the dance and two feather bustles worn on the neck and back. These were at one time made of eagle feathers. Today, many are made of white and dark eagle feathers decorated with small colorful

feathers called hackles. Men's fancy dance has its origins in the old Wild West shows of Buffalo Bill Cody and others. The managers of these shows felt that the dancing being done by the Indians in their shows was not interesting enough to hold the attention of the spectators, so they had the dancers create more colorful outfits and dance faster and with more motions. Since then, fancy dance has grown considerably, in large part with the help of contest powwows. The dance has become more and more colorful and faster over the years, with larger bustles, the additional of ribbons and, of course, all manner of dance steps intended to outdo all other dancers. The fancy outfit

After the Friday grand entry, the prairie chicken dance special is scheduled to begin. The prize for best prairie chicken dancer will be $4,000. As of July 22, there was not an exact schedule of when each category of the powwow will happen. Whitford said that he is hoping that the powwow will be bigger than last year’s. He said he has received more calls from competitors and vendor requests than last year, so he is hopeful. The vendors of the powwow will be mostly selling Native American art and food. “We have to kind of pick and choose,” Whitford said. “Being that it’s a Native event, we would like to promote Native artists and cooking. There’s so many people who want to come sell their crafts and food.  “ Whitford said the powwow committee is pushing to have solely Native booths at the fair, but if they do not fill up all  the vendor slots, they will allow others to take the places. Throughout the powwow, drum groups

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will be singing and playing their drums. This year, the powwow is bringing in big names in the drum circle world. The host drum is Young Spirit from Alberta, Canada, and Whitford said “they get a really good response from the crowd.” He added that there are a lot of requests for them to take part in powwows due to their abilities, and they will be a highlight at the powwow this year.

National champion drummers

Drum Group Feather Tail, which has won the drum competition at Gathering of Nations in Albuquerque four times, will also be at the powwow. “We’re lucky they accepted the job and we get to have them,” Whitford said. The judges, or tabulators, of the powwow dancers are from C & P Tabulations, a company from Saskatchewan that specializes in judging powwows. “Normally, a powwow committee has to get a few people together to tackle the tabs,” Whitford said. C & P Tabulations use computers to scan barcodes on the competitors’ numbers to keep track of them and judged the powwow last year as well. Whitford said they are very transparent and professional. A special guest will be attending the powwow in addition to the politicians that come e v e r y y e a r. T h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Saskatchewan Metis, a tribe recognized by Canada and to which the Chippewa Cree was ancestral ties, will be attending. The powwow is often visited by Montana state representatives, senators, congressmen and others as well. Whitford said the powwow should be a joyous and fun event for visitors. “We’re not all gloom and doom here on the reservation,” he said. “It’s a great event. Everything that happens here, we still have to move on with our culture and our language. We have to have this powwow.”

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Rocky Boy Celebration schedule of events Monday, July 28: 9 a.m. — Rodeo School — calf roping, team roping, steer wrestling — Sybil SangreyColliflower Memorial Arena (may change due to scheduling) Tuesday, July 29: 9 a.m. — Rodeo School — calf roping, team roping, steer wrestling — Sybil SangreyColliflower Memorial Arena (may change due to scheduling) Wednesday, July 28: Powwow preparation and setup, no events scheduled Thursday, July 31: 8 a.m. — Team Redskins three-on-three youth basketball jamboree — Stone Child College 9 a.m. — Rodeo School — bareback and saddle bronc — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena TBA — Youth Powwow — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 4 p.m. — 2014 CCRA Youth Rodeo — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena. Friday, Aug. 1 9 a.m. — Sobriety Walk — Agency to Powwow Grounds. 11 a.m. — Ultimate Warrior Challenge — Bonneau Dam 1 p.m. — 2014 Mary LaMere Memorial Tie-Down Roping — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 6 p.m. — 2014 CCRA INFR Tour Rodeo, first PERF — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 6 p.m. — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds Saturday, Aug. 2 8 a.m. — The Memorial, a four-man golf tournament — Signal Point Golf Course, Fort Benton Noon — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds 6 p.m. — 2014 CCRA INFR Tour Rodeo, second PERF — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 6 p.m. — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds Sunday, Aug. 2 1 p.m. — 2014 INFR Tour Rodeo, Championship Round — Sybil Sangrey-Colliflower Memorial Arena 3 p.m. — 50th annual Rocky Boy Celebration — powwow grounds

Men’s Southern Straight 18-59

Teen girls 13-17 and Junior girls 7-12: Traditional Jingle Fancy

Women’s Crow Style 18-59

Tiny tots 6 and under

Senior Men’s 35-54 and Junior Men’s 18-34: Traditional Grass Fancy Prairie Chicken

Specials throughout the powwow are: $4,000 Men’s Prairie Chicken Dance Special 18 and over Head Woman’s Dance Special Head Man’s Dance Special Outgoing Jr. Princess Special: Jr. Girl’s Fancy Teen girls’ and women’s fancy Feed and Giveaway at the Whitford Camp Men’s Fancy Feather Dance North vs. South Honoring the Past 50 Years of Powwow (category to be announced) Men’s Prairie Chicken Dance Honoring Dancers from Canada and USA $1,000 Mother/Daughter Special Other specials to be announced

The dance categories this year are:

Golden Age Men age 55 and older Golden Age Women age 55 and older

Senior Women’s 35-54 and Junior Women’s 18-34: Traditional Buckskin Traditional Cloth Jingle Fancy Teen boys 13-17 and Junior boys 7-12: Traditional Grass Fancy Prairie Chicken

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Rocky Boy powwow to celebrate culture John Paul Schmidt jpschmidt@havredailynews.com The 50th Annual Rocky Boy Celebration will have its first Grand Entry Friday, Aug. 1, at 6 p.m., and dancing will continue until Sunday. There will be three more Grand Entries after Friday’s: noon and 6 p.m. Saturday and 3 p.m. Sunday. Dustin Whitford, one of the main organizers of the powwow, said Saturday evening’s grand entry is usually and will probably be the most popular Grand Entry of the threeday event. “We are expecting a huge crowd,” Whitford said. The head dancers are all from Rocky Boy, but the male head dancer, Wesley Windy Boy, now lives in Tuba City, Arizona. The head woman dancer, Anita Top Sky will be bringing something new to the powwow this year. “She will be hosting a cowboy hat and boot special,” Whitford said. Havre Daily News/File photo A small girl in a jingle dress walks among men's fancy dancers during the Friday Grand Entry at last year's Rocky Boy Celebration powwow on Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation.

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is distinguished by its two large, colorful feather bustles on the dancer's back, and the dance has larger motions and spins not seen in other dance styles.

Men’s Grass Dance Men’s grass dance features fluid, graceful, sweeping movements. Their colorful outfits are hinged with yarn, ribbon or cloth. This dance style originated from the plains. The dancers move as if they are smoothing down the tall grass; hence, the name. There are several stories about the origin of grass dancing. Many people say that the dance started among the young men who where sent out to flatten the prairie grass to form a dance arena. Rather than just stomp down the grass, they turned the chore into a dance. It is also said that they tied bundles of sweet grass to their belts, and tried to imitate the movement of the tall prairie grass swaying in the wind. Thus, in the dance today, you can see the dancers swaying and moving in the "wind," as well as seeing motions that look like they are moving through or stomping down the grass. The grass dance outfit today is far more colorful than it has been in the past. The original bundles of grass have been replaced with ribbons, yarn or cloth strips. When dancing, the dancers try to get the entire fringe in their outfit moving constantly in the swaying motion of the prairie.

Women’s Traditional Dance In women’s traditional dance, the feet never completely leave the ground, which symbolizes women's close ties with mother earth. When Indians acquired cloth from white traders, they began to make much of their clothing from it. Many eastern woodland, plains and southwestern people make cloth shins and blouses, leggings, etc. that are elaborately decorated with ribbons and silver buttons. Ribbons are cut, folded and appliquéd to create geometric or abstract floral designs. Our people still make beautiful dresses out of buckskin. The most treasured buckskins are Indian tanned. Using traditional methods, the Indian tanning process makes the hides very white and soft as velvet. A tan color is achieved by smoking the hide. When the dress is finished, many hours of beading begins. Beading ranges from fully beaded tops — common among the Sioux — to beaded strips across the front shoulders and around the button of the dress — Southern Plains. The ladies' traditional style is actually a combination of four styles: northern buckskin, northern cloth, southern buckskin and couthern cloth. While similar in many ways, each of these styles has its own distinct style of dress and dancing. Like all dance styles, these have strong roots in customs and traditions that have been passed down for years. The outfits are based on traditional

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clothing from specific tribes, and thus there is a great deal of variation from one dancer to the next. The dancing itself also varies widely based on the tribe represented, but always focuses on the grace and dignity of the dancer. The outfit often includes fringe on a shawl or the dress itself, along with other accessories, which must move in perfect time to the song.

Women’s Fancy Dance Women's fancy dance features very elaborate footwork and lots of beadwork. In the fancy dance categories, it is very important to know all the songs to stop exactly on the last beat. The women wear hinged shawls and try to match all accessories. Ladies' fancy shawl is the newest style of ladies' dancing, and is similar in several ways to men's fancy dance. Women's fancy dance emerged in the 1950s and 1960s — and became vastly more popular over the next 20 years — among young women who were looking for a more stylistic, and energetic, dance style. The dance is light, graceful and very athletic. The dancers move much like a butterfly, and their outfits are bright and colorful to match. Particular emphasis is given to the shawl, which is worn over the shoulders and spread out along the arms like wings.

Women’s Jingle Dress Women's jingle dress dancers wear very simple but beautiful cut-cloth dresses decorated with tin cones that jingle as they move. There are several stories about the origin of the jingle dress, but they mostly agree that it was first seen in a dream and was intended as a way to heal those who were ill. As one tradition tells it, this style of dance had its beginnings in a young Chippewa woman's dream, then grew into society. Another says after a medicine man's grand-

daughter became very ill, he had a dream that showed him how to make the dress and which instructed him to have her dance in it. When the dress was made, she wore it and danced, very weakly at first, but becoming stronger as she went until she was healed. Today, jingle dance specials are sometimes requested by those with friends or relatives who are sick. The dress is made with a large number of tin lids — originally from the tops of snuff cans but now made from tin lids off chewing tobacco cans — rolled into cones and attached to the dress. Some traditions call for 365 cones, one for each day of the year. As the jingle dancer moves, her dress makes a very distinctive sound. The Chippewa Cree Events Committee adds other dance style categories as a sign of respect and hospitality to visiting tribes, styles like men's prairie chicken, men's crow belt, men's southern straight and women's elk tooth crow style.

Powwow Etiquette Etiquette for spectators and newcomers: Listen to the master of ceremonies. If you do nothing else on this list, at least do this. The benches in the arena are normally reserved for dancers. Be prepared to provide your own chairs. Ask permission to take photos or videos of individual dancers — shots of groups or the arena as a whole are usually fine. Listen to the MC for times that you should not take pictures. Always stand, if able, during social honoring songs. These will be announced by the MC. Gentlemen should also remove their hats. All pets and food should be kept outside the dance arena at all times, even between dance sessions. Only dance during intertribal songs or when you are invited to dance. Do not dance during competition. If you have a question, ask. If you are honestly interested and curious, most people will be happy to answer your questions.

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Etiquette For Dancers Listen to the master of ceremonies and, most importantly, listen to the arena director. Respect the positions of the head dancers. Don't dance before the head dancers start dancing. Seats on the benches may be reserved with a blanket. Never move or sit on someone else's blanket without permission. Be on time and ready to dance in full regalia. Dress properly in appropriate dance clothes — if you don't know what's appropriate, ask. Respect the protocol of the group sponsoring the powwow. This often includes dancing around the arena in a particular direction. Stand for all specials and other honoring songs. Certain items should only be used by those who are qualified according to the traditions of their tribe. These include war bonnets, rattles, whistles and religious items. Firearms — even nonoperational ones — lances with points and unsheathed knives should not be carried while dancing for safety reasons. If you feel you must carry one of these items, speak with the arena director ahead of time. All specials must be coordinated with the MC. You may be required to have it at a certain time or dance session. This is to benefit the entire powwow, so please be understanding. Never come to a powwow with alcohol, under the influence of drugs or intoxicated.

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Rocky Boy Pow-Wow 2014