How to Grow Winter Vegetables
How to Grow Winter Vegetables by Charles Dowding. A booklet to sample to book layout and design prior to publication in April 2011
“Our British weather is fickle and not a little uncertain, but it does allow a year of growing and eating. Charles’s book is a paean to our weather, climate and soil. It celebrates all that is good about growing year round, and I guarantee that you’ll actually look forward to winter after this read.” Alys Fowler This book explains how to come through winter with plenty of vegetables stored and others ready for harvest, and gives advice for growing plants through winter for eating during the ‘hungry gap’ from April to early June. Winter and early spring require a different kind of gardening from that of the summer months: not a lot grows at this time, but a well-planned plot may nonetheless be quite full. Vegetables need to be sown and planted at specific times – so the book’s middle section is a monthly sowing, planting and growing calendar. The next part covers month-by-month harvesting, from garlic in July to spring cabbage and pea shoots in May. Many salads can be grown in winter, especially with a little protection from fleece and cloches. The book includes examples of frost-hardy salad plants and other vegetables, with best sowing dates and harvesting methods. How to Grow Winter Vegetables CHARLES DOWDING The beauty of winter and its produce is captured in photographs from the author’s garden. Charles Dowding has been growing organic vegetables for nearly 30 years and was an early pioneer of vegetable boxes. He runs organic gardening courses from his farm in Somerset, where he crops an acre of intensive raised beds using no-dig methods and grows vegetables and salads for local shops and restaurants. www.charlesdowding.co.uk Also by Charles Dowding: Publication: 21 April 2011 • £14.95 paperback ISBN 978 1 900322 88 1 • 234mm x 170mm • 232pp in full colour Publicity contact: Stacey Despard, Green Books Tel: 01803 863260 firstname.lastname@example.org Sales contact: Signature Book Representation (UK) Ltd Tel: 0845 862 1730 email@example.com How to Grow Winter Vegetables will be printed on 100% recycled paper made from post-consumer waste; the covers will be made from 75% recycled material. www.greenbooks.co.uk “An invaluable book, intelligent of course, and inspiring too.” Anna Pavord Contents Introduction Introduction Welcome to the amazingly varied world of winter produce. This book sets out to widen your winter horizons, revealing the many vegetables that can be grown, eaten and enjoyed in the year’s darker half. Fresh vegetables in winter are even more welcome than in summer – some green to alleviate the grey, and the tastes of leaves and roots that have been sweetened by frost. PART 1 Winter’s potential Chapter 1 Chapter 2 A forgotten season A winter’s scene PART 2 Preparing for winter Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Looking after your soil Making your own compost What to grow for winter Tips for sowing & planting PART 3 Sowing, planting & growing calendar Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Sowing & planting in spring Sowing & planting in early summer Sowing & planting in late summer / autumn PART 4 Winter harvests Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Winter harvests calendar Winter and hungry gap vegetables A-Z PART 5 Stored harvests Chapter 12 Chapter 13 Principles of storing for winter A-Z of winter vegetables for storage PART 6 Winter vegetables under cover Chapter 14 Chapter 15 Undercover growing An amazing array of vegetables Resources Index You can also enjoy stored harvests, for example, veg from sacks in the shed, or ropes of onion and garlic that have been stored indoors. Some of these vegetables take the main part of a year to grow and mature. Others can be sown after midsummer, even in September for winter salad, to grow indoors. I also aim to help you plan and practise a yearly cycle of gardening, so that the harvests of your vegetables in the winter can match the harvests made in summer from the same ground. It is possible to keep sowing and planting through summer so that something is always growing and there is less ‘feast or famine’. Many vegetables for winter eating can be slotted into a plot that is also producing regular meals in summer. Included in Part 2 are several chapters of background advice to do with soil and compost, These ‘Spring Hero F1’ cabbages were sown in late August and planted late September. the foundation of good gardening. Growth and harvests are immeasurably better when plants are growing healthily in fertile soil. Then, in Part 3, I offer the essential knowledge required to grow each vegetable, especially the best time to sow – vital information that is often overlooked or misunderstood. Sowing at the right time helps to reduce losses from pests and diseases. Parts 2 and 3 Chapter 1 A forgotten season Making the most of winter’s amazing possibilities Winter can offer vegetables in two ways: fresh harvests, such as leeks and salad leaves, and produce such as carrots and onions that have been stored from earlier harvests in the summer and autumn. Having these vegetables to hand can make a huge difference to one’s health and well-being through the longseeming months of cold and dark. The secret to having this produce in winter is to grow throughout the year and to start sowing as early as possible in the spring. Winter’s two parts What do I mean by winter? A precise definition by time is difficult when the seasons overlap so much, and changes in the weather can sometimes make it feel like winter in October and also in April. This book covers the winter half-year, as opposed to the summer half-year, and I define it in two parts. True winter is under way by December, when growth is almost halted, and continues until March or even April, by which time daylight and some early warmth have returned, although there are still very few fresh vegetables to eat. Then, in April, May and even into June in a cold spring, there can be a long and frustrating wait for plants to grow and mature. Although the weather may be fine and warm, there is surprisingly little to eat from the garden, in a period known as the ‘hungry gap’ – a kind of ‘second winter’ in food terms. In the past this period was occasionally characterised by famine as people waited for the first new harvests, such as broad beans. This book will help you grow vegetables for true winter as well as for this hungry period, winter’s shadow. You need to garden many months ahead, with sowings of purple sprouting broccoli in June, spring cabbages in August, broad beans in October or November and spinach in early March, all for harvests in the hungry gap. There are also many tips in these pages for using simple aids to help vegetables survive winter in better shape and then to grow better Kale ‘Cavolo Nero’ in December frost. 16 Chapter 1 | A forgotten season How to grow winter vegetables Stored food In addition to fresh harvests from the garden, a great deal of winter food can be stored, either in the house or in a cool, dry place outdoors. An indoor larder When your winter vegetables have grown to maturity there will be a long period of harvest. This is divided into two parts. In the first you are harvesting vegetables to store – starting as early as July, with garlic maturing. In the second part you are harvesting fresh from the garden, throughout winter. A mild late January. From left: broad beans emerging, leaf beet, purple sprouting broccoli and garlic. Garden ahead for winter The best harvests for winter are achieved by good soil preparation and sowing the first seeds as early as March. Best sowing dates Many vegetables grow quite slowly, and some sowings for winter, such as celeriac and parsnip, need to be made as early as March. Every month has a ‘best time’ for sowing at least one winter vegetable, so it is not a matter of popping all your seeds in at once. Kale and savoy cabbage can be sown as late as June; indeed, they often grow more healthily from sowing slightly later than is recommended on the seed packet. Then July and August are busy times for sowing winter salads, so I recommend you make a note in your calendar of the timings given in Part 3, in order to be prepared with seeds when they will have the best chance of growing you a good harvest. Two things are worth knowing here. • The first is to harvest each vegetable at its best time so that it comes out of the soil in a healthy state. Garlic will sprout if left in 17 the ground too long and then it will not keep so well, while potatoes may be infected by blight or eaten by slugs. See the monthly calendar in Part 4 (page 148) for advice on the harvest requirements of each vegetable. • The second is how best to store each harvest made during summer and autumn, and even sometimes in winter. Each veg etable has slightly different requirements for keeping: some keep better in the warmth of a house; some in cool but frostfree darkness; others in a cold outdoor environment, just sheltered from the rain. All this is explained in Part 5. An outdoor larder There is one thing that no stored vegetables can offer: fresh, green leaves, always welcome at a time when any fresh food is so scarce. Success Making soil fertile The other aspect of being prepared for winter is the condition of the soil of your plot – how healthy and fertile it is. Good soil grows great vegetables, and I give advice on how to achieve this, mainly in Chapters 3 and 4. My speciality is growing without digging, and there are lots of tips here for managing this, but if you enjoy digging you can skip over the no-dig parts of Chapter 3 and concentrate on the rest of the book. As well as not digging, I garden without using any packet fertiliser or synthetic sprays, and have evolved methods of treating soil and growing vegetables which have more chance of working in an organic plot. In order to avoid dealing with unexpected problems and coping with disappointing losses, I suggest that you are aware of the potential pitfalls of pests and diseases, then garden in a way to minimise the risk of encountering them. That is the philosophy behind all my advice, and I trust it will help your growing to be successful, with less need for artificial inputs. Swede, leeks and chicory still to harvest at the turn of the year. Note the compost on top of the soil. 100 Chapter 7 | Sowing & planting in spring How to grow winter vegetables MAY 101 Easy in fine weather Indoors Sow Beans for drying, Brussels sprouts, Chicory for forcing, kale, parsnip, chicory for forcing, leek, rhubarb, purple sprouting broccoli, seakale, winter cabbage (all types) winter cabbage (all types) Outdoors Plant Summer vegetables Beans for drying, celeriac, potato, winter squash General Cover tender plantings with fleece or mesh. Thin parsnips. Hoe weeds again. Pick more salad leaves and remove flowering plants, then spread compost. After all the work done to prepare soil and plants, with little to see for it, May is often the first month when strong growth of vegetables gives a feeling of reward and excitement about harvests to come. Weeds grow too, so it is a busy time. Varieties Almost any bean grown for pods can also be left unpicked, for the seeds to swell and ripen. Runner beans make large red beans, for example, edible when cooked. The best flavour I have discovered is from borlotta climbing French beans, of red and white colour, which also have attractive and edible pods. Sowing and planting out Sow from the middle of May, aiming to have 7-10cm (3-4")-high plants ready as soon as the last frost date has passed. Slugs may nibble young bean plants, especially if it is cool in late May and June, and plants may need help to start climbing their stick. Once they are growing strongly, there is little to do except weed and wait for harvest. In a dry summer, some water will help pods to swell. Harvest time is when a good half of the pods are dry and pale in colour, with leaves falling off the plants. * * if summer is cool and wet, there may not be time for plants to make seeds and for the seeds to dry properly. But they can still be harvested as moist, fat beans to shell out, and frozen rather than dried. Beans for drying • Best sowing time: mid-May indoors • Other possible times: late May to early June outdoors • Plants are frost sensitive so can’t be sown too early • A whole season is needed for beans to mature and dry in situ * Broccoli, purple sprouting These borlotta beans were sown in late May. In September, most pods contain fully dry beans. Sow two seeds per module, thinned to the strongest, or two seeds per station outdoors in warm areas such as south-east Britain, after mid-May. Plant after the last frost date, by the end of May or in early June at the latest. Spacing Set plants 25-30cm (10-12") apart in wigwams or in rows, with canes or sticks for plants to climb. Problems Insufficient heat is the most likely difficulty – • Best sowing time: May outdoors, early June indoors • Other possible times: from mid-April to late June • When sown in June and planted in July, purple sprouting broccoli is a second crop and many vegetables can be grown before it, in the same way as for July-planted kale (see page 120) This broccoli, planted in July, is now established and growing well in August. Sowing and planting out April is often quoted as a good month for sowing, but will result in huge plants which need more space. It is better to sow in May outdoors and early June indoors, for goodsized plants that can be grown as a second crop after salads, carrots and early peas. Sow and plant out as for Brussels sprouts (see page 94). Spacing These are vigorous plants, so early sowings need 60cm (2'); later sowings should be closer Varieties Until recently the main choices were between purple and white sprouting, to crop early or late. Now there are also F1 varieties (some of them for summer and autumn harvests), but I recommend sticking with the open-pollinated ones for winter, because they tend to crop over a longer season. Staking is not obligatory * The long stems of broccoli make them susceptible to falling over. They actually grow well with stems partly resting on the soil, so staking is not really necessary and they can be gently pushed in a new direction if fallen into a pathway. Chapter 10 Winter harvests calendar From July to June – winter’s long reach Knowing when vegetables are ready to be picked is as important as growing them in the first place. With experience, you can look at a plant and assess its readiness; until then, use this guide as a framework to help you get the most out of what you grow. The list covers almost 12 months, from the summer and autumn harvests to store for later use, through winter itself, to harvests that are possible in the hungry gap of spring – mostly from overwintered vegetables. These have great value at a time when the vegetable plot has more growing plants than harvest able ones. SUMMER AND AUTUMN, for storing The vegetables to harvest from July to November are winter staples to store – always available, indoors, and ready for eating. The harvesting dates and details given here and in Chapter 11 are complemented by advice on storage in Part 5. June/July Even as summer is only just beginning, there are some harvests happening for winter. The first one, garlic, is also one of the longest keepers. Garlic Watch for yellowing of the leaves of garlic, which often commences in June. Sometimes this is increased by rust on the leaves, which causes early ripening: a rule of thumb is that leaves of half yellow and half green suggest you should dig the bulbs, from late June to about the middle of July. August Two more winter staples can be gathered to store in the heat of August, and they will keep better if there is some sun to dry them before storage. Potatoes (second early), onions/shallots Second early potato varieties start to show yellow after late July and are ready to pull or dig out when most of their leaves are no longer green. If blight is causing the leaves to go brown, they want harvesting immediately. Beetroot ‘Sangria’ in October – ready to harvest at any time. 160 Chapter 11 | Winter and hungry gap vegetables A- Z How to grow winter vegetables Or, more easily, sow seeds indoors in late February to plant under fleece in April: these should make curds in June. Celeriac S You can also dig up chard roots to pot on in a greenhouse or conservatory, where they will grow small salad leaves through winter, as for beetroot. Roots of celeriac store well from harvests in November and December, before the temperature drops too low: I once harvested some roots after a long December night of -6ºC (21ºF) and they were fine, but that is close to the limit. Trim off all leaves but leave some soil around the bottoms of roots to help them keep moist through winter. In mild areas they can stay in the soil until needed. Chervil W, G Chard W, G Chicory roots grown outdoors want harvesting before moderate frost of -4 or -5ºC (2523ºF). Late November until Christmas is often a good time: any earlier and roots may not have been exposed to enough cold for initiation of chicon growth. Use a fork or spade to extricate as much of the root as possible – any fragments left behind will be annoying weeds next year. Trim off all leaves: a few inner ones may be edible, although bitter. Chard is hardy and should survive until May, when it develops graceful flowering stems. There are few new leaves of decent quality between December and February, unless plants are covered with fleece or a cloche. It is worth picking off all decaying outer leaves in early March to reveal the healthy new growth, which should then give increasing harvests for a couple of months. Remove any slugs you notice when picking leaves. Chervil is hardy to frost but loses leaf quality in constant rain and cold, so it is worth putting a cloche over plants, or bringing a pot inside, where it may surprise you with its growth. Outdoor harvests will be small in winter, but if plants survive in good health there will be some healthy leaves in April. Chicons W, in darkness 161 Roots can be placed in 25-30cm (10-12") pots – as many as three or four in each if on the small side – or in buckets, with any kind of compost or soil around them, whose function is to retain moisture rather than provide goodness. Pack in the roots so that their tops, out of which chicons will grow, are just above the compost or soil, which can be lightly watered every two or three weeks. Another possibility is to place roots in polythene sacks or bags, unsealed. Chicons grow best in complete darkness, making them sweet, yellow and densely folded. At room temperature (16-20ºC/ 61-68ºF) they may be ready in three weeks; at temperatures around 10ºC (50ºF), in up to eight weeks. Each root grows several chicons, although some roots grow just one large one. Cut or twist off the largest first when 10-15cm (4-6") high; others can be harvested every few days for up to a month, by which time they will have more stem and may also be harbouring some aphids, which can be washed off before use. Harvesting a heart of sugarloaf chicory in late autumn. Outer leaves are trimmed before storing. immature hearts can then be picked for salad at any time. Chicory leaves W, G Small plants of chicory grown for leaves should survive winter outdoors, but harvests of new leaves will be small, unless they are covered Harvests can be staggered if you have somewhere to keep roots cool and frost free; bring a few at a time into the warmth of your house. After four weeks or so of harvest, new chicons become small and thin. Roots are best composted at this point, after a final harvest. Chicory hearts S Picking leaves of chervil in November: twisting stems gently to remove their whole length. Roots of chicory ‘Tardiva’ in April. These were harvested in December and packed in compost. These can be harvested fresh until the first frosts of -4ºC (25ºF) or so. If winter stays exceptionally mild, they may stand outside in a less hearted state. Radicchio and sugarloaf hearts tolerate only slight frost, so need cutting in November or possibly December, before frosts of -3 or -4ºC. Trim off decayed outer leaves and put in polythene bags, kept as cool as possible until needed. Plants that have not made firm hearts at this time may survive winter outdoors – sugarloaf especially; Picking outer leaves of chicory ‘Palla Rossa Romea’, which is actually a variety for hearting. Chapter 12 Principles of storing for winter It’s all about moisture and temperature Many winter vegetables can be kept for a long time. Squashes, onions and celeriac even keep their looks, but most vegetables tend to become less attractive in store. Be reassured, however, that they still taste good: slightly wilted roots, for example, often have more concentrated flavours than fresh ones. Most vegetables keep best when cool and slightly damp Most root vegetables, as well as leeks and hearted cabbage, are biennial plants, dormant through winter while waiting to grow again in any warmth. So for best eating quality they need to be kept as cold as possible, just above freezing, so that they remain in a dormant state. If temperatures are higher than ideal, say 10ºC (50ºF) for several weeks, they lose quality and start to regrow. Any new leaves coming out of roots, for example, are taking goodness and moisture away from the bit we want to eat. Leafy vegetables keep best in the cold and damp for a different reason: that they are less Biennial vegetables ‘Biennial’ means that plants do their growing in a year or part of a year before winter, at which time they stop growing while changes in temperature and daylight trigger them into flowering when spring arrives. Many biennial vegetables have been bred to grow large roots of good flavour. Of the vegetables detailed here, only leeks and salad plants actually grow more after winter, although quite briefly, before flowering in May. Winter squashes harvested in October to store.