Moscow - Towards a great city for people
'Public Space Public Life' study conducted by Gehl Architects for the Institute of Genplan Moscow.
MOSCOW TOWARDS A GREAT CITY FOR PEOPLE PUBLIC SPACES & PUBLIC LIFE 2013 THE MOSCOW STUDY IN BROAD OUTLINE p. 6-13 INTRODUCING CHALLENGES FOR CITIES IN THE 21ST CENTURY p. 14-89 EXPERIENCING MOSCOW p. 90-123 TOWARDS A LIVABLE MOSCOW 4 Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants Describes the background to the Public Space Public Life Study in Moscow. Introducing the study. p 1-13 Analyses the public spaces and public life in Moscow City Center today by summing up general challenges and qualities, exemplified by themes and specific situations and cases. Executive Summary of Analysis. p. 16-19 About the Study. p. 20-23 Analysis: Streets p. 24-59 Analysis: Squares. p. 60-69 Analysis: Parks & Waterfront. p. 70-83 Executive Summary: Streets. p. 84-85 Executive Summary: Squares. p. 86-87 Executive Summary: Parks & Waterfront. p. 88-89 Recommends strategies and public space improvements by giving general strategies and exemplifying recommendations on specific areas or places. Summary of Recommendations. p. 90 -97 Recommendations to Streets. p. 98-105 Recommendations to Squares. p. 106-113 Recommendations to Parks & Waterfronts. p. 114-121 Final Reflections. p. 122-123 Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants 5 RECOMMENDATIONS ANALYSIS INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCING THE STUDY Gehl Architectsâ€™ work is based on the public space research conducted by Professor Jan Gehl. With the human dimension as a starting point Jan Gehl has through the last 40 years worked to improve city environments in Denmark and abroad. As part of a working tool Gehl Architects have developed the Public Spaces and Public Life studies which can be used in several contexts. In Copenhagen, PSPL surveys have been conducted every ten years throughout the past forty years. The surveys clearly and thoroughly document the gradual change occurring in this time period and provide empirical evidence of the significant improvement of the quality of city life. Additionally follow-up surveys have enabled the municipal government to gather information and inspiration for the further development of the urban spaces and the general public has acquired a valuable understanding and interest in the public realm. This trend has spread to other cities as well, as Gehl Architects have performed follow-up surveys in Stockholm in 2005 (follow-up to a 1990 survey) and Melbourne in 2004 (follow-up to a 1994 survey). In both cases, PSPL studies have shown that public realm improvements truly have had a large impact on the quality of public life in the city. Such evidence has proven to be vital in maintaining public interest in further improvement projects, as well as general satisfaction amongst citizens as residents can see quantifiable evidence of improved quality of life. Moscow is a large capital. The size of the inner city is comparable with the inner city areas of several other global metropolises. MOSCOW CITY CENTER 19,7 KM2 223,000 residents (2011) 113,2 residents/ha 15 million residents in the metropolitan area PUBLIC SPACE PUBLIC LIFE SURVEYS AROUND THE WORLD - EXAMPLES: DRAFT places for people 2004 The City of Melbourne in collaboration with GEHL ARCHITECTS, Urban Quality Consulents Copenhagen melbourne city centre Riga - 2002 - 700.000 inhabitants London - 2003 - 7.5 mio. inhabitants Melbourne - 2004 - 3 mio. inhabitants Copenhagen - 2005 - 1.3 mio. inhabitants 8 Gehl Architects Âˇ Urban Quality Consultants COMPARISON - CENTRAL AREAS OF WORLD CITIES COMPARISONS NEW YORK MANHATTAN (SOUTH OF CENTRAL PARK) 22,8 KM2 612,000 residents (2010) 268 residents per hectare 19 million residents in the metropolitan area (Source: www.nyc.gov) LONDON CONGESTION CHARGE ZONE (2002) 24,7 KM2 136,000 residents (2004) 55 residents per hectare 7.8 million residents in the metropolitan area (Source: www.cchargelondon.com) PARIS 1ST- 10TH ARRONDISEMENTS 23.3 KM2 468,000 residents (2009) 193 residents per hectare 11.7 million residents in the metropolitan area 0 5 (Source: 10 20 www.paris.fr) 1:1,000,000 Kilometers 1:100,000 0 .5 1 Kilometers 2 1:2,000 0 10 20 Meters 40 1:15,000 0 75 150 Meters 300 1:4,000 0 20 40 Meters 80 1:20,000 0 100 200 Meters 400 Rotterdam - 2007 - 600.000 inhabitants Sydney - 2007 - 4.6 mio. inhabitants 0 25 50 1:5,000 New York - 2007 - 8 mio. inhabitants Meters 100 0 150 300 1:30,000 Adelaide - 2011 - 1.3 mio. inhabitants Meters 600 1:6,000 0 30 60 Meters 120 Meters Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants 1:40,000 0 200 400 800 9 INTRODUCTION Tverskaya Ulitsa Tverskaya Ulitsa WALKING ALONG Sadovaya Ulitsa Sadovaya Ulitsa Teatralnaya Proyezd Teatralnaya Proyezd Tverskaya Ulitsa S ANALYSIS LITTLE SPACE FOR PEDESTRIANS 2m 2m 5% 5% 91% 4% Tverskaya Tverskaya UlitsaUlitsa 33,5 m 33,5 m 91% 1,5m 1,5m 4% 3m 3m 6,5% 6,5% Though many Moscow streets are wide and generous, most of the street width is allocated for cars, leaving little room for pedestrians. The result is crowded sidewalks discouraging people from walking. Teatralnaya Proyezd Tverskaya Ulitsa Sadovaya Ulitsa Teatralnaya Proyezd Myasnitskaya Ulitsa Myasnitskaya Ulitsa 1,5m 4% 3m 6,5% 3m 6,5% 49 m 87% 49 m 87% 3m 6,5% 3m 6,5% 6m 12% 6m 12% 2m 5% 33,5 m 91% 33,5 m 91% 1,5m 4% 40 m 80% 40 m 80% 87% Sadovaya Sadovaya UlitsaUlitsa 49 m 49 m 87% 3m 3m 6,5% 6,5% 6m 6m 12% 12% 8% 80% Teatralnaya Proyezd Teatralnaya Proyezd 40 m 40 m 80% 4m 4m 8% 2m 5% 91% Ulitsa Tverskaya 33,5 m 1,5m 4% 3m 6,5% S 1:500 1:500 Sadovaya Ulitsa Arbat Ulitsa Arbat Ulitsa 4m 8% 2m 5% 1:500 Teatralnaya Proyezd Neglinnaya Ulitsa 33,5 m 91% 1,5m 4% Neglinnaya Ulitsa Neglinnaya Ulitsa 2m 5% Pyasnitskaya Ulitsa Pyasnitskaya Ulitsa 4m 8% 3m 6,5% 1:500 1:500 SPACE DISTRIBUTION 2m 17 m49 m 6m 2m 40 m 2m 2m 17 m 9.5% 81% 87% 12% 9,5 80% 9.5% 9,5 81% SPACE FOR PEOPLE 4m 3m 8% 6,5% 6m 12% 2m 14 m m 2 m 2m 14 m 40 2m 11% 78% 11% 11% 78% 80% 11% 4m 8% SPACE FOR CARS 2m 5% m 91%74% 13% Tverskaya Ulitsa 2,5 14 m 2,5 m 33,5 m 2,5 14 m 2,5 m 1,5m m 74% 13% 4% 3m 6,5% 100% Sadovaya Ulitsa 20,5 m 49 mm 20,5 87% 100% 3m 6,5% a 1,5m 4% 3m 6,5% 1:500 6m 2m 12% 9,5 3m 6,5% Teatralnaya Proyezd 9.5%Proyezd 81% Teatralnaya 17 m 40 m 2m 80% 4m 8% 80% 1:500 Neglinnaya Neglinnaya UlitsaUlitsa 20% Myasnitskaya Myasnitskaya UlitsaUlitsa 22% Pyasnitskaya Pyasnitskaya UlitsaUlitsa 26% 13% ArbatArbat UlitsaUlitsa Neglinnaya Ulitsa 19% 78% Arbat Ulitsa Pyasnitskaya Ulitsa 2m 11% 2m m 14 11% 78% 14 2 mm 78% 11% 2m 11% 74% 87% 81% Ulitsa a 3m 6,5% 6m 2m 12% 9,5 Myasnitskaya Pyasnitskaya Ulitsa 2 m 17 m 9,5 81% 40 m 2m 172 m m 80% 9.5% 81% 9.5% 4m 8% Arbat Ulitsa Neglinnaya Ulitsa 2m 5% m 2,5 2,5 33,514 m m m 91% 74% 14 m 2,5 m 2,5 m 1,5m 74% 13% 13% 4% 3m 6,5% Myasnitskaya Ulitsa 49 mm 20,5 87% 100% 20,5 m 100% 3m 6,5% 6m 2m 12% 9,5 Pyasnitskaya Ulitsa 17 m 81% 40 m 2m 80% 9.5% 4m 8% TEATRALNAYA MYASNITSKAYA m 2,5 20,5 14 m m 100% 74% PYATNITSKAYA 1:500 SADOVA RING ROAD NEGLINNAYA m % 2,5 14 14 2,5 m 2m mm 2m m 78% 74% 11% 13% 11% 2,5 m 13% 2m 9,5 17 m 81% 20,5 2 mm 100% 9.5% 2m 11% 14 m 78% 2m 11% 2,5 m 14 m 74% 2,5 m 13% Ulitsa Pyasnitskaya Ulitsa Arbat Ulitsa Neglinnaya Ulitsa Myasnitskaya Ulitsa Pyasnitskaya Ulitsa 2m 1% 2,5 m 14 m 74% 2,5 m 13% 20,5 m 100% 2m 9,5 17 m 81% 2m 9.5% 2m 11% 14 m 78% 2m 11% 2,5 m 14 m 74% 2,5 m 13% Myasnitskaya is an example of a streets which is dominated by vehicular traffic and leaves little space for pedestrians and city life. 26 Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants DISTRIBUTION OF STREET SPACE AT TVERSKAYA WALKING ALONG 9% 91% TVERSKAYA, SUMMER 2012, IS A MAIN STREET FOR CARS, NOT PEOPLE Even though Tverskaya is a wide street, very little space is allocated for people. Eight lanes of traffic and parking on the sidewalks leave very little room for people to walk along the street. Because of this and a generally low quality of space, few people are walking on Tverskaya compared to main streets in other large international cities. DISTRIBUTION OF STREET SPACE AT TVERSKAYA 2m 5% 33,5 m 91% 1,5m 4% 2m 5% 2m 5% 33,5 m 91% 33,5 m 91% 1,5 m 4% 1,5m 4% Eight lanes of car traffic dominate the streetscape of Tverskaya Sidewalk at Tverskaya Parking on the sidewalks of Tverskaya reduces the pedestrian space radically * Street section of Tverskaya north of Pushkinskaya 2m 5% 33,5 m 91% Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants 27 1,5 m 4% ANALYSIS ford St CASE TVERSKAYA COMPARISONS Cham ANALYSIS TVERSKAYA, MOSCOW According to the tourist pamphlets, Tverskaya is Moscow´s most prestigious street, Tverskaya today has become overrun with traffic and parked cars. At many points, a full 91% of the streetscape is dedicated to automobiles, leaving little space for the people of Moscow to stroll along their proudest street. BROADWAY, NEW YORK Broadway is the north-south street that dissects New York’s grid. Prior to its redesign, it suffered from congested traffic and overcrowded sidewalks. The city made a pilot project of space re-distribution and traffic rationalization. The result was 80% less jaywalking. Injuries to motorists and pedestrians alike decreased by 63%. CHAMPS ELYSÉE, PARIS Perhaps the world´s most iconic boulevard, there was a time when Champs Elysee was effectively a highway. By removing parking lanes, doubling the width of the granite sidewalks, and planting double rows of trees, Paris restored the street to its rightful status as a proud boulevard. The on-street parking has since been replaced by underground parking for 850 cars. The two sidewalks have a combined area of 47,300 m2. 1:20000 1:1000 1:1000 1:1,000 0 5 10 Meters 20 1:10,000 0 50 100 Meters 200 1:2,000 0 10 20 Meters 40 2m 5% 33,5 m 91% 1,5m 1:15,000 7m 4% 23% 0 75 150 12 m 40% Meters 300 3 m7,5 m1 m 10%18.5%4% 7m 7m 23% 23% 25 m 63% 12 m 40% 3 m 7,5 1 mm 6 m 7m 10% 18.5% 4% 29% 23% 7m 33% 8m 38% 6m 29% 24 m 8 m 7 m 7 m 13 m 33% 40%31% 38% 20% 13 m 40% 30 m 38% 24 m 31% 24 30m m 31% 38% 1:3,000 1:4,000 0 20 40 0 80 5 10 1:1,000 Meters Meters 0 20 15 30 Meters 60 0 100 200 0 400 50 100 1:10,000 Meters Meters 1:20,000 1:1000 200 MORE PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC 7m COMPARED TO TVERSKAYA 300 23% 12 m 40% 3m 10% 1m 4% 7m 23% 1.8 TIMES 1:1000 BASED ON 2007 COUNTS & 5% INCREASE AFTER PILOT* 1,5m 4% 1:20000 62%OF STREET SPACE 29% 33% 38% (AT TVERSKAYA 9% IS 6m 7m 8m ALLOCATED FOR PEOPLE 24 m 31% 30 m 38% 1:5,000 0 25 1:2,000 50 Meters 0 10 20 100 Meters 40 1:30,000 1:3,000 0 15 30 Meters 1:40,000 0 150 1:15,000 300 60 Meters 0 75 150 600 Meters ALLOCATED FOR PEOPLE) 1:6,000 0 38% 30 1:4,000 60 30 m 0 Meters 20 40 120 Meters 80 24 m 31% 0 200 1:20,000 400 Meters 2m 5% m 0 33,5 100 200 91% 800 Meters 400 7,5 m 18.5% 7m 23% 25 m 63% 12 m 40% 3m 10% 7,5 m 18.5% 1m 4% 7m 23% 13 m 40% 7m 20% 13 m 40% 6m 29% 7m 33% 8m 38% 24 m 31% 1:5,000 58 0 25 50 Meters 100 1:30,000 0 150 300 Meters 600 30 m 38% Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants *Green Light for Midtown Evaluation Report, Jan uary 2010 COMPARISONS OXFORD STREET, LONDON Oxford street is London’s busiest shopping street with 139,230 people walking through the East part of Oxford Street between 10am and 10pm. The street´s intersection with Regent Street carries so much pedestrian traffic that the city´s first diagonal crosswalk was installed in 2009. In recent years, the street has been temporarily transformed into a fully pedestrianized street for one day during the holiday season. Transition to a street for street cars and pedestrians are planned. SWANSTON STREET, MELBOURNE Partial restrictions to private automobile access have been in place on Swanston Street since the early 1990´s, but a three-year project to transform the street into an entirely car-free corridor will soon be complete. In 2004, Swanston Street had nearly twice as many pedestrians as Tverskaya–but these numbers are expected to increase considerably with the completion of the street´s pedestrianization. A vibrant public life on Swanston Street is maintained late into the evening by the many outdoor cafés. NEVSKY PROSPEKT, ST. PETERSBURG Like Tverskaya in Moscow, Nevsky Prospekt is the main thoroughfare of St. Petersburg and the heart of the city´s commercial activity and nightlife. Unlike Tverskaya, Nevsky Prospekt´s sidewalks are a gracious 7,5 meters wide and generally free from obstructions. The street also features dedicated bus lanes to insure that those who choose public transportation enjoy a swift journey even during rush hour. 1,5m 7m 4% 23% 24 m 31% 7,5 m 18.5% 6m 29% 2530 7mmm 38% 63% 33% 8m 38% 7,5 m 18.5% 24 m 24 m 31% 31% 2m 13mm 30 5% 40% 38% 7m 20% 33,5 m 13 m 91% 40% 1,5m 24 m 4% 31% 7,5 m 18.5% 2m 5% 25 m 63% 33,5 m 91% 7,5 m 18.5% 1,5m 4% 7,5 m 18.5% 4.4 TIMES MORE PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC 2m 7m 23% 12 m 40% 3m 10% 1m 4% 7m 23% 33,5 m COMPARED 5% TO TVERSKAYA 91% 1,5m 4% 7,5 m 18.5% 6m 29% 7m 33% 8m 38% 25 m 63% 4m 31% 80%OF STREET SPACE (THE REMAINING 20% IS FOR 24 m STREETCARS) 31% 7,5 m 18.5% ALLOCATED FOR PEOPLE 13 m 40% 7m 20% 24 m 31% 13 m 40% 4.3 TIMES MORE PEDESTRIAN TRAFFIC COMPARED TO TVERSKAYA (16:00 ON 2m WEEKDAY) 5% 30 m 38% 33,5 m 91% 1,5m 4% 7,5 m 18.5% 25 m 63% 7m 23% 12 m 40% 3m 10% 1m 4% 7m 23% 6m 29% 7m 33% 8m 38% 24 m 31% 30 m 38% 24 m 31% 2m 5% 33,5 m 91% 1,5m 4% 7,5 m 18.5% 25 m 63% XXX XXX Photo: Atkins *AllArchitects data from· surveys conducted by Gehl Architects Gehl Urban Quality Consultants 59 ANALYSIS 7,5 m 18.5% STAYING ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS SQUARES FLOODED BY PARKING On many of the smaller public spaces, car parking has taken over all available space, pushing people to the edges or away from the spaces altogether. VOROVSKOGO SQUARE IS OCCUPIED BY TRAFFIC AND PARKED CARS This square close to Lubyanka has a good scale, nice buildings with active frontages with cafés and restaurants facing the square. However, the square itself is flooded by parked cars, making it impossible to use for recreational purposes and causing severe detriment to the experience of the square. P 107 CARS AT VOROVSKOGO PARKED FOR CARS 82% FOR PEOPLE OF THE SPACE IS 18% SIDEWALKS OUTDOOR CAFÉ ACTIVE FRONTAGES CAR PARKING 1:1,000 0 5 10 Meters 20 1:10,000 0 50 AT VOROVSKOGO M 1:2,000 0 10 20 Meters 40 0 15 30 Meters 60 1:15,000 1:3,000 0 75 M 1:4,000 0 20 40 Meters 80 1:20,000 0 100 M 1:5,000 0 25 50 Meters 100 1:30,000 0 150 M 1:6,000 0 30 60 Meters 120 1:40,000 0 200 M Vorovskogo square filled with cars One of the cafés that could benefit from a better square - street café along the Boulevard Ring 64 Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants STAYING ACTIVITIES 1:2,000 0 10 20 Meters 40 0 15 30 Many of Moscow’s squares are surrounded by traffic and parking on all sides, disconnecting them from activity in the surrounding buildings and making the buildings difficult to access. This reduces substantially the usefulnes for people in these spaces. P 0 20 40 Meters 80 ANALYSIS SQUARES SURROUNDED BY TRAFFIC P 1:1,000 0 5 10 Meters 20 Bolshoy Ballet 1:3,000 1:4,000 60 Meters AN ISOLATED BOLSHOY SQUARE The square in front of The Bolshoy Theatre illustrates the two key problems for Moscow squares: • Traffic and parking seperates the squares from their surroundings and downgrades the attractivenes to city life • traffic cut up the squares into islands and segregating the squares from interacting in a public space network. The Bolshoy Theatre square is divided by 8 lanes of traffic in Teatralnaya and is surrounded by traffic infrastructure on all sides. Even though the quality of the square itself is good, the lack of pedestrian connections from The Red Square to The Bolshoy Theatre, across Teatralnaya and onwards, make the spaces less active; especially the park on the southern side of Teatralnaya is disconnected from the surrounding buildings due to traffic and parking on all sides. 8 P P P P 1:5,000 0 25 50 Meters 100 1:6,000 0 30 60 Meters 120 P SPACE FOR CARS CAR LANES AND DIRECTIONS CAR PARKING UNDERPASS SIDEWALK/SQUARE GREEN SPACE PEDESTRIAN CROSSING Voskryesyenskaya square - visually but not physically connected to the famous Bolshoy Theatre, and surrounded by railing to prevent parking in the square Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants 65 STAYING ACTIVITIES ANALYSIS PARKS FOR MONUMENTS–NOT FOR PEOPLE Planning with little consideration for the human scale is a common feature in a number of cities, where just outside the core of the city centre can be found vast mono-functional areas that suffer from a lack of spatial comprehension and careful detailing that makes them better fit for being enjoyed from the air or from a car, than for people to walk around in these environments. SCALE COMPARISON: VDNKH VS. CENTRAL MOSCOW The green silhouette marks the size of the VDNKh area including the park area and the entrance square in the front of the exhibition center; indeed a big area compared to the size of the city center of Moscow. VDNKH - PLANNED FOR AIRPLANES AND NOT FOR PEOPLE The area of VDNKh is known for the ‘All Russian Exhibition Center’. The exhibition area is about 250.000 m2 and was planned in the 1930ies to host national agricultural exhibitions. Today the area hosts fairs, exhibitions, shows, art festivals and an amusement park. The master plan design has focused on creating a monumental and powerful plan with long axises, wide boulevards, big parks and monumental buildings; and the area is very impressing - from above or looking at a map. But for people walking in the area the distances are extremely long and with almost no activities or details offered at eyelevel. At the entrance square the main gate is the attraction whereas the space itself is occupied by traffic and parking instead of people activities. AIRPLANE SCALE PEOPLE SCALE 15 MILLION VISITORS BUT NO PLACE TO REST The All Russian Exhibition Center has about 15 million visitors annually* – about 9 times more than the Kremlin. Levels of staying activity reflect this difference, but most activity in VDNKh is standing and waiting for transit as opposed to bench seating in Alexandrovsky. ALEXANDROVSKY SAD VDNKH Seen from above the layout of VDNKh is very impressive with the monumental buildings and long axises - but at eye-level the area is ‘out of scale’ with long distances to walk and few things to look at. Standing Waiting for Transport Bench Seating Cafe Seating Secondary Seating Lying Down Children Playing Commercial Activity Cultural Activity Physical Activity * Number of yearly visitors to the exhibition area according to www.vvcentre.ru/eng/ 74 Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants STAYING ACTIVITIES Outside the city centre of Moscow is a coherent string of housing developments. Common for all of them is that they are predominantly tower blocks mixed with concrete slabs and quite uniform in their architecture. Another common denominator is that the spaces in-between the buildings are often overlooked and that the scale of the areas is not carefully designed for people activities. STROGINSKY BULVAR - AN EMPTY GREEN SPACE IN AN AREA FULL OF PEOPLE The park in the middle of Stroginsky Bulvar is not a place where many people choose to spend time. The park is surrounded by traffic and is detached from the more active sidewalks along the residential blocks, commercial buildings and metro entrances. The boulevard park has a great potential in becoming more lively due to the presence of many residents in the area surrounding the park and the fact that it connects the metro and the attractive recreational lake nearby. However, the boulevard park is currently difficult to access due to few entrances and very few invitations are given to the users to play or stay in the park. The sidewalks outside Stroginsky Bulvar along the shopping center is where people choose to walk. ONLY OF PEDESTRIANS AT STROGINSKY CHOOSE TO WALK IN THE 3% GREEN SPACE *12-20 ON A WEEKDAY Stroginsky Bulvar - a runway for airplanes or a people place ? Despite being a green park in a dense living area few people choose to use the park due to the lack of benches and things to do. Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants 75 ANALYSIS LIVING AREAS LACK QUALITY SPACES A CITY FOR ALL ANALYSIS MANY YOUNG PEOPLE IN PARKS gorky Age surveys conducted in the parks of Moscow show quite a high number of children can be found in the parks, but very few elderly use the parks for recreation. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE ABSENCE OF ELDERLY IN PARKS: • • • • • Low service level in public transport (surface transport/busses) Low quality of the pedestrian envionment (e.g. uneven paving) gorky Crossing of streets are not accessible (many underpasses/tunnels) Lack of benches/places to rest in parks Often overcrowded parks gorky alexandrovsky 15 & 30 YEARS OLD *ALL COUNTS, WEEKDAY & WEEKEND OF VISITORS TO MOSCOW PARKS ARE BETWEEN 55% AGE DATA IN SELECTED PARKS alexandrovsky gorky GORKYalexandrovsky PARK 3,9% 5,8% 29,9% 7,8% sad ermitazh ALEXANDROVSKY SAD 1,6% 6,3% 5,3% 42,7% 52,5% 43,8% AGE sad ermitazh alexandrovsky tverskoy bulvar SAD ERMITAZH sad ermitazh AGE TVERSKOY BULVAR 2,3% 1,2%0,8% 1,9% 9,6% 33% 53,2% 2,2% 30,7% 65% AGE tverskoy bulvarAGE: sad ermitazh AGE 7-14 15-30 31-64 65+ 0-6 WEEKDAYS BETWEEN 11 AND 21 tverskoy bulvar 78 Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants A CITY FOR ALL gorky Gender surveys conducted in the parks of Moscow show a high number of young women present. DEMOGRAPHICS OF MOSCOW CENTRAL CITY Moscow central city has a fairly even distribution of age and gender. Nearly one in ten Moscow central city residents is older than 72. gorky alexandrovsky DEMOGRAPHICS IN MOSCOW PARKS gorky 100 9.4% 31.8% 10.4% 5.5% 9.8% 6.3% AGE 100 3.6% 19% 32% 5% 5% 14.9% 20.3% 80 60 40 20 0 26.4% 80 60 40 20 0 WOMEN AS INDICATORS INDICATORSOF OFSAFETY SAFETY - BRYANT PARK, PARK, NEW NEWYORK, YORK,USA USA Bryant Park Bryant Parkin inManhattan Manhattan used was to once be synonymous with synonymous withcrime crime and and anti-social anti-social behavior. With behavior. Withnew new management management and and programming, however, programming, however, the the park park was was cleaned up and by cleaned up the and 1990麓s experienced had undergone a dramatic a dramatic transformation. In transformation. In 1996 1996 the the city city began began counting users counting usersto totrack document the success the success of theirof improvements. the improvements. The presence The presence of women of women became an excellent became an excellent indicator indicator of quality of and quality comfort. and In 1996 39% comfort. In 1996 of users 39% were of users female, were in 2012 female, 53% in were female. 2012 53% were Bryant female. park Bryant continues park tocontinues change programming to change programming and evolves and in line evolves with changing in line user groups. with changing user groups. For more moreinfo infosee. see.http://www.bryantpark.org http://www.bryantpark.org While children are proportionally represented in Moscow parks, young people (especially young women) are vastly over-represented and the elderly make up only 3.6% of park-goers. GENDER DATA IN SELECTED PARKS alexandrovsky gorky GORKY PARK sad ermitazh alexandrovsky ALEXANDROVSKY SAD 1 38% 62% 41% 59% GENDER sad ermitazh SAD ERMITAZH alexandrovsky GENDER tverskoy bulvar TVERSKOY BULVAR sad ermitazh FEMALE VISITORS TO 62% GORKY PARK ON A WEEKDAY 2 37% 63% 47% 53% GENDER MEN GENDER: tverskoy bulvar WEEKDAYS BETWEEN 11 AND 21 sad ermitazh GENDER WOMEN tverskoy bulvar Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants 79 ANALYSIS WOMEN FREQUENTLY VISIT THE PARKS BEST PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS CELEBRATE THE UNIQUE QUALITIES Moscow has many unique qualities - the Moscow River that gave Moscow its name, the rivers and canals that supported trade for centuries, the forest close to the city center, the beautiful parks, etc. The qualities offer immense value to Moscow on which the city can capitalize even more so than it does today. KEY RECOMMENDATION: FROM AN UNDERUTILIZED CITY STRUCTURE.. CELEBRATE MOSCOW’S GREEN UNIQUENESS The accessibility and quality of recreational opportunities are primary factors to be measured when evaluating the attractiveness of a city for investment and for the settlement of labor force. Moscow has a green city center and great forests and parks in the periphery. By improving the access for pedestrians and bikes to the green amenities it will become easier for people to use and enjoy the amenities and will create a more sustainable use of the city. STRENGTHEN MOSCOW AS A WORLD CLASS CITY Moscow is world famous for its history, historical monuments and buildings. The city is a destination for many visitors and tourists and has a great potential for attracting even more visitors and investments if the historic qualities and great amenities are strengthened, connected, protected and/or highlighted by careful maintenance and design guidelines. Many of the amenities and historical areas could benefit from being connected to recreational public spaces and interconnected by streets and squares with easy access for pedestrians. ..TO A DISTINCTIVE, UNIQUE AND SMART CITY INCREASE LEGIBILITY OF STREETS The street structure of Moscow is defined with characteristic rings and distinctive boulevards. The streets today have a very similar layout and Moscow therefore could benefit from introducing a new hierarchy in the street layout, that makes it easier to orientate and to move through the city. 92 Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants 1 • CAPITALIZE ON THE GREEN • 2 CELEBRATE THE THREE CHARACTERISTIC RINGS • • 3 EMPHASIZE THE DISTINCTIVE BOULEVARDS • • • Enforce and expand the funding program for the city parks to also encompass the larger parks, forests and national parks outside the city center. Develop a network of green links to the recreational areas in the city’s periphery. Create a green Moscow center that communicates the unique nature reserves of the city region. Green the streets and squares of the city. • • Celebrate Lubyanka as a blue connection by re-opening the historic canal underneath. Establish the Bulvar Ring as a green connection of parks. Connect the Garden Ring as a continuous and distinctive green boulevard. Identify the key connections between the outer city and the city center. Develop a program of distinctive boulevards with good walking conditions, street trees, strong public transport links and a network for cycling 4 • MAINTAIN THE LOW RISE CITY • • 5 STRENGTHEN THE HISTORIC QUALITIES • • • 6 CELEBRATE THE MOSCOW WATERFRONTS • Celebrate Moscow´s medium density with unique landmarks by making restrictions on high-rise buildings within the border of the garden ring. Explore opportunities to further densify the city center by identifying vacant plots, industrial sites etc. to develop, rather than increasing the height levels of the city. • • Ensure that heritage buildings stand out in their local context. Communicate the extraordinary built qualities to locals, tourists and professionals. Prioritize careful maintenance of historic squares and buildings Conversion to other uses without destroying the heritage qualities • • Ensure accessibility to the waterfront. Create continuous promenades along the waterfronts with recreational opportunities. Supplement and create more pedestrian and bicycle bridges across the rivers and canals. Uncover the recreational potentials of the Moscow river through a public space program along the river. Where possible, rediscover historic canals. Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants 93 RECOMMENDATIONS SIX LAYERS OF CITY STRUCTURE: RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS AS CITY ACUPUNCTURE Moscow needs to be more accessible and better connected for pedestrians in order to be a liveable and sustainable city which is attractive for residents, investments and tourists. THREE TYPES OF PUBLIC SPACES ACUPUNCTURE AS MEAN OF RECOVERY Like the human body, the city organism can recover by focused treatment of specific areas. By gradually improving the most vital parts of the full organism and using the same recipe on similarly challenged areas, a gradual improvement can occur. The following recommendations are organized as general strategic recommendations supplemented by focused city acupuncture recommendations for specific topics and places. The recommendations for three central places in Moscow–the main street, the main square and the riverfront–will be further elaborated and envisioned. The recommendations are not actual projects for specified places in the city, but rather strategic advice to be considered as models for further development and design by The City of Moscow. The recommended models will often apply to other spaces in the city with similar challenges and potentials–new projects for these places must be developed individually according to context, stakeholders and momentum. STREETS • Recommendations to the streets of Moscow describe the importance of creating an accessible and well connected network for walking. This theme describes how the streets of the city are to be considered as public spaces of different types, sizes and with different roles in city life. • SQUARES • Recommendations to the squares of Moscow focus on how to transform spaces dominated by traffic and parking into attractive public spaces with balance in transport modes, thereby giving room to city life. WHAT HAVE OTHER CITIES DONE WITH SIMILAR CHALLENGES International best practice examples of how other cities have tackled similar challenges in their urban environment are presented along with the recommendations. The examples illustrate examples has been possible in creating and managing the same kind of change in similar city environments. PARKS & RIVER • • • Recommendations to the parks of Moscow intend to fulfill a strong potential. Moscow is a green city with beautiful and attractive parks. The main recommendation focuses on how to improve access to the parks and how to connect the city and the city spaces to the river. 102 Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants 103 RECOMMENDATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS ACTIVATE AND BALANCE CITY STREETS City streets are the veins of local public life. On a city street most people conduct their daily shopping, move their way through daily activities and meet with people from their neighborhood. BEST PRACTICE TRANSFORMING THE STREETSCAPE GAMMEL KONGEVEJ, COPENHAGEN, DK Gammel Kongevej in Copenhagen Denmark has always been one of the main city streets connecting the inner city with one of the surrounding districts. The street was for many years dominated by car traffic and was difficult to cross. In a regeneration project, the layout of the street was transformed into a neighborhood street with a balanced traffic layout. Today the street has wider foot paths, bicycle lanes on both sides and lanes reserved for public transport and parking. The street now has one lane of traffic in each direction and a median that makes it easy for pedestrians to cross. On side streets the foot path and bicycle lane is continued, so the cars to and from the side street are alert to pedestrians and bikes. CASE: MYATSNITSKAYA Being a narrow city street with a lot of local shopping and service, Myatsnitskaya would benefit from the removal of all non-local traffic except for deliveries. Instead, the street could be exclusive to public transport, deliveries, pedestrians and bicycles, with invitations to spend time along the street. TODAY OPEN UP GROUND FLOOR FRONTAGES Encourage ground floor activities to expand into the public space INTRODUCE POCKET PARKS & GREENERY Integrate places into the rest of the streetscape WIDER & BETTER SIDEWALKS Widen the sidewalks to improve conditions for pedestrians VISION INSTALL BENCHES Invite people to pause and rest on comfortable benches in attractive locations IMPROVE PAVING The pavement must be uniform, walkable, and accessible INTRODUCE LIGHT RAIL Introduce light rail as the main transport mode in the neighborhood streets INTRODUCE BIKE PATHS Make two directional bike paths to offer easy access to and from the city center by bike The sidewalks of Gammel Kongevej is continued over the sidestreets signalising high priority to pedestrians 110 Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants While Moscow has about 2,2 kilometers of pedestrian streets in the city center, one goal must be to expand this network over time. Pedestrian streets should offer optimal conditions for pedestrians, a network of attractive and accessible walking environments that stimulate all senses in a positive way. DESIGN POLICY FOR STREET FURNITURE MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA In the 1990’s, Melbourne’s street furniture program was renewed. A carefully designed program of city furnishings now sets the scene of the streetscapes and urban spaces. Café chairs and tables were initially purchased or leased from the Town Hall to ensure a uniform design of the urban landscape. Planters, litter bins and other furnishing elements are executed in uniform materials and colors and have become a ‘signature’ for the city. CASE: ARBAT Arbat is the main pedestrian street of Moscow and a popular tourist destination. City tourists spend a lot of time as pedestrians, and choose their holiday location by the attractiveness of the streetscape. Arbat has the right scale, location and length to become an even more attractive destination for visitors as well as residents. TODAY IMPROVE INVITATIONS TO STAY Add public benches to invite people to stay. GREEN THE STREETSCAPE Introduce more green elements Encourage people to live above shops to maintain like trees, green ‘pocket public life day and night. squares’ and planters. NURTURE A NEIGHBORHOOD EXTEND THE USE OVER TIME Make sure the street is active all day and through all seasons. VISION IMPROVE PAVING The pavement must be uniform, accessible and visually attractive. IMPROVE ACCESIBILITY Continue the even surface through the whole street and from facade to facade Make a coherent design manual for outdoor cafés and other furniture elements. IMPROVE VISUAL QUALITY Pavilions, service buildings, street furniture and signposts share an architectural expression that becomes part of the city’s identity. Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants 111 RECOMMENDATIONS UPGRADE PEDESTRIAN STREETS BEST PRACTICE RECOMMENDATIONS BRING PUBLIC LIFE TO THE WATERFRONTS Moscow´s great stretches of riverbank in the city center will be a new river park. An attractive and scenic route incorporated into the pedestrian network of the city center will bring people and public life to the water. INVITE PEOPLE CLOSE TO THE WATER Transform the riverbanks into attractive parks and boulevards, especially the south facing banks. Public spaces along the river banks should also be developed. CONNECT THE RIVER WITH THE PUBLIC SPACE NETWORK Ensure easy pedestrians and bicycles travel between the riverfront and the inner city. Public spaces and the riverfront should supplement eachother. IMPROVE CONNECTIONS ACROSS THE RIVER • Make more pedestrian and bicycle crossings to improve the pedestrian network and to reduce walking distances. Develop the individual character of the bridges by lighting, art or recreational qualities. • MAIN RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE RIVER PARK: DECREASE TRAFFIC ALONG THE RIVER DEVELOP A PEDESTRIAN NETWORK ?? ?? BUILD MORE BRIDGES ?? ?? ?? ?? FROM TO FROM TO FROM TO Decrease traffic from the riverbanks and let tourist and residents meet the riverfront. Reduce the number of lanes for cars to give space for pedestrians, bikes and public transport to improve the environment. Strengthen the connection between the city center and the green recreational network by introducing a new route for bikes and pedestrians through calm attractive areas without heavy traffic along the river. Build more bridges for pedestrians and bikes. This will shorten distances and improve the pedestrian flow through the city. 122 Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants Alexandrovsky Sad Red Square New park Boulevard Ring RECLAIM THE RIVERFRONT Boulevard Ring Cathedral Transform the highway along the south facing riverfront into a boulevard with space for people along the river CONNECT TO THE PUBLIC SPACE NETWORK Ensure that all public spaces along the river are integrated with the riverfront boulevard RECLAIM THE RIVERFRONT Transform the south facing side of the canal into an attractive car free urban area Art Park IMPROVE PEDESTRIAN CONNECTIONS ACROSS THE WATER New pedestrian and bike bridge connects the Art Park and the Strelka area IMPROVE CONNECTIONS ALONG THE WATER Remove barriers and improve the environment under bridges to connect the different parts of the riverfront Garden Ring Garden Ring Gorky Park GET CLOSE TO THE WATER INTRODUCE NEW FUNCTIONS FROM TO FROM TO Make it possible to see, meet, and touch the water by making public spaces and promenades along the river and platforms on the water. Program the spaces and promenade along the river with functions that support both recreation and activities like bicycle paths, fitness routes, parks, playgrounds, art, water sculptures etc. Gehl Architects 路 Urban Quality Consultants 123 RECOMMENDATIONS SKETCH PLAN - RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE RIVER FRONT MOSCOW HAS MANY UNIQUE QUALITIES AND GREAT POTENTIAL IN BECOMING A BEAUTIFUL AND LIVEABLE CITY. G L . K O NG EV EJ 1 路 DK -16 10 CO P ENHA G EN V T EL : +4 5 3 2 9 5 0 9 5 1 路 F A X: +4 5 3 2 9 5 0 9 5 8 MA I L @G EHL A RCHI T ECT S .DK 路 W W W . GEH L A R CH ITECTS . D K