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Table of Contents Dear Educators Letter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Company Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Customer Testimonials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Classroom Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Sample Pages: Student Workbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Sample Pages: Teacher’s Edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Sample Pages: Enrichment Pack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Sample Pages: Blackline Masters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Sample Pages: Color Transparencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Sample Pages: Test Prep CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Sample Pages: 20 Ways to Teach the GPS with Pizzazz . . . . . . . . . . 42 P. O . B O X 2 7 7 9 , P E A C H T R E E C I T Y, G A 3 0 2 6 9 • T E L ( 8 0 0 ) 5 3 6 - 24 3 8 • FA X ( 8 0 0 ) 8 7 1 - 2 9 7 9 • W W W. G E O R G I A C U R R I C U L U M . C O M PA G E 2

Dear Georgia Educators, Gallopade International is pleased to offer you the Georgia Experience, the finest curriculum program available for grades K-8 that meets the Georgia Performance Standards for Social Studies. On August 19, 2010, the Georgia State Board of Education approved the Georgia Experience materials for the State-Recommended Learning Resources for Social Studies. Every Georgia Experience product is 100% comprehensive and 100% correlated with the Georgia Performance Standards and proven to improve test scores by as much as 400%. Every word, every activity, every map skill, and every assessment was written based on GEORGIA’S standards, to meet the needs of GEORGIA’S teachers and GEORGIA’S children in each grade, K-8. Each grade’s comprehensive student workbook provides interactive lessons, including grade-level skill development and mastery. Each standard is covered, using “small bites” of instruction and reinforcing hands-on activities, skill practice, and other involvement of the student to make complicated topics interesting and understandable. The student workbook is supplemented with Teacher Resources, Test Prep CDs, cross-curricular “Rich Curriculum” enrichment packs and other resources to provide a comprehensive, effective, enriching solution. This Evaluation Kit provides an overview of each product, giving you an opportunity to preview a sample of the entire Georgia Experience curriculum program. The program covers exactly what Georgia students are required to know in order to pass the CRCT and its design is unique and effective, helping your students to both truly understand the material and enjoy learning. Gallopade International, a Georgia business and proud Partner in Education, has been in business for more than 30 years and is dedicated to creating products and tools that help educators like you achieve academic success! Founder and CEO Carole Marsh is passionate about supporting Georgia educators and students, and we are confident the Georgia Experience program will exceed your expectations! Sincerely,

The Gallopade Curriculum Team

P. O . B O X 2 7 7 9 , P E A C H T R E E C I T Y, G A 3 0 2 6 9 • T E L ( 8 0 0 ) 5 3 6 - 24 3 8 • FA X ( 8 0 0 ) 8 7 1 - 2 9 7 9 • W W W. G E O R G I A C U R R I C U L U M . C O M PA G E 3

Gallopade International, Inc. Company Profile • Founded in 1979 by Georgia native, Carole Marsh. • Woman-owned and family-operated business located in Peachtree City, GA. • Publisher of over 15,000 educational products, including over 200 items about Georgia. • Products include books, maps, software, decoratives, games, and more. • Creator and publisher of the highly successful Virginia ExperienceTM, Illinois ExperienceTM, Louisiana ExperienceTM, and Ohio ExperienceTM curriculum programs, which have achieved test score increases over 400%. • Named Publisher’s Weekly fastest growing small publisher in 2000. • Recipient of the NSSEA Advance America Award in 2002. • Winner of the Teacher’s ChoiceTM Award in 2002 for state series, available for all 50 states. • Winner of the 2003 National School Supply and Equipment Association’s Excellence in Education Award. • Winner of the Teacher’s ChoiceTM Award for the Family in 2004, Carole Marsh MysteriesTM series. • Carole Marsh named Georgia Author of the Year for mid-level readers in 2007.

P. O . B O X 2 7 7 9 , P E A C H T R E E C I T Y, G A 3 0 2 6 9 • T E L ( 8 0 0 ) 5 3 6 - 24 3 8 • FA X ( 8 0 0 ) 8 7 1 - 2 9 7 9 • W W W. G E O R G I A C U R R I C U L U M . C O M PA G E 4

Customer Testimonials: Kindergarten and first grade teachers in our district have responded with enthusiasm to the Gallopade resources to enhance their social studies instruction. They are pleased that the activities are developmentally appropriate and are tied explicitly to the Georgia Performance Standards. The fact that you were able to develop this product for use on the interactive whiteboards in our primary classrooms is a major Wow factor, too! We also appreciate your responsiveness whenever a question may arise. Kudos to you! – JoAnn Wood, Elementary Social Studies Supervisor, Cobb County I have to share this with you... yesterday, I was working in my middle school and we were analyzing our seventh grade benchmark data. Out of five teachers, we had one teacher whose column was completely highlighted in green which means that students had at least a passing rate of 70, most were above 85. There were thirty questions over the Georgia standards. All the teachers wanted to know who was the teacher and what was he doing differently. Take a guess... teaching only with Gallopade! I was thrilled! – Rena Beasley, Director of Standards-Based Learning, Coffee County I absolutely love the Georgia Experience materials! They have been a great tool in helping our teachers meet the needs of our students. They include everything that our students need to know and present the information in a way that is fun and interactive! Before finding these resources, we were using several textbooks that did not correlate to the Georgia Performance Standards. Now that we have these materials we can focus more on our students than where we are getting the next resources. – Ashley McGill, Calhoun City Elementary School, Calhoun County After using only one book in past years, I am excited to be giving each of my students their own copy this year. Your books align so well with the standards. I believe this will be a great resource for the social studies curriculum. – Laura Reeves, 3rd Grade Teacher, Peeples Elementary School, Fayette County Using Gallopade as a pilot, we were immediately able to bring Screven County Middle School up from a dismal score of 30 to 71. My individual pass rate was 90%! Thanks so much Gallopade for making social studies interesting and easy to understand. My students and I absolutely loved it. – Lisa English, 6th Grade Social Studies Teacher, Screven County Middle School, Screven County

Screven County Middle School Social Studies CRCT Scores for GA Experience Pilot Group 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

2010 (Before using GA Experience) 2011 (After using GA Experience)

Pass Rate

Exceeds Rate

Data provided by James A. Thompson IV, Principal, Screven County Middle School

P. O . B O X 2 7 7 9 , P E A C H T R E E C I T Y, G A 3 0 2 6 9 • T E L ( 8 0 0 ) 5 3 6 - 24 3 8 • FA X ( 8 0 0 ) 8 7 1 - 2 9 7 9 • W W W. G E O R G I A C U R R I C U L U M . C O M PA G E 5

7th Grade

State Board of Education

The STATE APPROVED Georgia Experience curriculum-based products are 100% aligned to the Georgia Performance Standards and Elements. The comprehensive Classroom Set of student and teacher resources is effective as a result of its "small bites" of instruction, engaging visuals, skills practice, and reinforcing hands-on activities. The online components incorporate 21st Century Technology and higher-order thinking skills, and include an assessment tool that provides a benchmark for student performance. The Georgia Experience is a complete curriculum program proven for success!

HOW IT STUDENT WORKBOOK Interactive lessons result in effective learning.

Geographic Understandinalgs

out northward . It flows Map (4150 miles) the Skills 's longest river eastern Africa into Label the following countries h is the world on the map of Africa below: l Africa throug • The Nile River tains of centra of the moun South Africa an Sea. into the Sudan Mediterrane Kenya Egypt Africa. It flows n wester water. of Nigeria it for their Democratic Republic principal river s depend on of the Congo (Zaire) River is the and the Sahara African nation • The Niger erranean Sea . Five west en the Medit Atlantic Ocean Africa betwe Tunisia. in northern and a range a are Northern Algeri Mountains in Morocco, •The Atlas rn are located southe They in t. Deser rid sandy area South arid to semi-a Namibia and t is a large, of long. parts Deser SS7G1 The student ari miles and 50 •The Kalah Botswana will locate selected and can be l features of Africa.covering much of 200 feet high It lies in centra Africa from 20 to the world. a. Locate on a world dunes range pest lake in and regional political-ph Africa. Its second-dee rainforest, Congo ysical map: the River, Niger River, as well as the Nile River, , Lake TanganyikSahara, Sahel, savanna, and Kalahari Desert. Rift Valley. tropicalt lake d is the longes a, Lake Victoria, nyika Atlas in the Great . It’s the secon Mountains and Congo • Lake Tanga , lake in Africa en Tanzania the largest b. Locate on a world a border it. Africa betwe and regional political-ph Nile River and , Tanzania and Ugand the Congo (Zaire), oir for the ysical map the countries Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, aters reserv shallow. Kenya of Democratic headw quite a South Africa, and is is Republic ia and of Sudan. the world • Lake Victor ater lake in largest freshw

Chapter 1

Physical Features of Africa

Map Skills

of The vast continent Study the map of Africa has a variety physical features that of landforms. Keep African reading to learn about make Africa such rms and an interesting place! landfosome of the • The Sahara is the questions. world’s largest hot answer the desert, covering most stretches from the of Northern Africa. Red Sea to the outskirts It major landform of the Atlantic Ocean. stretches to the Sahel. is the 1. What In the south,rn it Africa? of northe • The Sahel is the transition zone south of the Sahara and from tropical rain north of the equator forests. It has become rm covers most landfo separates more of a desert in part of the Sahel. 2. Whatthat the Sahara recent years. l Africa? Djenne and Timbuktu are of centra • The savanna is the picture of Africa you the see in the movies, scattered trees and rm lies along with rolling grassland shrubs. The most 3. What landfo and near the equator? famous savanna is borders of Kenya the Serengeti, and Tanzania. There straddling Atlantic coast the are 4.5 million square miles of savannas in Africa. • The central African tropical rainforest scale to in the Democratic second largest rainforest Republic of the 4. Use the map in the world. About how many is the rainforests have been 90 percent of the African Congo determine aboutri Desert covers deforested because of logging, road building, miles the Kalaha and poor south. farming. to • Flowing through from north west central Africa, the Congo River is and the fifth longest the second longest river in the world. river in Africa, re It crosses the equator rain forest. twice and is surrounde scale to measu 5. Use thed map by yika. Lake Tangan the length of ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade

International • www.gallopade.c om • Page 8

~ This book is not reproducible.

forms African Land ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • www.gallopade.com • Page • Page 9 14 al • www.gallopade.com ~ This book is not reproducible. ~ lopade Internation ~ ©Carole Marsh/Gal reproducible.

~

~ This book

is not

ONLINE EBOOK SUBSCRIPTIONS

7th Grade Class Set Includes:

192 Pages

Home and school access offers instructional delivery through technology solutions.

30 STUDENT SETS: •30 Student Workbooks, Print Edition •30 Student Workbooks, Online eBook Subscriptions •30 CRCT Vocabulary Student Workbooks •30 Test Prep Online Software License

TEACHER’S EDITION Complete student workbook enriched and organized with supplemental materials related to each lesson.

FREE TEACHER RESOURCES:

Teachers receive electronic subscription resources free for every year corresponding student sets are purchased. All other teacher resources are provided free in first year of purchase, limit 1 per teacher.

Map Skills

Label the following South Africa Kenya

countries on the map

of Africa below: Egypt of the Congo (Zaire) Democratic Republic

Sudan Nigeria

Egypt

Sudan

IT! PROJECETMASTERS :

page 3

• The Nile River is the world's longest river (4150 miles). It flows northward out of the mountains of central Africa through eastern Africa into the Mediterranean Sea.

Nigeria

BLACKLIN

Kenya

Democratic Republic of the Congo

• The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Five west African nations depend on it for their water. •The Atlas Mountains are a range in northern Africa between the Mediterranean Desert. They are located in Morocco, Northern Algeria and Tunisia.

Sea and the Sahara

•The Kalahari Desert is a large, arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Africa covering much of Botswana and parts of Namibia and South Africa. Its dunes range from 20 to 200 feet high and can be 50 miles long.

Afr ic a

• Lake Tanganyika is the longest lake as well as the second-deepest lake in the Africa between Tanzania and Congo in the Great Rift Valley.

Geographical Understandin gs Map Skills

Chapter 1 ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade

International • www.gallopade.com

~ This book is not reproducible.

world. It lies in central

in Africa. It’s the second • Lake Victoria is a headwaters reservoir for the Nile River and the largest lake border it. largest freshwater lake in the world and is quite shallow. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

Sou th

•Teacher’s Edition of Student Workbook •Teacher’s Edition of CRCT Vocabulary Book •Student Workbook, eBook Edition •Test Prep Online Software License •Blackline Masters •Color “Transparencies” on CD •Enrichment Pack •20 Ways to Teach GPS with Pizzazz

• Page 14

~

Study the map of African landforms and answer the questions.

book is not

SS7G1 The studentGrade Teacher’s Edition • This • 7th will locate desert page 14 selected features landform covers most 2.ofWhat a. Locate on Africa. a world

Georgia Experience

and regional of central Africa? rainforest, Congo political-ph River, Niger and Kalahari River, Nile River, ysical map: the Sahara, Desert. Sahel, savanna, , Lake Tanganyika rainforest tropical , Lake Victoria, Atlasthe lies along 3. What landform b. Locate on Mountains, a world the Congo (Zaire), and regional political-ph Atlantic coast near the equator? Egypt, Kenya, ysical map the Nigeria, South countries Africa, and Sudan. savanna of Democratic Republic of

DEFINE IT! CRCT VOCABULARY BOOKS: arid

DEFINE IT!

CRCT VOCA BULARY BOOK rainfore S: st

de.com

www.gallopa 1. What is the major landform ade International • of northern Africa? reproducible. • ©Carole Marsh/Gallop

SHARE IT!

ENRICHMEN T PACK: page 3

PROJECT IT!

COLOR TRANSPARENCIES: page 1

READ IT! ENRICHMENT PACK: page 5

READ IT!

Explore Africa !

Africa has

some 4. Use the map scale to deserts to tropicaamazing landscapes, determine about how many from mounta ins and what your studen l rainforests. Here are miles the Kalahari Desert covers some brief ts would find from north to south. The vast continent descriptions on a tour across of of Africa has physical features Africa. about 1200 miles Sahara Desert: that make Africa a variety of landforms. Keep reading such an interesting tomap to measure scale learn 5. Use the about place! big as the entireThis is the world’s largest some • The Sahara is the world’s the length of Lake Tanganyika. of the desert and United States. largest hot desert, stretches from is almost as rain per year It gets less covering most the Red Sea and reache to the outskirts of Northern stretches to 500 miles about s temperatures than three inches of Africa. the Sahel. Fahren of the Atlantic It heit! Ocean. In the of 136 degree African Landforms south, it s • The Sahel is the transition zone south from tropical Savann of the Sahara 9 Page • a: rain forests. www.gallopade.com • This is where ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International and north of It has become part of the Sahel. the equator you would has lots of more of a desert ~ that separates ~ This book is not reproducible. take that safari! flat grassland in recent years. the Sahara Djenne and and is home The Savann lion, zebra, Timbuktu are • The savanna a to many animal and wildebe is the picture of Africa you est. scattered trees s Marsh/Gallopade International • www.gallopade.com like the see in the movies, and Georgia Experience • 7th Grade Teacher’s Edition • This book is not reproducible. • ©Carole with rolling borders of Kenya shrubs. The most famous Nile River: grassland savanna is the and Tanzania. The Nile is the page 9 Serengeti, straddlingand There are 4.5 million square longest river the mounta • The central miles of savannas the in the world. ins in the south African tropical in Africa. It flows from rainforest in north. Egypt second largest to the Medite the Democrat rainforest in is built along rranean Sea ic Republic the world. About rainforests have of the Congo essential to the 90 percent of been deforested is the Egypt’s farming Nile and the river has in the the African because of logging, been centuries. , transportation, road building, • Flowing through and poor farming. and surviva west central and the fifth Africa, the Congo l for longest river River is the in the world. rain forest. second longest Lake Victoria It crosses the river in Africa, equator twice : This is the largest and is surrounde largest freshwa lake in Africa d by ter

Physical Featu res of

Africa

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade

lake in the and the second river branch world. Lake ing Victoria has the Nile River. off of it that makes up a small one half of the water in

International • www.gallopade.co m • Page 8

~ This book is

not reproducible.

Georgia Experien ce • 7th Grade

~

Teacher’s Edition

• This book is

not reproduc ible. • ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International page 8

• www.gallopade.c om

1-YEAR PURCHASE Class Set GA7CS1 List Price: $1,836.74 Discounted Price: $684.63

5-YEAR PURCHASE Class Set GA7CS5 List Price: $8,503.94 Discounted Price: $2,995.95 5-year purchase includes everything above – for 5 years! All first-year materials are shipped at the time of the initial purchase (per any special instructions you supply), and materials for years 2-5 are shipped coinciding with each new school year (you choose when you want them to arrive).

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100% – EVERY STANDARD & ELEMENT

WORKS! BLACKLINE MASTERS

COLOR “TRANSPARENCIES” ON CD

Reproducible activities reinforce essential content.

Color graphics to print or project help students visualize key concepts. Countries of Africa

Color and label Egypt Kenya

the following

countries on the

Nigeria South Africa

Correlation:

3

map of Afric a below.

Sudan Democratic

Republic of the Congo

SS7G1

Seventh Grade

©Carole Marsh/G allopade Internat ional/Peachtree City, GA 

www.gallopade. com

ENRICHMENT PACK

SS7G1a Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, tropical rainforest, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Atlas Mountains, and Kalahari Desert. b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Sudan. CRCT VOCABULARY BOOKS 60 grade-specific word definitions and lessons prepare students for standards-based content.

“Story Cards” are great for individual and small group discussion.

AFRICA • Geographic features: the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, tropical rain forest, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Atlas Mountains, Kalahari Desert... • Environmental issues; Africa’s location, climate, natural resources (trade) & population distribution • Various forms of government: unitary, confederation & federal, autocratic, oligarchic, & democratic, parliamentary and presidential • Structures of modern governments: republican systems of government; dictatorships; leadership & citizenship, voting & personal freedoms • Economic systems: traditional, command, market economies, a mixed economy, specific systems in South Africa & Nigeria • Voluntary trade: buyers & sellers, specialization, trade barriers, tariffs, quotas, embargos, currencies; factors of economic growth; personal money management • Continuity & change leading to 21st century: European partitioning; conflict, civil war, political boundaries, Nationalism; independence in South Africa, Kenya & Nigeria, Apartheid in South Africa; Nelson Mandela, F.W. de Klerk, and the Pan African Movement ...AND MORE! SOUTHWEST ASIA (MIDDLE EAST) • Geographic features: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Straight of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, Gaza Strip... • Environmental issues: Southwest Asia’s location, climate, physical characteristics & natural resources: trade & population distribution, oil distribution & how deserts & rivers affect the ways people live • Various forms of government: unitary, confederation & federal, autocratic, oligarchic, democratic, parliamentary & presidential • Southwest Asian governments: parliamentary democracy (Israel), monarchy (Saudi Arabia), Theocracy (Iran), forms of leadership, the role of the citizen in voting rights & personal freedoms • Economic systems: traditional command, market, economies, a mixed economy • Voluntary trade benefits: specialization, trade barriers, tariffs, quotas, embargos, OPEC, & currency exchange • Continuity & change leading to 21st century: European partitioning after breakup of Ottoman Empire, establishment of State of Israel in 1948; Jewish religious connection to the land, holocaust, antiSemitism, and Zionism in Europe, conflicts due to land & religion, U.S. presence in Southwest Asia, Persian Gulf conflict & Invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq ...AND MORE! SOUTHERN AND EASTERN ASIA • Geographic features: Ganges River, Huang He (Yellow River), Indus River, Mekong River, Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Yellow Sea... • Environmental issues • Southern & Eastern Asia location, climate & natural resources: mountain, desert, & water features affect trade, & population distribution • Various forms of government: unitary, confederation & federal, autocratic, oligarchic, democratic, parliamentary & presidential • National government in Southern & Eastern Asia • Economic systems: traditional command, market, economies, a mixed economy, specific systems in China, India, Japan, and North Korea • Voluntary trade benefits: specialization, trade barriers, tariffs, quotas, embargos, and currency exchange • Factors of economic growth • Continuity and change leading to the 21st century: nationalism and independence in India and Vietnam, Mohandas Gandi and non-violent protest, role of the U.S. in rebuilding Japan after WWII, Communism in China and Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and Tiananmen Square, foreign involvement in Korea, Vietnam, and containment of Communism MAP AND GLOBE SKILLS • Cardinal directions, intermediate directions, letter/number grid system, natural, cultural, and political features, scale, key/legend, latitude and longitude, and graphic scales ...AND MORE!

7

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • These are selected pages • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete package is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

Evaluation Sample

Map Skills Label the following countries on the Middle East map below. Afghanistan Israel

Iran Saudi Arabia

Iraq Turkey

E L P SAM 0

0

500 Miles

500 KM Parallel scale at 25˚S 0˚E

Map Skills Use the map mileage scale to answer the following questions. 1. At its widest point, about how many miles does Iran measure from east to west? 2. Find the Suez Canal. About how many miles does it cover from north to south ? 3. About how many miles does Israel measure from north to south? 4. About how many miles does Turkey measure from east to west? ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 75 ~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Chapter 14

Special Economics Info

U.S. Imported Oil

SS7G6 The student will discuss environmental issues across Southwest Asia (Middle East). a. Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation and drinking water.

100% 90% 80% 70%

Fresh Water—a Shrinking Supply

60% 50%

Fresh water is a precious resource in the Middle East. About five percent of the world’s population lives there, but less than one percent of the world’s fresh water is available to its residents. Throughout the Middle East, water shortages, unequal water distribution, and pollution further decrease the amount of water available for drinking and irrigation.

30% 20% 10% 0% 1945

Unhappy Iraqis, Thirsty Israelites

E L P M SA

Water needs in the Middle East continually cause conflicts between countries. Who owns the water? Who should be allowed to divert water for irrigation? There are no enforceable laws to govern the use of international water. The following examples give you an idea of the various water problems facing the Middle East.

40%

Word Definition

aquifer: an underground layer of rock and sand that contains water ground water: water below the surface that supplies wells and springs

Turkey: In the highlands of Turkey, snow melts and forms the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Turkey is better off than its neighbors because of these rivers, but pollution from industries and agriculture is a growing problem. Pollution also comes from oil spills in the Black Sea. Turkey, Syria, Iraq: Turkey built dams along the Euphrates to use the water for hydroelectric power and irrigation. This reduced the amount of water reaching Syria. In turn, Syria built a dam and reduced the river’s flow into Iraq. In 1975, Syria and Iraq came close to war over water issues! Iraq also faces polluted waters from industry and war damage to water treatment facilities and petroleum drilling equipment.

1965

1985

2005

2025

E L P M SA

Look at the above graph and answer the following questions.

1. In what decade did the U.S. begin importing oil? 2. What was the increase of imported oil consumption from the 1950s until 2000?

3. Look at the trend of imported oil consumption. What percentage of imported oil do you think the U.S. will be using in 2025? Complete the graph by filling in your prediction. Why do you think this is how much oil the U.S. will import then?

4. Do you think the United States involvement in the Middle East is connected to oil?

Why/Why not?

5. Do you think the U.S. involvement in the Middle East is connected to fighting terrorism? If yes, why? Israel: Consumption is up, and rainfall is down, leading Israel to draw water from its aquifers. Now, more water is being taken out of the aquifers than is replenished by rain, and salt water is entering the aquifers. Israel has also been involved in military battles over water rights to the Jordan River. ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 78

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 117

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 8

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • These are selected pages • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete package is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Map Skills Now that you know about some of Asia’s landforms, it’s time to locate them on a map. Follow the directions below. 10. Draw a yellow circle around the Yellow Sea. 11. Draw a purple box around the Gobi Desert and put brown dots on it. 12. Draw a brown box around the Taklimakan Desert and put brown dots on it. 13. Draw purple ridges on the Himalayan Mountains. 14. Draw a green circle around the Korean Peninsula.

1. Trace the Ganges River in blue. 2. Trace the Huang He (Yellow River) in blue and yellow. 3. Trace the Indus River in blue and orange. 4. Trace the Mekong River in blue and green. 5. Trace the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River in blue and red. 6. Draw a purple circle around the Bay of Bengal. 7. Draw a red circle around the Indian Ocean. 8. Draw an orange circle around the Sea of Japan. 9. Draw a black circle around the South China Sea.

E L P SAM

Indu

River

PLATEAU OF TIBET

HI MA

s

LAYA G N an ges River

Sea of Japan

He Riv

er

TAKLIMAKAN DESERT

Hu an g

GOBI DESERT

Korean Peninsula

Yellow Sea

tze River ng Ya

PA C I F I C OCEAN

MTTS.

South China Sea

In India, information technology and telecommunications are growing industries, providing many employment opportunities in cities like Mumbai and Kolkata. Unfortunately, many people living in Asian cities are very poor and live in extremely crowded, unsanitary conditions. Half of the island nation of Indonesia’s population lives on Java. City dwellers find employment in industry and technology. There are seaports and oil centers, plus farms and coffee plantations. In North Korea, about one-third of the people work in agriculture, while the rest of the people work in industry and services.

Essential Skills Below is a table listing the top 20 urban agglomerations in the world. An urban agglomeration is a city plus all the smaller towns and growth around it. Use the table to answer the questions below. Urban Agglomerations Cities 2003 Pop. 1. How many of the world’s top 20 urban agglomerations are in Asia? Tokyo, Japan 35 million Mexico City, Mexico

18.7 million

2. How many of the top ten are in India?

New York, USA

18.3 million

3. What is the most crowded urban area in the world?

Sao Paulo, Brazil

17.9 million

Mumbai, India

17.4 million

Delhi, India

14.1 million

Kolkata (Calcutta), India

13.1 million

E L P SAM

4. How many more people live in Tokyo than Jakarta?

Buenos Aires, Argentina

13 million

5. Because there are more employment opportunities in cities, the

Shanghai, China

12.8 million

population of Delhi will probably

Jakarta, Indonesia

12.3 million

.

Los Angeles, USA

ng River

Bay of Bengal

o ek M

Arabian Sea

Evaluation Sample

12 million

6. The government of China wants families to have only one child.

Dhaka, Bangladesh

11.6 million

How might that affect the future population of Shanghai?

Osaka, Japan

11.2 million

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

11.2 million

INDIAN OCEAN 7. What is the most crowded urban area in the United States?

8. What is the most crowded urban area in South America?

Karachi, Pakistan

11.1 million

Beijing, China

10.8 million

Cairo, Egypt

10.8 million

Manila, Philippines

10.4 million

Paris, France

9.8 million

Seoul, South Korea

9.7 million UN Population Division, MSN Encarta

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 129

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 141

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Hinduism

Economic Variety

Like Buddhism, Hinduism is largely practiced in India where over 80 percent of Indians claim to be Hindu. Unlike Buddhism, however, Hinduism does not come from the teachings of one man. Hindus believe in many gods and goddesses who are images of a single god. The most worshipped goddesses are Vishnu and Shiva. The basic ideas of Hinduism include:

There are a variety of economic systems in Asia. Examples include:

• Each person’s karma, or good or bad behavior, determines his or her position in life. • The ultimate goal of Hindus is to achieve moksha, which is freedom from the cycle of reincarnation. • There is not one text Hindus consider sacred, rather there are many texts like the Vedas that teach Hindus proper behavior. • Hindus live by a caste system that divides people into classes: Brahmans (priests), Kashatriyas (soldiers), Vaishyas (merchants), and Shudras (laborers).

Think About It Buddhism and Hinduism have some similarities and many differences. Place check marks next to the items that fit each religion.

E L P M SA

Buddhism

Hinduism

 believes in many gods  follows teachings of one man  follows a holy book  believes in reincarnation  ultimate goal is moksha  ultimate goal is enlightenment  has many holy texts

 believes in many gods  follows teachings of one man  follows a holy book  believes in reincarnation  ultimate goal is moksha  ultimate goal is enlightenment  has many holy texts

China calls its economy a “socialist market economy.” Basically, China is transitioning from a command economy completely controlled by the Chinese Communist government to a mixed market economy overseen by the Communist government. To improve its economic growth, China’s government mixed in components of a market economy during the last 25 years. Those Chinese factory reforms have led to excellent growth in China’s economy. China is gradually reducing government control and allowing more foreign investment. Economists predict that China may lead the world in economic strength in 20 years! Photo by Connect China

North Korea has a command economy controlled by its Communist government. The government controls all the resources and decides what is to be produced. Farmers work on cooperatives where up to 300 families share the work. Unfortunately, the North Korean economy has serious problems, North Korean iron plant and the government is making some reforms and relaxing some of its controls. Massive food aid from other countries has been needed to avoid widespread starvation.

E L P M SA

Photo by Time, Inc

Japan has a mixed market economy—one of the strongest in the world! With few natural resources and little farmland, Japan has built its economy around manufacturing. It imports raw materials, uses them to manufacture goods like ships, cars, and electronics, and exports those goods around the world. The Japanese government owns few businesses other than the country’s major TV network, but does oversee many aspects of the economy like banking and trade.

Islam Islam is usually known as the religion of the Middle East, but one of the largest Islamic nations in the world is Indonesia located in Southern and Eastern Asia. Like Buddhism, Islam is based on the teachings of one man named Muhammad. Muslims consider him to be the greatest prophet of their God, Allah. The basic ideas of Islam include: A mall in India Photo by Flickr.com

Tokyo business district Photo by Tokyocircle.ning

India has a mixed economy that is moving away from a command system. After independence in 1947, India’s government set up a command economy where it controlled industries and production. In 1991, India began to lift some government control and allow citizens a role in running some of India’s industries. Although these reforms have been good for India’s economy, millions of India’s people still live in extreme poverty.

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 9

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Evaluation Sample

Carole Marsh Georgia Titles The Georgia Experience™ Curriculum Series: Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade Sixth Grade Seventh Grade Eighth Grade Georgia Experience Reference Guide Seventh Grade Curriculum: 7th Grade Student Workbook 7th Grade Student Workbook, Teacher’s Edition 7th Grade Teacher’s Resource Guide 7th Grade Test Prep CD

Evaluation sample of student workbook.

Georgia State Stuff: Georgia Experience Poster/Map Georgia Experience Biographies Book Georgia Facts & Factivities! CD-ROM Let’s Discover Georgia! CD-ROM The BIG Georgia Reproducible Activity Book My First Book About Georgia! Georgia Jeopardy!: Answers and Questions About Our State Georgia “Jography!”: A Fun Run Through Our State My First Pocket Guide: Georgia

Shown page-by-page.

The Georgia Coloring Book Georgia Stickers Georgia Biography Bingo Game Georgia Geography Bingo Game Georgia History Bingo Game Georgia State Stuff Bookmarks Georgia Millionaire GameBook Georgia Wheel of Fortune GameBook Georgia Survivor GameBook Georgia BIG State Wall Timeline Georgia State Student Reference Timeline

Other Series: African American Heritage Series Native American Heritage Series Hispanic Heritage Series

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Table of Contents

A Word from the Author...

Dear Student,

Icon Identification

Icon Identification

6

Section 1 ~ Africa

7

Chapters 1-12

This is no ordinary book! You will not be able to sit in your chair and listen to someone else read it to you. In order to learn about the world you live in, you must get involved! You need to read, absorb, make judgments…in other words, think! You are going to learn all about the geography, history, people, economics, government and citizenship (and a few other fun things!) of important world regions. As you progress through the seventh grade, you will discover that learning about other countries helps you understand (and appreciate!) your own country. Africa, the Middle East, and Asia have remarkable histories. As you study these regions of the world, you’ll see that it is impossible to truly understand what is happening in the world today until you understand what has happened in the past. You’ll see how our global economy makes all countries dependent on each other. You’ll see how governments determine how countries develop, or don’t develop. Your eyes will be opened to a new way of looking at the world! I have learned a lot by writing and researching The Georgia Experience books and other products. Now it’s your turn! Come along with me and enjoy your tour of the world around you!

Section 2 ~ Southwest Asia (Middle East)

69

Hard-To-Believe-But-True!

Map Skills

Question for Discussion

Reading Activity

Fascinating trivia!

Learn map skills and never be lost!

Who wants to be a millionaire?!

The best kind of activity!

Scavenger Hunt!

Math Experience

Stuff for you to look for!

A neat math problem or info!

Quick Quiz Think fast!

Money Makes the World Go ‘Round!

Chapters 13-23 Section 3 ~ Southern and Eastern Asia

125

Chapters 24-33 Section 4 ~ Appendix

185

Glossary

186

Index

188

Map of the World

191

Carole Marsh

Origin/Definition

The Great Debate

Background Check

Look It Up!

Word origins or definitions

A chance to share your opinion!

Deep digging unearthed this stuff!

We can’t give you EVERYTHING!

Enrichment

High Tech

Stuff that will stick with you!

Computer Technology Connections!

Special Civics Information

You didn’t forget, did you?

Write About It!

Think About It

One More - Just for Fun!

Essential Skills

A writing activity

Put your thinking cap on!

All work and no play...

You can’t live without these!

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Section 1

Special Economics Info

Geographical Understandings Chapter 1 SS7G1 The student will locate selected features of Africa. a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, tropical rainforest, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, , Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, Atlas Mountains, and Kalahari Desert.

Quick Review

• The Nile River is the world's longest river (4150 miles). It flows northward out of the mountains of central Africa through eastern Africa into the Mediterranean Sea. • The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa. It flows into the Atlantic Ocean. Five west African nations depend on it for their water. •The Atlas Mountains are a range in northern Africa between the Mediterranean Sea and the Sahara Desert. They are located in Morocco, Northern Algeria and Tunisia. •The Kalahari Desert is a large, arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Africa covering much of Botswana and parts of Namibia and South Africa. Its dunes range from 20 to 200 feet high and can be 50 miles long. • Lake Tanganyika is the longest lake as well as the second-deepest lake in the world. It lies in central Africa between Tanzania and Congo in the Great Rift Valley. • Lake Victoria is a headwaters reservoir for the Nile River and the largest lake in Africa. It’s the second largest freshwater lake in the world and is quite shallow. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda border it.

b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire), Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Sudan.

Map Skills

Physical Features of Africa The vast continent of Africa has a variety of landforms. Keep reading to learn about some of the physical features that make Africa such an interesting place!

1. What is the major landform of northern Africa?

• The Sahara is the world’s largest hot desert, covering most of Northern Africa. It stretches from the Red Sea to the outskirts of the Atlantic Ocean. In the south, it stretches to the Sahel.

2. What landform covers most of central Africa?

• The Sahel is the transition zone south of the Sahara and north of the equator that separates the Sahara from tropical rain forests. It has become more of a desert in recent years. Djenne and Timbuktu are part of the Sahel.

3. What landform lies along the Atlantic coast near the equator?

• The savanna is the picture of Africa you see in the movies, with rolling grassland and scattered trees and shrubs. The most famous savanna is the Serengeti, straddling the borders of Kenya and Tanzania. There are 4.5 million square miles of savannas in Africa.

AFRICA

Study the map of African landforms and answer the questions.

• The central African tropical rainforest in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second largest rainforest in the world. About 90 percent of the African rainforests have been deforested because of logging, road building, and poor farming.

4. Use the map scale to determine about how many miles the Kalahari Desert covers from north to south.

5. Use the map scale to measure the length of Lake Tanganyika.

• Flowing through west central Africa, the Congo River is the second longest river in Africa, and the fifth longest river in the world. It crosses the equator twice and is surrounded by rain forest.

African Landforms

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 10

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Map Skills

Map Skills

Look at the map of Africa with the major physical features identified. Follow the directions below.

Draw and label the following physical features on the map of Africa below. Sahara Desert Congo River Kalahari Desert

Co

ngo Ri v er

tropical rainforest

Lake Victoria

rain fo sav rest ann a

tropical rainforest

savanna

Map Skills

Lake Tanganyika

Kalahari Desert

Sahel Niger River Lake Victoria Savanna Nile River Lake Tanganyika

savanna

savanna

Sahara Desert Congo River Kalahari Desert

Sahel

Draw and label the following physical features on the world map below.

savanna

er

er Riv er Nig

Nig er Riv er

tropical rainforest Atlas Mountains

s tain

Sahara Desert

tropical rainforest

savanna Niger River Lake Victoria

Nile Riv

oun sM Atla

Sahel Nile River Lake Tanganyika

Evaluation Sample

Tropical rainforest Atlas Mountains

1. Draw a brown box around the Sahara Desert and make brown dots for sand. 2. Draw an orange box around the Sahel. 3. Draw a green box around the savanna. 4. Draw both green and red boxes around the tropical rain forest. 5. Trace the Congo River in blue. 6. Trace the Nile River in blue. 7. Trace the Niger River in blue. 8. Draw purple peaks for the Atlas Mountains. 9. Draw a brown box around the Kalahari Desert and make brown dots for sand. 10. Color Lake Tanganyika blue. 11. Color Lake Victoria blue.

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

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Map Skills

Map Skills

MOROCCO

Label the following countries on the map of Africa below: South Africa Kenya

Sudan Nigeria

Egypt Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire)

Democratic Republic of the Congo

Look at the political map of Africa with the countries identified. Follow the directions below. 1. Draw a red circle around South Africa. 2. Draw a purple box around Sudan. 3. Draw a black box around Egypt. 4. Draw a green circle around Kenya. 5. Draw a brown box around Nigeria. 6. Draw a blue circle around the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Zaire).

TUNISIA ALGERIA EGYPT

LIBYA WESTERN SAHARA CHAD

SUDAN

South Africa

NIGER

MALI

ERITREA

BURKINA BENIN

GUINEA GUINEA BISSAU

IVORY COAST

SIERRA LEONE

DJIBOUTI

NIGERIA

SOMALIA GHANA TOGO

LIBERIA

CAMEROON

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

ETHIOPIA

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

UGANDA KENYA CONGO

GABON

RWANDA DEM.REP. OF CONGO

BURUNDI TANZANIA

ANGOLA MALAWI MOZAMBIQUE

ZAMBIA

A T L A N T I C

MADAGASCAR

O C E A N

Map Skills

ZIMBABWE NAMIBIA BOTSWANA

SWAZILAND SOUTH AFRICA LESOTHO

0 0

I N D I A N

Label the following countries on the world map below. Egypt Nigeria Sudan Kenya

MAURITANIA SENEGAL GAMBIA

O C E A N

500 Miles 500 KM

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farming and the water for fishing. In 2006, a World Wildlife Fund report named the Niger Delta as one of the most polluted places on Earth.

Quick Review Now see how much you’ve learned about African geography. Write the letter for the correct answer on the line beside the question. 1. What is the southernmost country in Africa? A. Botswana B. South Africa 2. What is the world’s largest hot desert? A. Kalahari

B. Sahara

3. What African lake is the longest and second-deepest in the world? A. Lake Victoria B. Lake Chad 4. The world’s longest river is: A. Niger River

B. Nile River

C. Rwanda

C. Mohave

C. Lake Tanganyika

C. Congo River

Chapter 2

While a country benefits from the income that industry generates, the profits are often offset by the water pollution created by manufacturing byproducts. In South Africa, steel-manufacturing byproducts in the water system ruin the farm products and sicken the people and animals. The Mirongo River delivers tons of untreated sewage yearly into Lake Victoria, filling the lake with high levels of poisonous materials. Untreated sewage from the business district of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania is discharged directly into the Indian Ocean. Many coastal beaches, polluted by waste from industry and ship traffic, are no longer safe for swimming. Burning coal for electricity is also a major source of pollution. Torn in multiple directions by other problems, many governments have neglected the problem of clean water. Meanwhile, the number of pollutants grows, increasing current problems and creating future ones.

Quick Quiz

1. Name four things polluting African waters.

a. Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impact irrigation, trade, industry, and drinking water. b. Explain the relationship between poor soil and deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa. c. Explain the impact of desertification on the environment of Africa from the Sahel to the rainforest.

Polluted Water—Unfit to Drink

2. Name four problems that result from polluted water.

Water—A Shrinking Supply Word Definition

Pesticides, fertilizers, human waste, storm water runoff, infrastructure: the basic mining, and manufacturing byproducts all contribute to physical systems of a water pollution in Africa. Fully half of the patients in country's population, including hospital beds are there because of unclean drinking water, impacting the economy by reducing the workforce. In rural healthcare, roads, utilities, water, and areas, an estimated one million children die each year from sewage landlocked: enclosed, or nearly contaminated water. Many humanitarian organizations enclosed by land provide clean water and help rebuild the infrastructure to maintain a clean water supply. However, as the population grows in some countries, the amount of clean water is actually decreasing. Polluted water directly harms the fishing industry by either killing the fish or making them unfit to eat. On average, there are two oil spills a day in Nigeria. This affects trade by ruining the land for

• Lake Chad in Chad has shrunk 95 percent in the last 40 years. Fringing the Sahara, four countries depend upon it for water: Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad. Lake Chad had barely begun to recover from the drought from 1968 to 1973 when neighboring countries began to take the water upstream for irrigation before it ever reached Lake Chad. As a result, many fisheries have gone out of business, increasing poverty in the area. • The growing urban populations play water tug of war with farmers. Beside water for drinking and hygiene, the industries in cities need water for their businesses. Those who live near a clean fresh or saltwater source are usually healthier due to a good source of protein in fish. Industry in the area also benefits from being able to catch and trade fish. • Since the bulk of African international trade is with countries outside of Africa, African countries with immediate access to water for shipping enjoy a distinct advantage. These countries can trade with world countries and use the profits to build their country’s infrastructure. • Many of the landlocked African countries are among the poorest in the world. The people there pay more and wait longer for what they need. Consequently, these countries grow more slowly than their neighbors and trade less.

Answer the questions below.

SS7G2 The student will discuss environmental issues across the continent of Africa.

good use of them. Across the continent, there is a need to capture rainwater so it can be used for irrigation. A drought can wipe out the food supply for a large population. With a system to store water, however, the economy grows as the crops grow.

Few places in rural Africa have plumbing for water or sanitation to purify the drinking water. Women and children walk daily to the nearest stream to collect the water, one bucket at a time. The amount of water collected this way is not enough for bathing or crop irrigation. • Climate change, deforestation, and population growth contribute to a water imbalance. Although some parts of Africa have an adequate fresh water supply, the demand for fresh water is increasingly greater than the available supply. Water is scarce in the Sahara and most of the water available there for irrigation is already tapped.

• Some of the rivers have large dams for water distribution and power production. Everyone involved benefits from increased trade and industry, including those employed at the dam and those who have industries because of this water source. In southeastern Africa, water is Lesotho’s major resource, and its people call it white gold. A huge hydropower facility was completed there in the late 1990s, allowing Lesotho to meet the needs of its own people and sell surplus water to South Africa. At this point, only a small percentage of hydroelectric potential has been tapped.

Quick Quiz Complete the table below.

Cause and Effect of Unequal Water Distribution in Africa Issue

Cause

Effect

Not enough water for irrigation Problems with trade Problems with industry

• Agriculture used to get 88 percent of Africa’s water supply. Now, as more people are moving to cities, the need for water there is increasing. Some countries like Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of the Congo once had irrigation systems, but they are now badly in need of repair. Sudan, Madagascar and Nigeria, however, own the best irrigation systems on the continent and make

Not enough clean drinking water

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 11

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK this area as well as the number of grazing animals. People, animals and plants compete for an already strained water supply.

Map Skills Look at the two maps of Lake Chad. As you can see, it is much smaller now. Scientists estimate 50 percent of the shrinkage is from irrigation water drawn upstream. The other 50 percent is from evaporation, as Lake Chad is on the fringes of the Sahara. The Lake Chad Basin Commission manages the basin and resolves any disputes about water use.

2001

1963 Chad

Niger

Chad

Niger

Water Former Shoreline Vegetation

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Word Definition desertification: the process by which a desert spreads, and the soil loses its ability to hold water slash and burn: a form of agriculture in which an area of forest is cleared by cutting and burning and is then planted, usually for several seasons, before being left behind

Desertification is attacking the Sahel from the south, also. Two major reasons are poor agricultural practices and the slash and burn policy in the rainforest. Large sections of forests are cleared to make room for annual crops. Farmers plant seeds, harvest the produce and burn the remains. The topsoil blows away, creating huge dunes and suffocating vegetation. Farmers continue to plant more crops, but reap an increasingly smaller harvest since the soil is depleted. Many Africans have less food to eat today than 10 years ago, and the number who suffer from chronic hunger grows daily.

Nigeria

Nigeria

Cameroon

Cameroon

Where People Live and What They Do Africa has four main climates. Within each climate is a way Word Definition of life specific to those people. The densest populations are subsistence farming: located in cities near a significant water source, either fresh or salt. As water resources shrink in an area, so does the farming that provides for the population. The climates of the Sahel, savannas and basic needs of the farmer’s family, with rainforests are hospitable and so more people live there than little or nothing left over to sell in the Sahara. As the physical characteristics of an area change, so do Population Map of Africa the people. When an area can support logging and farming, people stay. When the trees and soil are gone, the people leave. Africa has many people in many places in a variety of environments. But some common elements link the peoples of the continent.

Quick Quiz

Answer the questions below:

1. A farmer in the Sahel

A. “I used to live with many plants and and animals. Now I look out my window and only see blowing soil.”

2. A logger in the Sahel

B. “I work harder than I did 10 years ago and plant more seeds, but every year I harvest less and less crops.”

3. A resident of the rainforest

C. “I earn my living cutting wood. I sell the wood so people have fuel to cook their meals. I feed my family with the money I earn.”

2. How should the commission plan for the future?

Poor Soil = Poor Crops Nearly 90 percent of the coastal rainforests in West Africa have been cut down since the 1900s. In the 1990s alone, 13 million Word Definition acres of African forest were logged, resulting in widespread deforestation: loss of deforestation. When the trees are gone, nothing remains to hold forest from cutting down the soil in place. The wind blows, the rains pour down and erode too many trees what remains of the soil, washing vital nutrients away. The sun then bakes the exposed soil, leaving a soil that is poor in nutrients and unable to sustain agriculture. Erosion has harmed more than 75 percent of African soil.

World’s Largest Hot Desert Grows Larger The transition from fertile land to a desert evolves from poor farming practices, land clearing, overgrazing of livestock, and draining of surface and underground water for industrial and home use. Africa has had these problems for years, plus drought, leading to the steady spread of desert areas. The Sahel is sandwiched between the Sahara Desert to the north and the lush tropical rain forests to the south. The drought from the late 1960s to the early 1980s invited the Sahara desert to invade the Sahel and caused widespread desertification. Making a bad situation worse is the population growth in

While agriculture produces some commodities to export, subsistence farming is the standard in most areas. About 33 percent of the population now lives in cities. Many city residents drive cars, but the number of cars in Africa is still relatively small compared to western standards.

Fill in the blank with the person most likely to make the statement.

1. What do you think the commission should do to save the lake? Should it restrict water drawn for irrigation, or should it ration the water used by the people around Lake Chad? Explain your answer.

Map Skills Study the population map of Africa. What city has the highest population? In what country is that city located?

In the Sahara Sahara means desert in Arabic. Because of the scarcity of water, the Sahara Desert is thinly populated except in northern Morocco, Algeria and Egypt along the Mediterranean coast. It has roughly one person per square mile, making it one of the lowest population densities on Earth.

Think About It List four things that have led to desertification in Africa.

1.

3.

2.

4.

Evaluation Sample

Egypt has a thriving tourist industry with sea resorts, international conferences, and art and cultural destinations. Likewise, Morocco is a tourist hotspot with exotic markets, kasbahs, and the famous city of Casablanca. The service industry employs tour guides, hotel staff, and restaurant workers, while the local people benefit from selling their famous rugs and other merchandise. Word Definition

Chapter 3

kasbah: a traditional

SS7G3 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, and physical characteristics on population distribution in Africa. a. Explain how the characteristics in the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, and tropical rainforest affect where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.

kasbah

The majority of the people in the Sahara are fortress in pre-colonial nomads, who walk through the desert looking northern Africa with high walls and for an oasis for their herds. In the important usually no windows salt trade, trucks are replacing camels. Airplanes and trucks specially equipped to handle sand are primary modes of transportation.

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• Islam is Arabic and means submission and derives from a word meaning ‘peace’.

In the Sahel The Sahel is the transition zone from the Sahara to tropical rain forests. This region has only 4-8 inches of rain per year, which falls from May to September. It is becoming more of a desert every year. Most residents live as subsistence farmers or herd livestock. Some people work in the iron ore and uranium mines. The persistence of drought forces herders to keep moving south, closer to the rainforests.

• The Islamic influence is tightly interwoven in the Arab culture and shows in many elements of its art. Geometric shapes, repetitive art, symmetry, bright colors, and decorative calligraphy are some examples.

SS7G4 The student will describe the diverse cultures of the people who live in Africa. a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. b. Explain the diversity of religions within the Arab, Ashanti, Bantu, and Swahili ethnic groups.

Unique to the Sahel, the baobab tree is important to its people, supplying food, shelter, clothing, and medicine as well as materials for hunting and fishing. People in the Sahel live in trade areas along the eastern Atlantic coast and along the Nile. The primary transportation mode is walking, followed by bicycling. People also use animal-drawn carts, plus some cars, trucks, and rail service.

c. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living. baobab trees

The savanna features rolling grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs. This is the part of Africa you usually see in movies, with grazing herds of zebras and giraffes alongside coffee plantations. The savannas average 30 to 50 inches of annual rainfall divided between a wet season and a dry season. Basically, it’s either soaking wet or parched there. Taking advantage of available water, most of the people live along the coast, as well as along the Nile River. Most of the agriculture is subsistence farming and nomadic herding. People walk and ride bicycles alongside animal-drawn carts and cars. Trains and buses operate in urban areas.

In the Rainforest The rainforest has a lush plant life and a wide variety of animals. It has more than 90 inches of rainfall annually, with constant warm temperatures. Many residents of the rainforest live around Lake Tanganyika to enjoy access to water. Native peoples in the rainforest earn their living by hunting and selling the meat. Many who live in Nigeria work for the government or in the thriving telecommunications business. The oil industry in Nigeria and Equatorial Guinea also employs people. Agriculture mainly consists of subsistence farming and nomadic herding. People here usually walk or bike. There are cars in cities as well as buses and trains for public transportation.

Most Africans are either Muslim or Christian, the two main religious groups in Africa. About 15 percent of Africans practice a traditional religion and worship sky gods or other spirits as well as ancestors. Christianity crossed the Mediterranean in the first and second centuries CE. The Arabs came in the 700s and spread Islam across the Sahara and the Sahel. Elements of traditional African beliefs are often woven into Muslim and Christian practices. For instance, a missionary tells of performing a Christian burial at a gravesite with everyone participating in the Christian rite. However, once he got up to leave, the Africans began their own traditional burial rite. Religion is part of everyday life in Africa, not separate from it, so most African languages have no word for religion.

Word Definition ethnic group: a group identified on the basis of religion, race, or national origin religious group: individuals whose identity is distinctive in terms of common religious beliefs and practices

There are several thousand ethnic groups in Africa. While each group has its own distinct history, art, and religious customs, the groups have influenced and enriched each other over time. Some of the main groups are the Arabs, Ashanti, Bantu, and Swahili.

Arab Culture and Religion The roots of the Arab culture are deep in Africa, especially in the north. The Red Sea is all that separates Saudi Arabia in Asia from Egypt and Sudan in Africa. In the 1100s, Muslims established Timbuktu in Mali as a worldwide center of learning. Their mosque in Djenne is the oldest mud brick building in the world.

Quick Review Fill in the table below. Type of Work People Do

The Five Pillars of Islam

Sahel

First Pillar:

Second Pillar:

Third Pillar:

Fourth Pillar:

Fifth Pillar:

Savanna

Stating that there is only one God, and that Muhammad is Godʼs prophet

Praying five times a day in the direction of Mecca

Giving to the poor and needy

Fasting during the month of Ramadan

Making a pilgrimage, or haj, to Mecca

Tropical Rainforest

• Muslims use two calendars: the traditional Gregorian one with 365 days and their lunar one with a 354-day year. They use the traditional calendar because it is used internationally for business. Since their own calendar is based on the moon, the study of astronomy is important. Islamic holidays are based on the lunar calendar, so as a result their dates are different every year.

The Ashanti are a major ethnic group living in central Ghana in western Africa. Their religion is a mixture of supernatural and spiritual powers. They believe that plants, animals and trees have souls. The family and the mother’s clan are most important. They live as an extended family in homes or huts set up around a courtyard. The roles of family members are set in centuries old traditions. • Women may pick cotton or spin materials into threads. Only men may weave. Kente is their wellknown, hand-woven ceremonial cloth that represents history, philosophy, ethics, oral literature, and religious principles. • Mothers teach their daughters pottery and housekeeping skills. Women farm and carry water. • At eight or nine, fathers train their sons in a skill the father chooses.

Bantu Culture and Religion All over modern day Angola, there are signs of a prehistoric people. Archaeologists have uncovered scratches on rocks, massive stone pillars, and tools, and have placed the Bantu people there about 50,000 BCE or even earlier. Their original language appears to have evolved in present day Cameroon, and then spread eastward and Word Definition southward. Today the Bantu are in countries from the equator to hijab: the headscarf southern Africa.

worn by Muslim women, Djenne mosque

How People Travel

Desert

• Muslims believe strongly in education. One reason literacy is important is so everyone can read and understand the Quran. The Muslims established their learning centers centuries before missionaries appeared and started Christian schools.

Ashanti Culture and Religion

Religion in Africa

In the Savanna

Where People Live

Chapter 4

sometimes including a veil that • About 60 million modern day Africans can trace their covers all of the face but the eyes language back to those Bantu of long ago. Approximately 400 African languages have Bantu roots. Some believe that Bantu is more of a language group than a culture group because of this incredible diversity. • Whether Islam or Christian, many Bantu retain their beliefs that precede both those religions. They believe in the power of both magic and curses. • Local Muslim leaders forbid some Bantu drum playing and dancing as inappropriate. Bantu Muslims are more liberal in their beliefs than many other Muslims. Women can work in the fields. Women dress modestly by American standards, but don’t have to wear the hijab, which most Muslim women must wear in public.

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Swahili Culture and Religion The Swahili are all Muslims living in a narrow strip of land from the north coast of Kenya to the capital of Tanzania. They also live on several nearby islands in the Indian Ocean, including Zanzibar. The Portuguese, Middle Eastern Arabs and the British have all conquered them. • Since Islam is a way of life and religious holidays are of utmost importance, the Arab culture is a vital part of the Swahili culture. • The youth usually finish primary school, and some continue in secondary school. Parents recognize the value of an education for later employment. • Access to water is critical to Muslims who must wash before they eat. Most homes have electricity, indoor plumbing, several bedrooms and a living room. • The Swahili have a relatively high standard of living. Their education allows them to work for the government, and in offices and schools. • The Swahili language reflects Bantu and Arab roots. Many also speak English. Today, if someone says jambo to you, you’re hearing hello in Swahili, one of the many modern-day languages with Bantu roots.

The United Nations says the 27 least developed countries in the world are all African. The situation is unlikely to change in the near future. In Africa, the overall literacy rate is 40 percent. Illiteracy goes hand in hand with a low standard of living. Many children in Africa don’t start school until they’re nine and start dropping out around age 14. For each additional year in school, the chance of a life of poverty drops six percent. In most African countries, the literacy rate among women is significantly lower than that of men. If you can read, you can learn. If you can learn, you can improve your work skills, and get a better job that pays a better salary. If you have a better salary, you can improve your standard of living. A country that Word Definition improves the literacy rate among its citizens will improve the literacy: the ability to standard of living within that country and improve its economy. Educated and skilled workers are an important factor in a country’s read and write economic growth.

About 40 percent of the adults in Africa can read and write. The bar graph below shows the literacy rates for selected nations in Africa. Study the graph and then answer the questions below it.

Who Has the Power?

D. Swahili

What is a government? A government is a body with the authority to make laws, enforce those laws, and interpret the laws when disagreements arise. A government also oversees the general welfare of its people. Governments distribute their power through three basic systems:

50% 2. They believe that plants, animals, and trees have souls. A. Arab B. Ashanti

C. Bantu

D. Swahili

3. They have a relatively high standard of living. A. Arab B. Ashanti

C. Bantu

D. Swahili

4. They follow two calendars. A. Arab

C. Bantu

D. Swahili

B. Ashanti

5. About 60 million modern-day Africans trace their language back to this ancient culture. A. Arab B. Ashanti C. Bantu D. Swahili 6. If you describe someone as a Christian, you are describing his: A. Ethnic group B. Religious group C. Language

b. Explain how governments determine citizen participation: autocratic, oligarchic, and democratic. c. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

75% C. Bantu

SS7CG1, SS7CG4, SS7CG6 The student will compare and contrast various forms of government.

100%

Circle the ethnic group most closely associated with each of the following. 1. Muslim women don’t have to wear the hijab in this culture. A. Arab B. Ashanti

Chapter 5 a. Describe the ways government systems distribute power: unitary, confederation, and federal.

Enrichment Literacy Rates in Africa

Quick Quiz

Government/Civics Understandings

D. Education

25% 0%

t yp Eg

a ny Ke

n Co

go

o hi Et

a pi

er Nig

ia So

al m

ia

• Unitary systems give all the power to the central government. This central government may delegate (or transfer) some duties to smaller political units like cities but it retains final authority over all decisions. Unitary central governments are stronger than federal central governments. Some countries with unitary governments include France, Italy, Japan, South Korea, and Kenya.

1. Which nation has the highest literacy rate? 2. Which nation has the lowest literacy rate? 3. Which nation probably has the lowest standard of living? 4. A low literacy rate means that many people in that country cannot

Can You Read?

Word Definition alliance: a union of two or more groups, usually to achieve a common goal

5. Why do you think children often drop out of school in Africa?

Have you ever heard a country referred to as “developed” or “developing”? The development of a country refers to its economic health. A developed country has good public services like clean water, electricity, and transportation. Its citizens have good educations, are healthy, and earn good salaries. A developing country usually has poor public services, few good jobs, poor healthcare, and a largely uneducated workforce.

• A confederation is a loose alliance of countries or other political units like states. Each unit has final control of its own laws and citizens. The central government makes decisions only on issues that affect the entire confederation. Confederations can be unstable because members often want to do things their own way! Examples include the Confederate States of America and the British Commonwealth of Nations. • Federal systems divide power between the central government and the government of smaller political units like states. Most federal systems give a lot of power to the lower governments to handle local affairs. The central government handles issues that concern the entire country, like maintaining armed forces and negotiating treaties with foreign countries. Some countries with federal systems include the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil.

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 12

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Look-It-Up!

Essential Skills

Use the Internet to find a list of the members of the British Commonwealth of Nations. How many nations belong to it?

Read the statements by political leaders below. Write A if they head an autocratic government, O if they head an oligarchy, and D if they head a democracy.

Think About It

Quick Review

2. “My wealth and position will keep me in power in this society.”

Next to each item below, write the matching terms from the word bank. Each form of government matches with two terms.

3. “I will imprison anyone who criticizes my government. I am in total control.”

5. “Where can I register to vote for the presidential election?”

Quick Quiz

Confederation

Match the type of government on the left with its description on the right.

Word Bank France is example loose alliance political units control their own law

central government divides power central government has all power United States is example

Who Gets To Participate? Citizens participate at varied levels in different government systems: • In an autocratic system, one leader holds complete power. An autocracy is the opposite of a democracy. Citizens have no participation in government when living under an autocratic system. The German Nazi regime under Adolf Hitler from 1933 to 1945 is an example.

?

• In an oligarchic system, control rests with a small group of people with wealth or power. In most cases, citizen participation is restricted to the ruling group. An example of an oligarchy is the apartheid system in South Africa, where a small group of whites held power over the black majority from 1948 to 1994. • In a democratic system, the people hold supreme power. Usually, they exercise their power by electing officials to represent them. All citizens have equal rights to participate in government regardless of their position or wealth. The United States has a democratic system of government. ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 28

1. autocracy

a. control rests with a small group

2. oligarchy

b. the people hold supreme power

3. democracy

c. one leader exercises total control

Parliament vs. President

?

?

??

?

?

?

Look-It-Up!

There are two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential. The main difference between the two is the relationship between the legislative and executive branches of government.

Do some research on parliamentary and presidential systems of government. What are the advantages of each system? What are the disadvantages?

Parliamentary: In the parliamentary system, the legislature (Parliament) controls the power. The majority party in the legislature forms a government headed by a prime minister, who is chosen by the legislature. The prime minister and his cabinet are members of the legislature, and the prime minister answers to the legislature (fusion of powers). The government will stay in office for a specified period unless the prime minister loses support of the majority in the legislature on an important vote. If that happens, the prime minister must resign, and elections are held immediately.

Checks and Balances Presidential:

In the presidential system, the executive and legislative branches are separate bodies elected independently by the citizens (separation of powers). There are checks and balances where each branch can overrule the other. The president answers to the voters, not to the legislature. The people elect the president, and elections are held at set intervals.

Question for Discussion Would you rather live in a democracy, autocracy, or oligarchy? Why? ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 29

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Chapter 6

Presidential

legislature controls power separation of powers prime minister president leader answers to the people leader answers to the legislature checks and balances elections held if leader forced to resign leader elected by the people

legislature controls power separation of powers prime minister president leader answers to the people leader answers to the legislature checks and balances elections held if leader forced to resign leader elected by the people

4. “There is no reason to explain our position to the people. We are in control here.”

Federal system

Place check marks next to the items that fit each government system. Parliamentary

1. “I am proud to serve as president of a country where everyone has equal rights.”

Unitary system

Evaluation Sample

people had fled. A cease-fire agreement was signed in December 2004, but the violence continues. The international community has condemned this killing of non-Arabs.

Quick Quiz Write T for True and F for False.

Quick Review

SS7CG2 The student will explain the structures of the modern governments of Africa.

1. Kenya is a constitutional republic.

a. Compare the republican systems of government in the Republic of Kenya and the Republic of South Africa to the dictatorship of the Republic of the Sudan, distinguishing the form of leadership and role of the citizen in terms of voting and personal freedoms.

2. Kenyans do not have the right to vote.

Fill in the chart below describing the governments of Kenya, South Africa, and Sudan.

Kenya

3. Kenya has three branches of government.

The Government of Kenya

5. South Africans have many personal freedoms guaranteed by their constitution.

Can citizens vote freely?

The Republic of the Sudan In 2006, global human-rights organizations, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, compiled a list of the 10 worst dictators in the world. Number one was Omar al-Bashir of Sudan.

Kenya has three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial. Kenyatta, the first elected president, wanted a nation where people of every race had equal opportunities. The presidents after him have supported free press, public schools, and public health services. Kenya has an independent legislature and judicial system.

The Government of the Republic of South Africa From April 26 to April 29, 1994, more than 17 million black South Africans over the age of 18 voted for the first time. The line was a mile long in some areas, and voters had to wait up to 12 hours to cast their ballot in others. They were voting for a new national assembly, electing black South Africans and women in significant numbers. The Republic of South Africa gained a new constitution with a bill of rights that guarantees many personal freedoms. The constitution ensures equality before the law and prohibits discrimination. It guarantees the right to life, privacy, property, freedom, and security of the person, and freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and association. It also prohibits slavery and forced labor. The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary democracy. There are three branches of government in South Africa: executive, legislative, and judicial. The National Assembly (legislature) elects the president, who is the executive head of state and leader of the Cabinet. The president answers to the legislature and may only serve two five-year terms in office.

Sudan

Is leader elected fairly?

6. The South African president is elected directly by the people.

In 1963, the possibilities of freedom seemed endless for the Republic of Kenya. The new constitution guaranteed many freedoms, such as freedom of expression, freedom of movement, and freedom from discrimination. Free from British rule, Kenya had become a constitutional republic. Any Kenyan 18 or older could vote. Today, Kenyans take this right seriously, turning out in high numbers to elect their president and National Assembly representatives. Up to 70 percent of Kenyans vote in elections that are held every five years.

South Africa

Form of leadership

4. South Africa is a parliamentary democracy.

Personal freedoms guaranteed

Word Definition dictator: a ruler with absolute power and authority

Taking power in 1989, al-Bashir and his regime abolished the existing government, suspended the Constitution, restricted freedom of the press, and arrested many prominent politicians. They imposed tight controls on the behavior and dress codes for women. The citizens were stripped of personal freedoms. The citizens did not vote for al-Bashir; he used military force to become dictator.

In 2000, al-Bashir won 86 percent of the vote in a national election. Disagreement about the fairness of the election followed. In 2005, the National Assembly (part of the two-house legislature) ratified a transition constitution. It defined the executive branch as the president, who is also the prime minister, head of government, and commander of the armed forces. While the National Assembly named al-Bashir president this time, the constitution states that the people will vote for the president in future elections. The Sudanese constitution calls for many personal freedoms. However, the constitution is not enforced. Children under 18 can be executed. The government’s human rights record is poor and serious abuses of human rights are all too common.

A Sad Story in Sudan

Question for Discussion Kenya, South Africa, and Sudan all have constitutions guaranteeing personal freedoms, but the lives of citizens in these countries are quite different. What do think would happen if the people of Sudan started practicing freedom of speech? Why?

Chapter 7 SS7CG3 The student will analyze how politics in Africa impacts the standard of living. a. Compare how various factors, including gender, affect access to education in Kenya and Sudan. b. Describe the impact of government stability on the distribution of resources to combat AIDS and famine across Africa.

Education in Africa

When al-Bashir took power, a civil war was already brewing in Sudan. The Muslim north had set out to crush the Christian south, to protect and defend Islam from the infidels. Al-Bashir continued the war and wanted to expand the Arab culture and religion throughout Sudan. In 2003, when international efforts to bring peace between the north and south were finally calming the situation, rebellion began in Darfur in western Sudan. Al-Bashir responded by killing at least 180,000 civilians in Darfur and driving two million people from their homes. After burning villages, the army attacked refugee camps where the

One of the major growing pains for most African countries is education. Civil wars and a lack of resources are major factors negatively influencing quality education. Girls in particular, have limited education opportunities because African societies give the needs of men higher priority than those of women.

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Going to School in Kenya Quick Quiz Kenya introduced the right to primary education in 2003, making it free for children to attend primary school. Kenyans value education, with about 80 percent of city children attending school. Things are different in rural Kenya, where only half of the children attend school, and there is a shortage of clean drinking water, teachers, buildings, and textbooks. Gender also affects education in Kenya. If parents have to choose between sending boys or girls to school because of finances, the boys win. Girls are also more likely to quit school because of poor sanitation facilities and concerns for their safety and security. Girls have greater responsibilities at home and few role models to encourage them to stay in school. Another problem in Kenya is educating orphans due to the AIDS epidemic. Volunteers have built and staffed schools called Harambee (Swahili for “pull together”) for children who otherwise might not get any education. Kenya is working to increase teacher training and resources.

Write About It

Complete the table below by putting an x in the appropriate boxes.

Compare and Contrast Factors Impacting Education in Kenya and Sudan Both Kenya and Kenya Sudan Sudan

Create two countries and name them. In the first country, there is continual civil war. In the second country, the citizens have lived in peace. Write a paragraph about each one, describing how the AIDS epidemic is affecting it. (Use a separate piece of paper if you need more room.)

Shrinking education budget Men have higher priority Civil war disrupted schooling AIDS orphans Girls work at home

Going to School in Sudan Education has suffered in Sudan because of years of civil war. Families forced into refugee camps get food and shelter, but no schooling. The United Nations estimates that half of the children in Darfur and 75 percent of the children in southern Sudan have no access to education. The government closed Christian schools established by missionaries in the south and replaced some of them with Muslim schools. Girls usually leave school at age 10 because their families think women only need to be trained in domestic skills.

Word Definition AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, a serious, often fatal disease HIV: the virus that causes AIDS

The education budget has shrunk in recent years, leaving few textbooks or schools in most areas. The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) started a “Go to School” initiative in 2006, and in the first year alone, school enrollment doubled. UNICEF has also donated tents for education and is building classrooms. However, many of the teachers are not trained and insufficient supplies remain a problem. The Islamic government of Sudan refuses to discuss AIDS, but it is estimated that there are 80,000 street children in the capital city of Khartoum, most of them AIDS orphans. There are international humanitarian efforts to house and educate these children, but only a small percentage of them are actually helped. School in a Sudanese refugee camp

Lack of supplies and textbooks Christian schools closed

The Scourge of Famine

AIDS in Africa As the former African colonies became independent, the governments had many serious issues to handle including civil wars and corrupt politicians . Because of these overwhelming issues, the rise of AIDS in Africa did not receive the necessary attention to prevent it from becoming an epidemic. Worldwide today, there are over 42 million people living with HIV/AIDS, and nearly three quarters of those infected people live in sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of stability in African governments has a negative effect on those countries’ healthcare systems. AIDS adds a staggering burden to healthcare systems that barely have enough money to handle basic care. AIDS patients fill almost half of the hospital beds in Africa. Few countries have the resources to identify people with the AIDS virus and administer the necessary drugs to them. In contrast, the citizens of Botswana have lived in peace since their independence in 1966. As a result, Botswana has the resources to help its citizens and was the first country to offer the necessary drug therapy to all its citizens infected with AIDS.

Along with civil war and AIDS, famine is the third leg of a triangle of misery in Africa. More than 25 million Africans needed emergency food aid at the beginning of 2008 and approximately 200 million Africans suffer from chronic hunger. Once again, the stability of the government directly impacts a country’s ability to produce enough food to prevent famine. Across Africa, civil wars have interrupted life for many citizens, including farmers. Government corruption has also increased food shortages. Certain governments have used food as a weapon, denying humanitarian food shipments to their political enemies or seizing land from farmers who haven’t supported it during a revolution. Farmers in Africa encounter many challenges, whether their government is stable or not. Repeated drought has plagued Africa since the 1970s. AIDS has reduced the workforce available to farm the land. Soil infertility and erosion decrease the amount of crops grown. Swarms of locusts have devoured entire crops. Most African families farm only small plots of land, insufficient to supply enough food for their family in the best of times. In this environment of poverty, insufficient food, and government instability, a drought easily triggers a famine because the government has no money to purchase necessary food for its citizens.

Photo by www. lostboyshr.com

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 13

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

• Traditional: This system is found in agricultural societies where people live the same way their parents and grandparents did. Traditional systems are found in some areas of Africa, Asia, and South America. People in these systems produce what they need to survive by farming or hunting and gathering. They make their own clothing and tools, and trade any extra food or items with others in their society.

Quick Review Answer the questions below. 1. List four problems African farmers confront. _____________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________

• Command: The government controls what is produced and how it is produced in a command system. The government owns the resources and decides who gets the products. This decision might be based on class, a reward system, or simply by waiting in line. North Korea has a command economy. • Market: In a market system, a country’s economic decisions are based on what its people want to buy and sell. People can own their own businesses and produce what they want. The United States has a market economy. In a market system, supply and demand for a good or service determines what to produce and how to produce it. Producers will make their product in the way that costs them the least amount of money so they can make a profit. Who gets a product is determined by how much a person can afford to pay for it.

2. List two ways unstable government policies have worsened the food crisis in Africa. __________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

Economic Understandings Chapter 8

c. market

2. Which economic system would be the worst for competition between producers? a. traditional b. command

c. market

3. A market economy has a. private

ownership of property and resources. b. government c. tribal

c. market

5. What is the most common economic system today? a. command b. mixed

c. traditional

In reality, very few countries have an economic system that fits entirely into one category or another. Most countries today have mixed economies that fall somewhere in between pure market and pure command economies. For example, there are some government-owned resources in the United States. Examples include schools, public colleges, the postal service, some housing projects, and some power plants. In the command economy of the former Soviet Union, there was such an emphasis on the defense industry that farmers had a lot of freedom to produce and sell whatever they wanted.

6. An example of a government-owned resource is: a. postal system b. grocery store chain

c. restaurant

SS7E1 The student will analyze different economic systems. Economy

What to Produce

How to Produce

For Whom to Produce

Economic System of South Africa The shining star of the Sub-Saharan economy is South Africa. This country has developed into the strongest economy in the Sub-Saharan region after recovering from international sanctions placed on it during a period of racial discrimination called apartheid.

Word Definition sanction: a penalty or pressure to get a country to change its policies apartheid: discrimination based on South Africa has a mixed economy. It has been making race and color of skin

the transition from an almost completely command economy to a market economy over the past several decades. The government has let citizens take over many of the industries it used to run, but still owns some oil and gas companies. It operates the postal service and some of the telecommunications network. Healthcare is both public and private. South Africa’s economy has grown from primarily mining, fishing, and agriculture to include manufacturing and service industries.

Traditional

c. Compare and contrast the economic systems found in South Africa and Nigeria.

Command

Economic Systems Market Every country has to decide how to distribute its resources to meet the needs of its people. They do this through an economic system, which is the way a society organizes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. There are three basic types of economic systems that Word Definition have to answer three basic questions: What to produce? How to consumption: using up produce? For whom to produce? of goods and services

Answer the questions below based on what you have learned about economic systems.

Most Everyone Mixes It Up!

Complete the chart below to compare traditional, command, and market economies.

SS7E1b, SS7E5b, SS7E8b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.

Enrichment 1. Which economic system do you think consumers (like you) would like the most? a. traditional b. command

4. Which economic system is found in simple agricultural societies? a. traditional b. command

Quick Review

SS7E1a, SS7E5a, SS7E8a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.

Evaluation Sample

Special Economics Info When a country’s businesses are owned and operated by private citizens, this market system is also known as a free enterprise, or capitalist system. When all resources are owned by the state, it is known as a communist system.

As the government recognized the need for skilled labor in the 1980s, it began allowing blacks to hold skilled jobs and provided skills training for them. Today, wealth is still largely divided along racial lines. Whites have good incomes while the majority of blacks live in poverty. The government is trying to help with a new program called BEE (Black Economic Empowerment) to include blacks in all levels of business and industry. Companies that meet BEE requirements can do business with the government.

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The Economic System of Nigeria Nigeria sits at the other end of the economic spectrum from South Africa. During the oil boom days of the early1970s, Nigeria became very wealthy and the government and its citizens spent money lavishly. Unfortunately, when the price of oil fell in the late 1970s, the Nigerian economy collapsed along with it. Nigeria transformed from one of the 50 richest countries in the world in the 1970s to one of the poorest by the end of the century. The oil boom had diverted the government’s attention from another important source of income for Nigerians: agriculture. Although more than half of Nigerians are farmers, Nigeria went from exporting surplus crops to importing food. Most Nigerians struggle to survive on less than one dollar a day. Nigeria has a mixed economy, and has been moving toward a market economy since 2006, when the government moved its major petroleum interests to the private sector (companies owned by private citizens). Nigeria owns two of the country’s three television stations. The government is still in charge of the post office and public schools. The public schools are crumbling, and those who can afford private schools send their children there. Nigeria has a plan in place for national healthcare, but it is so poorly run, that most healthcare is in the private sector.

Quick Review Complete the chart below to compare the economies of South Africa and Nigeria.

Country

Type of Economy

Growing or Struggling

What the Government Controls

Chapter 9 SS7E2 The student will explain how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Africa. a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargos. b. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.

Background Check

Trade is Essential! Countries trade goods because no country has all the resources necessary to efficiently produce everything its people need. Every country has different natural, human, and capital resources. Our world today has a global economy because countries buy what they need and sell what they produce all over the world! It is always easier to do something if you want to do it. The same holds true for trade. Many African officials are encouraging voluntary trade and specialization among African countries. Voluntary trade happens when both parties expect to gain from the trade. The buyer is happy purchasing an item at a good price, while the seller is happy making a profit. Countries specialize in what they do best. Specialization is an efficient way to work, and the cost of items produced is lower. Simply put, specialization increases trade because a country can get what it needs at the lowest cost when produced by someone who specializes in producing that item.

South Africa

Nigeria

Currently, it is not easy for African countries to trade with one another. The roads usually lead to a port rather than another city. A 15-member Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) formed to make trade easier. Unfortunately, terrible roads, roadblocks, border patrol searches, and other problems still make trade difficult.

Think About It The International Monetary Fund (IMF) says 75 percent of Sub-Saharan countries have policies that hinder trade within Africa. In the last two decades there have been regional efforts to change this and boost trade among African countries because of the cost savings of trading with neighbors.

Write T for True and F for False. 1. South Africa has the strongest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa. 2. Nigeria neglected agriculture while developing its oil industry. 3. Blacks typically have higher incomes than whites in South Africa. 4. Nigerian citizens are some of the wealthiest people in Africa. 5. The international community did not agree with South Africa’s treatment of blacks during the apartheid period.

Special Economics Info Coffee drinkers prize Ethiopian coffee. Tea drinkers enjoy African red tea for its taste and possible health benefits. Neither of these can be grown in the United States. The United States can manufacture technical and medical equipment and export it to African countries that are unable to manufacture these items. How does specialization in trade benefit these countries?

Most of Africa’s trade is with countries outside the continent. People in many countries value African art and textiles, so African sellers benefit from their unique products. The United States has lifted tariffs from South African diamonds and gold, also benefiting sellers in Africa. Money earned from exports allows Africans to import what their countries need.

Specialization also helps make businesses more profitable, and improves the standard of living in countries. Why? People make more money if their businesses are successful!

Roadblocks to Trade Countries sometimes set up trade barriers to restrict trade because they want to sell and produce their own goods. Trade barriers include: • Tariffs are taxes placed on imported goods. Tariffs cause the consumer to pay a higher price for an imported item, increasing the demand for a lower-priced item produced domestically. • Quotas are restrictions on the amount of a good that can be imported into a country. Quotas can cause shortages that cause prices to rise. • Trade embargoes forbid trade with another country. The United States had a trade embargo with South Africa during apartheid. Examples in Africa include: High tariffs are one reason why African countries don’t trade among themselves. Some countries place tariffs as high as 17 percent on imports from other African countries because they may have the same product to export and want to give their own citizens a trade advantage. They set up high tariffs to keep out the competition. In 2007, South Africa placed strict quotas on the amount of Chinese textiles that could be imported. Many South African textile workers had lost their jobs because of cheaper imports, and the government wanted to give South African clothing and textile businesses a good chance to compete in foreign and domestic markets. In May 2007, a six-year UN embargo against diamonds from Liberia was lifted. Money from “conflict diamonds” had been used to fund wars across the continent. Now, each diamond exported must have a certificate showing its authenticity.

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Quick Quiz

Math Experience

Circle the correct answers below.

You can calculate exchange rates yourself. Below are some fictional examples of exchange rates. Study the exchange rates and then calculate the correct answers to the word problems below.

1. The UN has forbidden arms to be imported into Africa. This is an example of: A. tariff B. quota C. embargo 2. If the European Union voted to lift the restriction on the amount of cocoa that can be imported from West African countries, that would be an example of: A. tariff B. quota C. embargo 3. In September 2008, the United States and Canada banned trade with Zimbabwe, protesting the illegal regime of its president. This is an example of: A. tariff B. quota C. embargo 4. To give its farmers an advantage, Nigeria has placed a high tax on imported rice. This is an example of: A. tariff B. quota C. embargo

Exchange Rates One dollar = 8 South African rands One dollar = 120 Nigerian naira 1. Taylor has $10.00. She wants to buy a CD in South Africa that costs 80 rands. Once she exchanges her American money for rands, will she have enough money to buy the CD? 2. Michael wants to buy a soccer ball that costs 1300 in Nigerian naira. He has $15.00. After he makes the currency exchange, will he have enough money to buy the ball? 3. Oba has $25.00. She wants to buy a shirt in Nigeria that costs 2500 naira. Does she have enough money to buy it once she makes the currency exchange?

Exchanging Money Because every country does not use the same type of money, international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations. Money from one country must be converted into the currency of another country to pay for goods in that country. This system is called foreign exchange. The exchange rate is Word Definition how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. For currency: the type of money example, an exchange rate of 7.9 rands in South Africa to the dollar means that 7.9 rands are worth the same as one dollar. a country uses Most countries use coins and bills, just like the United States, but they come in all shapes, sizes, and names. The South African currency is the rand, and the Nigerian currency is the naira.

Chapter 10 SS7E3 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Nigeria and South Africa. a. Explain the investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product. b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP.) c. Explain how the distribution of diamonds, gold, uranium, and oil affects the economic development of Africa. d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

How Does an Economy Grow?

Word Definition Gross Domestic Product Factors That Influence Economic Growth (GDP): the total market value of the goods and services There are basic factors that influence economic growth in any produced by a country’s economy part of the world. They are the productive resources used to during a specific period of time South African rand

Nigerian naira

produce goods and services. They include human capital (people who perform labor), capital (factories or machinery), and natural resources (things that come from the land like minerals or trees). Another factor is entrepreneurship, which includes the ideas, innovation, and risk involved in starting a business.

Economists measure a nation’s economic performance by a standard called Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Economists use it to determine the health of a company’s economy and compare it to other economies.

Get Smart! How a country manages its productive resources makes a big difference in the strength of its economy. For example, investment in human capital delivers long-lasting rewards. Studies have shown that investment in education and skills training clearly correlates to a higher GDP. Education and the abilities it develops create a smarter and more productive workforce, which leads to greater economic growth. A healthy economy is a growing economy. This takes work and insight from government and businesses. Creating a quality workforce requires education and training. South Africa is strongly committed to education, an investment in human capital. When South Africa examined the need to improve the skill of its workforce, it started education and training programs. This investment in human capital is paying off. South Africa’s GDP has been growing annually at a rate of about five percent. The government continues to offer services to low-income areas to increase education and job growth. In 2008, nearly 50 percent of South Africa’s capital investment in its industry went to improve electrical output. To assist in transportation of goods, it also invested heavily in the rail system and expansion of ports, paving the way for continued increase of its GDP. Unfortunately, about 50 percent of the population still lives below the poverty line. In Nigeria, the government does not budget much money for education, making growth in human capital difficult. Nigeria’s past reliance on oil alone caused it to neglect education and training in other areas of the economy. While Nigeria has a healthy GDP, about 70 percent of Nigerians live below the poverty line. The income from oil belongs to a small group of wealthy people. From 1968 until 1998, the average income per household in Nigeria dropped from an equivalent of $1,000 U.S. dollars to $300. The Nigerian government has spent excessively and has not managed its money well. Therefore, it has little money to invest in capital resources like factories, machinery, or technology. Nigeria is attempting to reform its economic system and build a public-private partnership to improve roads and the distribution of electricity.

Question for Discussion Nigeria has a high GDP, but many people live in poverty. What are some reasons for this situation?

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7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Diamonds and Gold Special Economics Info A variety of things reflect a nation’s economy. Economists understand there is a relationship between a country’s GDP and its technology. A telecommunications network (television, telephones, cable systems) is an example of technology. Study the chart below and answer the questions.

Country

Population

GDP (official exchange rate)

Number of Television Stations

Number of Telephones (land lines)

South Africa

44 million

$282.6 billion

556

4.7 million

Nigeria

138 million

$166.8 billion

3

1.6 million

Quick Quiz

About half of the world’s diamonds are found in Africa. Botswana has benefited from a prosperous economy and a stable government since independence. Money from its diamonds goes back into the economy to build up the country’s infrastructure with roads, schools, and clinics. In other countries like Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, armed rebel soldiers have stolen diamonds from miners, sold them, and used the money to support brutal wars. South Africa boasts nearly one-half of the world’s gold reserve. Gold is the basis of its strong economy with a modern infrastructure, a good transportation system, and reliable communications networks. Other countries rich in gold are not faring as well. Although Ghana’s economy is boosted by gold, and its standard of living is twice as high as neighboring countries, Ghana still relies heavily on foreign assistance. Even though Mali mines gold, it remains one of the poorest countries in the world. In Senegal, gold does not play an important role in its economy. These examples show that natural resources alone cannot sustain an economy.

Source: CIA World Factbook, 2007

On the map below, label each country where natural resources are found. Use the map on page 13 to help you.

Resources in Africa

2. Which country has the larger investment in telecommunications? 3. Nigeria has a population roughly four times that of South Africa, yet it has far fewer television stations. What

Petroleum is found in:

factors do you think influence the vast difference in the numbers of television stations? Gold is found in:

2. Money from diamonds has supported wars in Sierra Leone and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. 3. A country will always have a strong economy if it has one valuable natural resource. 4. Gold is the basis of South Africa’s strong economy. 5. The gold mined in Mali has made it one of the richest countries in the world.

Since oil is so important to the entire world, you might think that African countries with oil would be wealthy. Nigeria is the sixth-largest oil producer in the world as well as a major supplier to American customers. However, much of the Nigerian population is desperately poor, as the money bypasses the people and goes straight to corrupt politicians. Nigeria takes in $2.2 million per day in oil revenue, yet the average Nigerian lives on less than one dollar a day! Oil is also causing serious pollution problems in Nigeria with an average of two oil spills a day.

Tropic of Cancer

Other countries have become involved in Nigeria’s economy because they want access to oil, such as international energy companies spending millions for Nigerian hospitals and schools. Unfortunately, this international assistance does not always benefit Nigeria. For example, China contributes aid to the African infrastructure, but along with it come Chinese workers who take jobs from Africans in desperate need of them. Chinese companies also flood local economies with inexpensive goods that wipe out local competition and cause even more unemployment.

4. What are some things Nigeria can do to improve its capital and improve its economic growth? Uranium is found in: A T L A N T I C Equator

O C E A N

Diamonds Gold

Diamonds are found in:

A Cornucopia of Riches

Write T for True and F for False.

1. The stable government of Botswana has used the income from diamonds to build its infrastructure.

Oil—the Precious Resource

Map Skills 1. Which country has the higher GDP?

Evaluation Sample

Hard-To-Believe-But-True!

Uranium

In 2006, a World Wildlife Fund report named the Niger Delta as one of the most polluted places on Earth.

Petroleum

There is an uneven distribution of natural resources in Africa. More important than the actual riches, however, is what the country does with this wealth.

Tropic of Capricorn

0

You might think that if a country is rich in natural resources, then that country should be wealthy. In a country with a stable government, revenue from those resources would usually be used for development that benefits the economy. But in countries with unstable governments, resources like diamonds, gold, uranium, and oil don’t always guarantee a prosperous economy and often have a negative impact on a nation’s development.

0

1000 Miles 1000 Km

Background Check

Hard-To-Believe-But-True! When making an average size 18-carat gold ring, approximately 20 tons of polluted mining waste is created!

Gold mining can cause health problems and strain the healthcare systems of struggling African nations. In Senegal and Mali, young children aged 12 and 13 work in mines and use mercury to attract and identify the gold. Mercury is particularly hazardous to children and teens because it is toxic to developing nervous systems. This adds further strain to health care systems. The United Nations estimates that 10 to 20 percent of the thousand of miners in West Africa are children.

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Essential Skills

Quick Quiz

Write About It

Write T for True and F for False.

Pretend you have an idea for a business in Nigeria. Describe your idea below. Make sure you explain what an entrepreneur does, what good or service you want to provide, where you got your training, and what obstacles you may have ahead of you.

Complete the graphic organizer below. 1. Namibia’s economy is benefiting from renewed interest in uranium.

Second Cause Different countries want that oil

First Cause Nigeria is rich in oil

2. The search for clean fuel has revived the uranium industry. 3. Uranium by-products can pollute both land and water. 4. Uranium is found in deep mines.

Effects

5. South Africa mines uranium and uses it for its nuclear reactors. 6. New technology makes mining uranium safer.

Whose Idea Was That? Using Uranium Uranium is a radioactive element that occurs in small parts in rock, soil, and both surface and ground water. It is used to produce fuel for nuclear power plants and make weapons. Africa produces about 20 percent Word Definition of the world's uranium. Four African countries (Niger, radioactive: emitting high Namibia, South Africa, and Gabon) have exported uranium in energy waves or particles; the past. When the world’s use of uranium declined in the anything radioactive is dangerous for 1980s, Niger’s economy suffered as uranium revenue fell living beings to handle 50 percent. Today, interest in uranium is developing again as oil prices rise and countries search for cleaner fuels like nuclear energy. While gold mines can be quite deep, Africa’s uranium lies in sandstone deposits near the surface, so mining it is easy. The search for uranium in Zambia raises hopes of new jobs and tax revenue. Uranium mine Namibia’s uranium industry is enjoying a revival, and neighboring Botswana is developing a uranium mining industry. South Africa both mines uranium and uses it in its nuclear reactors. Unfortunately, careless mining practices have polluted water and land in the past. But today, mining officials say that new technology makes mining uranium safe, and government officials plan to put this technology in place. If governments have learned from past mistakes with natural resources, countries with uranium deposits can look for growth in their GDP from this valuable mineral.

A disk of highly enriched uranium

Word Definition Entrepreneurs have a vital role in any country’s entrepreneur: someone economy. They come up with new ideas and use human, who has an idea for a good or capital, and natural resources to bring their ideas to life—and service and takes the risks to produce it to the marketplace. They must be willing to take risks, and often share those risks with others by borrowing funds from a bank or a wealthy investor. Entrepreneurs are valuable because they are creative and help economies adapt to changing conditions.

Chapter 11 SS7E4 The student will explain personal money management choices in terms of income, spending, credit, saving, and investing.

Building Nigeria One Business at a Time In a developing economy such as Nigeria’s, entrepreneurs with fresh new ideas could play a vital role in jump-starting the economy. However, few banks are willing to fund them and their ideas. International investors are stepping in to help, offering long-term investment into a business rather than a loan. The investors then work side by side with the entrepreneur to help the business grow. The government and independent consulting firms are also working to teach and help future Nigerian entrepreneurs.

It’s Your Money, Honey! The personal money management choices that you make throughout your life are really important! The sooner you start with good money habits, the better off you’ll be in the long run. Money is not so important for what it is, but for what it can do. Money is the medium of exchange used to buy goods and services. Your income provides you with money to spend on whatever you choose. People earn income by giving their time and services to an employer, and receiving money in return.

Ubuntu Means Togetherness South Africa has approximately two million small businesses, representing 98 percent of the total number of firms in the country. However, financing and gender equality issues are common problems. The government is working to overcome these difficulties with training programs. Colleges offer classes in how to run a business. People who already have a successful small business are willing to help those trying to start one. The BEE program rewards companies that employ blacks in all levels. The effort is one of ubuntu, or togetherness. South Africa has also started an Angel Network to connect entrepreneurs with potential investors.

People use credit to buy something now and pay for it later. When you buy something on credit, you usually have to pay the amount you borrowed plus an additional amount in interest. Banks make money from interest payments—interest is a fee paid for the use of someone else’s money.

Think About It If you use a credit card, how can you avoid interest charges?

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Make Your Money Grow Special Economics Info There are several forms of money:

We can get credit as: Loans (usually from banks)

Checks

Coins

Currency (Cash)

Debit Cards (Plastic like a credit card, but money is taken immediately from a bank account)

Credit Cards

You can save money under your mattress, or you can put it in a bank or credit union to earn interest. Saving money does more than give you extra cash when you need it. Saving allows you to increase your holdings by investing. Some ways to invest money include:

• stocks and bonds

• real estate

• collectibles

• business (your own or someone else’s)

Word Definition invest: to commit money or capital to gain a financial return

Math Experience You worked hard over the summer cutting lawns and baby-sitting. You earned $1,500! See how you might spend it below.

Total Earned:

$800.00

I will pay back my mom for money I borrowed from her:

- $50.00

I will give my little sister this much for cleaning up my room for me when I had to work:

- $35.00

I will spend this much buying a few CDs for myself and going to the movies with my friends:

- $50.00

I will save this much for college.

- $300.00

I will put this much in my new savings account for school clothes and a stereo:

- $275.00

• natural resources

new total

When making investment choices, you need to think about what you want your investment to do for you. Do you want to buy something in a few months, or do you want to save to buy a car in five years? Some investments are more risky than others. Are you willing to take risks, or are you a cautious person? Whatever your investment goals, experts advise to invest money on a regular basis and think long-term, not get-rich-quick!

new total

One More – Just for Fun!

new total

If you were to start saving and investing today, what would you like to buy in five years?

Essential Skills Check which way someone would most likely pay for these goods or services.

new total

Special Economics Info Use a  to indicate whether you have more, less, or the same amount of money after each of these events. The first has been done for you.

MORE

School lunch You deposit your paycheck into your checking account.

New house

LESS

SAME



Total saved — In the bank earning interest and growing:

You put $1,000 in a savings account.

Refrigerator

You use your credit card to buy new school clothes.

Haircut

new total

Total Still Available: Total spent:

Enrichment Safeguarding Your Money

Newspaper

You borrow money from the bank to open a toy store.

The Great Depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s caused many financial problems. Many people who had money in banks lost some or all of it when their banks failed. President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Congress made several changes. They created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in 1933 to provide insurance protection for depositors if their banks fail. The guarantee says that up to $100,000 of a person’s money is safe. Since the start of the FDIC, no one has lost a penny of insured money because of a bank failure.

School uniforms You write a check at the grocery store.

College textbooks

You transfer money from checking to savings.

Vacation trip

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 15

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

Evaluation Sample

Independence Brings New Problems

Quick Quiz

Think About It

Match each economic term to its definition.

1. interest

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Europe had been involved in Africa during the slave trade. European countries recognized the vast wealth of natural resources in Africa and scrambled to colonize valuable areas of the continent. In November 1884, 14 European countries met in Berlin, Germany to establish ground rules for trade and territorial claims in Africa. Even though the future of Africa was being set, there were no Africans present at the conference!

a. a sum of money borrowed from a person or group

2. income

b. a means to buy something now and pay later

3. credit

c. fee paid to use someone else’s money

4. money

d. money that you earn or gain from investments

5. loan

e. medium of exchange to buy goods/services

If you had been an African at the 1884 Berlin conference, what would you say to the Europeans deciding your future?

Conflict and Civil War

As African countries gained their independence, new problems arose as their young governments struggled to survive. Since the boundaries created during the Berlin conference were merely lines on paper, tribal conflict and civil war surfaced at once. Artificial political boundaries brought together peoples that had previously belonged to separate tribes or countries. In addition, ethnic groups that had historically been united were split. What a mess!

Think About It Financial experts say that people spend more when they use credit cards instead of cash. Why do you think that happens?

Historical Understandings Chapter 12

Division is the Wrong Answer The European division of Africa caused conflict and destroyed many African traditions. The Europeans divided Africa with the desire to profit from Africa’s riches, not for the benefit of any Africans.

Because the new African governments did not have experience governing or solving conflicts, many of them viewed force as the way to solve problems. Conflict plagued many of the young governments. Examples include: • The Tutsi and Hutu had lived as neighbors before the Belgian colonization, but it was the artificial boundaries merging them as Rwanda that caused far-reaching trouble. The civil war in 1994 was devastating. The Hutu-controlled army killed between 500,000 to 1,000,000 Tutsi. By the end of the war, nearly one-fourth of the Rwandan population had been killed or had fled the country. • Thirty years of civil war marred Nigeria following independence in 1960. Conflict reigned between Nigeria’s hundreds of ethnic groups as the country was subdivided into regions and then states.

Artificial political boundaries were drawn with no respect for Africa’s internal boundaries or societies. As a result, modern African nations had difficulty establishing stable governments. By the early 1900s, every piece of African soil was under European colonization except Ethiopia and Liberia. Many Europeans treated the Africans cruelly and tried to impose their way of life on them, paying no attention to African customs and beliefs. The desire for independence swelled across Africa. However, once African countries gained independence, few of them were prepared to govern. It was hard work to maintain the boundaries Europe had set!

• Belgium treated the people in the Belgian Congo with unusually violent methods. It’s no wonder the people wanted their independence, which they gained in 1960. The new country was called the Republic of the Congo. Unfortunately, neither the president nor prime minister had any experience in government. Conflict erupted within five days of independence, and continues today among ethnic groups. • Conflicts over diamonds have caused brutal wars in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

Quick Review Quick Review

Answer the questions below.

Write the letter for the correct answer on the blank beside the question.

SS7H1 The student will analyze continuity and change in Africa leading to the 21st century.

1. What was the main goal of European countries when they divided Africa? 1. Wars in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, and Sierra Leone were caused by the interest in:

a. Explain how European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries. b. Explain how nationalism led to independence in South Africa, Kenya, and Nigeria. c. Explain the creation and end of apartheid in South Africa and the roles of Nelson Mandela and F. W. de Klerk.

A. petroleum

B. gold

C. diamonds

2. Did the European countries care about maintaining African societies? 2. The Hutu and Tutsi were forced together in Rwanda because of

3. Why did Africans want independence?

A. artificial boundaries

B. religious beliefs

C. interest in gold

4. Why has it been difficult for African nations to establish stable governments?

d. Explain the impact of the Pan-African movement.

3. The major reason for civil wars in Nigeria: A. many ethnic groups

B. high taxes

C. little housing

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The Road to Nationalism Unrest arose throughout Africa during the period of European control. There was a strong desire in most countries for independence from foreign rule. Nationalism fed this desire and nurtured the beginning of independence.

Word Definition nationalism: a strong belief in one’s country

Nigeria: A Time for Independence

Battle Against Apartheid

Nigeria maintained its independence until the late 19th century when Britain stepped in and began colonizing the area. Nigeria was a diverse nation with people and cultures from more than 250 ethnic groups.

Many people, known as political prisoners, were arrested for their resistance to apartheid. The most famous prisoner was Nelson Mandela, a leader in the nationalistic African National Congress (ANC) who was arrested in 1962. Mandela was sentenced to life in prison in 1964 for treason and sabotage. He emerged as the international symbol of resistance to apartheid, and the world community demanded his release.

In 1923, a movement began in Nigeria to set up the country as a self-governing member of the British Commonwealth. However, another nationalist group wanted complete freedom from British rule. Both military and peaceful factions struggled for Nigerian independence.

Kenya On Its Own People have lived in Kenya since the Stone Age, but until the 19th century, foreigners did not enter Kenya because of its fierce warrior tribes. In the 1800s, the coast of Kenya came under control of Arab traders. The Germans and British took over next , but by the early 1900s, only the British remained in Kenya. Upset by their loss of rights as landowners and farmers, opposition groups began to form in the 1920s. Groups of guerrillas swore to eliminate white settlers in Kenya, as well as any Africans who sided with them. They staged a rebellion in 1956, but were crushed by military forces.

Word Definition guerilla: usually a small, independent military force

The federal elections in 1959 gave the nationalistic groups enough votes to form a government. In 1960, an independent government was established in Nigeria. At first, it was one of the more stable governments of the new African countries. But at the end of the decade, a civil war broke out. Because of clashes between ethnic groups, Nigeria suffered from violence and military rule until 1999, when a democratic government was established.

Quick Quiz

Nelson Mandela

In 1976, students in Soweto staged a peaceful protest against learning Afrikaans, the language of white South Africans. The protest grew throughout schools in the city, and in June of that year, police shot into a crowd of students who had thrown stones at them. The rebellion that grew from those shootings continued until 1990 when President F. W. de Klerk ended the ban on the ANC and released some political prisoners, including Nelson Mandela. President de Klerk had a major role in having the apartheid laws repealed. In 1993, he and Nelson Mandela were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for moving the country peacefully to nonracial democracy. Mandela was elected president of South Africa in 1994 and held that office through 1999.

Write T for True and F for False.

As they did with other colonies, the British began rethinking their policy of colonization. Finally in 1963, Kenya achieved its independence from the British Empire. After an unsteady beginning, Kenya has become more stable.

F. W. de Klerk

1. It has been peaceful in Nigeria since it became independent.

Hard-To-Believe-But-True!

2. There are very few ethnic groups in Nigeria.

During apartheid, there was one doctor for every 400 whites, and one doctor for every 44,000 blacks. 3. Nigeria finally became independent from French rule.

Quick Quiz

4. A democratic government was formed in Nigeria in 1999.

Quick Quiz

This timeline is mixed up. Number these events in the correct order.

PAST

South Africa—Independence in Two Parts

Number the events below in the order in which they occurred.

South Africa was colonized by the British and Dutch in the seventeenth century. A policy of white superiority first became visible in 1685 when a law was passed forbidding whites and Africans to marry in the territory then called Cape Colony. When Britain established the dominion of the Union of South Africa in 1910, power was given only to whites.

The British and Germans both colonize Kenya. Arab traders control Kenya. Military forces crush a rebellion.

The 1948 election brought a new political party to power in South Africa and the policy of apartheid took a strong hold in the country. Basically, apartheid separated the country into whites and non-whites. In 1948, whites held 80 percent of the land, even though they represented only 10 percent of the population.

Opposition groups form. Kenya achieves independence.

FUTURE

Bantu homelands created

Mandela sent to prison

Math Experience

1989 sign during apartheid

In 1951, the Bantu Authorities Act created “homelands” for black South Africans, who were assigned by origin to artificially created parts of South Africa. The classifications were frequently inaccurate, and, as a result of this law, nine million South Africans were excluded from any role in governing South Africa. Finally, in May 1961, the South Africans voted for and gained their independence from Britain. It took years of protests, several more decades, and a change in government leaders before blacks began to have a role in government.

Calculate answers to the questions below. 1. Using the information above, calculate how many years Nelson Mandela spent in prison.

2. How many years ago was Mandela elected president of South Africa?

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The Pan-African Movement

Africa Review Word Search

Reading Activity

Hope For the Future The seeds of the Pan-African movement were sown during 19th century efforts to end slavery. Behind the movement is the Word Definition idea that all Africans and people of African descent share a Pan-Africanism: the common heritage and should work together for their freedom. multi-national The first Pan-African Congress was held in 1900. After World movement to unite all Africans War II, the fifth Pan-African Congress had 90 delegates, including future political leaders of Ghana and Kenya. The Pan-African Congress has not met since, but the ANC grew out of this movement and has impacted nationalist efforts across Africa. Since many of the African countries have similar problems, shared ideas and programs relieve the burden of each country trying to solve its problems alone. You can see elements of the movement in Africa today where there are regional efforts among countries trying to solve economic and political problems. While the Pan-African movement has influence, it has never succeeded in uniting Africa.

Nelson Mandela is one of the most respected men in modern history for his dedication to equal rights for blacks in South Africa. He wrote the story of his life in a book titled Long Walk to Freedom. Read the excerpt from Nelson Mandela’s autobiography below. Then, answer the questions. On the evening of May 2, Mr. de Klerk made a gracious concession speech. After more than three centuries of rule, the white minority was conceding defeat and turning over power to the black majority. That evening, the ANC was planning a victory celebration at the ballroom of the Carlton Hotel in downtown Johannesburg. I was suffering from a bad case of the flu and my doctors ordered me to remain at home. But there was nothing that could keep me away from that party. I went onstage at about nine o'clock and faced a crowd of happy, smiling, cheering faces. I explained to the crowd that my voice was hoarse from a cold and that my physician had advised me not to attend. "I hope that you will not disclose to him that I have violated his instructions," I told them. I congratulated Mr. de Klerk for his strong showing. I thanked all those in the ANC and the democratic movement who had worked so hard for so long. Mrs. Coretta Scott King, the wife of the great freedom fighter Martin Luther King Jr., was on the podium that night, and I looked over to her as I made reference to her husband's immortal words.

Essential Skills Answer the questions below. 1. The Pan-African movement helped lead to a. better schools b. independence

for African nations. c. health care

2. In the 21st century, many African nations still face many of the same problems as they did when first becoming independent. If the Pan-African movement were stronger and actually united Africans in their attempts to work through these problems, what are some things that might change?

Law forbids marriage between whites and Africans

de Klerk releases political prisoners

Mandela elected president of South Africa

"This is one of the most important moments in the life of our country. I stand here before you filled with deep pride and joy--pride in the ordinary, humble people of this country. You have shown such a calm, patient determination to reclaim this country as your own, and now the joy that we can loudly proclaim from the rooftops-Free at last! Free at last! I stand before you humbled by your courage, with a heart full of love for all of you. I regard it as the highest honor to lead the ANC at this moment in our history. I am your servant....It is not the individuals that matter, but the collective...This is a time to heal the old wounds and build a new South Africa."

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1. Is Nelson Mandela’s autobiography a primary source or secondary source? 2. Why did Mandela go to the celebration even though he was sick?

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Get Your Sources Straight! Historians need proof to find out what happened in the past. There are two kinds of sources— primary and secondary. Primary sources are records made by people who actually saw or participated in an event. Examples are letters, journals, maps, photos, and artifacts.

Word Bank 4. What attitude did Mandela have about rebuilding South Africa after he was released from prison? Was he bitter or was he ready to move on? Write the quote below that answers these questions.

Secondary sources are records of an event written by someone who was not actually there. Examples are encyclopedia and newspaper articles, books, and Internet articles. When you use secondary sources, make sure you compare points of agreement and disagreement!

Sahara Sahel rainforest Nile River Tanganyika

savanna pollution irrigation desertification deforestation

Swahili Ashanti Bantu Arab autocracy

oligarchy democracy constitution famine AIDS

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

diamonds gold uranium apartheid Mandela

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 16

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Africa Review Crossword Puzzle

Evaluation Sample

Africa Section I Review

Africa Section I Review

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1. What desert covers most of northern Africa?  A. Sahel  B. Sahara  C. Savanna  D. Kalahari

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2. What is Africa’s transition zone between desert and rainforest?  A. Sahel  B. Sahara  C. Savanna  D. Kalahari

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3 Supplies food, medicines, and shelter in Sahel (2 words) 6 Pesticides, mining, and manufacturing can cause this (2 words) 8 Logging is taking its trees away 9 Important right 10 Western Africa river that crosses the equator twice 12 Efficient way to work 14 Washing away of good soil

1 River with the same name as an African country 2 Rolling grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs 4 Group linked by beliefs (2 words) 5 Lack of rain for a long time 7 Longest river in the world 11 Conflicts over this have caused wars 13 Economic system of most countries

6. Located in Africa, what is the world’s longest river?  A. Niger  B. Rhine  C. Congo  D. Nile 7. What mountain range is located in northern Africa?  A. Atlas  B. Himalayan  C. Andes  D. Pyrenees

3. What African landform has rolling grassland and scattered trees?  A. Sahel  B. Kalahari  C. Isthmus  D. Savanna

8. What is the largest lake in Africa?  A. Lake Victoria  B. Lake Tanganyika  C. Lake Orange  D. Lake Mead

4. Located in Africa, what is the longest lake in the world?  A. Lake Tanganyika  B. Lake Okeechobee  C. Lake Mead  D. Lake Victoria

9. Which African river near the equator is located in the tropical rainforest?  A. Nile  B. Niger  C. Congo  D. Mekong

5. What desert is located in southern Africa?  A. Kalahari  B. Sahel  C. Sahara  D. Gobi

10. Which river is the principal river in western Africa?  A. Nile  B. Niger  C. Congo  D. Mekong

I’m so tired of answering questions!

11. What is a result of deforestation?  A. rain washes soil away  B. nutrients in soil wash away  C. sun continually bakes exposed soil  D. all of the above

16. An example of an ethnic group is:  A. Arab  B. Ashanti  C. Muslim  D. both A and B

12. What is desertification?  A. spread of desert area  B. decrease in desert area  C. African farming practice  D. way of getting used to desert heat

17. Most African languages can be traced to:  A. Bantu ethnic group  B. Muslim ethnic group  C. Swahili ethnic group  D. Kente ethnic group

13. What is a cause of desertification?  A. slash and burn agriculture  B. too much sunlight  C. toxins in irrigation water  D. growing wrong type of crops

18. A high literacy rate generally leads to:  A. high crime rate  B. high standard of living  C. high agricultural production  D. both A and B

14. Most of Africa’s population:  A. lives in mud huts  B. lives near a river, lake, or coastline  C. spends their summers elsewhere  D. lives in crowded cities

19. The literacy rate in Africa is:  A. high  B. low  C. higher for men than women  D. both B and C 20. This type of government is a loose alliance.  A. confederation  B. federal  C. unitary  D. parliamentary

15. The two main religious groups in Africa are:  A. Catholic and Methodist  B. Hindu and Buddhist  C. Muslim and Hindu  D. Muslim and Christian

Then you’d better not turn this page!

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Africa Section I Review

Africa Section I Review

21. One leader holds complete power in this government.  A. democracy  B. republic  C. oligarchy  D. autocracy

27. Who gets better access to school in Africa?  A. girls  B. boys  C. children under the age of 10  D. there are no schools in Africa 28. What has led to famine in Africa?  A. repeated drought  B. AIDS deaths have reduced workforce  C. infertile soil and erosion  D. all of the above

22. Control rests with a small group in this government.  A. oligarchy  B. autocracy  C. democracy  D. republic 23. The legislature holds the power in this system.  A. parliamentary  B. federal  C. presidential  D. both A and C

29. This economic system is based on supply and demand.  A. market  B. command  C. traditional  D. communist 30. What country has the strongest economy in Africa?  A. Nigeria  B. Botswana  C. South Africa  D. Namibia

24. Kenya’s government is a:  A. monarchy  B. republic  C. dictatorship  D. autocracy

31. This trade barrier is a tax placed on imported goods.  A. tariff  B. quota  C. embargo  D. boycott

Section 2

37. Apartheid separated blacks and whites in:  A. Kenya  B. Nigeria  C. South Africa  D. Sudan

32. An example of a capital investment is:  A. buying a hamburger  B. building a factory  C. cutting down trees  D. hiring a store manager

38. Who was arrested and imprisoned for resisting apartheid?  A. Nelson Mandela  B. F.W. de Klerk  C. Martin Luther King, Jr.  D. Winnie Mandela

33. The European division of Africa caused:  A. tribal conflicts  B. civil war  C. desire for independence  D. all of the above

39. The goal of the Pan-African movement was to:  A. abolish the slave trade in Africa  B. elect democratic leaders in Africa  C. unite Africans to solve Africa’s problems  D. create more jobs in Africa

34. A strong belief in one’s country is:  A. democracy  B. nationalism  C. protectionism  D. isolationism

40. This country has lots of oil, but its people are very poor.  A. Kenya  B. South Africa  C. Mali  D. Nigeria

35. In 1963, Kenya achieved independence from:  A. Great Britain  B. France  C. Spain  D. Denmark

25. Which country has a dictator?  A. Sudan  B. South Africa  C. Kenya  D. Egypt

36. More than 250 ethnic groups make up this country.  A. Kenya  B. Nigeria  C. South Africa  D. Rwanda

26. An example of entrepreneurship is:  A. Working at a factory  B. Teaching at a school  C. Starting a computer repair business  D. Both A and B

This is the end of Africa•Section I• Review

Southwest Asia (Middle East)

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Suez Canal: The Suez Canal connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea. It is called the “crossroads of Europe, Africa, and Asia” because it allows trade between all three continents. During military disputes in the 20th century, Egypt closed the canal twice by sinking ships in it. Persian Gulf: This shallow arm of the Arabian Sea between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula holds some of the most important oil fields in the world. Western countries call it the Persian Gulf, but most Arab countries call it the Arabian Gulf.

Map Skills Study the political-physical map of the Middle East. Follow the directions below.

Aral Sea

Danube

BULGARIA

Chapter 13 SS7G5 The student will locate selected features in Southwestern Asia (Middle East).

ISRAEL

IRAQ

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JORDAN

Sinai Pen.

AFGHANISTAN

Persian Gulf

er Riv

BAHRAIN

Nile

Str. of Hormuz

QATAR

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U. A. E.

Red Sea

Lake Nasser

Arabian Peninsula

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Nile

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YEMEN SUDAN Blue

Persian Gulf Strait of Hormuz Jordan River Euphrates

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1. Much of the world’s oil supply is shipped through this narrow waterway. 2. This river is the key water source for Israel, Lebanon, and Syria.

Tigris River: The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers are like twins, starting in the mountains of Turkey and running parallel to each other in some places. Along with the Euphrates, the Tigris was part of the cradle of the ancient Middle Eastern civilizations. The Tigris River flows through Turkey to Iraq.

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Gaza Strip: This area of 146 square miles is bordered on the south by Egypt, on the west by the Mediterranean Sea, and on the north and east by Israel. Disputes over this territory continue between Israel and the surrounding nations.

Quick Quiz

SYRIA LEBANON

Mediterranean Sea

Red Sea: The Red Sea is an arm of the Indian Ocean between northeast Africa and Asia. It is linked to the Mediterranean Sea by the Suez Canal.

Answer the questions below. Use the word bank to help you.

Tigris R.

Euph ra t

CYPRUS

The Middle East is often called the “crossroads of the world” because it lies at the intersection of three continents— Europe, Africa, and Asia. Deserts, the most common landform, comprise nearly 66 percent of the area. Here are some important physical features of the Middle East:

TURKMENISTAN

L. Van

L. Tuz

Arabian Sea: This region of the Indian Ocean is bordered by India to the east, Pakistan and Iran to the north, and the Arabian Peninsula to the west. For centuries, the Arabian Sea has been part of the trade route between India and Europe.

UZBEKISTAN

Caspian Sea

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ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN

TURKEY

Lots of Sand!

Jordan River: Originating in the mountains of Israel, Lebanon, and Syria, the Jordan flows into the Dead Sea. This river is the Jordan River key water source for Israel, Lebanon, and Syria. It is only 20 feet wide in some parts and only 17 feet deep at its deepest point.

Mou nta in

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b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the nations of Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.

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a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, Red Sea, and Gaza Strip.

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3. This small territory has been a source of dispute between Israel and its neighbors for many years.

4. A body of water between northeast Africa and Asia. 5. Man-made structure that connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.

Euphrates River: Flowing into the Persian Gulf, the Euphrates is the birthplace of the ancient civilizations of Assyria, Babylon, and Sumer. Today, Turkey, Syria, and Iraq compete for its water.

B l a c k

Strait of Hormuz: This narrow waterway between the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf is a critically important shipping channel. Much of the world’s oil supply passes through this strait.

Jordan R.

Geographical Understandings

6. Two rivers that were the birthplace of ancient Middle Eastern civilizations and provide valuable water to Tigris River

1. Trace the Tigris River in blue. 2. Trace the Euphrates River in blue. 3. Trace the Jordan River in blue. 4. Draw a black box around the Suez Canal. 5. Draw a purple oval around the Persian Gulf.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Draw a green circle around the Strait of Hormuz. Draw an orange circle around the Arabian Sea. Draw a red box around the Red Sea. Draw a brown circle around the Gaza Strip.

the Middle East today. 7. Massive reserves of oil are found here.

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 17

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Map Skills

Map Skills

Map Skills

1. Label the following physical features on the map of the Middle East below: Euphrates River Suez Canal Arabian Sea

Jordan River Persian Gulf Red Sea

Label the following countries on the Middle East map below.

Look at the political map of the Middle East and follow the directions below.

Tigris River Strait of Hormuz Gaza Strip

Evaluation Sample

1. Draw a yellow circle around Afghanistan. 2. Draw a purple circle around Iran. 3. Draw a green circle around Iraq.

2. Find a political-physical map of the world in an atlas. Find the Middle East, and then locate each of the physical features listed above. Make a check mark next to each feature after you locate it.

RUSSIA

Iran Saudi Arabia

Iraq Turkey

Aral Sea

KAZAKHSTAN

Black Sea BULGARIA

UZBEKISTAN

GEORGIA ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN TURKEY

CYPRUS

Afghanistan Israel

4. Draw a brown circle around Israel. 5. Draw a red circle around Saudi Arabia. 6. Draw a black circle around Turkey.

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Caspian Sea

SYRIA

Mediterranean LEBANON ISRAEL Sea GAZA JORDAN

IRAN

AFGHANISTAN

IRAQ

STRIP

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KUWAIT PAKISTAN

Persian Gulf

BAHRAIN

EGYPT

QATAR Gulf of Oman

U. A. E.

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Red Sea SUDAN

OMAN

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500 KM Parallel scale at 25˚S 0˚E

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DJIBOUTI ETHIOPIA

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Gulf of Aden

Map Skills Use the map mileage scale to answer the following questions.

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500 KM Parallel scale at 25˚S 0˚E

500 KM Parallel scale at 25˚S 0˚E

1. At its widest point, about how many miles does Iran measure from east to west? 2. Find the Suez Canal. About how many miles does it cover from north to south ?

Look-It-Up!

3. About how many miles does Israel measure from north to south?

A famous city in Iraq sits on the banks of the Tigris River. What is that capital city?

4. About how many miles does Turkey measure from east to west?

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Latitude and Longitude Latitude and longitude help you locate places on a map. One special line is the Tropic of Cancer located at 23.5° north of the equator. It marks the northern end of the tropical regions around the equator. Latitude lines north of the equator are labeled N. Longitude is measured from the Prime Meridian in Greenwich, England and labeled E heading East. Imaginary lines of latitude and longitude intersect each other, forming a grid covering the earth. To be more precise, degrees of latitude and longitude are divided into 60 minutes ('), and minutes are divided into seconds ("). The latitude and longitude of a point are called its coordinates.

 Iran  Saudi Arabia

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 The city of Riyadh is located near the Tropic of Cancer line at 24° 39‘ N and 46° 42‘ E.  Ankara is at 39° 57 ‘ N and 32° 53‘ E.  Jerusalem is at 31° 47 ‘ N and 35° 13‘ E.  Baghdad is at 33° 20‘ N and 44° 24‘ E.  Tehran is at 35° 41‘ N and 51° 25‘ E. 30˚E

35˚E

40˚E

a. Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation and drinking water.

45˚E

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60˚E

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S e a GEORGIA

Caspian Sea

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ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN

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JORDAN

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Word Definition aquifer: an underground layer of rock and sand that contains water ground water: water below the surface that supplies wells and springs

PAKISTAN

Persian Gulf Str. of Hormuz

BAHRAIN QATAR

25˚N

Gulf of Oman

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Red Sea

U. A. E. S A U D I

Turkey: In the highlands of Turkey, snow melts and forms the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Turkey is better off than its neighbors because of these rivers, but pollution from industries and agriculture is a growing problem. Pollution also comes from oil spills in the Black Sea.

30˚N

KUWAIT

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Water needs in the Middle East continually cause conflicts between countries. Who owns the water? Who should be allowed to divert water for irrigation? There are no enforceable laws to govern the use of international water. The following examples give you an idea of the various water problems facing the Middle East.

TURKMENISTAN

T U R K E Y

CYPRUS

Fresh water is a precious resource in the Middle East. About five percent of the world’s population lives there, but less than one percent of the world’s fresh water is available to its residents. Throughout the Middle East, water shortages, unequal water distribution, and pollution further decrease the amount of water available for drinking and irrigation.

Unhappy Iraqis, Thirsty Israelites

RUSSIA

B l a c k BULGARIA

40˚N

Mediterranean Sea ISRAEL

 Afghanistan  Israel

Map Skills

SS7G6 The student will discuss environmental issues across Southwest Asia (Middle East).

Fresh Water—a Shrinking Supply

Map Skills Locate the following Middle Eastern capital cities by putting the correct number from the map below in the box by the city name and location. Use the coordinates to help you locate each city.

35˚N

Chapter 14

Arabian Sea

Turkey, Syria, Iraq: Turkey built dams along the Euphrates to use the water for hydroelectric power and irrigation. This reduced the amount of water reaching Syria. In turn, Syria built a dam and reduced the river’s flow into Iraq. In 1975, Syria and Iraq came close to war over water issues! Iraq also faces polluted waters from industry and war damage to water treatment facilities and petroleum drilling equipment.

ERITREA Y E M E N

15˚N

DJIBOUTI

15˚N

Gulf of Aden

ETHIOPIA

Israel: Consumption is up, and rainfall is down, leading Israel to draw water from its aquifers. Now, more water is being taken out of the aquifers than is replenished by rain, and salt water is entering the aquifers. Israel has also been involved in military battles over water rights to the Jordan River.

SOMALIA 40˚E

45˚E

50˚E

55˚E

60˚E

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia faces severe problems in its desert climate, including water scarcity and poor quality of ground water from saltwater intrusion. One solution is desalination, which is the process of taking salt out of seawater and using it for drinking water. About 30 desalination plants in Saudi Arabia provide most of the country’s drinking water.

Oil Brings Employment In the Middle East, you will find dense populations around areas where oil is found. Some of the people are natives of that country while others have come from other countries because of good jobs in the oil industry.

Selected Oil Reserves in the Middle East

Quick Review Mark the following statements T for True and F for False. Use the graph to the right as needed.

Quick Quiz Match the country with the correct water issue. 1. Afghanistan

A. Less water to irrigate pistachio trees

2. Iraq

B. Battles over water rights to the Jordan River

3. Turkey

C. Harsh climate has led to desalination of seawater D. Oil spills from ships pollute the Black Sea

5. Saudi Arabia

E. War has damaged water treatment facilities

6. Iran

F. Open sewers, failed septic systems

Chapter 15 SS7G7 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, distribution of natural resources and population distribution on Southwest Asia (Middle East). a. Explain how the distribution of oil has affected the development of Southwest Asia (Middle East).

The face of the Middle East began to change in the 1930s when huge oil reserves were discovered in Saudi Arabia, and to a lesser extent in Iraq and Iran. The world’s attention turned to the Middle East as its need for oil grew. The industrialized nations saw the Middle East as a source of oil to fuel factories and cars. Before the discovery of the oil reserves, the Middle East was not viewed as vitally important to the world’s economy. That picture has changed!

2. Turkey profits from oil by transporting it. 3. Iran has 10 billion fewer barrels of oil reserves

Traditional ways of life are disappearing as the oil industry grows and modernizes the Middle East. In Saudi Arabia, most of the population was nomadic or semi-nomadic until the 1960s. Because of the oil industry, more than 95 percent of the population now lives in cities or oases.

Hard-to-Believe-But-True! About half of the world’s oil reserves are in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia is the world’s largest oil producer!

What is it like to live in the Middle East? The climate varies, but is mostly arid with hot, dry summers and cool winters. If you live along the Caspian Sea coast of northern Iran, you might have 80 inches of rain a year. However, in the deserts of Iran, rain might not fall for several years. Throughout Saudi

4. The discovery of oil has had little effect on the Middle East.

250 billion 200 billion 150 billion 100 billion

5. Oil has changed where people live in the Middle East.

50 billion

Where People Live and Work Country

There is an uneven distribution of oil in the Middle East. The sale of oil has earned phenomenal amounts of money for oil-rich countries. Oil-rich Iran and Iraq are the most populated countries of the Middle East, but their countries have suffered from war and the mismanagement of oil money. Money from oil transformed Saudi Arabia from a poor society to a very wealthy one. Turkey has benefited from the oil industry as a transportation hub for oil-rich countries moving their product to Europe. Afghanistan looks to profit as a transportation link of oil from Central Asia to the Arabian Sea. Geologists and oil companies have recently uncovered a small reserve of oil in Israel.

b. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) have affected the population in terms of where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.

Life in the Middle East

300 billion

1. Saudi Arabia has the largest oil reserves in the Middle East.

than Iraq. Desalination plant on the Caspian Sea

4. Israel

Arabia, the most rainfall you could expect in a year would be nine inches. In Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, the average yearly temperature is 79°F, and winters are also moderate. However, if you live in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, you need a winter coat in January, because the temperature averages 32°F.

Saudi Arabia

Afghanistan: Open sewers, failed septic systems, fertilizers, and pesticides are contaminating Afghanistan’s shrinking water supply.

Barrels of oil

Iran: Iran is depleting the water in its aquifers for irrigation and drinking water. The important pistachio crop is being hurt by water shortages in the south.

Iran

35˚E

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Iraq

30˚E

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Question for Discussion Why is the United States trying to develop other energy sources in addition to oil?

In the Middle East, people have adapted to the climate and physical characteristics of the land to earn a living.

Life in the Desert There are 2.8 million square miles of land in the Middle East, much of it desert. Over the last 50 years, residents have been leaving the nomadic life of the desert and settling in or around cities for work. In Saudi Arabia, only about one percent of the population remains as nomadic herders. There are huge stretches of desert in Saudi Arabia where few people live or work and the population is one person per square mile.

Follow the Water Throughout the Middle East, you’ll find cities built near rivers to take advantage of a water source in an arid land. Away from the cities, you’ll find farmers growing crops by rivers and in river valleys, just as they have done since ancient times. Except in the mountainous regions, areas around a river or stream are well populated. In modern Iraq and eastern Syria, fertile soil is found in the “Fertile Crescent” between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. This was the home of Mesopotamia (Greek for “between the rivers”), one of the earliest centers of civilization. With canals built to use the river waters for irrigation, this fertile area is home to many people.

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PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Afghanistan has little land to farm, and most farming is done in valleys with irrigation from their few rivers or springs. About 70 percent of the population works on small farms or raises livestock.

network because the aging railway system is badly in need of repair and upgrading. Slightly larger than Texas, Turkey boasts 127 airports and 18 heliports for international and local travel.

In every country with a deep-sea harbor, the population swells around port cities because of employment opportunities in transportation, shipbuilding, and repair. Turkey has major port cities along the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas. Port cities dot the coast of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.

• Iran has 55 cars for every 1,000 people. Paved roads connect all the cities and most of the towns. The cities have mass transit systems, and nearly 7,000 miles of railroad track encourage transportation by train.

Evaluation Sample

Enrichment Read the information below and answer the questions. Earthquakes have caused many problems in the Middle East. Much of Turkey is located over the earth’s most active fault lines, and most of Turkey’s cities are located over a fault line. The August 17, 1999 earthquake in Turkey killed 15,000 people, while the December 26, 2003 one in Iran killed nearly 30,000 people. The area around the Caspian Sea in northern Iran is also susceptible to earthquakes.

Essential Skills

Quick Review

2. Cities grow up around rivers to take advantage of: A. sand B. fertile soil

RUSSIA

B l a c k

Israel has very crowded roads and the government is urging citizens to ride buses by raising parking fees and setting up bus-only roads in cities. Study the chart and answer the questions about Israeli transportation. (Use the rear of each car for measurement.)

Find the correct answer below and circle it. 1. The most common landform in the Middle East is: A. river B. desert

C. mountains

Caspian Sea TURKMENISTAN

27-Jun-98

CYPRUS

1975

SYRIA

31-Mar-06

LEBANON

Mediterranean Sea

26-Dec-03

Persian Gulf BAHRAIN

E G Y P T

PAKISTAN

Str. of Hormuz

QATAR

Getting from here to there is often challenging in the Middle East! Residents have developed many means of transportation to adapt to different conditions. Examples include:

• Less than 16 miles of railroad track runs through Afghanistan. People pile into buses or trucks along with animals and produce to get from place to place. They even ride on the roofs of vehicles! Women ride in the front, separated from men. City dwellers bicycle or take the bus, but most cities lack public transportation. In the countryside, Afghans travel by foot or on donkeys, horses, or even camels!

AFGHANISTAN

22-Feb-05 KUWAIT

1985

• In Iraq, the number of people driving cars is growing and new roads are being built, but public transportation is not being updated. One in every four urban Iranian families owns a car. Urban areas experience traffic gridlock and air pollution. People in slums on the outskirts of the cities have little access to public transportation and employment opportunities. From 2003 to 2008, the number of cars in Baghdad tripled, and now the government is enforcing an odd/even license plate system where people can only drive every other day.

I R A N

IRAQ ISRAEL JORDAN

3. In which decade did the number of cars 1990 grow the least?

Transportation

UZBEKISTAN

ARMENIA AZERBAIJAN

T U R K E Y

2. In which decade did the number of cars grow the most? 1980

4. The trend in Saudi Arabia to move from the desert to urban areas has happened over the last: A. 50 years B. 100 years C. 150 years

• In Turkey, people drive or take the bus using the country’s modern and inexpensive bus system. Most goods and people travel on Turkey’s extensive road

7- Dec-88

1970

C. water

3. The land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers has been valued since ancient times because of: A. fertile soil B. oil C. transportation

GEORGIA

17-Aug-99

Number of Vehicles on Israel’s Roads (Thousands)

1. How many more cars were on Israel’s roads in 2000 than in 1980?

KAZAKHSTAN

S e a

BULGARIA

1995 Red Sea

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

1800

Gulf of Oman

U. A. E. S A U D I

2000

4. How many cars were on the road in 1985?

A R A B I A

2000

O M A N

S U D A N

Arabian Sea

ERITREA Y E M E N

Quick Quiz Match the country with a fact about its transportation. DJIBOUTI

Gulf of Aden

ETHIOPIA

1. Afghanistan

A. Paved roads connect all the cities.

2. Iran

B. Women ride in the front, separate from men.

SOMALIA

3. Iraq

C. The government started an odd/even systemfor driving.

4. Israel

D. Parking fees are being raised.

5. Turkey

E. Most goods travel on the roads.

1. Why is it a problem for Turkey’s cities to be located over a fault line?

2. Why do you think the death toll for an earthquake would probably be higher in a developing country like Turkey than in an industrialized country like the United States?

Riding on the Roof Photo by Tahenry.com

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Beliefs and Customs of Judaism, Islam, and Christianity

Chapter 16 SS7G8 The student will describe the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southwest Asia (Middle East). a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group. b. Explain the diversity of religions within the Arabs, Persians, and Kurds. c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East): Judaism, Islam, and Christianity. d. Explain the reason for the division between the Sunni and Shia Muslims. e. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

Quick Quiz

Judaism

The Middle East is home to different ethnic and religious groups. An ethnic group is a group identified on the basis of religion, race, or national origin. A religious group has a distinct identity based on common religious beliefs and practices. While this mix of ethnic and religious groups can provide layers of richness to a nation’s culture, it can also lead to tensions among the various groups. Three major ethnic groups in the Middle East are the Arabs, Persians, and Kurds. The majority of people in the Middle East are Arabs, an ethnic group who speak Arabic as a native language and identify themselves as Arabs. Persians live in Iran. Until 1935, Iran was known as Persia, and most Iranians today are not Arabs, but Persians who speak Farsi. Kurds are an ethnic group that originated as a semi-nomadic, tribal people. Kurds now live mostly in the mountains of several countries in an area informally named Kurdistan. At various times, Iraq and Turkey have both suppressed the Kurds and their traditions. Although there is a strong nationalist movement among the Kurds for their own nation, the Kurds have never united in this effort outside their individual countries. Many ethnic groups make up Afghanistan’s population. Migration from its neighbors like Iran and China, plus invasions and wars, have led to great ethnic diversity within the country.

Origins

1. The majority of people in the Middle East belong to this ethnic group: A. Arabs B. Kurds 2. Today, most Iranians speak Farsi and are: A. Arab

C. Jews

B. Persian

C. Jewish Beliefs

3. Kurds live in mountainous parts of the Middle East, an area informally called: A. Kurdistan B. Afghanistan

C. Israel

Christianity

4. Some people consider this group to be both an ethnic and religious group: A. Arabs B. Ethnic Turks

C. Jews

The Messiah

Began about 1800 B.C.E. when God spoke to Abraham

Begun in 7th century by Muhammad

Christianity began with Jesus in first century C.E.

Believe in Abraham and Moses as prophets

Believe in Abraham and Moses as prophets; Muhammad is last prophet

Believe in Abraham and Moses as prophets

Jews are still Believe Jesus was a awaiting the Messiah prophet

Believe Jesus is the Son of God, the Messiah

Old Testament of Bible, the Talmud

Parts of the Bibleʼs Old and New Testaments and the Quran

Old and New Testaments of the Bible

Remains of the Jerusalem temple, Hebron, Palestine, burial place of Abraham

Holy cities of Mecca and Medina; Jerusalem

Many places in the Holy Land (parts of Israel) where Jesus lived

Religion in the Middle East Word Definition

The three prominent religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East) are:

Contrasting Cultures

Islam

Find the correct answer to the statements below and fill in that letter on the blank.

Sacred Book(s)

monotheistic: believing in one God

• Judaism: a monotheistic religion of the Jews based on the Torah and the Talmud • Islam: the Muslim religion teaching that there is only one God and that Muhammad is his prophet • Christianity: a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus Christ

Sacred Places

Quick Quiz Using the information from the above chart, label the questions True or False.

One common tie that binds Judaism, Islam, and Christianity together is that they are monotheistic religions. All three religions were born in the Middle East. Islam is the religion of almost 90 percent of the population. Four percent are Christian and two percent follow Judaism. Almost all Middle Eastern Jews live in Israel. The chart on the next page explains similarities and differences among these religions.

1. The oldest religion in the Middle East is Judaism. 2. Christians believe Muhammad was a prophet. 3. Christianity, Judaism, and Islam believe in all or part of the Bible. 4. Christianity, Judaism, and Islam believe Abraham was a prophet. 5. In Judaism, Mecca is a sacred place.

Arabs, Persians, and Kurds There are various religious groups within the ethnic groups of Arabs, Persians (Iranians), and Kurds.

Question for Discussion Why do religious differences often lead to conflict?

The majority of Arabs in the Middle East are Muslims, a religious group who practice the religion of Islam. However, not all Arabs are Muslims, and not all Muslims are Arabs. More than a billion people in the world are Muslims, but fewer than 15 percent of Muslims worldwide are Arabs.

The Jewish people are considered to be both an ethnic group and a religious group. Religious Jews believe in Judaism, but half of the Jewish people living in Israel are secular, with no belief in Judaism. In Biblical times, the Jewish people were considered to be a nation. ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 85

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In Iran, most Persians are Muslim, with a small minority each of Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian, and Bahá'í religions. Zoroastrians believe in one God and “good thoughts, good words, good deeds.” Despite their small numbers, their celebrations spill over into Iranian culture. A popular tradition is the Persian New Year celebration in March with bonfires, firecrackers, and dancing. While some Muslims frown on religious Persian celebrations, many Iranians still participate in them. The Armenians and Assyrians who live in Iran are Christians. A growing number of Muslims are converting to Christianity, even though this is an offense punishable by death. About 60 percent of Kurds are Muslim. There are substantial numbers of Christians and Jews among Kurds also. One other Kurdish religious group is the Bábís who believe that when a person dies, his or her soul enters that of another, usually a newborn baby.

Think About It

Quick Quiz Fill in the blanks below.

Answer the questions below.

1. Usually there is a strong correlation between the standard of living and the

1. What are the two divisions of the Islamic faith?

.

2. Which division includes about 90 percent of Muslims? 3. Which group wanted Ali as their leader after Muhammad’s death?

2.

4. Which group wanted the community to pick the best leader after Muhammad’s death?

3. Since the middle of the 1970s literacy rate is only 28 percent.

Question for Discussion In general, the Christian population is small in the Middle East. In the Gaza Strip, Muslims and Christians live and work together peacefully. In Iraq, however, attacks on Christians following the U.S. invasion have grown, causing many Christians to leave the country.

Shia Muslims are concentrated in Iran, southern Iraq, and southern Lebanon, and make up about 80 percent of the population in the oil-rich areas of the region. How do you think this fact might add to the current problems between the two groups?

Reading the Way to a Better Life Quick Quiz Write T for True and F for False. 1.

About 10 percent of Kurds are Muslim.

2.

Islam is the most common religion in Iran.

3.

Many Iranians celebrate Zoroastrian traditions.

4.

Christians converting to Islam is a punishable offense in Iran.

5.

The majority of Arabs in the Middle East are Muslims.

6.

There is a huge number of Christians in the Middle East.

Sunnis and Shias—Both Muslims As there are divisions in many religions, so it is within the Islamic faith. Two major groups are the Sunnis and Shias. About 90 percent of Muslims are Sunnis. The Sunnis follow the sunnah, or custom of Muhammad. Shias are Muslims who follow Ali, Muhammad’s closest relative. Ali was Muhammad’s cousin and was married to his daughter. After Muhammad died, Muslims split over who would succeed Muhammad as leader of Islam. The Sunnis wanted the community to choose the best leader to succeed Muhammad, while the Shia favored Ali, feeling that leadership should stay within the prophet’s family.

Usually there is a high correlation between the standard of living and the literacy rate (the percentage of adults who can read and write). Literacy rates in the Middle East have improved significantly in recent years, but are still low by United States’ standards.

Word Definition standard of living: the financial health of a nation measured by how much that nation consumes

Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey have a reasonably high standard of living and a literacy rate that ranges from a low of 63 percent in Saudi Arabia to a high of 87 percent in Turkey. With a per capita income of $25,800, Israel has the highest literacy rate in the Middle East at 97 percent. With 80 percent of its people living below the poverty line, the Gaza Strip manages to have a literacy rate of 92 percent. The United Nations Committee for Children (UNICEF) has supported education in the Gaza Strip in an effort to offset the unstable, sometimes violent political environment. Afghanistan has been in political turmoil since the mid-1970s. The Taliban, a violent political group, was in power until the United States invaded in 2003. The United States expanded education to include women, whose literacy rate had been less than three percent. Still, the overall literacy rate in Afghanistan is only 28 percent and the standard of living is roughly $800 per person per year.

Learning to read

has the highest literacy rate in the Middle East.

has been in political turmoil, and the

4. Wars in the past two decades in and education.

have caused problems in both the economy

5. With help from UNICEF, the Gaza Strip has a literacy rate of

.

Government/Civics Understandings Chapter 17 READ: IMPORTANT INFORMATION SS7CG4 The student will compare and contrast various forms of government. For detailed information and activities for this standard, see pages 27-30.

SS7CG5 The student will explain the structures of the national governments of Southwest Asia (Middle East). a. Compare the parliamentary democracy of the State of Israel, the monarchy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and the theocracy of the Islamic Republic of Iran, distinguishing the form of leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting rights and personal freedoms. Girls in Afghani school USAID photo

Wars in Iraq over the past two decades have hurt both education and the economy. The literacy rate is 74 percent. Although the government is rich from oil revenue, the income per person in Iraq is estimated to have been only $3,600 in 2007.

Different Countries, Different Governments The countries of the Middle East have different forms of government. Keep reading to discover how the governments of Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iran work.

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 19

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK The constitution guarantees certain personal freedoms and equal rights, regardless of ethnic group or tribe. While some freedoms are similar to democratic ones, others illustrate the theocracy of the government, such as the right to choose employment as long as it isn’t contrary with Islam, and freedom of the press except when it is damaging to the principles of Islam.

Parliamentary Democracy of Israel Following World War II, the United Nations partitioned the area of Palestine into Arab and Jewish states. The Jewish state was Israel. Although it has been a country for a brief time, Israel has managed to assemble an effective government. Israel has a unitary system of government where the central government in Jerusalem handles most government functions. The Israeli chief of state is the president, who has little real power. The head of government is the prime minister. There are 120 seats in the Knesset, the legislative branch. The Supreme Court is the head of the judicial branch. Upon reaching 18, both men and women can vote. Israel has no written constitution. Though there have been ongoing efforts to draft a constitution, Israel relies on a system of basic laws and rights. The planned constitution will guarantee basic rights and liberties. Israel has a better than average record on matters of personal freedom. Some areas to improve are discrimination on all levels against ArabIsraelis, discrimination and domestic violence against women, and unequal education opportunities for Arabs and Israelis.

3. Israel has no constitution, but relies on basic laws and

.

4. Israeli citizens can vote when they reach the age of

.

5. The Israeli government is a parliamentary

.

Theocracy: The Government of Iran Word Definition

The government of Iran is a theocracy, viewing all government matters through the eyes of its primary religion, Islam.

theocracy: a government controlled by religious leaders

Once they reach 18, both men and women can vote in the Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran). The Assembly of Experts appoints the Supreme Leader, a religious position that lasts a lifetime unless the Assembly decides he is no longer fit for office. The Supreme Leader has more power than the president, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term of office.

Men 21 and older can vote.

Decide if the statements below are facts (F) or opinions (O).

Unfair trials and extreme punishments.

?

?

2. It must be hard to live in a theocracy. 3. Both men and women can vote in Iran.

?

The Monarchy of Saudi Arabia

.

system of government because the central government handles most

Unitary system of government.

The Supreme Leader is a religious position lasting a lifetime.

Quick Quiz 1. The Supreme Leader is the religious leader of Iran and has more power than the president.

Fill in the blanks with the correct answer.

2. Israel has a functions.

Quick Review

No legislature or political parties.

5. It’s fine that men have more rights than women in Iran.

Quick Quiz

Evaluation Sample

Read the statements below and decide if they describe the government of Israel, Iran, or Saudi Arabia. Write the name of the country, and then D for democracy, T for theocracy, or M for monarchy beside each statement.

The threads of Islam are woven throughout the government. If a person disagrees with the government, he or she could be arrested for treason. Women have far fewer rights than men, and their peaceful demonstrations for equality have been met with violence.

4. Iran has a constitution.

1. The head of government in Israel is the

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

The Arabic writing on the Saudi Arabian flag translates, “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is the messenger of God.” The government of Saudi Arabia is a monarchy, and the king is both chief government and religious official. There is no constitution as Islamic law governs Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia has no legislature or political parties. Men aged 21 and older can vote.

Word Definition monarchy: government headed by a king or queen

There is no constitution; instead there are basic laws and rights. Both men and women can vote once they reach 18 years of age. and

Economic Understandings Chapter 18

READ: IMPORTANT INFORMATION

A group called Human Rights Watch views the Saudi justice system as highly secretive and wants it open to the public. Observers hope planned reforms in Saudi Arabia will improve civil liberties. Human rights and personal freedoms are often denied in Saudi Arabia. Examples include unfair trials and extreme physical punishments. Because Saudi Arabia values its position in the world economy, its government is working to correct some of these injustices.

The legislative branch is an elected National Assembly of 290 members who also serve four years. The Supreme Court and the four-member High Council of the Judiciary supervise enforcement of all laws and establish legal policies.

The right to choose employment if it doesn’t conflict with Islam.

SS7E5a and b are covered on pages 37-39. SS7E5a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of (1) what to produce, (2) how to produce, and (3) for whom to produce. SS7E5b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.

SS7E5 The student will analyze different economic systems.

Hard-To-Believe-But-True! In Saudi Arabia, a group of religious police called the mutaween roam the streets to make sure that Saudi citizens follow strict codes of behavior and dress outlined by Islamic law.

c. Compare and contrast the economic systems in Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.

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The Economy of Israel Israel has faced a double challenge in building a mixed market economy: national security and immigration. Since its Word Definition creation, Israel has been in conflict with its neighbors and has diversified: having a variety of parts faced high expenses to build and maintain its armed forces. Foreign economic aid, especially from the United States, supplements Israel’s budget. Enormous waves of immigrants from around the world have been a financial burden, but they have also brought valuable skills to the country. The Israeli government plays an important role in economic planning. For example, the government has been heavily involved in agriculture to make sure Israel can feed its citizens. Israel has the most diversified economy in the Middle East including mining, manufacturing high-tech equipment to export, cutting and polishing diamonds, and agriculture. Since Israel is a popular tourist destination, a high percentage of workers are in service industries. Even though Israel has a small amount of farmland, it grows most of its own food. Since water is in short supply, and irrigation uses so much of it, there is an ongoing discussion as to whether or not it would be better to conserve some of this water by importing more food.

Oil brought enormous wealth to the Saudi royal family and transformed the entire economy to a mostly command economy. The Saudi Arabian economy has been oil-based ever since with the government controlling most of the industry. Income from oil accounts for 75 percent of the country’s budget.

Word Definition private enterprise: people running their own businesses

In the 1980s, realizing that oil wouldn’t last forever, Saudi Arabia saw the need to diversify its economy. The government is encouraging private enterprise in areas such as power generation and natural gas exploration. As private enterprise grows, Saudi Arabia is moving to a mixed market economy, with 40 percent of its revenue coming from private businesses. Like most countries, Saudi Arabia has a mixed economy. Since about one-third of the Saudi work force comes from other countries, Saudi Arabia is working to educate and train its own large youth population in necessary skills.

Quick Quiz The timeline is all mixed up. Number these events in the correct order.

PAST

Lemon orchard in Israel Photo by David Shankbone

Saudi Arabia realizes oil won’t last forever.

Geographically, Turkey lies partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Turkey is considered a developing nation and remains poor when compared to most European countries. Because most of its trade is with Western Europe, Turkey is trying to join the European Union (EU). The EU is a powerful group of European countries united for economic cooperation and strength. Joining the EU would provide necessary funding and loans for development and other benefits.

Quick Quiz Match the following items by placing the correct letter by the number. 1. The government controls the total economy

A. Mixed economy

2. In Turkey, agriculture, textiles, and manufacturing are examples of this

B. Mustafa Kemal

3. First ruler of Turkey as a republic

C. European Union

4. Private enterprise combined with government-controlled resources

D. Private enterprise

5. Could help Turkey with funding and loans

E. Command economy

Essential Skills Complete the chart below comparing the economies of Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.

Quick Quiz

Oil is discovered in Saudi Arabia.

Using the words from the word bank, complete the following sentences. Saudi Arabia has a traditional economy. 1. Two challenges in Israel’s economy are

Country

and

Type of Economy

Saudi Arabia is working to educate its youth in necessary skills.

. 2. Because of many tourists, Israel has a large

national security service industry diversified economy water mixed economy immigration

.

3. Israel has a many important industries.

because it has

4. Israel has a government and private enterprise both have roles in it.

because the

5. Israel is trying to decide if it should import more food to conserve

.

Saudi Arabia When Saudi Arabia became a nation in 1932, its economy was almost entirely traditional and consisted of selling dates or trading goats, camels, and textiles. But everything changed when oil was discovered in the 1930s!

FUTURE

What the Government Controls

Examples of Private Enterprise

Israel

Turkey Saudi Arabia Reforms made in Turkey since the 1980s have moved it toward a mixed market economy. Historically, Turkey had a command economy. When Turkey was established as a republic in 1923, its ruler Mustafa Kemal believed the government should control and build the economy. The government invested in the country’s infrastructure: dams, electricity grids, port facilities, railways, and roads. Turkey also developed important steel and weapons production industries. The state still has a major role in industry, banking, transportation, and communication, but private enterprise is growing in agriculture, textiles, and manufacturing. Kemal brought about the modernization of Turkey.

Turkey

Background Check The city of Istanbul, Turkey sits on two continents—Europe and Asia! Istanbul used to be known as the ancient city of Constantinople.

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Chapter 19

Trade Barriers

Organized Over Oil!

Countries sometimes set up trade barriers to restrict trade because they want to produce and sell their own goods. Trade barriers include:

petroleum: crude oil; occurs naturally in In 1960, five oil-rich countries formed an deposits under the earth’s surface organization called the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, or OPEC. These founding members of OPEC were Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Venezuela.

Word Definition

SS7E6 The student will explain how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Southwest Asia (Middle East).

• Tariffs are taxes on imported goods which cause the consumer to pay a higher price for an imported item. Demand is then increased for the lower-priced item produced at home.

a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.

• Quotas are restrictions on the amount of a good that can be imported into a country. Quotas can create shortages that cause prices to rise.

b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargos.

• Trade embargoes forbid trade with another country. c. Explain the primary function of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Examples in the Middle East include: d. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.

What’s Your Specialty? If one country has something another country wants, the opportunities for trade begin to unfold! Specialization encourages trade among countries, because no country produces everything it needs. The country selling the product makes a profit, and the country buying the product gets what it needs. In the Middle East, if a country has oil to export, there are plenty of customers to buy it. Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait export millions of barrels of oil every day. The United States imports oil from the Middle East because it does not have enough oil for the country’s needs. In turn, the U.S. exports food, medicine, and raw materials to Middle Eastern countries. Having a more diversified economy, Turkey exports coal, textiles, and some food to European countries. Those countries then export needed transportation materials to Turkey. Israel imports rough diamonds and exports the finished product: cut and polished diamonds.

In the past two decades, the United States has had several embargoes against Iran because of Iran’s involvement with terrorism. Following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait in 1990, the United Nations placed an embargo on Iraq, only allowing the country to export enough oil to buy food for its people. The United Nations hoped to force Iraq to make payments for war destruction and destroy its nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. After the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, the United Nations placed an arms embargo on Afghanistan. Members of the United Nations could not sell weapons to Afghanistan, because of the violent group in charge of the government. When Saudi Arabia wanted to join the World Trade Organization (WTO), it lifted its long-standing embargo against all trade with Israel. Trade barriers are not permitted among countries in the WTO, and Israel belongs to the WTO. In 2008, Saudi Arabia and Egypt lowered tariffs on food imports to help their citizens cope with rapidly rising food prices.

My, How Things Change!

OPEC Headquarters in Vienna, Austria

Before 1960, when OPEC was formed, the amount of oil produced around the world was greater than the demand for it. Because of that, oil prices dropped and the oil-producing nations made less money. Once OPEC was formed, oil supplies were controlled and the demand increased around the world. Because of that, oil prices rose and the oil-producing countries made more money. OPEC has a lot of power and has used oil as a political tactic. For example, OPEC stopped exporting oil to countries that supported Israel in the Arab-Israeli War of 1973. This caused gasoline shortages in the United States and many other countries.

Think About It Answer the questions below. 1. What does OPEC stand for?

Quick Quiz Write About It

OPEC states that its purpose is to coordinate and unify petroleum prices in order to promote stability in the world oil market and ensure a regular supply of petroleum to other countries. OPEC sets the price and amount of oil produced by its member nations, and has a great deal of control over the price your parents pay for gasoline every day.

After reading the following statements, put a check beside the ones that are true.

Canada’s climate is too cold to grow pistachios, so it imports them from Iran. Canada also imports Persian rugs from Iran. In turn, Canada exports telecommunication instruments and medical items to Iran because Iran has insufficient technology in place to manufacture these. How does specialization help these two countries?

1. The United States had an embargo against Iran because of Iran’s activities in terrorism.

2. What is the purpose of OPEC?

2. The United Nations placed an embargo against Saudi Arabia because of its invasion of Kuwait. 3. Saudi Arabia lifted an embargo against Israel in order to join an important world trade organization.

3. Why could it be a problem for one organization like OPEC to control most of the world’s oil supply?

4. Quotas restrict the amount of a good that can come into a country. 5. Tariffs forbid trade with another country. 6. Trade barriers promote trade between countries. ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 97

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 98

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 99

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 20

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Different Countries and Different Currencies Currency is the type of money a country uses. Because different countries have different types of money, international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations. Money from one country must be converted into the currency of that country to pay for goods in that country. That process is called foreign exchange. For example, the unit of currency in Turkey is the lira. In Afghanistan, the currency unit is the afghani.

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Israel—A Growing Economy

Chapter 20 SS7E7 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iran. a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP). b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP). c. Explain the role of oil in these countries’ economies. d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

Afghanistan afghanis

Turkish lira

Building a Workforce Word Definition

One Turkish lira = $0.80

One Afghan afghani = $0.02

1. Bahri has 10 lira and wants to buy a lunch that costs $6.00. Once he exchanges his currency, does he have enough money?

Gross Domestic In every country, there are several factors that influence Product (GDP): the total economic growth. They are the productive resources used to market value of the produce goods and services. These factors include human goods and services produced by a capital (people who perform labor), capital (factories or country’s economy during a specific machinery), and natural resources (things that come from the period of time land like minerals or trees). Another factor is entrepreneurship, which includes the ideas, innovation, and risk involved in starting a business.

2. Samantha has $5.00. She wants to buy a book that costs 7 lira. Once she exchanges her money, can she afford the book? 3. Mara is shopping in Afghanistan and wants to buy a scarf for 700 afghani. She has $10.00. When she exchanges her currency, can she buy the scarf? 4. What is worth more: one dollar or one Turkish lira? 5. What is worth more: one dollar or one afghani? 6. You are ready to come home from your vacation in Turkey. You have 175 lira left over that you want to exchange for American dollars. How much American money will you get back?

Hard-To-Believe-But-True! Do you know where to find out the current exchange rates for foreign currency? You can look in the financial section of many daily newspapers, or on specific Internet sites. You can also buy a special calculator for currency exchange or use the currency exchange feature found on many new cell phones!

Word Definition

Since 2003, Israel’s GDP has grown steadily at a rate of five percent a year. Israel recognizes that quality education builds a quality workforce and has invested in human capital. The country has highly educated workers and a large number of scientists and engineers. Israel invests in its schools and has a literacy rate of 97 percent, the highest in the Middle East.

infrastructure: water and sewer lines, roads, highways, power plants, schools, and other facilities needed to support development high-technology (or high-tech): highly advanced technological equipment, particularly in electronics

Israel is also making capital investments. Foreign investments boost Israel’s technology level, and Israel provides financial benefits for companies making capital investments. In addition, Israel provides economic support for its highly successful high-technology industries. Israel also has a modern, well-developed infrastructure and continues to upgrade it with investments in services like mass transit systems and new highways.

The futurePhoto ofbymass transist in Haifa jcwinnie.biz/wordpress

Special Economics Info You can calculate exchange rates yourself. Below are some examples of exchange rates. Study the exchange rates and then calculate the correct answers to the word problems below.

Evaluation Sample

Israel does not have a large supply of oil like many of its neighbors in the Middle East. Nevertheless, Israel has built and maintained a healthy economy through an educated workforce and commitment to capital investment and building high-tech industries.

Quick Quiz Match the item on the left with its description on the right.

1. financial assistance for college expenses Economists measure a nation’s economic performance by a standard called Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Economists use a country’s GDP to determine the health of that country’s economy and compare it to other economies. How a country manages its productive resources makes a big difference in the strength of its economy. For example, investment in human capital delivers long-lasting rewards. Studies have shown that investment in education and skills training clearly correlates to a higher GDP. Education and the abilities it develops create a smarter and more productive workforce, which leads to greater economic growth. Each country needs a long-term vision Learning a trade to see what steps need to be taken to increase its GDP. Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Iran are at different points along this economic path.

a. GDP

2. investment in new high-tech factory

b. infrastructure improvements

3. growth rate of five percent

c. human capital investment

4. new highways and mass transit

d. capital investment

Think About It Israel has a growing, diversified economy. If Israel had large deposits of oil, how do you think its economy might be different?

Photo courtesy of The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley

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©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 102

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Saudi Arabia—Where Oil is King

Iran—Another Oil Economy

With an economy anchored by oil, Saudi Arabia has a healthy, growing GDP. However, Saudi Arabia’s leaders have recognized that oil supplies don’t last forever, and have begun exploring and developing other ways to keep the economy growing. Saudi Arabia’s unemployment rate is high, and there are many jobs filled by people from other countries because the country has a shortage of skilled native labor.

Iran’s economy has two parts: oil and everything else. Oil is what keeps the economy and GDP growing, providing 85 percent of government revenues. In the past, Iran has made some efforts to export goods other than oil, but its prices were too high to be competitive, so the efforts failed.

Aware that its education structure needs improvement, Saudi Arabia has invested in human capital by sending university students abroad to the United States, England, and Canada for the past several decades. However, due to strained relations with these countries, Saudi Arabia is now sending college students to China, South Korea, India, and other Asian countries. Recognizing that a modern school system is essential for growth, Saudi Arabia is in the early stages of revising its entire education system. About one-third of Saudi Arabia’s roads are paved. This causes problems in shipping oil from oil fields to industrial centers. However, it is not easy to build roads over Saudi Arabia’s difficult terrain. To help solve this problem, Saudi Arabia is planning a massive, multibillion-dollar capital investment in a railway project that will move shipments to and from its ports faster. Saudi Arabia has also built factories, and boosted spending on job training and infrastructure development. To further expand its economy, Saudi Arabia is planning to build new cities. One is the $26 billion King Abdullah Economic City that will be wired for broadband speeds 10 times faster than Internet speeds anywhere else on the planet!

Iran’s lack of investment in human capital has caused many problems. Unemployment is high among young men. There are jobs available, but young Iranians have not been trained to do them. The educational system in Iran is weak, and Iran has fallen short in training the vast majority of young Iranians for work.

Benham House, Sahand University of Technology, Iran Photo from Flickr.com

Educated Iranians are seeking work in other countries. University professors are leaving Iran to teach in other nations. Why? The government has exclusive control over what will be taught. Most economic activity is also controlled by the government. Iran recognizes the need to stop this drain of Iranian talent and grow an economy not totally dependent on oil. Iran is increasing its investment in human capital by raising the priority of education and adult literacy, building new schools, and expanding public colleges.

Iran’s lack of capital investment has also impacted its economic growth. While Iran has generous oil reserves, it does not produce as much oil as it could because the country invests only a small percentage of its oil profits into improving its oil facilities and the country’s infrastructure. Foreign investors and banks are also investing less in Iran because of disagreements with its government policies. Iran is beginning to recognize some of these shortcomings and is making capital investments in its telecommunications network, roads, and machinery.

Quick Quiz Read the following statements related to Saudi Arabia’s economy. Write “human” for investment in human capital and “capital” for investments in factories, machinery, and technology.

2. $2.8 billion railway project 3. $26 billion Economic City 4. Revising its education system

Hard-To-Believe-But-True! There are no movie theaters in Saudi Arabia, but citizens can rent videos (with scenes objectionable to the Islamic religion cut out) to watch at home!

Israel has created a positive environment for entrepreneurs. Government policies, including the country’s tax structure, encourage entrepreneurship and small businesses. Israel has a Technological Incubator Program to foster entrepreneurships in innovative technology. The program assists in research and development for projects with marketing potential. Israel also has programs to train immigrants, Arab-Israelis, and people over 55 to start their own businesses. Saudi Arabia knows it needs to diversify its economy and is taking steps to help entrepreneurship. For example, it has cut the time it takes for an entrepreneur to make it through government requirements to start a business. International investors recognize that Saudi Arabia is potentially fertile ground for entrepreneurs so they are starting an entrepreneur institute in Saudi Arabia that supports new business owners and gives them a An entrepreneur working on the street place to start a business. Reforms within Saudi Arabia are making it somewhat easier for small businesses to get off the ground, but there are still some rigid employment laws that can discourage potential entrepreneurs.

 1. The basis of Iran’s economy is oil.  2. Educated citizens are leaving Iran to work in other countries.  3. Iran has done a good job of training its citizens for work.  4. Iran’s economy has suffered due to lack of capital investment in its oil-producing facilities.  5. Unemployment in Iran is low among young men.  6. Most of Iran’s economic activity is controlled by the government.

The number of entrepreneurs in Iran is small, but it’s growing. An Iranian entrepreneur has to overcome many obstacles like getting credit from a bank. Many private investors who are willing to lend money charge an enormous rate of interest. It is also difficult for an entrepreneur to hire good managers for a business because little training is available. Because Islamic law bans women from many careers, some Iranian women are beginning small businesses and running them from their homes.

BankPhoto Mellat in Tehran from Getty Images

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 103

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Quick Review Now that you have read about the economy of three different countries, it’s time to compare them. Complete the following table by writing a short description in each box.

Country

Word Definition

Entrepreneurs keep an economy growing. They’re the entrepreneur: someone people with new ideas who use human, capital, and natural who has an idea for a resources to bring those ideas to life—and to the marketplace. good or service and takes They must be willing to take risks, and often share those risks with the risks to produce it others by borrowing funds from a bank or a wealthy investor. Entrepreneurs are valuable because they are creative and help economies adapt to changing conditions. Having an environment that promotes entrepreneurs is a great advantage to a country.

Quick Quiz Read the following statements and put a check beside the ones that are true.

1. Sending university students abroad to study

Can You Market Your Idea?

Investment in Investment in Human Capital Capital

GDP is Growing

Supports Entrepreneurs

Oil is a Large Part of Economy

Historical Understandings

The area known as Mesopotamia in ancient times had borders that remained fluid over centuries. Now, each country had tightly defined borders, ignoring local cultures and disrupting tribal unity. Britain and France thought they had done a good job with their division and protected their oil interests, but none of the Middle Eastern countries wanted Europe in charge of them. The stage was set for big problems in the years ahead.

Quick Review Put a check beside the items that are true about land division after WWI.

Chapter 21

Israel

SS7H2 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East) leading to the 21st century.

Saudi Arabia

1. The Ottoman Empire grew larger and became stronger. 2. France got Syria and Lebanon, and Britain took Palestine, Saudi Arabia, and Iraq. 3. All the Arab countries were consulted about the division of territory after the war. 4. The Kurds were given their own country.

Iran

Essential Skills

a. Explain how European partitioning in the Middle East after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire led to regional conflict.

5. The Sunnis and Shiites cooperate in Iraq.

c. Describe how land and religion are reasons for continuing conflicts in the Middle East.

6. Europe wanted to control the desert’s oil.

What Were They Thinking?

A Time Bomb: Conflicts in the Middle East

At one time in history, the Muslim Ottoman Empire was six times the size of Texas! It stretched across what is now Turkey and parts of southeastern Europe, northern Africa, and southwestern Asia. Before World War I, it had already lost big chunks of its empire. After the Ottoman Empire ended up on the losing side of World War I, Britain and France divided up the land that remained.

Conflicts over land and religion are continuing problems in the Middle East. The animosity between Arabs and Jews, and among different Islamic sects forms the foundation of modern history in the region.

Read the information about research skills and answer the questions below. Sometimes you need more information than what a book or report gives. For instance, you might want to trace the GDP of Iran over several decades. Where could you find that information? Or, you could be doing a report on entrepreneurs in Turkey, and you find an interesting article on religion in Turkey. Can you use this article for your report? You probably can’t. Sometimes one source has data that is inconsistent with another source. In that case, you need to check additional resources. Read the statements below and decide if the information is consistent, adequate, or relevant for your needs. Mark yes or no on the line beside the statement. 1. One Internet source says Israel is among the top nations in the world for its number of entrepreneurs. Another Internet source says Israel is in 30th place. Is this information consistent? 2. Iran’s president says, “Iran is the safest haven on earth for investment.” Is this adequate information for a potential investor? 3. You need to create a list of landforms in the Middle East. You have an atlas with a physical map of the world. Is this relevant for your list? 4. You want to know which areas of the Middle East have cities with 10 million people or more. Your atlas has a population map of Europe and Africa. Is this relevant? 5. You want to know the percentage of government-owned and privately owned businesses in Saudi Arabia. You have a pie chart showing this information. Is this adequate for your research? 6. One source says Saudi Arabia has a 20 percent unemployment rate. Another source says the rate is 13 percent. Is this information consistent?

Sometimes conflicts over land are mixed with religious differences. When Israel was created in 1948, the Palestinians denied its right to exist. The Arabs who lived in Palestine wanted no part of a Jewish state. Immediately upon being established, Israel was attacked by its Arab neighbors, including Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and Iraq. Amazingly, this tiny country won the 1948 War of Independence and expanded its territory. Land has been traded several times through successive wars between Israel and the Middle Eastern states.

Lines in the Sand After WWI, France took control of Lebanon and Syria, while the British took control of Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and what is now Jordan. The problems created by this land division have persisted into the Middle East today. Desiring immediate control of the area and looking to future oil profits, Britain and France drew borders that paid no attention to local cultures and tribes. Shia and Sunni Muslim territories were merged into the new country of Iraq, where they still vie for power. The Kurds, a vibrant ethnic group, found themselves divided among Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. These countries are uneasy with the Kurds and try to rule them with an iron fist.

The Arab nations do not recognize Israel as a nation, and Jewish Israel lives in virtual isolation from its neighbors. There is almost constant conflict between the Palestinians and Israelis in the Gaza Strip. There is, at best, an uneasy truce when Israel and Lebanon are not fighting. Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt and Jordan. Members of Hezbollah (party of God), an Islamic Shiite organization, frequently attack Israel from neighboring countries.

Photo by Flickr.com

Many conflicts also occur within the Muslim sects in the Middle East. Shia and Sunni Muslims battle for power in Iraq. The more aggressive Iraqi Sunnis have also clashed with the Iranian Shiites.

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 106

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 107

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 108

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 21

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK In 1979, fundamentalist Muslims overtook the Iranian government and tried to remove all influence of Western society. They also imposed their strict interpretation of Islamic law on the entire Iranian population. Other Middle East conflicts in the 1980s and 1990s were based on land disputes. Iraq and Iran fought an eight-year war beginning in 1980 over disputed oil-rich territory. There was no clear winner, but the financial drain of the war led Iraq to attack its oil-rich neighbor Kuwait in 1990, saying that Kuwait was really part of Iraq from the Ottoman Empire days. This conflict led to the Persian Gulf War in 1990-1991, where an international force led by the United States intervened and forced Iraq from Kuwait.

Chapter 22

Evaluation Sample

Quick Quiz Put the following events in order in which they took place. Write “A” before the first to take place and “B” before the second. Continue like this until you have lettered all the events.

SS7H2b. Explain the historical reasons for the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious connection to the land, the Holocaust, anti-Semitism, and Zionism in Europe.

1. 250,000 Jewish survivors went to camps started by the Allies. 2. Palestine is part of the Ottoman Empire. 3. Britain captured Palestine from the Ottoman Empire.

Israel—Brand New Old Country

4. Modern-day Israel emerged.

Word Definition Quick Review Match the following items with the correct answer by putting the correct letter on the line. 1. Palestinians deny its right to exist.

A. Kuwait

2. Iraqi Sunnis are in conflict with this group in Iran.

B. Iran

3. Iraq said this country is part of Iraq from the Ottoman Empire days.

C. Israel

4. Fundamentalist Muslims overtook the government of this country in 1979.

D. Shiites

5. Site of continual conflict between Israelis and Palestinians.

E. Gaza Strip

If you looked at a map from 70 years ago, you would not see Israel. Why? Israel did not exist at that time, but the Jewish people have a religious connection to the land that spans several thousand years. All of their sacred places are there, including the Western Wall, remains of their ancient temple destroyed in 70 C.E.

Holocaust: killing of millions of Jews by the Nazis during World War II

Think About It

In the late 1880s, Zionism was emerging in Europe. Zionism in modern times began with the first Zionist Congress in Switzerland where the goal of Zionism was defined: a home for the Jewish people in Palestine secured by public law.

The Western Wall at night Photo by chmouel.com

During World War II, German chancellor Adolf Hitler ordered the killing of six million Jews in the Holocaust. Following World War II, about 250,000 Jewish survivors went to camps for displaced persons set up by the Allies. The Jews desired to enter Palestine, but Britain had halted Jewish immigration into Palestine. As people around the world learned the details of the Holocaust, they were horrified that the Jews couldn’t go to Palestine. Britain, weary from war and from dealing with the Jewish and Arab claims to Palestine, Moving Jews to concentration camps asked the United Nations (UN) to resolve the situation. The UN voted to divide Palestine into Jewish and Arab states.

1. Britain and France watched out for their own interests in the Middle East and divided Mesopotamia with the stroke of a pen. What is the artist saying about this decision?

Photo from corkfpc.com

2. Britain and France weren’t thinking about ethnic differences when they created Iraq. What do you think would be different in Iraq if the Sunnis and Shiites each had their own country?

6. Six million Jews are killed in the Holocaust.

Zionism in Europe—A Longing for Home

How exactly did the State of Israel come to exist in the 20th century? In the late 19th century, Palestine (formerly the Jewish homeland of Israel) was still part of the Ottoman Empire. With help from the Arabs, Britain captured Palestine from the Ottoman Empire in 1918. In July 1922, the League of Nations entrusted Palestine to Britain. Between 1919 and 1939, waves of Jewish immigrants poured into Palestine to escape rising persecution in Europe. Many of these were highly educated people who raised the quality of life in the area.

A political cartoon is an illustration with a message. Look at the cartoon and answer the questions below.

5. Waves of Jewish immigrants arrived from Europe.

Word Definition Zionism: the movement to unite displaced Jews and settle them in Palestine

The story of Zionism has roots in ancient history from the 11th century B.C.E. when King Saul established the kingdom of Israel in the region of Palestine. The Jews enjoyed the independence of their own kingdom until 586 B.C.E. when the Babylonians captured them. While in captivity, the Jewish prophets encouraged the people in their belief that they would return to their homeland. After the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 C.E. , the Jews scattered. Throughout the following centuries, a variety of political events spread Jews throughout Asia and parts of Europe, and then to North America. But the desire for their homeland never died. Into the 19th century, individual Jews still migrated to Palestine, but they were a minority among a largely Arab population. During World War I, Britain worked with the Zionist movement, with the underlying motive that Jews throughout the world would support the Allies’ side in the war. Another of Britain’s purposes was to gain control of Palestine. As more and more Jews immigrated to Palestine, the neighboring Arabs felt increasingly threatened and periodically attacked Jewish settlements. To appease the Arabs, Britain backed off from its support of Zionism.

Modern-day Israel emerged at midnight on May 14, 1948. The dream of the Jewish people for centuries finally came true. The nation of Israel was a reality! ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 109

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 110

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 111

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Dark, Dark Days Word Definition

Quick Quiz One of the darkest chapters in world history is the Holocaust, one of the worst episodes of mass murder ever recorded. Hitler’s intent was to rid the world of its “Jewish problem.”

Label the following statements T for True and F for False. 1. Zionism began emerging in Europe in the 1500s.

concentration camps: large prison camps used to confine Jews and other undesirable civilians ghetto: a section of a city where the Nazis forced all Jews to live

2. The Jewish prophets discouraged the people in their longing to return to Israel.

When Hitler became head of the Nazi party and then leader of Germany, he took anti-Semitism to a horrible level that grew into the Holocaust. Hitler blamed the Jews for Germany’s losing World War I. Convinced that Jews were an inferior race, he spread this conviction throughout Germany and other European countries as he defeated them in war.

3. During World War 1, Britain worked with the Zionist movement. 4. As Jews migrated further throughout the world, their desire for a homeland lessened. 5. The Arabs and Jews lived together peacefully in Palestine.

Anti-Semitism Grows

Word Definition Anti-Semitism: prejudice

or discrimination against Different political the Jews developments spurred Zionism into an obsession by Jews for a Jewish nation. Europeans had been discriminating against Jews for centuries in a practice known as anti-Semitism. Many people believed the Jews were an inferior race. Others held Jews responsible for the death of Jesus Christ. Some European countries didn’t allow Jews to own property and restricted the number who could attend college. Defaced Jewish gravestone Anti-Semitism grew enormously in the 1930s when Hitler’s Nazi Party came to power in Germany. One of the Nazis’ first actions was to remove the protection of German law for Jews. Anti-Semitism spread throughout Europe as Germany forced France, Italy, Poland, and the Ukraine to persecute the Jews.

One of Hitler’s first moves was to end Jewish employment in government jobs. From there, he closed other employment opportunities, removed Jews from public schools, and forbid them to own cars. Then he seized Jewish property and stripped the Jews of their citizenship. In 1938, most German Jews had left the country, and 60 percent of those who stayed were unable to work because of government restrictions. On November 9, 1938, the “Night of Broken Glass,” Hitler’s mobs killed dozens of Jews, shattered thousands of windows of homes and businesses in Jewish neighborhoods, and set fire to every Jewish house of worship in Germany. The situation worsened as the Nazis forced Jews into ghettos and then shipped them to concentration camps.

The U.S. in the Middle East The United States has great interest in maintaining stability in the Middle East to safeguard the supply of oil and combat terrorism. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the United States has had a major presence in this vital part of the world.

Persian Gulf War

Prisoners from the Dachau concentration camp

The Nazis killed Jews in some of the camps by forcing them to breathe poisoned gas and burning the bodies in large ovens. This continued until the end of World War II. When the war ended, close to six million Jews had been killed. About 25 percent of the victims were children.

Quick Quiz

Answers the questions below.

SS7H2d. Explain U. S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia; include the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.

The country of Iraq has been a focal point for the U.S. government since 1990 when Iraqi forces invaded the neighboring country of Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War. Iraq’s dictator, Saddam Hussein, wanted to control Kuwait’s many oil fields and have more access to the Persian Gulf.

Photo by jewishjournal.com

Quick Quiz

Chapter 23

Decide if the following statements are fact or opinion. Write F for Fact and O for Opinion.

Saddam Hussein Photo by ctv.ca

The small nation of Kuwait needed allies to survive Iraq’s attack. In January 1991, the United States military led a group of other nations (called a coalition) to recapture Kuwait in “Operation Desert Storm.” American aircraft pounded Iraq with missile attacks while ground forces quickly forced Iraqi troops out of Kuwait. The war lasted just six weeks. Iraq left, but not before setting fire to hundreds of oil wells, causing immense damage to the local environment. Iraq also hinted that it owned weapons of mass destruction, worrying the United States and many other countries. Planes over Kuwait’s burning oil fields

1. Hitler intended to rid the world of its “Jewish problem.”

1. Write two reasons why many Europeans practiced anti-Semitism.

2. It was the Jews’ fault that Germany lost World War I. 3. Hitler sent mobs to Jewish neighborhoods that broke windows in homes and businesses and burned every Jewish house of worship.

2. Write two things European governments did to restrict Jews.

4. People who disagreed with Hitler were foolish. 5. Jews were forced to live in ghettos.

3. Anti-Semitism spread rapidly when this political party came to power in Germany.

6. We should remember what happened to the Jews in the Holocaust and work to make sure it never happens again.

4. What happened to Jews once the new party took over in Germany?

The United Nations (UN) had imposed a trade embargo when Iraq invaded Kuwait, preventing Iraq from exporting oil or importing goods. The embargo remained in place after the Persian Gulf War. To remove this embargo, Iraq had to destroy its chemical and biological weapons and stop making nuclear weapons. In 1991, a UN inspection team entered Iraq and began destroying these weapons. When the UN team left Iraq in 1998, some believed about 85 percent of these weapons had been destroyed. Others, however, believed Hussein had hidden reserves of weapons and production facilities around the country. Inspection visit to an Iraqi nuclear power plant Photo from defenselink.mil

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©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 114

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Back in Iraq

Special Economics Info

Quick Review Following the Persian Gulf conflict and the exit of the UN weapons inspection team from Iraq in 1998, some American leaders worried that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction that would end up in the hands of terrorists. Saddam Hussein had continually refused to comply with requests made by the weapons inspectors. In 2003, military forces from the United States, Britain, and several other countries invaded Iraq. The Iraqi government fell quickly, and the military campaign was over in less than two months.

Choose the correct answers below. 1. In 1990 Iraq invaded: A. Iran

B. Saudi Arabia

2. Which country led the international coalition invading Iraq in 1991? A. United States B. Israel

C. Kuwait

C. Iran

3. Who imposed a trade embargo against Iraq for its invasion of Kuwait? A. United Nations B. United States C. Israel

90% 80% 70% Saddam Hussein in shackles Photo by ballyblog.worldpress.com

Putting Iraq back together after the invasion has been difficult. Hussein was captured, tried, and sentenced to death. An interim governing council was formed while a constitution was written. A guerrilla resistance movement rose up and attacked the occupying U.S. forces. Continual problems include roadside bombings, unemployment, civilian deaths and injuries, and battles between Sunni and Shia Muslims.

4. A UN inspection team was in Iraq for seven years finding and destroying these: A. oil fields B. helicopters C. weapons

Afghanistan: First Stop in the War on Terror Meanwhile, in Afghanistan, an extreme religious sect known as the Taliban was rising in power. The anti-American Taliban was thought to be sheltering the terrorist group Al Qaeda and its leader, Osama bin Laden. After the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the United States identified bin Laden as Osama bin Laden the most likely suspect responsible for the attacks. The United States government considered the attack to be an act of war. In November 2001, U.S. ground forces entered Afghanistan to disarm the Taliban and find bin Laden. Initially, the Taliban was defeated, and the U.S. helped form a new government in Afghanistan. World Trade Center disaster Photo by adelaideinstitute.org

Unfortunately, all the efforts to locate bin Laden were unsuccessful. The Taliban rebuilt its forces in neighboring Pakistan and launched guerrilla attacks on Afghanistan, using suicide bombers, roadside bombs, and attacks on U.S. and international military posts.

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1945

In 2005, Iraqis took part in free elections to establish their new Elections in Iraq democratic government. The U.S. government plans to maintain troops in Iraq until Iraqi police and soldiers can keep the country secure and stable.

1965

1985

2005

2025

Look at the above graph and answer the following questions. 1. In what decade did the U.S. begin importing oil? 2. What was the increase of imported oil consumption from the 1950s until 2000?

Quick Review Use the words from the word bank to complete the following sentences. 1. The UN inspection team left Iraq in

3. Look at the trend of imported oil consumption. What percentage of imported oil do you think the U.S. will be using in 2025? Complete the graph by filling in your prediction. Why do you think this is how much oil the U.S. will import then?

.

2. After the UN inspection team left Iraq, some American leaders were concerned that Iraq still had

WORD BANK

. 3. Military forces from the United States and Britain invaded Iraq in

Quick review

U.S. Imported Oil 100%

Number the following events in the correct order.

Sunni and Shia weapons of mass destruction 1998 2003 2005 Hussein

4. Do you think the United States involvement in the Middle East is connected to oil?

Why/Why not?

.4. He was captured, tried, and sentenced to death.

U.S. ground forces land in Afghanistan Taliban rebuilds forces in Pakistan

5. Do you think the U.S. involvement in the Middle East is connected to fighting terrorism? If yes, why?

Terrorist attack of September 11, 2001

5. Battles still rage between

Taliban rises in power in Afghanistan

6. Iraqis voted in free elections in

Muslims. .

The United States helps form a new government in Afghanistan ©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 115

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 116

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 117

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 22

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

Southwest Asia Review Word Search

One More – Just for Fun!

Evaluation Sample

S o u t h w e s t A s i a R e v i e w C r o s s wo r d

Below you will find a list of many countries in the Middle East. Use the Internet or an encyclopedia to find the name of each country’s capital. Write the capital name next to each country.

1

C

Y

Y

N

G

R

S

O

M

A

K

C

G

L

I

H

R

T

G

S

D

E

O

P

U

H

K

H

P

R

Bahrain

M

W

E

I

R

E

R

A

Cyprus

S

T

L

U

N

A

I

A

A

E

C

R

T

U

N

Iran

I

Z

O

K

G

O

I

R

R

A

M

I

N

L

T

X

W

S

X

T

E

2

3

Iraq

4

O

N

U

X

C

C

T

I

R

S

I

E

M

O

N

O

O

A

H

K

Z

A

Q

T

A

U

T

C

A

E

L

5

Israel

7

I

Y

H

G

G

G

U

N

S

R

M

T

Z

R

I

Jordan

Z

S

U

N

N

I

G

S

E

I

S

Y

O

P

T

Kuwait

M

S

I

A

D

U

J

S

T

I

R

I

F

E

E

Lebanon

R

I

N

U

L

Y

E

T

N

S

L

H

W

R

R

Oman

C

O

X

F

A

D

T

A

B

Z

H

S

C

T

A

Qatar

K

P

W

Q

K

L

H

H

I

E

B

W

F

N

C

J

A

V

L

V

G

P

H

Z

S

B

V

A

E

R

V

Q

S

F

T

H

E

O

C

R

A

C

Y

M

R

J

S

A

E

T

I

I

H

S

T

A

E

E

A

Turkey

E

T

H

N

I

C

M

Z

D

U

N

N

E

N

L

United Arab Emirates

M

Z

W

N

D

V

R

M

I

I

F

X

Y

L

S

Yemen

E

R

I

P

M

E

N

A

M

O

T

T

O

Z

I

B

G

T

G

K

Y

O

O

N

T

Y

Z

V

P

L

Saudi Arabia Syria

0

0

500 Miles

Judaism Christianity Kurds Muslims literacy theocracy

monarchy entrepreneur OPEC Iran Ottoman Empire Holocaust

500 KM Parallel scale at 25˚S 0˚E

6

9

11

10

12

13

Y

Work Bank oil water Afghanistan desert ethnic Islam

8

Zionism Israel Persian Gulf War ghetto Kuwait Sunni Shiite

14

15

Across

Down

2 Monotheistic religion of the Jews 3 Investment in factories, roads 8 Murder of six million Jews 10 Empire that once stretched over three continents 12 Canal connecting Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea 14 Camps where Jews were sent in WWII 15 Most common landform in Middle East

1 Iraq invaded this tiny country 4 U.S. looked for Osama bin Laden in this country 5 Tax on imported goods 6 Most common religion in Middle East 7 Person starting own business 9 Major natural resource of Middle East 11 Government headed by king or queen 13 Government controlled by religious leaders

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 118

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 119

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 120

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

S o u t h we s t A s i a S e c t i o n I I R e v i e w 1. What rivers are like twin rivers flowing through Turkey and Iraq?  A. Jordan and Tigris  B. Jordan and Euphrates  C. Tigris and Euphrates  D. Red and Jordan

6. Over the last 50 years, residents have been leaving the nomadic life to live here:  A. cities  B. oases  C. farms  D. villages

2. What narrow waterway is an important shipping channel for oil?  A. Strait of Hormuz  B. Persian Gulf  C. Gaza Strip  D. Red Sea

7. Efficient rapid transit systems would help solve these transportation problems:  A. crowded roads and water pollution  B. too many bikers and walkers  C. crowded roads and air pollution  D. donkeys and camels on the roads

3. What are the latitude and longitude of a point called?  A. degrees  B. coordinates  C. minutes  D. seconds

8. What are groups identified on the basis of religion, race, or national origin?  A. religious groups  B. ethnic groups  C. Kurds  D. Jews

4. What are three major water problems in the Middle East?  A. too much ground water, aquifers, pollution  B. flooding, pollution, dams  C. water shortages, flooding, pollution  D. water shortages, unequal distribution, pollution

9. What ethnic group lives in the mountains of Turkey and Iraq?  A. Jews  B. Kurds  C. Shiites  D. Sunnis

5. What are three main oil-producing Middle Eastern countries?  A. Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia  B. Turkey, Israel, Saudi Arabia  C. Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia  D. Iran, Iraq, Turkey

10. What group is both an ethnic and religious group?  A. Jews  B. Arabs  C. Muslims  D. Persians

S o u t h we s t A s i a S e c t i o n I I R e v i e w 11. What are three prominent religions in the Middle East?  A. Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity  B. Hinduism, Buddhism, Shintoism  C. Persian, Islam, Judaism  D. Judaism, Islam, Christianity

16. A government that is controlled by a religious leader is a:  A. democracy  B. monarchy  C. theocracy  D. parliamentary system

12. Where do almost all Middle Eastern Jews live?  A. Saudi Arabia  B. Turkey  C. Iran  D. Israel

17. Examples of human rights and personal freedoms would be:  A. right to vote and choose employment  B. right to read and vote  C. unfair trials and punishments  D. right to eat and sleep

13. What are two major groups of Muslims?  A. Sunnis and Persians  B. Sunnis and Shiites  C. Arabs and Christians  D. Kurds and Jews 14. There is usually a high correlation between the standard of living and:  A. the price of oil  B. the literacy rate  C. religion  D. population 15. The State of Israel was established in:  A. 1802  B. 1980  C. 1948  D. 1600

18. What two challenges does Israel face in building its economy?  A. a shortage of tourists and food  B. national security and immigration  C. national security and nuclear waste  D. immigration and food shortages

S o u t h we s t A s i a S e c t i o n I I R e v i e w 26. When a company educates and trains its people, it is:  A. investing in natural resources  B. investing in transportation  C. investing in infrastructure  D. investing in human capital

21. This is a tax on imported goods:  A. tariff  B. quota  C. trade embargo  D. export 22. This is a restriction on the amount of a good that can be imported:  A. tariff  B. quota  C. embargo  D. export 23. This forbids trade with another country:  A. tariff  B. quotas  C. embargo  D. export

19. The government controls everything in this type of economy:  A. market  B. traditional  C. command  D. mixed

24. What organization was formed in 1960 by five oil-rich countries?  A. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)  B. Organization of Petroleum Importing Countries (OPIC)  C. Countries Selling Oil (CSO)  D. Countries With Oil for Sale (CWOFS)

20. What type of economy does Israel have?  A. parliamentary  B. traditional  C. command  D. market

25. The type of money used by a country is called:  A. bank deposits  B. dollars  C. currency  D. conversion

27. When a country invests in transportation systems and power plants, it is:  A. investing in natural resources  B. investing in capital  C. investing in entrepreneurship  D. investing in human capital 28. A country with crumbling bridges and damaged roads is demonstrating:  A. lack of human capital investment  B. lack of entrepreneurs  C. lack of capital investment  D. lack of food 29. This person has an idea for a good or service and takes the risks to produce it:  A. money manager  B. investor  C. banker  D. entrepreneur 30. What large empire broke up after World War I?  A. Roman Empire  B. Arabic Empire  C. Ottoman Empire  D. Aztec Empire

Gee, my head is spinning!

Yep, I feel like I’ve been around the world!

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 121

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 122

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 123

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

S o u t h we s t A s i a S e c t i o n I I R e v i e w 31. Which two countries divided the Middle East into countries after World War II?  A. Britain and France  B. Britain and Canada  C. France and Germany  D. Italy and Portugal 32. A major conflict in the Middle East is between Arab states and:  A. Israel  B. Iraq  C. Iran  D. Turkey 33. During World War II, six million Jews were killed in what is called the:  A. Generation of Genocide  B. Apartheid  C. Night of Broken Glass  D. Holocaust 34. The movement to unite displaced Jews and settle them in Palestine was called:  A. Zionism  B. Anti-Semitism  C. Homecoming  D. Immigration 35. Who wanted to rid the world of “its Jewish problem”?  A. Osama bin Laden  B. Saddam Hussein  C. Adolf Hitler  D. Zionists

36. Prejudice against Jews is known as:  A. Anti-Semitism  B. Zionism  C. Imperialism  D. Apartheid

Section 3

Chapter 24

37. Which country did Saddam Hussein rule?  A. Kuwait  B. Afghanistan  C. Iraq  D. Israel

SS7G9 The student will locate selected features in Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Ganges River, Huang He (Yellow River), Indus River, Mekong River, Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Yellow Sea, Gobi Desert, Taklimakan Desert, Himalayan Mountains, and Korean Peninsula.

38. Iraq invaded Kuwait and international forces joined to help Kuwait in this war:  A. Vietnam War  B. Korean War  C. Persian Gulf War  D. Sunni/Shiite War

b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the countries of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Vietnam.

Landforms of Southern and Eastern Asia From massive deserts to winding rivers, the vast continent of Asia has an array of landforms. The location of many of these landforms influences where people live and how they live. Learn about many Asian landforms below.

39. When did terrorists attack the World Trade Center in New York City?  A. 1999  B. 2005  C. 1980  D. 2001 40. What country did U.S. forces enter to look for terrorist leader Osama bin Laden?  A. Iran  B. Israel  C. Kuwait  D. Afghanistan

This is the end of Southwest Asia•Section II• Review

Geographical Understandings

Ganges River: Starting in the Himalayan Mountains and winding more than 1,500 miles to the Indian Ocean, the Ganges River is the most important river in the Indian subcontinent. The Ganges and its tributaries run through India’s most fertile and densely populated areas. The river is named for a Hindu goddess and considered sacred by the Hindu religion.

Southern and Eastern Asia

Bathing in the Ganges River Photo by tropicalisland.de

Huang He (Yellow River): China’s second longest river is sometimes called “China’s Sorrow” because of its devastating floods. Chinese civilization began in the central area of this river basin. The Huang He is named for the muddy yellow silt it carries along its path though China. It empties into the Gulf of Bohai in the northern Yellow Sea. Indus River: Providing water for one of the largest irrigation systems of the world, the Indus River begins high in the Himalayas in Tibet. Slowing down as it runs through India and Pakistan, it flows through desert before emptying into the Arabian Sea.

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 124

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 125

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 126

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

The Indus River flowing from the Himalayas Photo by i.pbase.com

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 23

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Mekong River: Flowing through China, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, the Mekong River affects the lives of 60 million people, many of whom are the poorest in the world. One of the region’s most important crops, rice, is grown in the Mekong Basin.

Quick Quiz

Map Skills

Using the above information, fill in the blanks with the correct answer. 1. Two rivers that start high in the Himalayas are

Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River: The largest and longest river in China, the Yangtze River is the third longest in the world. The Yangtze is extremely important to China, providing hydroelectric power, water for irrigation, and transportation for cargo ships.

Now that you know about some of Asia’s landforms, it’s time to locate them on a map. Follow the directions below.

and

Bay of Bengal: The Bay of Bengal is an arm of the Indian Ocean with India to its west and Myanmar to its east. Many large rivers, including the Ganges River, flow into the bay. Indian Ocean: The third largest of the world’s five oceans, the Indian Ocean lies between Africa to the west, Asia to the north, Australia to the east, and the Southern Ocean to the south.

2. This desert stretches across southern Mongolia and northern China.

3. Chinese civilization began in this river valley. 4. This peninsula is between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan.

5. This river is sacred in the Hindu religion.

Sea of Japan: The Sea of Japan is an arm of the Pacific Ocean that lies between the Asian continent and Japan.

6. This sea lies between Vietnam and the Philippines and has violent monsoons and typhoons.

South China Sea: The South China Sea lies between Vietnam and the Philippines. Weather in the region is marked by violent monsoons and typhoons.

7. This river flows through China, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam.

GOBI DESERT

South China Sea

River

s

Photo by Pravit

South China Sea

River

Bay of Bengal

ng

Taklimakan Desert

Yellow Sea

ges River

11. This body of water lies between Japan and the continent of Asia. 12. This arm of the Indian Ocean is tucked between India and Myanmar.

INDIAN OCEAN

13. Africa lies to the west of this ocean, and Australia lies to the east.

Himalayan Mountains: Lying along the northern edge of the Indian subcontinent, the Himalayan mountain range is the world’s highest mountain region. Nine of the world’s ten tallest peaks are located in the Himalayas, including Mt. Everest, the highest mountain in the world.

PA C I F I C OCEAN

Korean Peninsula

tze River ng Ya

HI MA LA AYAN G MTTS. an

Arabian Sea

10. This desert is located in northwestern China between two mountain ranges.

Taklimakan Desert: Located in northwestern China, the Taklimakan Desert is nestled between two rugged mountain ranges. Shifting, crescent-shaped sand dunes cover 85 percent of its surface.

Hard-To-Believe-But-True! Mount Everest inPhoto theby Kerem Himalayan Mountains Barut

Korean Peninsula: The Korean Peninsula juts out of northeastern China in between the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Since 1948, this peninsula has been divided into two countries: the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

The wild Bactrian camel is one of the few animals that can survive in the Taklimakan Desert. Its two humps store fat, not water, for nourishment when food is scarce. When it does find water, it can drink up to 30 gallons in 10 minutes! Bactrian camel Photo by Michael Pereckas

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 127

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 128

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 129

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Map Skills

Map Skills

Map Skils

Look at the political map of Southern and Eastern Asia and follow the directions below.

Label the following countries on the map of Southern and Eastern Asia below:

1. Draw and label the physical features listed below on the map of Asia. Huang He (Yellow River) Yangtze River Taklimakan Desert

Indus River Gobi Desert

Indian Ocean Sea of Japan

China North Korea

1. Draw a green circle around China. 2. Draw an orange circle around India. 3. Draw a red circle around Indonesia. 4. Draw a purple circle around Japan. 5. Draw a blue circle around North Korea. 6. Draw a brown circle around South Korea. 7. Draw a yellow circle around Vietnam.

2. Label the following physical features on the map of Asia. Bay of Bengal Yellow Sea

Indu

9. This longest river in China provides hydroelectric power, irrigation water, and transportation for cargo ships.

Sea of Japan

He Riv er

mountain in the world.

PLATEAU OF TIBET

o ek M

Gobi Desert: Known as Shamo, the Chinese word for “sand desert,” the Gobi Desert is Asia’s largest desert. It stretches across southern Mongolia and northern China. The famous traveler Marco Polo and two of his relatives were the first Europeans to cross the desert around 1275.

TAKLIMAKAN DESERT

8. Nine of the world’s ten highest peaks are in this mountain range, including Mt. Everest, the highest

Hu an g

Photo by southchinasea.com

Yellow Sea: This arm of the Pacific Ocean lies between China and Korea. It becomes the East China Sea south of the Korean Peninsula.

Ganges River Mekong River Himalayan Mountains

10. Draw a yellow circle around the Yellow Sea. 11. Draw a purple box around the Gobi Desert and put brown dots on it. 12. Draw a brown box around the Taklimakan Desert and put brown dots on it. 13. Draw purple ridges on the Himalayan Mountains. 14. Draw a green circle around the Korean Peninsula.

1. Trace the Ganges River in blue. 2. Trace the Huang He (Yellow River) in blue and yellow. 3. Trace the Indus River in blue and orange. 4. Trace the Mekong River in blue and green. 5. Trace the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River in blue and red. 6. Draw a purple circle around the Bay of Bengal. 7. Draw a red circle around the Indian Ocean. 8. Draw an orange circle around the Sea of Japan. 9. Draw a black circle around the South China Sea.

. The Yangtze River through the Three Rivers Gorge Photo by ianandwendy.com

Evaluation Sample

Korean Peninsula South China Sea

India South Korea

Indonesia Vietnam

Japan

3. Find a political-physical map of the world in an atlas. Find Asia, and then locate each of the physical features listed above. Make a check mark next to each feature after you locate it. MONGOLIA KYRGYZSTAN

NORTH KOREA

TAJIKISTAN CHINA AFGHANISTAN PAKISTAN

JAPAN

SOUTH KOREA

NEPAL BHUTAN INDIA

MYANMAR LAOS BANGLADESH THAILAND

TAIWAN VIETNAM PHILIPPINES

CAMBODIA SRI LANKA

BRUNEI MALAYSIA INDONESIA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

Look-It-Up! The Republic of Indonesia is an island nation consisting of more than 13,000 islands! Only about half of those islands have people living on them. There are about 400 volcanoes in Indonesia, and the country has experienced a number of volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in its history.

Background Check Are you wondering why the Tibetan Plateau looks like a huge mountain range? That’s because its elevation is really high! In fact, the Tibetan Plateau is the world’s highest plateau at about 14,800 feet above sea level.

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 131

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 132

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

The Yangtze: Pollution and Problems

a. Describe the causes and effects of pollution on the Yangtze and Ganges Rivers.

3

4

6

7

5

SS7G10 The student will discuss environmental issues across Southern and Eastern Asia.

2

b. Describe the causes and effects of air pollution and flooding in India and China.

In China, more than seven percent of the world’s population, or 400 million people, live along the banks of the Yangtze River. Billions of tons of chemicals and waste from agriculture, industry, and people pour into the river every year. Because of the river’s vast size, the pollution is somewhat diluted. Nevertheless, the nitrates from farm runoff enable algae to multiply, decreasing oxygen that fish need to survive. Pollution has killed the smaller fish in the river and harmed the larger ones, so that many people are afraid to eat any fish caught there.

 Japan

India: A Polluted Sacred River

 China  North Korea

 India  South Korea

Dreadful Air and Terrible Water

 Indonesia  Vietnam

Fishing in the polluted water of the Yangtze River Photo by worldpress.com

1

Write the correct number for each country labeled on the map next to its name below.

2. On what island is the capital located?

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 130

Chapter 25

Map Skills

1. Use an atlas or the encyclopedia to find the name of the capital of Indonesia.

India and China are dealing with serious air pollution and water pollution problems. The large cities especially face growing pollution issues because of their large populations, industrialization, and increased use of cars. When China was preparing for the Beijing Olympics in 2008, it banned half the cars from driving each day in an effort to clean up the polluted air. The disastrous effects of flooding are another challenge for many countries in Southern and Eastern Asia.

Hundreds of millions of Chinese villagers do not have safe drinking water because water sources like lakes, rivers, and aquifers have been polluted by industry. Water pollution affects Chinese cities as well. When water quality is tested and the water is too polluted to drink, city residents drink bottled water. Schools sometimes close because there is no clean water for students.

Quick Quiz Read the following statements about the Ganges and Yangtze Rivers. Put a check mark beside the ones that are true. 1. The Ganges River is sacred in the Hindu religion.

The Ganges River has been a sacred part of the Hindu religion for several thousand years. Varanasi is the holiest of the cities along the river’s 1,560-mile course. In 2001, about 20 million people bathed in the Ganges at Varanasi during an important festival of the Hindu religion. Unfortunately, this was a very bad idea . The Ganges River is highly polluted with dangerous bacteria. About 300 million gallons of untreated sewage, trash, and food are poured into the Ganges daily. Experts estimate that about 80 percent of all illnesses and one third of deaths in India come from diseases carried by dirty water.

2. Massive amounts of waste material pour into the Ganges River daily. 3. Dumping human and animal remains in rivers causes serious health problems. 4. Very little illness in India is caused by polluted water. 5. Fortunately, very few people live along the Yangtze River. 6. Farm chemicals add to the pollution in the Yangtze River. 7. Pollution in the Yangtze River is making the fish unfit to eat. Bathing in the Ganges River Photo by a.abcnews.com

Hindus believe that they will have a peaceful journey to the next life if their ashes are strewn in the Ganges River. Tragically, families who cannot afford that process often place the body of their loved one in the river instead. Animal carcasses are deposited there as well, adding to an already dangerous situation. Many of India’s sewage systems are simply overwhelmed since they were designed in the early 1900s and haven’t been updated, even though the population in India has soared over the last century.

8. China’s cities do not experience water pollution problems.

Hold Your Breath in China Industry is growing in China, and air pollution is growing along with it. In a recent study by the World Bank, China is home to 16 of the world’s 20 most polluted cities. The World Health Organization states that China pumps one third of the world total of pollutants like sulfur dioxide, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide into the world’s air. Burning fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum to power Chinese industry

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 133

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 134

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 135

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 24

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK and cars is a major source of pollution. The Chinese people also burn coal to heat their homes, adding to the pollution problem.

Rain, Rain, Go Away

This air pollution results in lost work due to illness, early deaths, and chronic bronchitis, a lung Air pollution in Beijing as seen after and before a rainstorm condition. The Chinese Ministry of Health states that pollution has made cancer the leading cause of death in China. The European Union says that only one percent of China’s 560 million city dwellers breathes safe air.

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Evaluation Sample

Word Definition

Quick Quiz

monsoon: a seasonal

Fill in the graphic organizers below showing the causes and effects of flooding in India and China.

Monsoons are a mixed blessing for India. While farmers wind bringing heavy depend on the rain for their crops, and the huge amounts of rainfall that can lead to flooding water are used to generate electricity, the monsoons are often responsible for heavy floods. The monsoon season arrives in India each year in June and spreads heavy rain until September. If flooding occurs, rivers overflow their banks, leading to terrible destruction and water-borne disease.

Cause(s)

Effect(s)

Ganges River (India)

Photo by Bobak Ha’Eri

Unfortunately, the air pollution problem is not contained to China. Winds carry the foul air to Korea and Japan as well. Researchers have even discovered particulate matter from Asia in the air pollution over the west coast of the United States!

In 2005, monsoon rains poured 37 inches of rain in a 24-hour period on western India, causing the airport to close, animals to drown, and power lines to fall. In August 2008, a dam in Nepal burst and flooded one of India’s most heavily populated states. Houses and cattle were buried. People died and water-borne illnesses posed a serious threat while workers tried to rescue stranded citizens.

Yangtze River (China)

Think About It Suppose the governments of India and China formed a commission to reduce flooding and pollution. Put a check mark next to the suggestions you think would help.

Background Check

Keep Holding Your Breath in India

If monsoon flooding is not severe, farmers benefit as rivers overflow their banks. Nourishing silt and algae are left behind, providing fertile soil for next year’s crops.

China’s air quality problem is mirrored in India, where industry is growing, more cars are appearing on the roads, and air quality is steadily decreasing. Indoor air pollution is also a growing hazard. Most people cook every day, using unprocessed fuel that emits toxic fumes. Because of India’s rapidly growing population, more and more Indians are exposed to larger amounts of pollution every year. Air pollution causes more than half a million deaths a year in India. India is investing money in cleanup efforts but the growing population outpaces its efforts. The Taj Mahal, a sacred site and popular tourist destination, is growing yellow from pollution. Some experts believe that smog from India and China could possibly change weather patterns in North America.

Water Pollution: 1. Encourage increased use of fertilizers in farming.

2,000 Years, 1,000 Floods

2. Set up clean-up campaigns along the length of the rivers.

Annual monsoon rains in China are beneficial to farmers, but also cause floods, usually every two to three years. In China, the monsoon season runs from March through August. Flooding from China’s Huang He (Yellow) River has killed more people than flooding from any other river in the world. In 1887, nearly two million people died because of flooding from the Huang He, and in 1931, almost four million people died.

3. Build and maintain sewage treatment plants. 4. Ask the government to help pay for cremation of human and animal remains. 5. Monitor what industries do with their waste materials.

Air pollution: 1. Limit driving to odd/even days.

Quick Quiz Fill in the blanks below. Use the word bank to help you. 1. A study of the World Bank states that China has 16 of the 20 most polluted the world. 2. As industry grows in China, so does the 3. Many Chinese use

in Word Bank Taj Mahal air pollution cities industry toxic fumes coal automobiles

. as fuel to heat their homes.

4. In India, the two main reasons for increased air pollution are and

.

5. Using unprocessed fuels in cooking emits

.

The Huang He River flows through China’s major farming area and picks up the fertile yellow topsoil along its path. This silt continually builds up so that the river is higher than the surrounding plains. The Chinese have constructed dikes to manage the river. However, when the dikes fail and the river floods, homes and crops are buried and lives are lost.

2. Burn cleaner fuels. 3. Discourage walking and bicycling. 4. Build and maintain quality public transportation systems. 5. Regulate pollution from industry.

Monsoon flooding The monsoon rains also swell the Yangtze River and its tributaries. Over the years, loggers working upstream on the Yangtze have cut down trees that used to help contain flooding, and farmers downstream have drained wetlands that used to act as sponges during floods. These two actions multiply the effects of the storm water runoff. Because of this deforestation and wetlands loss, it now takes much less water to cause a flood.

Control flooding:

Photo by asiafinanceblog.com

6. This sacred site and tourist destination is turning yellow from air pollution.

1. Replant trees along the Yangtze River. 2. Clear additional wetlands for farming. 3. Clear silt from rivers and lakes. 4. Build dams to contain the water. 5. Create an early alert system to warn of flooding.

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©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 138

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

About half of Vietnam’s people are farmers, living in the fertile deltas of the Mekong and Red Rivers and growing rice, coffee, fruits, and vegetables. Likewise, in Thailand, people cluster around fertile river areas to grow rice and other crops. Even in highly industrialized Japan, most of the people are concentrated in small lowlands where the largest cities are located.

Look-It-Up! In 2004, a terrible natural disaster involving flooding occurred in Southern Asia. Use the Internet or reference books to find out what happened. Describe it below.

The population is much lower in the rugged mountains of China and Japan. Here the winters are long and very cold, and the summers are short. The region of Tibet, in southwestern China, has a population density of only 2 persons per square mile! The desert areas of China also have very few inhabitants because of the harsh climate. Farming in Vietnam Photo by ambhanoi.um.dk

Chapter 26

Quick Quiz Answer the following questions by choosing the correct answer from the word bank.

SS7G11 The student will explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Describe the impact climate and location has on population distribution in Southern and Eastern Asia. b. Describe how the mountain, desert, and water features of Southern and Eastern Asia have affected the population in terms of where people live, the type of work they do, and how they travel.

1. About one third of the world’s population lives in these two countries: ______________________________ and

In India, information technology and telecommunications are growing industries, providing many employment opportunities in cities like Mumbai and Kolkata. Unfortunately, many people living in Asian cities are very poor and live in extremely crowded, unsanitary conditions. Half of the island nation of Indonesia’s population lives on Java. City dwellers find employment in industry and technology. There are seaports and oil centers, plus farms and coffee plantations. In North Korea, about one-third of the people work in agriculture, while the rest of the people work in industry and services.

Essential Skills Below is a table listing the top 20 urban agglomerations in the world. An urban agglomeration is a city plus all the smaller towns and growth around it. Use the table to answer the questions below. Urban Agglomerations Cities 2003 Pop. 1. How many of the world’s top 20 urban agglomerations are in Asia? Tokyo, Japan 35 million Mexico City, Mexico

18.7 million

2. How many of the top ten are in India?

New York, USA

18.3 million

3. What is the most crowded urban area in the world?

Sao Paulo, Brazil

17.9 million

Mumbai, India

17.4 million

Delhi, India

14.1 million

Kolkata (Calcutta), India

13.1 million

_____________________________. 2. About 75 percent of India’s people live in ____________________________. 3. In Vietnam many people farm along these rivers: ______________________ and ________________________. 4. About 90 percent of Chinese live in the _________________________ part of the country. 5. Since about half of India’s land is arable, most Indians work in ______________________________.

4. How many more people live in Tokyo than Jakarta?

6. Mountain regions of Asia have a ______________________________ population than other areas.

Asia Has It All

7. ______________________________ is a highly industrialized country Asia has a great variety of landforms and climates. A large part of Asia is desert, yet much of southern and southeastern Asia receives tremendous amounts of rain each year. Massive mountain ranges rise in the north, while steamy rain forests lie low in the south. What’s it like to live in Asia?

Lots and Lots of People!

WORD BANK villages eastern agriculture

Japan Red Mekong

arable land: land that is suitable for growing crops

About 90 percent of China’s people are concentrated in the plateaus, plains, and river valleys of the eastern third of the country where fertile soil and plentiful rain are found. Close to 75 percent of India’s population lives in more than 500,000 villages. Since about half of India’s land is arable, most Indians work in agriculture.

Shanghai, China

12.8 million

population of Delhi will probably

Jakarta, Indonesia

12.3 million

.

Dhaka, Bangladesh

11.6 million

How might that affect the future population of Shanghai?

Osaka, Japan

11.2 million

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

In Chinese cities like Beijing and Shanghai, the population can exceed almost 6,000 people per square mile. Business is booming in China’s cities, and employment opportunities abound. Much of Japan’s population is also crowded into cities. Tokyo is the most crowded urban area in the world with a population density of 33,000 people per square mile. Land in Tokyo is precious and very expensive.

7. What is the most crowded urban area in the United States?

8. What is the most crowded urban area in South America?

11.1 million

Beijing, China

10.8 million

Cairo, Egypt

10.8 million

Manila, Philippines

10.4 million

Paris, France

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Some of the oldest rainforests in the world are found in Asia, principally on scattered Indonesian islands, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. Few people live in the rainforests, and the rainforests themselves are disappearing because of logging and clearing of land for agriculture.

The Japanese have a high-speed rail system where trains travel 186 miles per hour. The rail system has been running for almost 40 years, has carried over six billion passengers, and has never had a single major accident! A rickshaw in Calcutta, India

Gobi Desert camel caravan Photo by discovermongolia.mn

In stark contrast to busy city life and farming in fertile deltas is life in the Gobi Desert of northern China. The small nomadic population of the Gobi travels with its herds of goats looking for oases. Temperature extremes range from winter lows of -40°F to summer highs around 110°F. The southern portion of the desert is completely waterless. Inhabitants still use camels to travel through the desert.

Because of the thriving economy, many people in Beijing, China can afford cars but the roads are extremely congested. Public bus and subway systems are available to ease the traffic problem, and people still use bicycles and walk. People in India use cars, buses, and bicycles to get around, but many roads are highly congested in Mumbai and other cities. Rickshaws are still in use High-speed rail train, Japan in Indian cities. In cities in Thailand, people use motorcycles, minibuses, three-wheel motored vehicles, and motorcycle taxis. Bangkok has a sky rail servicing many parts of the city.

9.7 million UN Population Division, MSN Encarta

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How you travel in Asia depends upon where you live. Walking is a common mode of transportation in rural areas, while people in cities use cars and public transportation.

9.8 million

Seoul, South Korea

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Many Asian countries have long coastlines. Taking advantage of the natural resources of ocean water and deep harbors, ship repair and shipbuilding are important industries. The world’s leading fishing country is Japan, with China in second place. In less developed countries, most fishing is for local citizens to eat, but exports of dried, frozen, and canned fish are growing.

11.2 million

Karachi, Pakistan

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 139

Living Off the Land

12 million

6. The government of China wants families to have only one child.

Crowded Cities Many Asian cities have huge populations. In fact, twelve of the 20 most populated urban areas in the world are located in Southern and Eastern Asia.

13 million

5. Because there are more employment opportunities in cities, the

Los Angeles, USA

India lower China

Word Definition

More than one-third of all the people in the world live in China and India! Most Asians live in rural areas, farming the land to provide food for their families.

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Enrichment Scientists use artifacts to learn about people who lived before us. Read the information below about artifacts and complete the exercise below. During a series of expeditions in the 1920s, scientists digging in the Gobi Desert uncovered interesting artifacts including crude stone tools, pottery, necklace beads, and layers of ash containing charcoal, flints, and burned bones. After these discoveries, archeologists began to analyze what they had found . Read possible theories of their discoveries and circle the ones that make sense. See if you can back up your choices with the evidence given. If you can back up your theory with evidence, put a check in that box.

What Did the Archaeologists Learn? Theory

Evidence

1. The people knew how to make fire.

Photo by businessweek.com

2. The area where the people lived was near a former oasis.

Quick Quiz Read the statements below and choose the correct answer. 1. Few Asians live in these areas: A. cities and farms

2. The world’s leading fishing country is: A. China B. Indonesia 3. Asian rainforests are found in: A. Cambodia and Laos

Quick Quiz

3. The people knew how to make pottery.

Match the transportation description on the left with the correct answer on the right. Some descriptions may have two answers. B. coasts and deltas

B. Taklimakan Desert

C. mountains and deserts

C. Japan

C. both a and b

4. The majority of people in the Gobi Desert are: A. city dwellers B. nomads

C. farmers

5. This industry takes advantage of a country’s coastline: A. shipbuilding B. information technology

C. logging

A. Bangkok

2. congested roads

B. Beijing

3. transportation largely undeveloped

C. Japan

4. sky rail

D. India

5. rickshaws

E. most of Asia

4. They hunted for food.

5. They lived many years ago.

6. They ate meat.

Think About It Read the information below about the growing Asian population and fill in the blanks below. The already huge populations of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh keep growing. Families in rural areas have many children to help them work the land and older people are living longer as healthcare and sanitation improve. Huge population growth can lead to many problems. See if you can figure out several of those problems from the clues below.

Getting Around Across Asia, transportation systems are largely undeveloped. Most railroads don’t cross international boundaries. Road systems are not well developed and links between countries are often closed because of disagreements between the countries. Most of Asian international travel happens by sea or by air.

1. very safe high-speed rail system

Word Definition rickshaw: two-wheeled cart carrying one passenger that is pulled by a person

1. Crop failures can lead to this:

shortage

2. Not enough space for people to live in cities: 3. Where will everyone work?

shortage

7. Beads were used as ornaments.

Hard-To-Believe-But-True! Garbage collectors pick up your family’s trash regularly, but that didn’t happen years ago! People used to bury their garbage, so when archeologists uncover buried trash, it’s actually “buried treasure” to them! The artifacts found in trash provide a unique peek into the past.

shortage

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©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 143

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 144

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 25

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Enrichment Historians often refer to the past in terms of centuries, eras, and ages. Read the information below and then answer the questions.

Chapter 27

Below, decide whether the speaker is describing their ethnic group or religious group. Write E for ethnic group and R for religious group.

SS7G12 The student will analyze the diverse cultures of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia.

Era: A distinctive period of time Examples include: • The Ming Dynasty was an era lasting from 1368 to 1644. • The Cenozoic Era is the Age of Mammals, when mammals first appeared on Earth, starting 65 million years ago.

a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.

2. “I am a Muslim man from New York who reads the Quran and prays five times a day.” 3. “I am a Christian woman from Africa who reads the Bible and believes in Jesus Christ.” 4. “I am a Jewish boy who speaks Hebrew, has Jewish parents, and celebrates the Passover.”

c. Evaluate how the literacy rate affects the standard of living.

5. “I am a Cham boy from Vietnam who likes to play soccer.”

The countries of Southern and Eastern Asia are home to people from diverse backgrounds and cultures who identify themselves with different religious and ethnic groups. Today, Asia’s population is a unique blend of such ethnic groups as the Chams (Vietnam), the Tagalog (Philippines), and the Javanese (Indonesia), and religious groups such as Hindus, Muslims, and Buddhists. To better understand the unique culture of Southern and Eastern Asia, it is important to understand the differences between a religious group and an ethnic group.

2. The Ba people in China are now considered an important part of Chinese history. Their artifacts were discovered in the watershed of the Yangtze River. Unknown before their artifacts were discovered, the time of the Ba people ended around 316 B.C.E. How many centuries ago did they live? ___________________

1. “I am an Hispanic woman who speaks Spanish, is a Catholic, and has a siesta every afternoon.”

b. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Shintoism, and the philosophy of Confucianism.

Culture and Religion in Southern and Eastern Asia

1. Discovered in 1974, an army of terracotta figures might be the eighth wonder of the world. A group of Chinese farmers digging for a well found these treasures from 221 B.C.E. Are they from the Golden Age of Chinese History? ______________

Evaluation Sample

Quick Quiz

Century: 100 years An example is the time period between 1800 and 1900.

Age: A period in the history of the earth An example includes: • The Han dynasty from 202 B.C.E. until 220 C.E. is considered the Golden Age of Chinese History.

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Buddhism

Religious group: made up of people who are similar because of their common belief in a religious claim. A group can have members with different cultures, languages, and races and is usually widespread over an entire region or many countries.

Terracotta Soldiers

3. A jaw bone and tools found in Dragon Bone Cave in the Three Gorges area of the Yangtze River place the earliest humans in Asia at the same time they appeared in Africa. What was the era when they most likely lived? _______________________ Photo by P. Morgan

4. The Chinese invented paper in 105 C.E. Was this during the Golden Age of Chinese history? ______________

Religious Groups of Southern and Eastern Asia Buddhism originated in India but has spread rapidly and is the fourth largest religion in the world today. Siddhartha Gautama became the Buddha or “enlightened one” after spending time pondering the ways of Word Definition life. The Buddha traveled all over India to share his newfound enlightenment: learning enlightenment with other people and developed a following that results in ultimate that was devoted to his teachings. Buddhists do not believe in understanding of the nature of the a god, but rather follow the teachings of one man, Buddha. The world basic ideas of Buddhism include: • The Four Noble Truths are basic instructions of Buddhism that teach that suffering exists in the world and humans must reach the enlightenment of Buddha to rise above them. • Their holy book, the Tripitaka, tells all of Buddha’s teachings.

5. Two temples will be flooded with the completion of new dams on the Yangtze River. One is the Shibaozhai Temple from 1545, and the other is the Zhang Fe temple from the 960-1127 period. Which one is from the Ming Dynasty era? _____________________

Ethnic group: made up of people who have a similar language and culture and who often share common values and religion. In many cases, a group is made up of members of the same race or people with common ancestors.

• Buddhists do not worship a god but rather Buddha by thanking him for his teachings and reading the Tripitaka to become more enlightened. • Nirvana is the ultimate goal of the Buddhists. It is a state of enlightenment where one can have happiness and peace. It is often found through meditation.

Hard-To-Believe-But-True! The Han ethnic group makes up about 93 percent of China’s population. Its Han Chinese language is spoken by more people than any other language in the world! Photo by eclipsetours.com

• Buddhists believe in reincarnation, a cycle of birth and rebirth, where one’s behavior in the present life determines what one becomes in the next life.

Photo by worldreviewer.com

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©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 147

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Hinduism Like Buddhism, Hinduism is largely practiced in India where over 80 percent of Indians claim to be Hindu. Unlike Buddhism, however, Hinduism does not come from the teachings of one man. Hindus believe in many gods and goddesses who are images of a single god. The most worshipped goddesses are Vishnu and Shiva. The basic ideas of Hinduism include: • Each person’s karma, or good or bad behavior, determines his or her position in life.

• The five pillars of Islam which are obligations that each Muslim must follow. They include proclamation of faith, prayer (five times a day), fasting (during Ramadan), almsgiving (charity), and pilgrimage (a visit to Mecca).

• There are five basic types of relationships where one must understand their role of being superior or inferior. They are: ruler and subject, father and son, husband and wife, older brother and younger brother, and friend and friend.

• The Muslims’ main holy book is called the Quran.

• China’s rulers are to be respected by the people as long as they were fair and cared for the people.

• The two types of Muslims, Sunni and Shi’ite , disagree on many of the basic teachings of Islam and are often in conflict with each other.

• Family relationships are essential to having a good society and family respect was the foundation of all ethics.

• The ultimate goal of Hindus is to achieve moksha, which is freedom from the cycle of reincarnation.

• Muslims have many holy sites including Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad, Medina, where Muhammad died, and Jerusalem, where the Dome of the Rock mosque is located.

• There is not one text Hindus consider sacred, rather there are many texts like the Vedas that teach Hindus proper behavior.

Shintoism

Quick Review The statements below describe the characteristics of the religions and philosophy above. Next to each answer write B for Buddhism, H for Hinduism, I for Islam, S for Shintoism, or C for Confucianism. Some statements will match more than one religion or philosophy. 1. This religion/philosophy believes in one God.

• Hindus live by a caste system that divides people into classes: Brahmans (priests), Kashatriyas (soldiers), Vaishyas (merchants), and Shudras (laborers).

Shinto is a religion that is unique to Japan. Unlike Islam, Buddhism, or Hinduism, it has not spread to other parts of the world. Shintoism is based on the traditional Japanese teaching that everything in nature contains kami, or the spirit of a god. Unlike most of the religions of Southern and Eastern Asia, Shintoism has no rules for moral living and no concepts of a single ruling God. The basic ideas of Shinto include:

Think About It Buddhism and Hinduism have some similarities and many differences. Place check marks next to the items that fit each religion.

2. This religion/philosophy follows a holy text. 3. This religion/philosophy is based on the teachings of one man. 4. This religion/philosophy does not believe in the existence of a God. 5. This religion/philosophy believes in reincarnation. 6. This religion/philosophy is based on tradition.

• Shintoists are expected to be reverent to nature, life, birth, and fertility.

7. This religion/philosophy focuses on the power roles within society. Buddhism

Hinduism

  follows teachings of one man  follows a holy book  believes in reincarnation  ultimate goal is moksha  ultimate goal is enlightenment  has many holy texts

  follows teachings of one man  follows a holy book  believes in reincarnation  ultimate goal is moksha  ultimate goal is enlightenment  has many holy texts

believes in many gods

8. This religion/philosophy has many holy sites.

• Shinto teaches that physical purity is more important than moral purity.

9. This religion/philosophy honors ancestors.

believes in many gods

• Many Shinto build shrines and worship their ancestors who they believe became kami when they died.

Think About It • Since Shinto offers no ideas of a moral code or one God, many people who practice Shinto also practice another religion such as Buddhism.

Philosophy of Confucianism

Islam Islam is usually known as the religion of the Middle East, but one of the largest Islamic nations in the world is Indonesia located in Southern and Eastern Asia. Like Buddhism, Islam is based on the teachings of one man named Muhammad. Muslims consider him to be the greatest prophet of their God, Allah. The basic ideas of Islam include:

Confucianism is not a religion but a philosophy that is often said to be the foundation of modern Chinese culture. Like Buddhism and Islam, the ideas of Confucianism come from one man, Confucius, who believed he knew how to bring peace to ancient China. Confucius created a moral structure for social life and politics that every person should follow. Like Shintoism, Confucianism is based on tradition and does not teach about one ruling God. The basic ideas of Confucianism include: • Each person has a place in society and they must accept their positions so that society can function well.

Circle the letter that best answers each question. 1. The God of Islam is called: a. Shiva

b. Allah

c. Muhammad

2. The philosophy of Confucianism is most practiced in: a. Japan b. Indonesia

c. China

3. Shintos builds shrines to worship gods called: b. spirits a. kami

c. ancestors

4. Buddhists’ holy book is called the: a. Tripitaka

b. Vedas

c. Quran

5. Hindus believe karma affects their: a. status in the caste system

b. reincarnation

6. This belief teaches that one is reborn after death. b. Confucianism a. kami

c. proper behavior c. reincarnation

©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 148

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©Carole Marsh/Gallopade International • 800-536-2GET • www.georgiaexperience.com • Page 150

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

A Mind is a Valuable Thing! Word Definition literacy rate: the Education is important not just because students should percentage of men and learn to read and write but because a country’s literacy rate women in a country who are able to affects its standard of living. Countries with high literacy rates read and write typically have high standards of living because they have educated citizens who help the economy grow. This can bring more wealth to a country’s economy and to individual workers. When an economy is healthy, it can provide more goods for a worker to buy, and when that worker makes a good wage, he can buy more things and increase his standard of living. The countries of Southern and Eastern Asia have varying literacy rates from as high as 99 percent in Japan to only 61 percent in India. Poverty is one factor that affects these countries’ literacy rate. For example, 25 percent of Indians are living in poverty with no education. That means that these poor families have a low standard of living because they have few skills and are unable to get good-paying jobs.

Government/Civics Understandings Chapter 28 SS7CG6 The student will compare and contrast various forms of government. For detailed information and activities for this standard, see pages 27-30.

Japan has the highest standard of living in Southern and Eastern Asia. Japan also has a low poverty rate, and males and females are equally literate.

SS7CG7 The student will demonstrate an understanding of national governments in Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Compare and contrast the federal republic of the Republic of India, the communist state of the People’s Republic of China, and the constitutional monarchy of Japan, distinguishing the form of leadership and the role of the citizen in terms of voting rights and personal freedoms.

Government Profiles Essential Skills Study the graph and answer the questions below. 1. Which nation has the highest literacy rate? 2. Which nation has the lowest literacy rate? 3. Which nation has the highest poverty rate? 4. Which nation probably has the lowest standard

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

The governments of Southern and Eastern Asia range from democracies to communist states to constitutional monarchies. Each government is uniquely different, yet they share similar qualities. The governments of India, China, and Japan are described below.

Literacy and Poverty Rates

The Republic of India China

India

of living? 5. How does the literacy rate of a country affect its poverty rate?

6. Can you think of one way these countries could improve their literacy rates?

Indonesia

South Korea Literacy Rate

The constitution of 1950 granted many rights and personal freedoms to Indian citizens including the right to vote for everyone over the age of 18, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom of religion. Indians are also given the right to conserve their language and culture and to establish schools to teach about their cultures.

The People’s Republic of China

READ: IMPORTANT INFORMATION

Another factor affecting Southern and Eastern Asia’s literacy rate is the low percentage of literate females. In every country in Southern and Eastern Asia except Japan, females are less literate than males. There is a common belief in many Asian countries that boys need education more than girls because a girl’s role is simply to work in the home.

Lok Sabha (House of the People), which is elected by Indian citizens and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States), which is elected by the Lok Sabha.

The communist state of the People’s Republic of China was established in 1949 by Mao Zedong. Zedong’s Chinese Communist Party (CCP) used force to overthrow the former Chinese government and although they were not elected to power, the CCP claimed to represent the people of China. Mao Zedong The highest government-appointed leader in China is the president whose position is mostly ceremonial. The head of government is the premier who leads the State Council, or Cabinet, which holds the executive power in China. Even though these leaders are officially chosen by the National Peoples Congress (China’s legislature), the CCP determines which politicians will be candidates and those elected by Congress are usually the ones recommended by the CCP.

Today, the communist constitution gives rights to Chinese citizens, including the right to vote for every person over the age of 18. These rights, however, are mostly meaningless because in communist China the actions of citizens are dictated by the government. For example, although Chinese have the right to vote, they are only allowed to vote for candidates of the CCP. When elected, these candidates have little actual power because high-ranking officials appointed by the government make the decisions.

Word Definition

In 1950, India established its own constitution independent of Great Britain and became a federal republic known as the Republic of India. India has a parliamentary system much like that of Great Britain.

China’s communist government has a history of violating the personal freedoms of Chinese citizens by denying them freedom of speech, freedom of worship, and even safety from physical harm and political persecution. These freedoms are considered the basic rights of every person. Recently, however, China has begun to realize this injustice and has made efforts to better protect its citizens’ personal freedoms.

ceremonial leader: a person who holds the title as the highest leader of a country but has no real political power

Poverty Rate

India has three branches of government: the executive, legislative, and judicial. The president of India is recognized as the chief of state, or ceremonial leader, but the leader with the most political power is the prime minister who is the head of government. The prime minister is the head of the Council of Ministers, or the Cabinet. The president appoints the prime minister, who is the leader of the majority party in Parliament, the legislative branch. Parliament is divided into two houses, the

Great Wall of China

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These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 26

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Think About It

Circle the letter that best answers the questions below.

Fill in the chart below to describe the governments of India, China, and Japan. India

b. federal republic

c. republic

2. India’s head of government is the: a. prime minister

Year government established

b. president

c. Cabinet

Form of government

3. Indians have the right to vote: a. never

b. over the age of 20

c. over the age of 18

4. China’s government is considered a: a. socialist state

b. republic state

c. communist state

5. Most leaders in China are appointed by the: a. Chinese Communist Party

b. Chinese people

c. president

China

Japan

c. both a and b

Constitutional Monarchy of Japan After WWII, war-torn Japan collaborated with Western powers to establish a constitutional monarchy with a new constitution. The government was careful to preserve the traditional empire of Japan while creating a modern system of democracy. Japan follows a parliamentary system of government. Under the 1947 constitution, the emperor of Japan was given the highest title of leadership in the country but is actually a ceremonial leader. The executive branch of government consists of a Cabinet headed by the prime minister who is the head of government. The prime minister is elected by the Diet, Japan’s legislature, and is the leader of the majority party of the House of Representatives, one of the two houses of the Diet. Japanese citizens elect members of the House of Representatives. The other house in the Diet is the House of Councillors.

Ceremonial leader Head of government

Photo by Connect China

Rights and freedoms of citizens

Economic Understandings READ: IMPORTANT INFORMATION SS7E8a and b are covered on pages 37-39. SS7E8a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.

Emperor Akiito

There are a variety of economic systems in Asia. Examples include: China calls its economy a “socialist market economy.” Basically, China is transitioning from a command economy completely controlled by the Chinese Communist government to a mixed market economy overseen by the Communist government. To improve its economic growth, China’s government mixed in components of a market economy during the last 25 years. Those Chinese factory reforms have led to excellent growth in China’s economy. China is gradually reducing government control and allowing more foreign investment. Economists predict that China may lead the world in economic strength in 20 years!

Age citizens can vote

6. The candidates Chinese citizens get to vote for: a. are chosen by the CCP b. have little power when elected

SS7E8b. Explain how most countries have a mixed economy located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.

North Korea has a command economy controlled by its Communist government. The government controls all the resources and decides what is to be produced. Farmers work on cooperatives where up to 300 families share the work. Unfortunately, the North Korean economy has serious problems, North Korean iron plant and the government is making some reforms and relaxing some of its controls. Massive food aid from other countries has been needed to avoid widespread starvation. Photo by Time, Inc

Japan has a mixed market economy—one of the strongest in the world! With few natural resources and little farmland, Japan has built its economy around manufacturing. It imports raw materials, uses them to manufacture goods like ships, cars, and electronics, and exports those goods around the world. The Japanese government owns few businesses other than the country’s major TV network, but does oversee many aspects of the economy like banking and trade.

Chapter 29

Japanese citizens have the right to vote after age 20. The constitution of 1947 established rights and personal freedoms for Japanese citizens including freedom of speech, freedom of religion, equal rights for women, and equal education. One of the most unusual provisions of the constitution is Article 9, which renounces war as a method of solving problems in Japan and prohibits Japan from having a military.

Tokyo business district Photo by Tokyocircle.ning

India has a mixed economy that is moving away from a command system. After independence in 1947, India’s government set up a command economy where it controlled industries and production. In 1991, India began to lift some government control and allow citizens a role in running some of India’s industries. Although these reforms have been good for India’s economy, millions of India’s people still live in extreme poverty.

SS7E8 The student will analyze different economic systems. c. Compare and contrast the economic systems in China, India, Japan, and North Korea. A mall in India Photo by Flickr.com

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Essential Skills Complete the chart below comparing the economic systems of China, North Korea, Japan, and India.

Country

Evaluation Sample

Economic Variety

Quick Quiz 1. The government of India is a: a. democratic republic

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

Economic System

Growing or Struggling

One Interesting Fact

China North Korea Japan

When specializing, countries must consider opportunity cost, which is the value of what is given up when a choice is made. For example, if Japan makes cars and pencils, and it makes more money from cars, it should specialize in making cars. Its opportunity cost is the money it could have made from pencils.

• Beginning in 2001, the U.S. imposed tariffs on steel imports from China, India, and several other nations to protect U.S. steel makers.

One example of specialization is trade between Australia and Japan. Japan has few natural resources so it has developed industries like auto manufacturing. Japan buys many of the raw materials it needs for its industries from Australia, a country rich in natural resources. Japan specializes in auto manufacturing, Australia specializes in exporting raw materials, and Australia imports lots of cars from Japan!

• After the Vietnam War, the United States imposed a trade embargo against Vietnam to pressure the Vietnamese government to provide information on Americans missing in action (MIA’s) during the war.

• In 2005, the U.S. imposed temporary quotas on certain types of cotton clothing from China in order to protect U.S. clothing manufacturers.

Essential Skills Read the statements below. Write T for tariff, Q for quota, or TE for trade embargo.

India

Quick Quiz

1. India may export only 4,000 cotton shirts per year to China.

Write T for True and F for False.

2. The United States refuses to trade with any countries that support terrorism.

Question for Discussion

1. Every country has exactly the resources it needs to make everything its citizens need and want.

Why do you think governments with command economies eventually begin to give up some of their control and let citizens run businesses?

2. Specialization leads to products that cost less. 3. Countries that specialize can make products more efficiently.

Chapter 30

4. Opportunity cost is how much a country can make from the products it specializes in making. 5. Countries have different natural, human, and capital resources.

SS7E9 The student will explain how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Southern and Eastern Asia. a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries. b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargoes.

Countries sometimes set up trade barriers to restrict trade. Why? The reason is that they want to produce their own goods and sell them in their own country. These trade barriers include tariffs, quotas, and trade embargoes.

5. Japan may import only 1,500 cameras from Britain.

Special Economics Info Answer the questions below. 1. Many Americans desire to buy Indian jewelry. If the U.S. restricts imports of Indian jewelry into the United States, will the price of Indian jewelry go up or down?

A tariff is a tax placed on imported goods. Tariffs cause the consumer to pay a higher price for an imported item, increasing the demand for a lower-priced item produced domestically. A quota is a restriction on the amount of a good that can be imported into a country. Quotas can cause shortages that cause prices to rise. Trade embargoes forbid trade with another country.

Specialization Helps Everyone

4. India does not allow any more software from the United States to enter the country in order to support its growing software industry.

Barriers to Trade

c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.

Countries trade goods because no country has all the resources necessary to efficiently produce everything its people need. Every country has different natural, human, and capital resources. Countries specialize in what they do best. Specialization is an efficient way to work, and the cost of items produced is much lower. Specialization encourages trade between countries because a country can get what it needs at the lowest cost when it is produced by another country that specializes in that item.

3. Importers selling bags of rice from China will be charged 20 percent when their product enters the United States.

Why?

2. If China imposes high tariffs on steel coming into its country from Russia, will Russian steel cost more or less than Chinese steel?

Why?

Examples of trade barriers include: • In the 1980s, quotas were set restricting how many Japanese automobiles could be imported into the United States to protect the U.S. automobile industry.

3. Embargoes are often imposed to pressure a country to do something. Why are embargoes effective?

• India imposes tariffs on agricultural products to protect its own agriculture industry.

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Other People’s Money Because every country does not use the same type of money, international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations. Money from one country must be converted into the currency of another country to pay for goods in that country. This system is called foreign exchange. The exchange rate is how much one currency is worth in terms of the other. For example, an exchange rate of 10 Mexican pesos to the dollar means that ten pesos are worth the same as one dollar. Most countries use coins and bills, just like the United States, but they come in all shapes, sizes, and names. Examples of currency in Asia include the Japanese yen, the Indonesian rupiah, the Indian rupee, and the Chinese yuan.

Chapter 31 SS7E10 The student will describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in India, China, and Japan. a. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP). b. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP). c. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.

Quick Review Match each productive resource with the correct example.

1. human capital

a. coal mine

2. capital

b. scientist, factory worker, accountant

3. natural resources

c. idea for a new car powered by solar energy

4. entrepreneurship

d. new robotic technology in a factory

What’s Up With India?

d. Describe the role of entrepreneurship. Japanese yen

Indonesian rupiah

Indian rupee

Chinese yuan

What Influences Economic Growth?

Math Experience Here’s a chance to calculate exchange rates. Below are several fictional examples of exchange rates. Study the exchange rates and then calculate the correct answers to the problems below.

1. 2 dollars =

Chinese yuan

Exchange Rate

2. 10 dollars =

Chinese yuan

One dollar = 7.00 Chinese yuan One dollar = 45.5 rupees

3. 5 dollars =

Indian rupees

4. 50 dollars =

Indian rupees

5. You want to buy a T-shirt in Beijing, China while you are attending the 2008 Summer Olympics. It costs 98 Chinese yuan. How much is that in American dollars? 6. If you planned a vacation to India, and wanted to exchange your money before you left, how many rupees could you

There are four factors that influence economic growth in every country. They are the productive resources used to produce goods and services. The four factors are human capital (people who perform labor), capital (factories, machinery, and technology), natural resources (raw materials that come from the land like minerals), and entrepreneurship (the ideas and risk involved in starting a business). Economists measure a country’s economic performance by a standard called Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The GDP is the total market value of the goods and services produced by a country’s economy during a specific year. A country’s GDP is used to determine the health of a company’s economy and compare it to other economies. Since Japan and China have the strongest economies in Southern and Eastern Asia, those two countries have the highest GDPs.

Investments Pay Off

get for $500? 7. Your Chinese friend Liang is visiting you in the United States. He wants to buy a video game that costs $50. He has 320 yuan. After he exchanges his currency, does he have enough money to buy the video game? 8. Which is worth more: One American dollar or one yuan?

Explain your answer.

How a country manages its productive resources makes a big difference in the strength of its economy. Clearly, investment in human capital delivers immense rewards. Studies prove that investment in education and skills training for workers leads to a higher GDP. Education helps develop a smarter, more innovative, and more productive workforce, which leads to greater economic growth. Economists also see a clear relationship between investment in capital like factories, machinery, roads, and technology (computers and software) and GDP. Examples include a company building a new factory or the government building a new highway. Investment in capital equipment helps economic growth by providing workers with the best and newest tools. This makes them more productive, and increases a country’s exports and GDP.

In India, education and investment in human capital is a major priority of the government. The number of schools, Word Definition especially at the high school level and university level, has information technology: grown dramatically in the last 20 years. Although India’s overall the use of computers and literacy rate is about 60 percent, the rate among children 10 to 14 computer software to handle years of age is close to 95 percent. This means that India’s information investment in human capital will benefit the economy greatly in the future as educated children enter the workforce. One important aspect of Indian education is that English is taught in all schools. Careers in business, government, or science require fluency in English. In addition, many Indians are skilled in the important field of information technology. Due to the English and computer skills of many citizens, India has become a major source of workers for a practice known as outsourcing. This practice involves American companies hiring Indian workers to perform functions that used to be done in America (like telephone customer service and technology help desks) because Indian workers can be paid lower wages than Americans. While India has invested greatly in human capital, the government has neglected capital investment in the country’s infrastructure. Frequent power outages and terrible roads are just a few problems restricting India’s growth. In many small towns, power is only available a few hours a day so that large cities can have power 24 hours a day. Today, the Indian government is undertaking a massive effort to improve India’s roads, airports, railways, and power plants.

Computer call center in India Photo by Tribune India

Crowded street in Delhi

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Photo by farm4.static.flickr.com

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 27

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

Evaluation Sample

Let’s Check on China Essential Skills

Special Economics Info

Write Yes or No next to the statements below.

Determined to modernize its economy, China has made significant investments in human capital by improving its educational system. The number of students enrolled in college has grown tremendously over the last decade and many of them are pursuing engineering degrees. This trend is good news for China because studies show that scientists and engineers play an important role in a growing, innovative economy. China is also investing in technical schools to train workers in necessary job skills.

1. Education and human capital investment is important to India’s government. 2. The literacy rate among India’s children is very low. 3. The English language is not taught in Indian schools. 4. India needs to invest more money in its infrastructure.

Study this chart listing GDP per capita (per person), and growth rates for China, India, and Japan. Answer the questions below.

Physics class at the National University of Singapore

China has also made important capital investments that serve as the foundation for its growing GDP. China has poured money into manufacturing, which accounts for almost half of its GDP. The country has also built a strong infrastructure of dependable water services, electricity, and transportation.

5. American companies save money by outsourcing and hiring Indian workers.

Background Check India is a country of great contrast. While most of its people are poor and live in rural areas, a modern information technology industry is thriving in many cities. Look at the graph about India’s software industry growth and answer the questions below.

16 Percentage of Total Export

14

12 10

8 6 4 2

Japan has also made massive capital investments. Japan has a history of investing in new technology and providing its workers with the latest equipment. Japan’s government has also encouraged high rates of savings by individuals and corporations by offering tax breaks. These savings have been used for capital investments like new factories and machinery to fuel economic growth. Japan also has a modern, reliable infrastructure to support its economy.

Quick Review Read the statements below. Place a check mark in the correct box under each country. If the statement fits both countries, check both boxes. Japan China

0 1995-96

1996-97

1997-98 1998-99 Years

1999-00

2000-01 Source: NASSCOM

1. In what time period did India’s software industry grow the most? 2. In what time period did it grow the least? 3. If the trend of growth continued at about 2.5 percent each year, what would the software export percentage of total growth be this year?

1. College enrollment has soared over past decade. 2. Students take high school and college entrance exams. 3. Many college students major in engineering. 4. Manufacturing accounts for almost half of GDP. 5. Strong, reliable infrastructure. 6. Strong investment in human capital. 7. Government encourages savings by people and companies. 8. Strong capital investment. 9. History of investing in latest technology.

China

India

Japan

GDP (per capita)

$5,400

$2,600

$33,500

Real Growth Rate

11.9%

9%

2%

1. Which country has the highest GDP per capita? 2. Which country has the lowest GDP per capita? 3. From what you have learned about these countries, which country’s GDP probably suffers because of a lack of capital investment? 4. Which country has the highest growth rate?

Japan’s Economic Journey At the end of WWII, Japan’s land and its economy were in ruins. Since then, Japan’s economy has grown to become one of the strongest in the world! One of the major reasons is Japan’s investment in human capital. Japan places a high emphasis on education. Students take entrance exams to get into high schools and universities, and the competition is fierce. Japan’s highly educated and productive labor force is a major reason for the country’s economic success.

Software Export as a Percentage of Indiaʼs Total Export

Economic Indicator

        

        

5. Can you make any predictions about the economic growth of China and India based on the information on this chart and what you have learned about them?

Natural Resources Rule! Natural resources have a very important role in any country’s economy. They are the fuel for industry and a source of income when exported to other countries. The massive country of China has many natural resources including coal, iron ore, petroleum, and natural gas. Although most of China’s land cannot be farmed, the country’s abundant land and rivers provide a solid foundation for China’s industry and economic growth. India’s fertile land and ample water supply are its most valuable resources. About half of India’s land can be farmed, and its most important crops are rice and wheat. India also has large coal reserves and abundant forests. These natural resources provide India’s economy with a solid foundation for growth. In contrast, Japan has little farmland and few natural resources. Japan imports the raw materials it needs for industry and produces quality products for export through its strong manufacturing industries. Japan has used its educated workforce and capital investment to overcome its lack of natural resources.

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Quick Quiz

Historical Understandings

Quick Review

Answer the questions below.

Circle the best answer to the questions below.

1. List six of China’s natural resources.

1. Entrepreneurship in India is: a. increasing

b. decreasing

2. List four of India’s natural resources.

2. Entrepreneurs in China have: a. little success

b. government funding

c. many problems

3. How does Japan keep its manufacturing industries going when it has few natural resources?

3. Entrepreneurship in Japan is: a. low

b. readily funded by banks

c. both a and b

4. Entrepreneurs are important because they: a. have new ideas b. help companies adapt to change

c. staying the same

Chapter 32 SS7H3 The student will analyze continuity and change in Southern and Eastern Asia leading to the 21st century.

c. both a and b

a. Describe how nationalism led to independence in India and Vietnam.

Write About It

Keep Those Ideas Coming! Entrepreneurs have a vital role to play in economic growth. They are the people with ideas for new products and services, and they use human, capital, and natural resources to bring their ideas to the marketplace. Entrepreneurs must be willing to take risks, and often share those risks with others by borrowing money from a bank or a wealthy investor to get their ideas started. Entrepreneurs are valuable because they introduce innovation and help economies adapt to the changing conditions in our world today! The rapid pace of growth and the huge population in Asian countries offer excellent opportunities for entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is rising dramatically in India and China. India has a particularly high rate of entrepreneurship, partly because India’s government supports new business owners with training and facilities, especially in rural areas. In China, private business is the fastest growing segment of the economy. China’s government helps fund small business development and welcomes investment from foreign countries.

Pretend you are a 25-year-old Japanese man who wants to start a business repairing computers. Your father wants you to work for a company that will guarantee you a job for the rest of your life. Write a conversation between the two of you, where you explain why you want to start the business and why you feel you can succeed.

b. Describe the impact of Mohandas Gandhi’s belief in nonviolent protest.

Independence for India In the 1660s, Britain became trading partners with India through the East India Trading Company, but by 1760 Britain had gained political and economic power over all of India. Indians under British rule began to resent being ruled by a foreign country. They distrusted the government and cultural practices of the British and desired to become an independent nation. A nationalist movement began in India to fight for the country’s independence. Indians worked together to protect their culture from the imposing rule of the British. Supporters of the nationalist movement like Mohandas Gandhi resisted the rule of the British government and led Indian citizens to fight for India’s full independence. Britain gradually offered India small forms of independence such as a National Congress ruled by Indian leaders and the 1935 Government of India Act that gave Indian towns more control over their own affairs.

A young Chinese entrepreneur Photo by Rob Holmes

Mohandas Gandhi

After fighting in WWII, however, Britain no longer had enough money or people to keep India under its rule. On August 15, 1947, Britain offered India full independence as its own nation and the Republic of India was established.

In contrast, Japan has one of the lowest rates of entrepreneurship among the world’s leading economic powers. Japanese entrepreneurs face difficulties in getting loans from banks and there is little training available on how to run a business. In addition, Japanese companies typically guarantee lifetime employment to their employees. The Japanese like this job security. They also take great pride in their position in a company and often view entrepreneurship as a risky job choice.

Background Check Muslims and Hindus did not get along in India under the British rule. When Britain decided to grant independence, they wanted to leave India as a peaceful country. Hindus and Muslims could not reach a solution as to how to rule an independent India, so the country was split into India for the Hindus and Pakistan for the Muslims.

Japanese auto factory Photo by Canada.com

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Essential Skills

Quick Review

Write NV if the statements below were made by a supporter of nonviolent protests for independence or V if they were made by supporters of violent protests for independence.

Write T for True and F for False.

1. India and Britain began their relationship as trading partners. 2. India trusted British government and welcomed its cultural practices. 3. Mohandas Gandhi followed the rule of the British. 4. The costs of British participation in WWII helped India gain its independence. 5. The Republic of India was formed in 1947.

A Peaceful Fight

Word Definition

Mohandas Gandhi was born in India in 1869 and studied law in England. When he left school to become a lawyer in South Africa, Gandhi was shocked by the way Indians were segregated and oppressed by British authorities. He decided to stop practicing law and returned to India to devote his life to fighting for the equality of all Indians.

boycott: refusing to buy products from a company or country in order to protest their ideals or practices segregated: when people are forced to be separated from others in society because of their race

During that time, many Indians were anxious to gain their independence from Britain. Gandhi encouraged his followers to practice nonviolent protests against the British in order to bring about social change. Gandhi believed that acts of goodness produced positive reactions while violence only produced negative responses. He led his followers in boycotts, hunger strikes, and one of his most famous nonviolent protests, a 240-mile walk to the ocean to oppose the British salt tax. Gandhi leading a protest Photo by World Press.com

Many Indians followed Gandhi’s nonviolent acts of protest and forced the British to recognize their desire for independence. Today, many Indians credit India’s 1947 independence to the efforts of Gandhi, who they lovingly call Mahatma, which means “great soul.”

Think About It Nonviolent acts have consequences too. Even though Gandhi was never violent, he was sent to jail four times for opposing British laws! What do you think are the advantages of a nonviolent protest as compared to a violent protest?

1.

“The only way to gain our independence is by using our army to fight against the British.”

2.

“Let’s boycott all products that are sold by the British in order to protest against their unjust rule.”

3.

“We will refuse to pay a British tax on salt, even if that means being thrown into jail.”

4.

“Britain will respect India only when we use force to show them our true power as a country.”

5.

“Acts of kindness and humility will always produce positive reactions.”

In 1964, the United States went to war with North Vietnam to protect the anti-communist South Vietnam and prevent the spread of communism. For almost a decade, Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Cong fought against American forces until U.S. troops began to pull out in 1969, the same year Ho Chi Minh died. North Vietnam continued his legacy and invaded South Vietnam to create one united country under communist rule. In 1975, Ho Chi Minh’s dream of an independent Vietnam finally became a reality. Although Vietnam has suffered political and financial turmoil since 1975, the country has improved its situation and has experienced strong economic growth in the last few years.

Question for Discussion

The Fight for Independence in Vietnam

Nationalism is best described as loyalty and devotion to one’s country. Do you think members of the Viet Minh and Viet Cong could be considered nationalists like Ho Chi Minh?

Vietnam has fought for its independence for centuries. Vietnam was ruled by the Chinese for a thousand years until it won independence in 939 CE after years of fighting. The country spent many years thriving as one of the most advanced cultures in Southern and Eastern Asia until the late 1800s when France laid claim to Vietnam.

Quick Quiz Fill in the blanks below with the best answer.

1. In the late 1800s,

The end of WWII was the beginning of Vietnam’s second fight for independence. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh, a Vietnamese Communist Party leader, declared Vietnam’s independence from France. Although it would take many years for Ho Chi Minh’s dream of independence to become a reality, Minh was a nationalist who loved his country and committed his life to fighting for its independence.

laid claim to Vietnam.

2.

declared Vietnam’s independence on September 2, 1945.

3. The

army was created to fight against the French.

4. Southern Vietnam was controlled by Ho Chi Minh

Minh created the Viet Minh, a guerrilla army, to fight against the French. For eight years, the Viet Minh attacked French troops without success until 1954 when they defeated a French military camp at Dien Bien Phu. This Viet Minh victory finally persuaded the French to negotiate Vietnam’s independence, and by 1955, France removed their troops from Vietnam and left the country split into northern and southern regions.

, an anti-communist emperor.

5. Vietnam achieved its independence as a united country in

.

Essential Skills This timeline is mixed up. Number these events in the correct order.

Uniting Vietnam as an Independent Nation North Vietnam was led by Ho Chi Minh who desired to create a united communist country, while South Vietnam was controlled by Boa Dai, an anti-communist emperor. Although he had control over the North, Ho Chi Minh was not satisfied and continued fighting for Vietnam’s unification by creating the Viet Cong to fight against anti-communist forces in South Vietnam.

Vietnam gets its independence as a united country.

Ho Chi Minh creates the Viet Minh, a guerrilla army, to fight the French.

Vietnam is controlled by China for 1000 years.

Vietnam is split into North Vietnam and South Vietnam.

The Viet Cong is created to fight anticommunist forces in South Vietnam.

Vietnam War

Photo by U.S. Archive ARCWEB

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 28

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Chapter 33

to improve their living conditions. Mao’s Communist Party won the support of many of China’s people and revolted against the nationalist government in China. On October 1, 1949, Mao declared China the People’s Republic of China, a communist state.

Think About It

SS7H3c. Explain the role of the United States in the rebuilding of Japan after WWII.

1. How did the United States react to the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor?

Rebuilding Japan

Mao was appointed leader of the Chinese Communist Party and head of China’s government. Since communism dictates that all decisions for the country are made through a centralized government, Mao had almost complete control over China. Mao became popular among Chinese people as he took land from wealthy citizens and gave it to peasants and created equality among people. While the new reign of communism began successfully, the Chinese people soon became victims of the communist government’s bad planning.

2. Why did the United States occupy Japan from 1945-1952?

After Japanese fighter planes bombed the American military Word Definition base in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii in 1941, the United States declared Allied forces: a group of war on Japan and entered World War II. After years of fighting three nations (Great and tremendous loss of life, the United States dropped two Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union) who opposed atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Germany, Italy, and Japan in WWII in 1945. Japan is the only nation in the world that has been attacked by nuclear weapons. After the bombing, Japan’s economy and government were devastated. In an effort to restore Japan to a thriving country, the United States occupied the territory from 1945-1952. General Douglas MacArthur was sent as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces (SCAP) to oversee the rebuilding of Japan. Japan’s military was disbanded and weapons factories were closed. Government and military leaders involved with bombings were brought to trial and punished. General MacArthur helped Japan establish a constitutional monarchy and write a constitution that is considered American soldiers rebuilding a Japanese runway after World War II one of the most democratic documents in the world. The constitution granted the Japanese citizens many of the same rights granted to Americans. America’s efforts to rebuild Japan after WWII have had a lasting effect. Japan now has one of the strongest economies in the world and a stable democratic government. Today, the United States and Japan have the United States-Japanese Mutual Security Pact that prohibits the use of nuclear weapons and military attacks against the Japanese without the knowledge of the Japanese government.

Look-It-Up! Tokyo skyline with Mount Fuji

What was the date in 1941 when Japan attacked the military base at Pearl Harbor?

Photo by Bloomberg.com

Evaluation Sample

Mao Zedong Photo from NSCMP

3. What were three steps General MacArthur took to help rebuild Japan?

The Great Leap Forward The Great Leap Forward was a program implemented in 1958 to speed China’s economic development. The program sought to make farming more productive by creating a collective farm where large communes of about 25,000 Chinese would grow crops, run industries, educate the children, and have healthcare. The people in the communes did not own the land they worked on and the Communist Party controlled their economy, their work schedule, and even their social lives.

4. What type of government was established in Japan after WWII?

5. What is the United States-Japanese Mutual Security Pact?

The Great Leap Forward was a huge disaster and failed within one year. Droughts and floods damaged China’s food supply that year and the communes failed to provide enough quality industry and food to feed the country. As a result, about 20 million people died from 1958 to 1960 during one of the largest famines in history. The failures of the Great Leap Forward made many Chinese lose confidence in Mao’s ability to provide for the Chinese people.

Chapter 34

Quick Review

SS7H3d. Describe the impact of Communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and Tiananmen Square.

Write the letter for the correct answer on the blank beside the question. 1. Peasants supported Mao Zedong’s Communist Party because he promised them: a. freedom b. a better quality of life c. more rights

e. Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of Communism.

2. Being the leader of the Chinese over China. a. Nationalist Party

The Rise of Communism in China In 1911, a new government called the Chinese Nationalist Party had taken over China and was failing to provide for the Chinese workers and peasants who were living in poverty. Peasants became increasingly interested in the newly created Communist Party headed by Mao Zedong which promised

gave Mao almost complete control b. Communist Party

c. Republicans

3. The Great Leap Forward was created to grow the: a. economy b. government

c. population

4. One of the biggest consequences of the Great Leap Forward was a large: a. flood b. killing

c. famine

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The Cultural Revolution

Democracy eventually proved to be a more successful form of government than communism, and the United States became the world’s superpower when the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991. Although there are still a few communist countries in the world, the United States successfully contained the spread of communism by helping other countries protect their democracy and individual freedoms.

Essential Skills Number the events below in the order in which they occurred.

For the first time since the creation of the Communist Party, Chinese began calling for government reforms to prevent another disaster like the Great Leap Forward. Mao did not like opposition to his government and feared they might make China a capitalist country. So, in 1966, Mao began the Cultural Revolution to stop all opposition to the Communist Party.

PAST The Great Debate

China begins supporting more human rights

Do you think it is right for one country to impose its form of government, whether communism or democracy, on another country without that county’s permission? Defend your answer.

Women withPhotoChairman Mao’s Red Book from mexicanpicture.com

Mao establishes the People’s Republic of China Mao shut down schools and recruited students into his Red Guards which attacked and punished any person who opposed communism. These attacks created mass chaos in China. Factories closed and China’s economy became weak. The government denied healthcare and transportation to the Chinese people. The Cultural Revolution only created more distrust of China’s communist government in the minds of many Chinese.

Shooting at Tiananmen Square

Quick Quiz Answer the questions below.

The Great Leap Forward is a disaster China has chaos during the Cultural Revolution

1. What are two reasons the United States wanted to stop the spread of communism?

Tiananmen Square Mao Zedong’s death in 1976 brought an end to the oppressive rule of the Cultural Revolution and Deng Xiaoping became leader. Deng made many reforms to Mao’s rules, but the government still stuck to its communist values and would not give up its full control over the people. The Chinese people were not given basic human rights like freedom of speech or the right to a fair trial. The events at Tiananmen Square in 1989 will be remembered as one of China’s most cruel actions against human rights. Protestors had filled Tiananmen Square for seven weeks, practicing their right of free speech by peacefully speaking against communism and calling for democracy. These protestors inspired others and protests began to occur all across China. After the Chinese government warned the Tiananmen Square protestor facing down tanks protestors to stop, they sent tanks into the square and opened fire, killing hundreds of innocent people. Countries around the world condemned this violence against human rights. The worldwide disapproval of the Tiananmen Square incident persuaded the Chinese government to begin supporting and improving the human rights of its citizens.

FUTURE 2. What was the main reason the United States got involved in the Korean and Vietnam Wars?

Democracy vs. Communism At the end of WWII, the Soviet Union and the United States both found themselves in a competition to prove which country would become the dominating world power. It was a fight between the communism of the Soviet Union and the democracy of the United States. As each country set out to help rebuild war-torn Europe and Asia, they began to spread their form of government to other countries.

3. Why did America defend South Vietnam and South Korea against the northern parts of each country?

4. Name the types of government each country has today.

Photo from carsonspost.files.wordpress.com

The United States spread democracy and fought against communism not only to prove itself as a world power, but also to protect the equal rights of citizens around the world. When the Soviet Union began to take over Eastern European and Asian countries by force, the United States offered aid to the countries so they could resist communism and protect their individual rights.

South Korea North Korea Vietnam 5. Which government, the United States’ democracy or the Soviet Union’s communism, was ultimately more

Think About It Two countries threatened by the spread of communism were Vietnam and Korea. Both countries were divided into a northern section controlled by communism and a southern section controlled by democracy. The communists in the north of both Vietnam and Korea invaded the democratic southern regions. In order to protect democracy and the rights of the citizens, the United States intervened in both countries to fight against communism, which led to the Korean War (1950-1953) and the Vietnam War (1965-1973). Although Vietnam became a communist nation, South Korea now has a republican government similar to that of the United States.

Write T if the statement is True and F if it is False. 1. The Cultural Revolution was successful. 2. The Cultural Revolution made more Chinese distrust the communist government. 3. Deng Xiaoping gave freedom to Chinese citizens. 4. Tiananmen Square was helpful for encouraging better human rights in China.

successful? 6. What is a democracy? Describe it in your own words. _

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Southern and Eastern Asia Review Word Search

Southern and Eastern Asia Review Crossword Puzzle

Reading Activity Read the descriptions of the Korean War and the Vietnam War and follow the directions below. War in Korea

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After World War II, Korea was divided along the 38th parallel of latitude. Communists controlled North Korea, and the United States backed South Korea. In 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea. The U.S. was willing to go to war to keep Communism from spreading to this area. President Truman sent troops to the region and asked the United Nations for assistance. The UN force, commanded by American General Douglas MacArthur, forced Korean soldiers out of South Korea and farther north to the Chinese border. The Communist Chinese attacked, Air power during the Korean War forcing the UN soldiers to retreat. In 1953, the Korean War ended in a stalemate (a tie with no winner). The Korean peninsula remained divided into two separate countries.

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Photo by diggerhistory.info

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War in Vietnam Vietnam was divided into two parts in 1954. Communists controlled North Vietnam and the United States supported South Vietnam. The United States provided military support to keep South Vietnam from falling to the Communists. In 1965, the United States became actively involved in the Vietnam War when it began bombing North Vietnam. About 500,000 U.S. troops fought in Vietnam. Many Americans protested U.S. involvement in Vietnam, and in 1973, U.S. military troops were withdrawn. The conflict ended in a cease-fire agreement. Two years later, North Vietnam took over South Vietnam for good and the country was reunited as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.

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Vietnam soldiers Photo by vva528.org

1. Find North Korea and Vietnam on a map of the world. Both countries have the same northern neighbor.

3. How did the war in Korea end? a. U.S. victory

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c. Communist victory

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c. cease-fire

5. The United States got involved in Southeast Asia because of something called the “Domino Theory.” Use the Internet or an encyclopedia to look up that term. Write the definition here.

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Word Bank Ganges Taklimakan Himalayas India China

Japan Indian Ocean Vietnam Hindu Islam

Confucianism Buddha Shinto monsoon floods

cities Tokyo Delhi Beijing karma

Indonesia communism Gandhi North Korea

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3 Personal freedoms are often denied in this system of government 5 This peninsula is divided into two countries (2 words) 9 The name of Japan’s legislature 10 This river is sacred to the Hindu religion 12 Most of India’s people live in these 13 The United States fought in this war from 1965 to 1973 (2 words) 14 Body of water between Asia and Japan (3 words)

1 The highest mountain in the world is here 2 One of the largest Islamic nations in the world 4 This person is the head of government in a parliamentary system (2 words) 6 River that runs through India and Pakistan 7 This environmental problem is choking many Asian cities (2 words) 8 Few people live in this barren region of China (2 words) 11 Longest river in China that provides hydroelectric power

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

~ This book is not reproducible. ~

These pages are provided for evaluation purposes only. No reproduction or classroom use of any materials is allowed. Page 29

7 STUDENT WORKBOOK Southern and Eastern Asia

Southern and Eastern Asia

Section III Review

Section III Review

1. What is the most important river in India?  A. Yellow River  B. Mekong River  C. Ganges River  D. Amazon River

6. Why is the Ganges River polluted?  A. Untreated sewage pours into it  B. Animal carcasses are thrown in it  C. Trash is thrown in it  D. All of the above

2. The Huang He River is named for:  A. the yellow silt it carries  B. the town it runs through  C. an ancient civilization  D. a fish that lives in it

7. A major environmental problem in China and India is:  A. destruction of rainforest  B. drought  C. air pollution  D. nuclear waste

3. What river runs through China, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam?  A. Yellow River  B. Mekong River  C. Ganges River  D. Amazon River 4. What is Asia’s largest desert?  A. Taklimakan Desert  B. Gobi Desert  C. Sahara Desert  D. Kalihari Desert

9. About 90 percent of China’s population lives in this part of the country:  A. northern  B. desert  C. mountains  D. eastern

5. What is the world’s highest mountain region?  A. Rocky Mountains  B. Himalayan Mountains  C. Andes Mountains  D. Ural Mountains

What do you know about Asia?

8. This seasonal wind can bring heavy rainfall that leads to flooding:  A. mestizo  B. monsoon  C. hurricane  D. typhoon

10. The most crowded urban area in the world is:  A. Tokyo, Japan  B. Beijing, China  C. Los Angeles, California, USA  D. Delhi, India

PLEASE NOTE THE FOLLOWING: • The actual size is 8.5” x 11” • The complete book is 192 pages

11. Many people in Southeast Asia are farmers living near:  A. rivers  B. forests  C. deserts  D. volcanoes

16. This religion is based on the teachings of Muhammad:  A. Buddhism  B. Hinduism  C. Islam  D. Confucianism

12. These are very congested in cities in India and China:  A. malls  B. restaurants  C. roads  D. schools

17. This philosophy is the foundation of modern Chinese culture:  A. Shintoism  B. Hinduism  C. Islam  D. Confucianism

13. This religion originated in India and follows the teachings of one man:  A. Buddhism  B. Hinduism  C. Islam  D. Shintoism

18. What type of government does India have?  A. republic  B. dictatorship  C. communist  D. constitutional monarchy 19. What type of government does China have?  A. republic  B. parliamentary democracy  C. communist  D. constitutional monarchy

14. This religion is unique to Japan:  A. Buddhism  B. Hinduism  C. Islam  D. Shintoism 15. About 80 percent of India’s people follow this religion:  A. Buddhism  B. Hinduism  C. Islam  D. Shintoism

I know I like sushi!

20. What type of government does Japan have?  A. oligarchy  B. constitutional monarchy  C. communist  D. autocracy Have you put on some pounds lately?

Evaluation Sample

Southern and Eastern Asia

Section III Review 21. Which country has a command economy?  A. North Korea  B. Japan  C. Indonesia  D. United States

26. Converting currency from one country into that of another country is called:  A. cost averaging  B. foreign exchange  C. trade embargo  D. interest rating

22. Which country’s economic reforms have led to excellent growth?  A. North Korea  B. Indonesia  C. Pakistan  D. China

27. GDP stands for:  A. General Deliverable Product  B. Gross Domestic Product  C. Gross Deliverable Product  D. Goods Domestically Produced

23. Which country has few natural resources but a strong economy?  A. North Korea  B. Japan  C. Indonesia  D. China

28. Schools in India teach this language to students:  A. English  B. French  C. Chinese  D. Arabic

24. This practice encourages trade between countries:  A. opportunity cost  B. specialization  C. quotas  D. tariffs

29. This factor influences economic growth by creating new businesses:  A. investment in infrastructure  B. entrepreneurship  C. investment in harvesting natural resources  D. foreign exchange

25. The U.S. added a tax onto steel imports. This is an example of a:  A. tariff  B. quota  C. trade barrier  D. both a and c

30. Half of this country’s land is arable, which is a tremendous natural resource:  A. China  B. Indonesia  C. Japan  D. India

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~ This book is not reproducible. ~

Southern and Eastern Asia

Section III Review 31. India broke free from this country’s rule in 1947:  A. Great Britain  B. France  C. Spain  D. Portugal 32. Who urged nonviolent protests to gain India’s independence?  A. Ho Chi Minh  B. Mao Zedong  C. Mohandas Gandhi  D. Nelson Mandela 33. Who created a guerrilla army to fight the French for Vietnam’s independence?  A. Ho Chi Minh  B. Mao Zedong  C. Mohandas Gandhi  D. Nelson Mandela 34. Who established the communist People’s Republic of China in 1949?  A. Ho Chi Minh  B. Mao Zedong  C. Mohandas Gandhi  D. Nelson Mandela 35. The U.S. helped rebuild this country and its economy after WWII:  A. China  B. Vietnam  C. India  D. Japan

36. This program was designed to make farming more productive in China by creating collective farms:  A. Great Leap Forward  B. Chinese Revolution  C. Cultural Revolution  D. Green Revolution

Section 4

Glossary agriculture: the growing of crops and rearing of animals authenticity: a term generally used to show that something is original and honest, that it is what it appears to be biological weapon: use of any bacteria, virus, or other disease-causing organism as a weapon of war chronic hunger: hunger that occurs over a long period of time civil war: a war between opposing groups of citizens in the same country

37. This program was designed to stop opposition to the Chinese Communist Party:  A. Great Leap Forward  B. Chinese Revolution  C. Cultural Revolution  D. Green Revolution

civilian: a person who is not on active duty with a military service or the police force corrupt: lacking integrity; dishonest; immoral discrimination: unfair treatment of a person or group diversified economy: an economy based on a variety of things, like manufacturing, agriculture, and trade, instead of just one of those things

38. The U.S. intervened in Korea and Vietnam to stop the spread of:  A. communism  B. dictatorships  C. genocide  D. human rights violations

erosion: wearing away of land or soil by the action of wind, water, or ice human rights organization: group dedicated to protecting basic rights of people humanitarian: involved in improving people’s lives and reducing suffering

39. Today, this country has a communist North and republican South:  A. Vietnam  B. Korea  C. Japan  D. both a and b 40. Chinese protestors were killed here in 1989:  A. Beijing  B. Gobi Desert  C. Shanghai Square  D. Tiananmen Square This is the end of Southern and Eastern Asia Section III Review

hydroelectricity: electricity generated by falling water industrialized: a society or country that has developed growing industries infertile soil: poor soil or land in which crops won’t grow well infrastructure: services and facilities people need including roads, highways, water, sewerage, power plants, etc.

Appendix

irrigation: providing water to crops through pipes, ditches, or streams manufacturing byproducts: things produced (often toxic or dangerous) as a result of a manufacturing process negotiate: to discuss an issue in order to come to an agreement

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Glossary nomad: someone who does not lead a settled life but moves from place to place, usually seeking pasture for herds of grazing animals nuclear weapon: a weapon of mass destruction whose explosive power comes from a nuclear reaction oasis: a green spot or fertile area in a desert fed by underground water petroleum: a dark oil consisting mainly of hydrocarbons that is processed into lubricants (grease and oil) and liquid fuels such as kerosene, heating oil and gasoline political: having to do with politics, that is, with the government, control, and/or leadership of human societies political prisoner: someone who is imprisoned simply because of their political views pollution: contamination of the water, soil, or air by chemicals or waste materials private enterprise: people running their own businesses with no participation by government prosperous: characterized by success; comfortable financially refugee: a person who flees his or her country to escape violence, war or persecution rural: characteristic of farming or country life slum: a district of a city marked by poverty and bad living conditions sabotage: a deliberate act of destruction or disruption in which equipment is damaged surplus: excess; more than is needed telecommunications: the exchange of information over a distance via any cable, wire, radio, optical, or other electromagnetic system treason: the crime of betraying one’s government urban: related to a city or city life

Index A al-Bashir, Omar 32 anti-Semitism 110, 112-113, 124 apartheid 28, 39-40, 42, 55, 59-60, 63, 68, 124 Arabian Sea 70-73, 80, 126 Arabs 23, 25, 33, 85-88, 91, 108, 110, 112, 121-122 artifacts 61, 144-145 Atlas Mountains 8-12 autocratic system 28 B Bantu 23-25, 59-60, 63, 66 Bantu Authorities Act 59 Bay of Bengal 126-127, 129-130 Bible 87, 147 bin Laden, Osama 115, 120, 124 Afghanistan 70, 74-76, 79-80, 82-83, 85-86, 89, 98, 100, 114-116, 119, 124 Botswana 9, 16, 35, 47-49, 67 Buddhism 122, 146-150, 182 C China 48, 85, 103, 126-146, 149-167, 171, 173-176, 179-184 Christian 23-25, 32, 34-35, 66, 86, 88, 147 Christianity 23, 85-88, 119, 122 civil war 32, 34-36, 55-57, 59, 68 climate 17, 20-21, 79, 81, 97, 139-140 command system 38, 156 communism 171, 173-179, 184 Communist Party 153-154, 170, 173-175, 184 confederation 27-28, 66 Confucianism 146, 149-150, 179, 182 Congo River 8, 10-12, 16 credit 51-53, 55, 105, 169 Cultural Revolution 173, 175-176, 184 currency 43-44, 52, 100-101, 123, 160, 183 D Darfur 32, 34 de Klerk, F.W. 60, 62, 68 deforestation 16-17, 19, 63, 66, 137 democracy 28-29, 31-32, 60, 63, 67-68, 90-91, 93, 122, 154, 175-177, 182 Democratic Republic of the Congo 8, 13-15, 17, 47, 57

democratic system 28 desert 8-12, 16, 19-22, 65-66, 79, 81-82, 108, 114, 119, 126-127-130, 139-140, 142, 144, 181, 184 desertification 16, 19-20, 63, 66 diamonds 41, 42, 44, 46-48, 57, 63, 94, 97 E Egypt 8, 13-15, 21, 23, 26, 67, 71, 98, 108, 141 embargo 42-43, 68, 98, 115, 123 entrepreneurs 50, 105-106, 123, 166, 167 ethnic group 23-25, 66, 85-86, 92, 107, 121, 146-147 Euphrates River 70, 72-73 F famine 33, 36, 63, 67, 174 federal system 28 Fertile Crescent 81 floods 126, 137, 174, 179 France 27-28, 68, 107-109, 112, 124, 141, 170, 184 G Mohandas Gandhi 168-169, 184 Ganges River 126-127, 129-130, 134-135, 138, 181 Gaza Strip 70-73, 88-90, 108-109, 121 GDP 101-104, 106-161, 164-165, 183 gender 33-34, 50 Gobi Desert 126-127, 129-130, 142, 144, 181, 184 Great Britain 68, 152, 172, 184 Great Leap Forward 173-176, 184 H Himalayan Mountains 126-127, 130, 181 Hinduism 122, 146, 148-150, 182 Hitler, Adolf 28, 110, 124 Holocaust 110, 111, 113-114, 119, 124 Huang He 126, 129-130, 137, 181 human capital 44-45, 101-104, 106, 123, 161-164 Hutu 57 hydroelectric 18, 78, 127-128, 180 I income 17, 40, 45, 48, 51, 55, 89, 95, 165

Index independence 35, 47, 55-59, 61, 68, 108, 111, 156, 168-171, 184 India 71, 103, 126-128, 131-143, 147-148, 151-152, 154-163, 165-170, 179-184 Indian Ocean 17, 25, 71, 126-130, 179 Indonesia 126, 131-133, 141-142, 146, 148, 150-151, 179, 183 Indus River 126, 129-130 infrastructure 16, 18, 47-48, 95, 102-104, 123, 162, 163-164, 183 interest 49-51, 53-55, 57, 105, 114, 183 invest 45, 53, 163 Iran 70-71, 74-76, 79-81, 83-85, 88-93, 97-99, 101-102, 104-106, 108-109, 115, 118-119, 121-122, 124 Iraq 70, 73-76, 78-83, 85, 88-89, 97-99, 107-109, 114-118, 120-121, 124 irrigation 16-19, 63, 66, 78-79, 81-82, 94, 126, 127, 128 Islam 23-25, 32, 85-88, 91-92, 119, 122, 146, 148-150, 179, 182 Israel 70-71, 74-76, 78-80, 83, 85-87, 89-91, 93-94, 96-99, 101-102, 105-106, 108-112, 115, 118-119, 121-122, 124 J Japan 27, 126-133, 136, 140-143, 149-152, 154-159, 161, 164-167, 172-173, 179-184 Jews 85-88, 108, 110-114, 120-122, 124 Jordan 70-73, 78-79, 107-108, 118, 121 Jordan River 70-73, 78-79 Judaism 85-87, 119, 122 K Kalahari Desert 8-12 Kenya 8-9, 13-15, 25-27, 31-35, 55, 58, 61, 67-68 Kolkata 141 Korean Peninsula 126-127, 130, 178 Kurds 85-88, 107-108, 119, 121-122 L Lake Chad 16, 18-19 Lake Tanganyika 8-12, 16, 22, 65 Lake Victoria 8-12, 16-17, 65 latitude 77, 121, 178

Lebanon 70-71, 89, 107-108, 118 literacy 23-24, 26, 66, 85, 89-90, 102, 104, 119, 122, 146, 151, 162-163 longitude 77, 121 M Mandela, Nelson 60, 62, 68 Mekong River 126-127, 129-130, 181 Minh, Ho Chi 170-171, 184 mixed economy 37, 39-40, 93-96, 155-156 monarchy 67, 90, 92-93, 119, 122, 152, 154, 172, 182 monsoon 137, 179, 181 Mumbai 141, 143 Muslim 23-25, 32, 34, 66, 86, 88, 107-108, 147, 149 N nationalism 168, 171 Nazi 28 Nazis 110, 112-113 Niger River 8-12, 16 Nigeria 8, 13-18, 22, 26, 37, 40, 43, 44-46, 48-51, 55, 57, 59, 67-68 Nile River 8-12, 16, 22, 63 Nobel Peace Prize 60 nomads 21, 142 North Korea 38, 126-127, 131-133, 141, 155-157, 177-179, 183 O oil 16, 22, 39-40, 44-46, 48-49, 68, 71, 78-82, 89, 94-95, 97-99, 101-109, 114-115, 119, 121-123, 141 oligarchic system 28 OPEC 97, 99, 119, 123 Ottoman Empire 107-111, 119, 123 P Palestine 87, 91, 107-108, 110-112, 124 Pan-African Movement 55, 61, 68 parliamentary system 29, 122, 152, 154, 180 Pearl Harbor 172-173 Persian Gulf 70-73, 82, 109, 114-116, 119, 121, 124 Persian Gulf War 109, 114-115, 119, 124 Persians 85, 87-88, 121-122

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7 STUDENT WORKBOOK

Notes

Index

South outh meric ica America Amer

EQUATOR

Antarctica tarctic tica Antar

fric ica Afr Africa

Ocean Southern

Indian Ocean

Mt. Kenya Mt. Kilimanjaro

Himalaya Mountains Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean

Andes Mountains

Nor orth th North meric ica Amer America

Alps Mountains

rope uro Eu

Caucasus Mountains

ia Assia

Austr Australia ustralia alia

A Map of the World

Cascade Mountains Rocky Mountains

T Taklimakan Desert 126-130, 142, 181 Taliban 89, 115-116 tariffs 41-42, 97-98, 157-159, 183 theocracy 90-93, 119, 122 Tiananmen Square 173, 175-176, 184 Tigris River 70, 72-73 Tokyo 140-141, 156, 172, 179, 181 trade barriers 41-42, 97-98, 157-158 transportation 21-22, 25, 45, 47, 80, 82-83, 95, 97, 121, 123, 127-128, 138, 142-143, 164, 175 Turkey 70, 74-76, 78-85, 89, 93, 95-97, 100, 106-108, 118, 121-122, 124 Tutsi 57 U unitary system 28, 91-92 United Nations 26, 34, 48, 89, 91, 98, 110, 115, 178 uranium 22, 44, 46-47, 49-50, 63 V Vietnam 124, 126-128, 131-133, 140, 146-147, 159, 168, 170-171, 173, 176-179, 181, 184 vote 29, 31-33, 91-92, 122, 153-155 W World War I 107, 111, 113, 123 World War II 91, 110, 113, 124, 172, 178 Y Yangtze River 127, 130, 135, 137-138, 145 Yellow River 126, 129-130, 181 Yellow Sea 126-130 Z Zedong, Mao 153, 173-175, 184 Zionism 110-112, 119, 124

Arctic Ocean

petroleum 40, 47, 57, 78, 97, 99, 123, 135, 165 pollution 16-17, 48, 63, 78, 82, 121, 134-136, 138, 181 presidential system 29 primary source 62 Q quotas 41-42, 97-98, 123, 157-159, 183 Quran 24, 87, 147, 149-150 R rainforest 8, 10-12, 16, 20, 22, 63, 65 Red Sea 8, 23, 71-73, 82, 120-121 reincarnation 147-148, 150 religious group 23, 25, 85-88, 121, 146-147 S Sahara 8-12, 16-23, 63, 65, 181 Sahel 8, 10-12, 16, 19-23, 63-65 Saudi Arabia 23, 70, 74-76, 79-82, 89-90, 92-99, 101-108, 115, 118, 121-122 savanna 8, 10-12, 20, 22, 63, 65 saving 51, 53 Sea of Japan 126-130 secondary source 62 separation of powers 29-30 Shias 88 Shiite 108, 119, 124 Shintoism 33-36, 63, 67, 122, 146, 149-150, 182 slash and burn 20, 66 South Africa 8-9, 13-18, 28, 31-33, 37, 39-40, 42-50, 55, 59-60, 62, 67-68 South China Sea 126-127, 129-130 South Korea 27 specialization 41-42, 97, 157-158, 183 standard of living 23, 25-26, 33, 42, 47, 66, 85, 89-90, 122, 146, 151 Strait of Hormuz 70-73, 121 subsistence farming 21-22 Sudan 8, 13-15, 17, 23, 31-35, 67-68 Suez Canal 70-73, 75 Sunnis 88, 108-109, 121-122 Swahili 23, 25, 34, 63, 66 Syria 70-71, 78, 81, 107-108, 118

Evaluation Sample

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7 TEACHER EDITION

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7 TEACHER RESOURCE

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BLACKLINE MASTERS

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Table of Contents Countries of Africa......................................................3 Living in Africa ............................................................4 Culture and Religion ..................................................5 Let’s Talk About Government!..................................6 Roadblocks to Trade .................................................7 Useful Resources!.......................................................8 Journal It! ....................................................................9 The Middle East........................................................10 Contrasting Cultures ..................................................11 All About OPEC!........................................................12 Governments of the Middle East ...........................13 Monetary Exchange..................................................14 Gotta Have Economic Growth!................................15 Conflicts in the Middle East.....................................16 The Plight of the Jews ..............................................17 Environmental Problems.........................................18 Understanding Religions ........................................19 Economics Makes the World Go ’Round!.............20 Investments Pay Off!................................................21 Entrepreneur Extravaganza!...................................22 We Want Independence! ........................................23 Changes in China ......................................................24

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Seventh Grade

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Roadblocks to Trade

7

Countries may set up trade barriers to restrict trade because they want to sell and produce their own goods. Trade barriers include tariffs, quotas, and trade embargoes.

Read the fictional examples below and decide if they describe a tariff, a quota, or an embargo. 1. Nigeria has forbidden the import of textiles so that its own textile industry can grow. This is an example of: a. tariff

b. quota

The Middle East

10

Label the following countries and physical features on the map of the Middle East below. Afghanistan Iraq Strait of Hormuz Tigris River

Israel Turkey Arabian Sea Euphrates River

Iran Suez Canal Red Sea Jordan River

Saudi Arabia Persian Gulf Gaza Strip

c. embargo

2. Ghana placed a high tax on rice imported from the United States. This is an example of: a. tariff

b. quota

c. embargo

3. The United States restricts how much African cotton comes into the country. This is an example of: a. tariff

b. quota

c. embargo

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4. Zimbabwe’s government has specified that only ten tons of corn can be imported from South Africa each year. This is an example of: a. tariff

b. quota

c. embargo

Now it’s your turn! In the spaces below, write your own examples of a tariff, quota, or embargo.

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Tariff: _____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Quota: _____________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ 0

Embargo: ___________________________________________________________________________

0

___________________________________________________________________________________ Correlation: SS7E2

Seventh Grade

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500 Miles

500 KM Parallel scale at 25˚S 0˚E

Correlation: SS7G5

Seventh Grade

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BLACKLINE MASTERS Contrasting Cultures ethnic Persians Judaism Muslims

Word Bank religious Kurds Islam Sunnis

Arabs Jews Christianity Shias

1

17

The Jewish people have been persecuted for centuries, most notably by Adolf Hitler and his Nazi regime during World War II. The establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948 finally created a homeland for this religious and ethnic group.

2 Match the terms below with the correct description. ____ 1. Holocaust

3 5

4

6 Across 4. Religious group practicing 9 Islam 5. Muslims who follow Ali, Muhammad’s relative 6. Ethnic group speaking Arabic as a native language 9. Monotheistic religion in Israel 10. Both an ethnic group and religious group 12. Describes a group identified by common religious beliefs or practices

The Plight of the Jews

11

Complete the crossword puzzle below using what you have learned about the diverse cultures in the Middle East.

Evaluation Sample

7

8

a. section of a city where Nazis forced Jews to live

____ 2. Zionism

b. a German member of Hitler’s political party

____ 3. anti-Semitism

c. killing of millions of Jews during WWII

____ 4. concentration camps

d. large prison camps used to confine Jews

____ 5. ghetto

e. prejudice or discrimination against Jews

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____ 6. Night of Broken Glass

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____ 7. Nazi

Extra!

f. destruction of Jewish homes, businesses, and places of worship g. movement to unite displaced Jews and settle them in Palestine

Put the following events in the correct order.

11

____ The State of Israel is established ____ Hitler comes to power in Germany ____ Hitler seizes Jewish property and strips Jews of their citizenship

Down 1. Religion based on teachings of Jesus Christ 2. Most Iranians belong to this ethnic group 3. Muhammad is important in this religion 7. Ninety percent of Muslims 8. Ethnic group from Kurdistan 11. Describes a group identified on the basis of religion, race, or national origin

____ Nazis murder six million Jews

12

____ Jews scattered throughout Europe after the Roman destruction of Jerusalem

Correlation: SS7G8

Correlation: SS7H2

Seventh Grade

Seventh Grade

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Understanding Religions

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The countries of Southern and Eastern Asia are home to people from diverse backgrounds and cultures who identify themselves with different religious and ethnic groups. This exercise will concentrate on Buddhism, Hindusim, Islam, Shintoism, and Confucianism.

Investments Pay Off!

How a country invests in and manages its productive resources is a major factor in its economic health. Those productive resources include human capital, capital, natural resources, and entrepreneurship. Fill in the chart below to show how India, China, and Japan manage their productive resources. Write High or Low in each block.

India

Read the statements below. Write B for Buddhism, H for Hinduism, I for Islam, S for Shintoism, or C for Confucianism.

 1. Based on the teachings of Muhammad  2. Philosophy that is the foundation of modern Chinese culture  3. Unique to Japan  4. God is known as Allah  5. Follows the teachings of Buddha  6. Nirvana is the ultimate goal  7. Vast majority of people in India follow this religion  8. Everything in nature contains kami, the spirit of a god  9. Holy book is the Quran about five types of relationships where one understands their role  10. ofTeaches being superior or inferior

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 11. Karma, or good or bad behavior, determines one’s position in life  12. A caste system divides people into classes  13. Believes in reincarnation, a cycle of birth and rebirth  14. Sunni and Shi’ite sects are often in conflict  15. Builds shrines and worships ancestors Correlation: SS7G12

Seventh Grade

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China

Japan

Investment in Human Capital

Investment in Capital

E L P M SA

Availability of Natural Resources

Entrepreneurship

Extra! Which country is a major source of workers for a practice known as outsourcing? a. India b. China c. Japan Correlation: SS7E10

Seventh Grade

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COLOR TRANSPARENCIES

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COLOR TRANSPARENCIES

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ONLINE TEST PREP SUBSCRIPTION

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T hese all new comprehensive test-prep quizzes help kids score high on Georgia’s CRCT test! Includes more than 1,350 practice test questions that thoroughly cover all social studies standards for Georgia. Features of this excellent new series include: • Tests include both factual and analytical questions • Tests include both positive and negative choice format questions • Tests cover all grade-level content • Questions are separated into corresponding standards so teachers can assess student knowledge and focus follow-up teaching efforts to meet individual student needs. • Bonus section of study/review materials provides facts and essential content that students can study to prepare for practice tests and/or review problem areas after practice tests. The Georgia Test Prep pinpoints each individual student’s areas of understanding and competency, and identify areas where additional study is needed. Patterned after our successful, straightforward, comprehensive Georgia Experience series of workbooks, these programs are designed to help raise student comprehension based on the Georgia Performance Standards, and as a result, will raise student test scores!

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20 WAYS TO TEACH

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Super Spelling Bee The Project Requirements Time Here’s How

DAY

8

Organize a spelling bee to help students learn more about any topic they are studying! Willing students, prizes, and a spelling list 1 morning or afternoon Organize a spelling bee to challenge your students’ skills! Hand out copies of the spelling list a week ahead so each student can study at home. Stage the spelling bee in your classroom. Have kids line up on the left side of the classroom, then move to the right side after their turn. Go on spelling until you have a winner!

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Variation

If you have more time, organize a grade-level spelling bee for a collective activity. Hold the event in the auditorium and invite younger grades to ooh and ahh! Don’t forget ribbons and prizes! Do you have a metal surface that magnets will stick to, like the side of a filing cabinet or a magnetic white board? If you do, then buy several sets of magnetic letters of the alphabet. When you call out a letter, let kids arrange the letters to spell their words instead of saying the letters out loud! It’s a fun variation on an old theme! Make a real event out of your spelling bee! Invite a local community personality to host your event, like a television reporter or anchorperson, a politician, or an athlete. You never know who just might say “Yes!” Draft other teachers to participate in a Teacher Spelling Bee. The kids will have a blast trying to stump the teachers!

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DAY

15

Ethnic Game Day!

The Project Requirements Time Here’s How

Host an ethnic Game Day in your classroom! A rainy day, some of the relevant books found above, active students, and a teacher out of ideas! 1 day

Characters Everywhere! The Project

Requirements Time

Announce Game Day to your class (one day before the event so they don’t go crazy all week!) and tell them to sleep with their thinking caps on that night. Ask the kids to dress in crazy fashions to get into the spirit (think English, Scottish, German, European, Asian, African American, Native American, etc.–whatever your school will allow). Have funky prizes, blackboard score tallies, competition, wild team names, and lots of learning. Move from there to play games at stations set up around the room. Kids can try their hand at some of the historically popular Indian games, like the stick and hoop game, dice games, and guessing games.

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Variations

DAY

Organize snack breaks and host elaborate prize ceremonies. Videotape the whole day and let the class vote on different crazy awards for each student. Examples: Best Scorekeeper, Most Frequent Responder, Best Dressed, Funniest Joker, Fastest Snacker, Neatest Handwriting, Craziest Dresser, Best Team Name, Most Original Response, Most Valuable Player, Best Team Player, Best Encourager, Fastest Answers.

Here’s How

18

Collect a wardrobe of period costumes and props to support a Character Parade, musical, skit, or play!

Miscellaneous clothing, accessories, and props 1 day After learning about famous people, your students may be thinking about what it would be like to walk in those shoes. This activity will plop them right there! Ask the class to collect a wide assortment of "famous figure" pictures. Several pictures of the same person actually helps the process. Next, create a list of desired clothing, fabric, props, accessories, etc., to obtain or make. Ask students to bring in items and place them in a specially decorated box. Collect your own additions too! You can also make original items with paper, felt, or other fabric. Assign characters (let kids choose, if possible). Students can make final touches to their costumes at home. Celebrate this project with a Character Parade (in chronological order) through the school hallways!

E L P M SA Variations

Host a fashion show with the costumes for your grade level. Remember to have kids explain who they are and the time period they represent.

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NOTES

P. O . B O X 2 7 7 9 , P E A C H T R E E C I T Y, G A 3 0 2 6 9 • T E L ( 8 0 0 ) 5 3 6 - 24 3 8 • FA X ( 8 0 0 ) 8 7 1 - 2 9 7 9 • W W W. G E O R G I A C U R R I C U L U M . C O M PA G E 4 3

Thank You For Your Consideration! Please let us know if there is anything we can do to help you with your decision to purchase any of our books.

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2012 Georgia Experience 7th Grade Evaluation Kit