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GARDEN TRIPOD

Issue 20 February/March 2014

Horticultural Science Technology & Art

Cover Image Cyclone by LFurtwaengler

All The Materials Contained May Not Be Reproduced, Copied, Edited, Published, Transmitted Or Uploaded In Any Way Without the artist/photographers Permission. These Images/writings Do Not Belong To The Public Domain. All images and information within the Garden Tripod magazine are the responsibility of the owner/artist/writer/photographer & not the Garden Tripod magazine 2012-2014


GARDEN TRIPOD Horticultural Science Technology & Art Issue

23 June 2014 Garden Tripod Web Site www.gardentripod.com

About … 7 8 26 35 36 38 42

Office News Hound

Garden Birds challenge

Feature krishoupt

floraculture.eu

LARS FURTWAENGLER

Niagara’s Treasures

Calendar Feature, Celeste Mookherjee

51 60 66 72

Calendar Feature, Nicole W.

Fine Art America features

About: BillyLee

Common Birds of the 


Australian National Botanic Gardens

77 83

Nature’s Healing

Fire !!!

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GARDEN TRIPOD Horticultural Science, Technology & Art Welcome to our 23rd edition of the Garden Tripod. Wow our 23rd edition and still looking amazing due to all the fabulous images that are arriving. Thank you everyone for joining in and supporting the Garden Tripod.

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This is a slightly smaller edition that normal, as we are still playing catchup from when we had no computers in the office But .. I think you will agree the quality of images and writing is as always outstanding.

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We have Nicole W telling us how to use fire in the garden (Please remember fire is dangers so be responsible and have a bucket of sand or fire extinguisher ready. Also if using ‘christmas lights ‘ out side in the garden please insure they are the type suitable to use out doors .. we don't want anyone getting electrocuted !)

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Marilyn Cornwell, have a wonderful article about the wine producers she has visited, and Katie Freeth explains the roll of some well known garden plants out side the garden.

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Also we have a great selection of garden birds from across the world.

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As always we are including real text, so grammatical errors and spelling mistakes are all included free of charge

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The Garden Tripod is also beginning its search for talented artists and photographers to be included in the Garden Tripod hard cover book. As this is going to be printed we will need high res images (300 dpi) and an artist statement with a short bio.

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So if you would like your images to be looked at for inclusion, please go to the Garden Tripods Web site (Talk to Us page) and fill in the request form or email to gardentripod@yahoo.com. Closing date is the 1st September 2014 Look forward to seeing your applications. Charlie

A little word from our

Office News Hound Hi Folks ..

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I am officially the office dog for the Garden Tripod Magazine.

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O wow ~ I just love the tote bags .. how cool would it be to see my photo being taken out on a tote bag. It could be full of my treats or a picnic for a sunny day, shopping or just to look great on your arm..

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The tiny baby deer in the photo, was in my garden !! its mum thought my garden was a safe place for her baby.. who is a little bit smaller than me. ! WoW I must be on my best behaviour not to scare the baby or mum .. and then they will come and visit me again soon. Guess I am trying to say .. woof :)

Stay Safe Princess Summer

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Garden Birds Catalogue

Garden Tripod Supports Country Gardens come grow with us group challenge

"He sings each song twice over" by Mortimer123

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the famous up-side-down sparrow by Nicole W.

Sparrow by LFurtwaengler

Colored Pencil / Pastel Pencil | 2013

Male Finch by Kenneth Hoffman

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White Doves by Vicki Spindler (VHS Photography) St Fagans in Cardiff, Wales

The Next generation by WildestArt Stuttgart, Ark USA.

Taken in Chester UK

We have a family of BlueTits nesting in our garden ( see next image ), this is one of the parents after they had collected an unsuspecting caterpillar for lunch, only one baby has so far fledged,

The Blue Tit (Cyanistes caeruleus or Parus caeruleus) is a small passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. The bird is easily recognisable by its blue and yellow plumage, but various authorities dispute their scientific classification.
 Blue tits, usually resident and non-migratory birds, are widespread and a common resident breeder throughout temperate and subarctic Europe and western Asia in deciduous or mixed woodlands with a high proportion of oak. They usually nest in

tree holes, although they easily adapt to nest boxes where necessary. The main rival for nests and search for food is the much larger Great Tit.
 The blue tit prefers insects and spiders for their diet. Outside the breeding season, they also eat seeds and other vegetable-based foods. Blue tits are famed for their skill, as they can cling to the outermost branches and hang upside down when looking for food.

Collecting the families Lunch by AnnDixon

Bluebird on a swing by KSKphotography

Ready to Sing Close-up of a robin on a lychen covered tree branch. Somerset, UK.

by Alexandra Lavizzari

Wren On the Roof by AuntDot Dunnellon, Florida

You Looking at Me? /Yellow Warbler by hummingbirds Chateauguay, Quebec, Canada.


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Hang'n out for Lunch by Tony Steinberg Rainbow Lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) hanging upside-down eating the flowers of a Date Palm in bloom.

Photographed at Aspley, Queensland Australia

Lorikeets at play by Celeste Mookherjee

wild birds near Brisbane, Australia

winter robin by marxbrothers LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

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A robin feathering his nest by ElsT GLASGOW, UNITED KINGDOM

Robin in the sun by Arie Koene Benmore Gardens – Sandton – Scotland

"Left or Right?" by Sandra Fortier Chateauay Quebec.

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Garden Sparrow

by autumnwind

RED-BILLED HORNBILL - Tockus erythrorhynchus by Magaret Meintjes

LIMPOPO PROVINCE, TOLWE, SOUTHA AFRICA

Indigo Bunting Songbird - Passerina cyanea by MotherNature

Green Lane, Pennsylvania, USA, on May 10, 2014

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Roz by WhiteDove Studio kj gordon 
 Ahwatukee Arizona DRIED ACRYLIC PAINT CUT OUT MOZAIC ON 331/3 LP VINYL ALBUM

A face only a mother could love by wolftinz It’s hard to believe that this little guy will grow up to become a beautiful Cardinal.
 In my garden, in Sodus, NY USA

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Garden Birds

Top Ten Results

7 winter robin by marxbrothers

5 Bluebird on a swing by KSKphotography

5 Robin in the sun by Arie Koene

3 Garden Sparrow by autumnwind

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Collecting the families Lunch by AnnDixon

6 Sparrow by LFurtwaengler

5 Ready to Sing by Alexandra Lavizzari

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"He sings each song twice over" by Mortimer123

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the famous up-side-down s by Nicole W.

2 You Looking at Me? / Yellow Warbler by hummingbirds

winter robin by marxbrothers

Winning Entry Garden Tripod 23

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Window to the World Challenge Winner Feature

Flowers in the Window was taken at the Old Stone House in Salisbury, NC Enjoy this picture as it takes you back in time‌.

Flowers in the Window by krishoupt

About..

I am a nature lover and enjoy being in the outdoors. I enjoy photography and am using a Canon t2i to shoot with. I like the challenge that photography brings. To be able to see something in your mind and try to reproduce it with a camera for others to see things as you do. I hope you enjoy seeing pictures though my camera and my eyes.

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Dragonfly by krishoupt

Simple Butterfly by krishoupt

Orchids from Reynolda by krishoupt

Many Edges was taken at Pilot Mt. State Park in North Carolina. Pilot Mt. is at an elevation of 2421 ft. It is made of quartzite rock and has been a landmark for Indians and travellers alike. This is a rock tower which climbs skyward on one of the ledges.

Many Edges by krishoupt

Paradise was taken along the coast of South Carolina. This is a peaceful scene that lures you into the picture.

Paradise by krishoupt Garden Tripod 23

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New Guinea Impatiens Impatiens x hawkeri by MotherNature

First bi-colored New Guinea Impatiens from seed wins 2015 Fleuroselect Gold Medal The Gold Medals are awarded to genuine breakthroughs in breeding

ENKHUIZEN, the Netherlands: Syngenta Flowers’ bicolored beauty, Impatiens Hawkeri Florific® Sweet Orange, is a 2015 winner of the Fleuroselect Gold Medal/Approved Novelty. The Gold Medals are awarded to genuine breakthroughs in breeding, recognizing varieties that are superior in both breeding excellence and beauty. Florific® Sweet Orange is the first bicolor in seedraised New Guinea Impatiens. Thanks to its excellent branching habit, it is a showy, full plant with huge flowers that present splendidly above the foliage. Its color ranges from Deep Orange to Light Orange in one flower. A shade-lover, Florific® Sweet Orange is an exceptional variety for baskets, window boxes, and flower borders. It is also truly eye-catching when p l a n t e d i n l a rg e r q u a n t i t i e s u n d e r t a l l e r plants.  According to Fleuroselect “entries in the Fleuroselect Trials which score high on innovation, beauty, use and garden performance are granted a Gold Medal. This prestigious award symbolizes excellence in breeding and beauty.“ Fleuroselect commented further: “The jury highly appreciated the breeding achievement in introducing bicolor genetics into seed-raised Impatiens Hawkeri. This is a real breakthrough and therefore Fleuroselect awarded the Florific® Sweet Orange a Gold Medal for the 2015 season.” Fleuroselect also found that the Florific® Sweet Orange offers real market value. Syngenta’s Florific® New Guinea Impatiens are the most uniform series from seed, with very large flowers and strong branching plants. They need little or no PGRs, can be grown in lower temperatures and offer a superior quality for 12 cm pots and larger. Ve r y r o b u s t , t h e y a l s o o f f e r i m p r o v e d transportability and shelf-life. They attract customers, too, thanks to great field performance and large flowers that last till late autumn, even in cooler temperatures. And in addition to the awardwinning, bicolor Sweet Orange, this series also includes red, white, violet and lavender.

Syngenta Flowers is the wholesale organization for seeds and cuttings for pot and bedding plants. Besides genetics, it offers crop protection for a vast range of ornamentals including bulbs and cut flowers, as well as complete integrated solutions. As a partner to distributors, growers, retailers and consumers, Syngenta Flowers focuses on business needs and helping everyone to enjoy beautiful, healthy plants. Find more information on www.syngentaflowers.eu. Syngenta is one of the world’s leading companies with more than 28,000 employees in over 90 countries dedicated to our purpose: Bringing plant potential to life. Through world-class science, global reach and commitment to our customers we help to increase crop productivity, protect the environment and improve health and quality of life. For more information about us please go to www.syngenta.com.

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My Weapon of Choice LARS FURTWAENGLER ! My weapon of choice is the coloured pencil. It’s more than just a medium for me. You’ll find the coloured pencil as an integral part in many of my drawings. I work with a variety of reoccurring themes and symbols.

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I was born and raised in Germany but spent the last decade in Miami, Florida. I am fascinated with the exotic plants and animals surrounding me here and they frequently find their way into my artwork.

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There’s often a bit of a twist in my work, something to make you think and take another look. I get lost in these drawings and I find myself in them.

Breeding Grounds by LFurtwaengler

Blue Skies Goldfishing

Parting Ways

Cliff Diving

by LFurtwaengler See more at RedBubble or visit Lars web page at www.larsfurtwaengler.de

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Niagara’s Treasures

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Marilyn Cornwell

The Niagara Peninsula has been home to tender fruit and to grapes and wine for a long time. My mother has a relationship to Niagara’s wineries. She was the nanny for the Bright family, owners of the second oldest winery in Canada. This was her first paid work – she had to leave school because of the Depression. She went on from there to her first real job at the canning factory. It is now home to Strewn Winery in Niagara-on-the-Lake. We go there for lunch and she tells everyone who works there that she also worked there – when it was a canning factory. Their young eyes get very wide to think of such a contrast in jobs. Tender fruit and vineyards grow because of the escarpment that Niagara Falls roars over. It is limestone, and the different types of soil below are fertile and lush. This soil, in combination with the moderate temperatures caused by the escarpment and the Lake, is home to a tender fruit belt where peaches, apricots, and cherries are lush. Niagara’s temperatures are influenced by Lake Ontario, which acts as a hot water bottle in winter - raising winter temperatures on land from its summer-warmed waters. In spring and summer, crops benefit from the lake's offshore breezes, which are reflected back to the lake when they reach the escarpment, maintaining constant and active airflow. This circulating activity prevents cold air from settling in lower-lying areas during threatening periods of frost, and maximises the moderating effect of the warm waters of the lake. Now that I live here, I experience the Lake effects – mist rolls in from the lake in waves like smoke.

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Niagara Peaches Marilyn Cornwell

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Niagara has moved on from tender fruit to wineries in the last 30 years. Our tender fruit does not travel well – even from farmer’s market to kitchen. Our peaches are soft, juicy, sweet and tangy, but they mould quickly. The major canning factories eventually shut down and peach orchards were pulled out and vineyards replaced them. Grafting techniques have improved along with varieties and growing techniques. Beginning in the 1970’s Vitis vinifera was successfully grown. In the 1990’s fine grape varieties were successfully grown in Niagara. Being a cooler climate, the result has been complex, delicate and longer ageing potential properties. So the addition of vineyards means that one can travel along the north shore of Lake Ontario from Grimsby to the Niagara River and see both fruit orchards and vineyards on either side all the way.

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Grapes white

There were less than 70 wineries in 2003 in Niagara compared to more than 100 today. This means there are now interesting buildings set in the landscape. The wineries display diverse architectural styles.

Grapes red

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My own favourites are those that have preserved buildings from the past. They are: Hidden Bench, Peninsula Ridge, Stoneyridge, 13th Street and The Good Earth.

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Hidden Bench’s distinctive barn set in the vineyards. The images below show it in the early summer and then the winter.

Hidden Bench Label

Hidden Bench Summer & Winter

Everything about the harvest is wonderful. Hidden Bench Boots

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Peninsula Ridge Another favourite is Peninsula Ridge. The heritage house contains the restaurant. Located mid-way up the escarpment, it has clear views of the Toronto skyline across the lake.

Peninsula Ridge Autumn

Peninsula Ridge Winter

Stoneyridge The winery in the area that is known as the Garden Winery is Stoneyridge. It has a grove of Hepicodium, known as the Seven Sons Flower Tree. This is a small tree that has fragrant flowers in August.

Stoneyridge

Stoneyridge Japanese

Tawse Winery

Tawse Winery is built into the rising escarpment. Its vineyard has a grazing flock of sheep to tend to its leaf trimming in the vineyards. I wondered if the sheep would eat the grapes, and the answer is they would certainly eat them when the crop is ripe, so they are moved in the autumn.

Tawse Sheep

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13th Street Patio

Thirteenth Street Winery !

The Thirteenth Street Winery is another favourite. It has both the fruit farm and winery. There is a Crimean Oak tree growing on the property. The acorn was brought from Russia as a symbol of the legendary tree that sheltered the Mennonites who migrated to Russia to farm and then subsequently escaped in the 1920’s to the Americas. My father was one of those escapees whose family settled in Niagara so this is a wonderful tree for our family. This is the spring view of the Magnolia-shaded patio at the winery.

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The Good Earth

Our last winery that is such a favourite is The Good Earth. It has a welcoming patio with Muskoka Chairs and its summer garden looks out over the vineyards.

The Good Earth Patio

The Good Earth Summer Garden Marilyn Cornwell

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www.gardentripod.com

June

Celeste Mookherjee LONG BEACH, UNITED STATES

! Me in a nutshell: passionate about photography, especially nature subjects. My background is in film photography (including black and white and color darkroom experience), but I had a long period of inactivity until I bought a point-and-shoot digital camera in 2004 and learned to hate “shutter lag.� I moved up to my first DSLR (an Olympus E-300) in 2005 and have been immersed in photography ever since.

June

Celeste Mookherjee

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Ranunculus asiaticus

Ethereal dahlia by Celeste Mookherjee

Mellow yellow by Celeste Mookherjee

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Icelandic poppy

Pastel tree dahlia by Celeste Mookherjee

Sunshine poppy by Celeste Mookherjee

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Angel's trumpet inner sanctum by Celeste Mookherjee

Celeste Mookherjee

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Art in Nature by Celeste Mookherjee Art in Nature: A Little Book of Nature’s Wonders

The book is available in softcover and hardcover editions (with upgraded premium paper) as well as ebook format (for iPad, iPhone and iPad Touch)

www.gardentripod.com

June

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Nicole W. I was a little sad when I said my goodbye`s to the good old, always working, ever so easy compact camera. But it was time to pursue my dream and make photography a real hobby. Put in the hours, experiment with every crazy idea I get and LEARN. This all happened in february 2012. I bought a nice camera, and found redbubble to show off the little bit of work thats worth showing off. I love to make pictures of nature. The flowers, the animals and the landscapes.
 Every sunday if life allowes me, I will go out into nature with one of my dogs and try to see those things that nobody else sees. And make them obvious in my photo`s.

Nicole W.

June

I know i know..its a stretch! by Nicole W.

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dunnock by Nicole W.

Netherlands, gemele


Untitled by Nicole W.

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What a man! by Nicole W.

Male hawfinch

little willow tit by Nicole W.

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Nicole W.

Peeking by Nicole W.

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An exhibition from Fine Art America Group Garden Tripod

Azalea Bonsai by Ross Henton 

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Evening Light on the Brittlebush  by Lucinda Walter 

Curls of Ivory. by Denise Clark

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The Sweet Hereafter by Laurie Search 

Beautiful and Mystical Iris  by Jennifer Doll

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About: BillyLee

The Art of Printmaking After spending 25 years as a photographer, Belinda Nye or BillyLee has embraced the art of PRINTMAKING reinterpreting the photographic image to a new medium. 
 Nye states that the act of carving the plate, of rolling on the ink and of pulling the print is all part of an expressive and very personal dance, describing the excitement of lifting the blankets and paper to reveal the print as “visceral”.
 (6 Degree art prize 2005 Frankston Arts Centre) from insert of catalogue

Little Snow Bird by Belinda "BillyLee" NYE (Printmaker)

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Acrylic and Ink Collage on Canvas

Always the Odd One Out by Belinda "BillyLee" NYE (Printmaker)

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Tangerine Bird by Belinda "BillyLee" NYE (Printmaker)

Australian Cockatoos by Belinda "BillyLee" NYE (Printmaker)

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Common Birds of the 
 Australian National Botanic Gardens !

The Australian National Botanic Gardens provides a haven for many birds. The diversity of native plant species and the range of habitats provide food and shelter for a greater variety and larger numbers of birds than might otherwise be expected in Canberra.

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A full list of birds in the Gardens is available from the Visitor Information Centre. The bird calls below were originally transferred audially from tape to a Sun Sparcstation and stored in uncompressed 8-bit Sun audio format in 1993, then later converted to MP3 format in 2005.

Australian Wood Duck - Chenonetta jubata [colour illustration] [line drawing] Australian Wood Ducks can be seen around the pools near the Cafe and grazing on grassed areas such as the Eucalypt Lawn. They breed regularly near the Cafe. The Wood Duck feeds almost entirely on vegetation, particularly grasses. The birds commonly associate in small flocks. They occur around water courses and lakes in eastern and southwestern Australia. The range of the Wood Duck has expanded since European settlement as its habitat has increased through land clearing.

Pied Currawong - Strepera graculina [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] [ bird call MP3] Pied Currawongs can be seen (and heard!) throughout the Gardens and are common near the Cafe, where they scavenge scraps. They naturally occur in the forests and woodlands of eastern Australia and migrate from the highlands to lower altitudes in winter. Their diet includes fruits and grasses, insects and small vertebrates, even nestling birds.

Australian Magpie - Gymnorhina tibicen Educational information

[ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] [ bird call MP3] [group of birds calling MP3] Magpies are common in most parts of the Gardens. They occur naturally throughout Australia, but are less common in the arid inland areas and along the northern coast. Magpies also occur in Papua New Guinea and have been introduced to New Zealand. During the breeding season in spring, male magpies protect their territory by 'swooping' intruders; a painful experience for those unlucky enough to be hit. The magpie forages on the ground for insects, worms and seeds. Please note the links in this page will send you to the web site of the Australian National Botanic Gardens web site <http://www.anbg.gov.au> <https://www.anbg.gov.au/copyright.html>

White-winged Chough - Corcorax melanorhamphos [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] [ bird call MP3] Groups of White-winged Choughs can be seen scratching through the garden bed mulch in most areas of the Gardens. They are searching for insects and other invertebrates which form the bulk of their diet. They occur naturally in woodland and forest areas of south-eastern Australia. White-winged Choughs breed communally and construct mud nests. Sometimes more than one female lays eggs in the nest.

Laughing Kookaburra - Dacelo novaeguineae [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] [ bird call MP3] The 'laugh' of the Kookaburra is one of the most enduring sounds of the Australian bush. In the Gardens Kookaburras are usually seen perched high in trees or on tall poles, watching for prey. Kookaburras feed on insects and worms, swooping down on small water animals such as frogs, reptiles and other small vertebrate animals. Before European settlement Kookaburras were found only in mainland eastern Australia, but they were introduced to Tasmania and Western Australia on several occasions between 1897 and 1912 and have now established there.

Crimson Rosella - Platycercus elegans [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] [ bird call MP3] Crimson Rosellas, with startling crimson and blue plumage, are common in the Gardens. They are tree or ground foragers and can be seen eating the fruits of trees and shrubs or the spore capsules from the underside of tree ferns in the Rainforest Gully. The rosella beak is very efficient at tearing open fruits. Crimson Rosellas occur in a variety of forest habitats in south-eastern Australia and usually live in small flocks. Eastern Rosellas (Platycercus eximus) are also found in the Gardens, in more open woodland. They can be recognised by the splashes of yellow feathers and the lettuce green rump.

Red Wattlebird - Anthochaera carunculata [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ]

Educational information

One of the most common (and raucous) birds in the Gardens is the Red Wattlebird. They are generally seen feeding on the nectar of the many banksias, waratahs and grevilleas. Red Wattlebirds (named because of the red lobes of skin, called 'wattles', at the side of the neck) also feed on insects and fruit. They occur naturally in native forests and woodlands of southern Australia and are common in parks and gardens.

Please note the links in this page will send you to the web site of the Australian National Botanic Gardens web site <http://www.anbg.gov.au> <https://www.anbg.gov.au/copyright.html>

New Holland Honeyeater - Phylidonyris novaehollandiae [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] New Holland Honeyeaters are attracted to nectar-producing flowers, especially those such as banksias and grevilleas. The tongue of the birds has a 'brush' at the end, which helps gather the sweet nectar. The birds also eat insects. New Holland Honeyeaters occur naturally in forest, woodland and heath areas within a few hundred kilometres of the coast of southern Australia.

Eastern Spinebill - Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] [ bird call MP3] Many of the plants growing in the Gardens bear flowers which produce large quantities of nectar. Birds attracted to feed from the flowers, such as the Eastern Spinebill, then carry pollen from flower to flower. Eastern Spinebills occur naturally in rainforest, woodland and heath areas of the eastern coast of Australia. They feed mostly on nectar but also catch insects, especially to feed to young.

Spotted Pardalote - Pardalotus punctatus [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] The tiny Spotted Pardalote can often be heard high in the tree tops feeding on insects which are picked from the leaves of eucalypts. It has a soft piping voice. They are most commonly seen during the winter months. The birds naturally occur in eastern and south-western Australia. They generally move in small groups, but may form larger flocks during the winter.

White-browed Scrubwren - Sericornis frontalis [ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] White-browed Scrubwrens can be found in most shrub-covered areas of the Gardens and are very common in the Rainforest Gully. They are usually seen in pairs or small groups close to the ground. White-browed Scrubwrens occur naturally in dense undergrowth in the forests, woodlands and heathlands of eastern and south western Australia. They feed on a diet of insects and other small invertebrates.

Superb Fairy-wren - Malurus cyaneus Educational information

[ colour illustration ] [ line drawing ] [ bird call MP3 ] [ bird call long MP3 ] Superb Fairy-wrens are a common sight among the shrubs and low-growing bushes of the Gardens. The wrens often live in groups of 6 to 12 birds and feed mainly on a diet of small insects found in low shrubbery and on the ground. They occur naturally in most areas of south-eastern Australia. Cats are a major predator. The male wren can be recognised by its blue feathers, which are especially prominent during the breeding season in spring.

Please note the links in this page will send you to the web site of the Australian National Botanic Gardens web site <http://www.anbg.gov.au> <https://www.anbg.gov.au/copyright.html>

Educational information

Australian Magpie (Black-backed)

Painting by Neville Cayley (1886-1950)

Please note the links in this page will send you to the web site of the Australian National Botanic Gardens web site <http://www.anbg.gov.au> <https://www.anbg.gov.au/copyright.html>

The Culture of Plants Nature’s Healing Katie Freeth! I have spent the first three weeks of May travelling in Scotland and England. My senses were enlivened by the colours and scents of spring – in particular the glorious natural displays of the hedgerows.

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Native plants return to us again and again, more or less vigorous from year to year, reflecting their battle with the elements. This winter has been one of the wettest on record; the hedgerow vigour clearly demonstrates this.

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But what a bountiful provider nature can be when the weather is right! Humans have exploited our plants, since the beginning of history, for both medicine and food.

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The humble herbs of our ancestors are part of a vast pharmacopeia, with a staggering proportion of our modern medicines being plant-derived. A couple of these plants are widely known for their development from folk medicines to proven modern drugs.

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Digitalis purpurea, the common foxglove, displays beautiful and graceful spires of white to pink to purple flowers with characteristic spotted markings that act as “bee runways”. All parts of the plant are poisonous, including the roots and seeds. Foxgloves are well known for severe poisoning after ingestion of the leaves – often because of misidentification as comfrey (Symphytum officinale). Despite its toxicity, the foxglove has been widely used in folk-medicine. Foxglove tea (as an infusion of the leaves) was taken for colds, fevers and catarrh, and compresses were used for ulcers, swellings and bruises. Its most common use was as a diuretic against dropsy (a condition of accumulation of fluid in the tissues), for which it was sometimes effective, but occasionally proved fatal.

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The plant became medicinally important in the late 18th century following research conducted by an English physician and botanist, William Withering. He studied the medicinal use of foxgloves, in particular their use in the treatment of dropsy. He discovered that an infusion of the leaves could slow and strengthen the heartbeat, which in turn stimulated the kidneys to clear the body and lungs of excess fluid. He also showed that foxglove leaves could be used in the treatment of heart failure (but that high doses could stop the heart). An Account of the Foxglove and Some of its Medical Uses: with Practical Remarks on Dropsy, and Other Diseases (1785) is Withering’s landmark publication; it is the first English text in which the therapeutic effects of a drug are described, and is considered by some to mark the birth of modern pharmacology.

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Using Withering’s work, scientists have been able to isolate and purify both digitoxin and digoxin (cardiac glycosides used in modern medicine as heart stimulants in the drug digitalis). The therapeutic margin is narrow – which means it is just a very small step between digitalis helping the heart and digitalis killing the patient!

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Digitoxin can build up to fatal levels in the body and its use must be monitored; thus its use within the medical profession can be quite limited. Similarly modern herbalists have largely abandoned its use because of the difficulty of determining the amount of active drug in herbal preparations. Today, digitalis is normally made using Digitalis lanata leaves.

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The genus Salix contains many examples of tree medicines, and demonstrates the difference between living plant medicines and pharmaceuticals or isolated extracts

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There are over 400 species of Willow, growing all through the Northern Hemisphere. Willow has a long history of medicinal use; as early as 3000BC the Egyptians are recorded as using willow bark to reduce pain and fever; Hippocrates (460 -377 BC), left records describing the use of powder made from the bark and leaves of the willow tree to help headaches, pains and fevers, and by 30AD both Greek and Roman physicians recommended the use of willow leaf to treat inflammation. In botanical medicine, White Willow (Salix alba) is most commonly referenced, although other species like Black Willow (S. nigra) and Crack Willow (S. fragilis) can be used interchangeably in many cases.

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Willow bark contains salicin, which is a precursor to salicylic acid. Ingestion of a tincture or infusion of willow results in the digestive metabolism converting salicin to salicylic acid. Acetyl salicylic acid or ASA is the active ingredient of Aspirin. ASA can be manufactured from salicylic acid. Willow bark is one of the original plants from which Aspirin was made. Aspirin has traditionally been used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory in cases of fever headache, muscular and joint pains and gout.

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Traditional homeopathic preparations of Willow Bark is available for use as an aspirin substitute in such cases BUT … … … Aspirin, in tiny daily doses, is widely used to assist blood thinning in patients with heart disease; Willow Bark will NOT thin the blood – a typical example of the differences between the living plant medicine and the pharmaceutical extract from it. Another difference is that the notorious stomach damaging side effect of Aspirin is less pronounced with Salix alba preparations.

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Plants help plants. The addition of an aspirin to water in a vase increases the life of cut flowers. This effect is attributable to the salicylic acid, which, when naturally occurring within plants, plays an important role in their defence systems.

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However, there is a cautionary tale about plant medicines. Digitalis spp. and Salix spp. are but two plant medicines, although a staggering proportion of our medicines are plant-derived, lending a critical new dimension to the role of Plant Conservation Programmes around the world. An anti-cancer drug, Taxol / Paclitaxel, was developed in USA in the 1960s from the bark Taxus brevifolia, the Pacific Yew. Harvesting the bark for its medicinal properties kills the tree and over-harvesting led to near extinction of T. brevifolia. A Himalayan yew T. contorta, found in Afghanistan, Nepal and India, subsequently used for the same purpose was added to the IUCN Red List in 2011, as a direct result of over-harvesting. Fortunately, researchers have found that the drug precursor can be extracted from yew clippings of which huge quantities are produced every year.

! Plants help people – let’s treat them with respect! !

References: http://www.nhs.uk/news/2012/06june/Pages/foxgloves-digoxin-digitalis-extractcan-prevent-high-blood-pressure-heart-failure.aspx http://www.kew.org/science-conservation/plants-fungi/digitalis-purpureacommon-foxglove http://www.aspirin-foundation.com/ http://www.aspree.org/AUS/aspree-content/aspirin/history-aspirin.aspx http://www.arthritisresearchuk.org/ http://traditionalroots.org/flexible-strength-willow-medicine-salix-spp/ http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/nov/10/iucn-red-list-treechemotherapy

Katie Freeth!

ŠKatie Freeth!

ŠKatie Freeth!

ŠKatie Freeth!

Energy Forms I by Alex Fricke

Fire!!! !

Nicole W

I never thought much about fire in my garden. Yet…its everywhere. Thought I’d give it a closer look today, because in a lot of gardens, its inevitable. Every time you light up your bbq, light a candle or use any kind of outdoor heating, there’s fire. I thought I`d give you some ideas! Fire attracts attention. That’s for sure. People gaze into the flames, letting their thoughts take over and start daydreaming. So what is it that gets our attention? Maybe it’s the fear? We all know about houses catching fire and destroying everything one has, but I don’t think that’s what’s making us want fire in our gardens. In fact, I’m pretty sure it isn’t. I think it’s the sense of romance that comes with candlelight. I know for sure it adds a lot to people’s wellbeing. The other day I was expecting my in-law’s for a visit and because the weather was so nice, I decided to sit outside with them and light a fire in the large concrete bbq that I have. As soon as they came in, they pulled up their chairs closer to the fire and started to relax. It wasn’t cold at all, but the little heat from the fire really made us comfortable. Then, as it got darker, I lighted just a few candles. Our eyes adjusted to the light fading and everyone looked good in the glow. We sat outside until very late, nobody wanted to leave this cozy warm place. So…it’s worth it to add some fire to your garden. Maybe just some candles, nice lanterns or even an outside wood burner. Although in this country, when you live in a crowded neighbourhood, they won’t allow wood burners often because of the smoke hindering your neighbours. So be careful when choosing what you are going to burn in a wood burner, if you really don’t like your neighbours, you could try to burn wet leaves, otherwise, try to find some specially prepared wood that gives little or no smoke at all. I’ve met people that didn’t even have a single candle in their garden, and when I suggested that it would be nice to at least have a few, she replied she was afraid the dog would wipe his tail through the flames on the table, and catch fire. She had this incredibly sweet dog that was always wagging his tail out of pure enthusiasm.
 That’s a valid point of course, although dog hair won’t burn easily, I could see why she didn’t want to take the risk. So the next day I took her to the nearest garden store and showed her some incredible lanterns. They had all kinds, even ones on a stick that you could place in the soil somewhere. These lanterns were closed on all sides, so the dogs tail would be safe, but also the candles would not be blown out by the wind. . She also got a garden wood burner that had a door in the front that could be closed for safety. She was happy and the next time I went to visit her, the garden looked amazing! If you really don’t want fire in your garden, but you do want to get the cozy feeling that comes with it, try to hang some festive lights somewhere. Maybe on the fence, or in a tree, under your sunshades…as long as its close to where you sit at night. Make sure they are yellow lights though, and not the blue LED lights. They just don’t get the same effect. With a little effort, you can turn your garden in a fairytale place so easily, you don’t ever want to leave ! Nicole W

Garden Tripod 23

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www.exhibitionswithoutwalls.com

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Garden Tripod 23

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Contributors

Founder & Editor C Mclenahan

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Treasurer V Gore News Hound A little Deer The Agency

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Cover image Cyclone by LFurtwaengler

Written Features by Marilyn Cornwell Katie Freeth Nicole W.

Spotlight features

krishoupt www.floraculture.eu LARS FURTWAENGLER Celeste Mookherjee Nicole W. BillyLee Australian National Botanic Gardens

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Energy Forms I by Alex Fricke

RedBubble Group Country Gardens Come Grow With Us Garden Birds

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"He sings each song twice over” by Mortimer123 the famous up-side-down sparrow by Nicole W. Sparrow by LFurtwaengler Male Finch by Kenneth Hoffman White Doves by Vicki Spindler (VHS Photography) The Next generation by WildestArt Collecting the families Lunch by AnnDixon Ready to Sing by Alexandra Lavizzari Bluebird on a swing by KSKphotography Wren On the Roof by AuntDot You Looking at Me? /Yellow Warbler by hummingbirds Hang'n out for Lunch by Tony Steinberg Lorikeets at play by Celeste Mookherjee winter robin by marxbrothers A robin feathering his nest by ElsT Robin in the sun by Arie Koene "Left or Right?” by Sandra Fortier Garden Sparrow by autumnwind RED-BILLED HORNBILL - Tockus erythrorhynchus by Magaret Meintjes Indigo Bunting Songbird - Passerina cyanea by MotherNature Roz by WhiteDove Studio kj gordon A face only a mother could love by wolftinz

Fine Art America Group, Garden Tripod

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Azalea Bonsai by Ross Henton 

Evening Light on the Brittlebush by Lucinda Walter  Curls of Ivory. by Denise Clark The Sweet Hereafter by Laurie Search  Beautiful and Mystical Iris  by Jennifer Doll

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Catalogues

Cyclone by LFurtwaengler

All The Materials Contained May Not Be Reproduced, Copied, Edited, Published, Transmitted Or Uploaded In Any Way Without the artist/photographers Permission. These Images/writings Do Not Belong To The Public Domain. All images and information within the Garden Tripod magazine are the responsibility of the owner/artist/writer/photographer & not the Garden Tripod magazine 2012-2014â&#x20AC;¨


Garden Tripod 23