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Unveiling the Remarkable

824 Sonomatic

And Bringing Dual 8 Projection

A Few Steps Closer to Perfection

Fi rst we gavc Super 8 fi lm makcrs a ch ance to ed it Su per 8 mag sound ,'\lith the precision of a comp uter in our revolutionary 820 Sonomatie projector. Now t he new 824 Sonom ati e Dual 8 projector gives you that benefit- and more. Here's what we've done to make Super 8 and Regular 8 projection more preci se and professional than ever!

• Your choice of automatic or man ua l sound leve l control with a pro fessiona l VU meter to tell you exactly \'\Ihcn your input level isoptimum . • Eum ig's exclusive High Qu ality Sound system wi th a ]0 walt RMS (]:1-walt music power! amplifier ­ perform a nce a ~~urcd by a factory issued Test Certificate on cach projcctOr.

• Fail-safe :lccuracy in the recording mode wi th Program ma ble swn and Stop at t he exact frames you selcct. T ha t mea ns you can crase flubs and clicks, record mu sical transitions, or add narration wi th sp lit-second preci sion. • Double-Track Record ing on ei ther the regular sound st ri pe, the b:llance stripe, or both stripes si multaneously. Now you can mi x sound without d imi nish ing your existing sound track . • A Multi- Coated £/1.2, 12.5-25mm Eumig Suprogon zoom lens that delivers :lm:lzingly sh:lrp and bright ill1.1ges, eve n at the fr inges of the screcn . A Hi- Low inten sit y lam p switc h is also provided wi th a blue ind icator lig ht.



level LEVEL 20 10 6



-dB " 0. . .


• Son on.a l ic PrO)l ranu" ing OUlIons and tr ue frame c oun te r. • l' ro lcssio",, 1 VU m e Ie r.


And, of course, a host of carefully planned convenience ­ features, all geared to make it easier to obtain the resu lts you want, whether recording or projecting. Features like a master on/off swi tch; stanJard remote cont rolmicrophone ; mul ti pic vollage sett ings for world­ wide usc ; automa tic threading wi th 600 ft. recl capa­ city; universal recording jack; optional Daylig ht Preview Screen; a nd an optiona l heavy duty carrying case . See the pro jectOr that leaves little r00111 fo r improvc­ ment at your Eu m ig dealer today. And own it tomorrow!

Eumi g (U .S.A .) Inc ., Lake Success Bu sin ess Pa rk , 225 Communit y Dr i ve, G rea t Neck , New York 11020 CI RCL E INF O CARD 11

AS EASYAS 1.2.3.



mike gets you closer to the sound source. With our

Now you're ready for the fancy stuff, including

excellent sound movies at surprisingly low light levels. The new Cosinasound Low light 130M offers, amo ng other things. (4) a 13:1.£1.7. 2·speed power zoom le ns. (5) macro focusing, (6) frame. slow motion

and an intelVaiometer,

automatic fade con­

trol and automatic

exposure with man­

ual override and (8)

a backlight switch

for the right exposure

umen you shoot on

a beach or in the snow.

That's just a sample of the goodies on the Cosinasound 130M. In the sound department. O UT standard omnidirectional microphone provides (9) remote on/ off filming control from the mike, while our optional directional boom

optional FM wireless mike and receiver, you get (10) remote

filming control

from the mike, without connecting wires, as the camera records and mixes FM rad io music and mike sound automatically. There's even more (even oth er models and acces ­ sories), but we don't want to boggle you r mind. Let your favorite photo dealer do it, or IAI1ite to Cosina Division, Berkey Marketing Com ­


panies. Dept. 336. PO. Box 1102, WoodSide, NY 11377. In Canada, write to Berkey Marketing Companies, 70 Flora l


Parkway, Toronto, Ontario M6L2Cl.




Publi sher Paul M. Sheptow Editor Bruce F. W . Anderson

Associate Editor

JoanneJacobs Associate Publis her Diane Benjamin Design Consultant C hris Blum

Production Artis t Hideolwata Editorial Consulta nts Gunther Hoos Mark Mikolas Contribut ing Editors Yvonne A ndersen

MikDerks Dennis Duggan Rod Eaton Lenny Lipton Betty McAfee Jim Piper Elinor Stecker Donald Zimmerman

Typese tt ing Lehmann Graphics Advertising Patricia Corbett Editorial and Adve rtising Offices 3161 Fillmore St. San Francisco, Ca . 94123 (415) 563·4630 Subscription Inqu iries Super-8 Filmaker P.O. Box 10052 Palo Alto, Ca. 94303


Editor's Page I recently had the good fortune ofatte nding the Super-S A vant Garde International Film Fes ti val in Caracas, Ve nezuela. It was a n exc iting IO-day marathon of Super-S fil ms and s pecial events (see my report on page 46), hosted by the very gracious Venezuelan s. While I was there , I was asked a question that was difficult to a nswe r. Filmmaker Ricardo J abardo. whose film won top honors in the fe sti val. asked me w ha t I thought was the "philosophy ofSuper-S.·· Wrestli ng wit h this . I thought back on the film s I'd seen in Caracas and in other Super-S fes ti vals. On onc end of the spectrum are what might be called "experime ntal"' o r "avant garde" film s. For these filmmakers. Super-S is a mean s of exploring the film medium itse lf. the translation ofimages in mo saic s oflight and coler. Their film s are often abs tract. Many who work in th is ve in sneer at anything but out-of-focus images and light­ struck footage. Dramatic fil ms a re defi nitely passe . Yet agreat man y Super-S filmmak e rs are making dra matic film s-co medies . serious dramas . sc ience fiction , ere . TheirdetractOl's say suc h fi lms me re ly imitate Hollywood orTV , a nd point out tha t Super- S j ust can't co mpe te with s lick. high-budget prod uc tions. But dramatic filmm a king doesn't have to be imitation. Within the dramatic form. there' s plenty of room for personal expression and experimentation. In hi s di scussion oft he future of Su pe r-S at the Caracas fest ival. Mark Mikolas. author of the Ham/bo ok of S uper-8 Production , said he feel s that Super-S' S greates t strength lie s in it s use as a personal docume n­ tary mediu m. You can't compete wit h l6mm or35mm o n their own ground , so w hy bother, Supe r-8cameras are easy to operate, you can s hoot handheld with no elaborate set-up and you can carry the equipme nt almost anywhere-throw it in a bac kpack. Film is relatively inex pens ive, so take some ris ks , go for that ex tra roll. take that unusual shot. While no o ne a pproach to filmmaking seems to prevail in Super-S , there is a common th read (irnot a "philoso­ phy") he re which Mark suggested. The real strength of S uper-S is that it is easy and inexpen sive enough for almost anyone to use. Film is communication, a nd any of us can pick up a came ra as we might pick up a pen . A nd wi th Super·S , we have yet to explore all the possibilities.


Bauer. pne of our bestieCl,t!!~~;a;::~~~~ 15 our name.

on your sound source, and get perfect recordings. You can monitor the sound via earphone or with a light signal in the viewfinder. inten>als, from 1 per second to 1 per minute, giving you automatic time-lapse photography.

Automatic TTL exposure control.

With full manual override for total control.

GTwO motors.


Instant slow­ motion. With silent cartridges,

Allows power zoom operation without filming.

the touch of a button doubles filming speed for slow-motion photography.



You know who we are.

We've made our reputation by

offering the best in Gennan engineering and technology. And

the most advanced design ideas. So when you see the Bauer name on a super 8 sound camera or projector, or any Bauer product. you kno w you're getting the best.


The Bauer look and feel. Bauer cameras and projectors look professional. Because they are. The minute you hold a Bauer in your hand, you sense the quality. Solid and



Opfio... 1 Accessories. Bauer boom mike,

5x Macro Neovaron Lens.

The S 105 XL has a super-fast f: 1.2, zoom lens that gi\'es you razor sharp focus from infinity right down to the surface of the front lens element.

Automatic recording level. Lets you concentrate on creating your film. Set the switch to high or low, based

rechargeable battery system, carrying cases, etc.

Bauer Sound Projectors. Each projector perfonns flawlessly. You get a really bright image on the screen. Completely silent running motor. Precise, careful handling of your film. Easy operation. And most of all, perfect sound quality and equally good tonality in playback.

serious, yet comfortable. The unique

grip folds away allowing a lower, steadier tripod support as weU as more compact carrying.


Built-in creativity. If you want a Bauer, you want to do more than record events on film. Up to 73 electronic components, including 6 integrated circuits, assist you in adding the professional touch ...


Consider our S lOS XL Model Probably

the perfect, existing light sound camera.

The five time macro zoom adds un­

believable excitement to your movies.


Automatic fades. The touch of a button creates a fade-in at the start of your film. Or a fade-out at the end of a scene. (Full manual exposure control allows you to manually create fades of varying length, too.)

o o

Single frame control. Shoot one frame at a time for animation.

Built-in intervalometer. A timer

that shoots single frames at regular


Ifil11CIA1C Photo. !nc .. Carle Place. N. V.


B. ... r i•• Res. TM of Robe rt BoOC h Phot okioo GmbH­

!n Canada. write to: Kingsway Film Equipment. Ltd .. Ontario M8Z 5G8. CIRCLE INFQCARD 16




Howto Make an Interview Come Alive 20 Caro le Kahn You've watched Mike Wallace and Dan Rather do it on C BS's60 Minlltes. Now it" s your turn , and you want to film an interview that's more than just a "talking head." Author Carole Kahn tells you how you can make a filmed interview exc iting, and at the same lime reveal your subject 's personality. You'll get t ip s on camera placement, shooting technique s and recording sound .

Tools and Tricks: How to Make Your Own Blood Pellets Kenneth Gullekson Special Effects: Smoke and Fire Effects Rod Eaton Animation-8: Fluid Art Animation Kelly Hart Home Movies: Film a Local Legend Jame s Nartker Profiles: Shooting in the Wilds Beverly Ensom Filmcraft: The Truth about XL Cameras Lenny Lipton Product Probe: Handy .' ilmmaking Aids Denni s Duggan

The Magic of Special Effects Filters 26 Eli nor Stecker Rainbow colors , ghostly halos and bri lliant starl ike points oflight can be had with the twist ofa filter. Author Elinor Stecker introduces you to a world offantastic color and special effects that you can easily add to your films. She also reviews some more practical filters that can be useful in any filmmaking situation. It 's an inexpensive way to be creative.

Howto Make Your Own 3-D Movies 30 Lenny Lipton Lenny let s you in on the secre ts of his 3-D filmmaking system. and tell s you how to make your own 3-D film s in Super-S. Le nn y fo llows a step-by-step approach to 3-D s hooting , editing and projecting. This is the first part of a three-part series exc lus ively in SUPER-8 F1LMAKER.

51 54 56 5S 60 62 64

DEPARTM ENTS Headliners Letters Queries Readers Tips Take One Calendar Super Services

6 11

12 14 36 65 66

All about Sound Cameras 39 Dennis Duggan Befo re you buy a sound camera, you s hould know what all those gadget s and gizmos on thecamera really do. What ones do you need , and w hat can you do without? Denni s Duggan's rundown of "feature attraction s" may help you decide. Sound Camera Buying Guide 41 Our roundup of sound-on-fi lm cameras lets you compare features and prices! Caracas Festival: The Cannes ofSuper-8 46 Bruce Anderson Our editor has an on-the-scenes report from the exciting internat ion al Super-8 festival held in Caracas. Ve nezuela, Th is ten-day event looked at the stat e ofSuper-S today and its possibilities fo r the f ut ure.

Cover Art: Photograp her and fi lmmaker Rod Wyatt shot this " down the barrel" view of Lenn y Lipton with his Super-8 Ste reocamera. See Lenny's article on 3-D fi lmmaking on page 30.

SUPER 路II FI LMAKE R is published II t""es eacl1 year (JantFeb. M ar/ lip<. May, June. July/Aug , SepvO<t Nov. Dec) by lhe PMS Publish'ng Company. Inc .. 3161 Fillmore St, San FranctS<:O. Ca 94123. Copyrlgl1t c 1977 by the PM S PClbIlShtng Company. InC . AI rights res"".e<!. ReproductlM either ir1 whole or ., part wo\Mut Ihe consent oI lhe C(>Pyn9ht own"" IS s ~ dy proM.Ie<!. Editorial con~'bul"",s welcome<! , bUI must be accompanied by return postag" and will be hand led Wllh reasonable cru", hOw"""r. p<J blisher assumes no respoflSlb4lity l or return or safely of art werl<. p/Iotographs, l ilms or maru"'r ipls, Maru""IPts. ' OCCeple<!, w~1 be paid at Plesent rate aM an ' 9"IS. unless "i~a ly specl'ed otherwise. remaon w,1tI tM publiSMf, Products advertised ilfe nOi nocessariy eMorSed by SUPER路S FllMAKER. and any "'"ws e' presse<;l in e;;iltor..1COlly ar e 001 neeessa'i y l hose of SUPER-S FILMAKE R. All letters addresSe;;i to SUPER-S FILMAKER or ~$ ..,itors.,e assume<! to be intended lor p<J blocat"",. SUPE R路S FILMAKER OS the reglstere<! trademark of PMS PubiiShong Com pany. Inc. Mocrofilm e<!ouonscan be ord .. r"" lrom UN IVERS ITY MIC ROF ILM S. eo. 1346, AM Arbo,. Mi , 46t06, ISS N 004 9-2574, Seeor-.:H: lass postege paid a t San FrancISCO. Ca. and at addll"",al maoi ng oHices U.S, ,,"wssta rd and photo " ore doStnIluhOl\ by EASTE RN NEWS DISTRIB UTOR S. INC .. 111 Elghlh A.e., N.V .. N,V 10011.'M dlslributlM by CAPITAL D ISTRIBUT ING CO.. LTD" 261 Wyeero" Rd .. Oak'''e, Ontano. Canada. One year su bscroptoo $9.00 , two years $ 17.00. thr .... years 525.00 , outside U.S .A. acid $ 1.00 per year. Subscnpt "", ,ro!ormat"", a.a~a l)le lrom SUPER-II FILMAKER. 3 161 Filmore St., San Francl5CO. Ca. 94 t23 . Pr..,le<l in U.S,A, Poolm..I"" , Please send form 3579 to SUPER路S P'lLMAKER. P.O. Box 10052, Palo Atio, Ca . 94303.


Adios, GAF Freedom-of-choice filmmak­ ers are mourning the demise of GAF's amateur photo divi­ sion , announced July 22. With GAF out of the film business. only a few private label brands and the omnipresent Kodak will be available to Super-S users in the U.S. Fuji will continue to make Single-8 film. Since some of the private label brands of film are reportedly made by GAF. the options may become even narrower as contracts expire and are not renewed. \Varranties on cameras and projectors will be honored: take malfunctioning equipment to your dealer or the nearest GAF Consumer Photo Service Center. For further information, write GAF Corporation. 140 West 5[ St.. New York. N. Y. [0020.

Eumig spons fi lm

Sports shorts Run your fastest and jump you r highe st with Eumig' s new line of Span s Techniques films. produced by the Athlet­ ic Institute. As well as the usual tcnnis. golf. baske tball and football. topics include soccer. dance. field hockey. fencing. softball. handball. track and field and -I gymnastics selection particularly strong and there' s cven a scries of films on cheer­ leading. Most film s are in color and silent. but dozens of sound films arc included in the 1977 C<lIalogue . Write Eumig Spon s Techniques Films. ~::'5 Co mmunit y Drive. Great Neck. N.Y. 110::'0.

great wide way Say farewe ll to GAF fi lm and

cameras " 1mpossible" competition from Eastman Kodak was cited by board chairman Jesse Werner as the reason for GAF's drastic move. '"Every time we started to develop a share of the market. Kodak made a change and we had to follow it." GAF will pursue its antitrust suit aga in st Kodak. which is expected to come to trial next year after five years of legal maneuver­ ing. The suit seeks to el imi­ nate their rival's trademark. making '"Kodak" a generic term such as cellophane or as­ pirin. GAF also wants ad­ vance notice of major product innovations and a share in some patents. 6

The latest thing in widescreen is Mil1irama. which allows you to film a 2.66: I picture (twice the width of the stan­ dard frame) without an anamorphic lens. Inventor Stuart Warriner showed bright. sharp demonstration films made with his new technique at Britain ' s Widex 77 last spring. Howe ver, be­ fore you throwaway your anamorphic lens. be warned that Minirama requires per­ manent modifications to your camera and projector. First, you must enlarge the aper­ tures. filing the edges out diagonally to take advantage of every millimeter of film that isn't already taken up by per­ forations or sound st ripe. When the camera is tilted by about 45 degrees. the new

frame's dimensions arc rooms and lounges will also be than 2 to I. giving you set aside for J ob Marl ac­ "CinemaScope" look. I tivities. For more informa­ you're really shoot ing tion. contact: Peggy Crosby, perimental films, you'll Festival of the Americas , have to do all of your P.O. Box V IFF 7789, St . at the 45 degree tilt and Thomas . U.S. Virgin Islands ify the viewfinder ""o,,.,·j;,,.i,V I 00801. The festival is also exWarriner modified a panding its seminars on great camera and a Eumig directors and adding more for his demonstration emphasis on shorts. making a wooden cradle hold the projector at a tilt foc l "'_"1 order malaise screening. If you send $99.95 for a combi­ Also at Widex was a demon- nation fullcoat recorder, tripod camera case. and it never stration of 8mm Cinerama, don't write to us. Take which boast s a 4-10-1 aspect '1 1 ratio. The system uses three you r beef to the Postal Service cameras and three projectors Consumer Protection Plan. to fill a curved screen 32 feet First write 10 the mail order firm. If they don't take care of wide and 8 feet high. your complaint. pick up a If you don't know the dilTer­ " consume r service card" at cnce between an aspect ratio your local post office. The postal boys will lean on the and a H ypergonar optic, company for you. The Postal is around the corner at friendly neighborhood Service claims to have settled sc reen association. In 72 percent of the complaints U.S., write Bill Fleming. referred to it in the first six American Wide screen Cen­ months of the consumer opera­ ter. P.O. Box 8547, Pitt s­ tion. burgh, Pa. 15220. Britons can contact Ton y Shapps. 14 Equipment speakers North Approach. Moor Park. Does your club need a N0l1hwood. Middlesex speaker who relllly knows 2JG. England. They may be whilt he' s talking about? A able to contact widescreen number of members of the buffs in you r area who will Professional t>.'lotion Picture give a demonstration to Equ ipment Associ,ltion are filmmaking club or class. available for seminm·s . lec­ tures or informal discussions on various filmmaking sub­ jects. Most will speak for no charge . but some may wish reimbursement for travcl and expenses Among available speakers arc Anton Wilso n. Anton/Sauer Inc.. Milford . Co nn 06460: Paul M. Cicarelli. Canon U.S.A. Inc. Lake Success. N.Y. 11040: Victor Duncan . Victor Dunclln. Inc. Dallas. Tex. 75~06: r-,'Iarion M. Rimmer and Joe Tawil. Berkey Color­ Fest ival job mart tran Inc.. Burb,mk. Cal if. Looking for a job in 9150~. ;md N;lt and Ira T iffen. television? Job Mart. a I Tiffen Manufacturing Corp .. of applicants. openings . Roslyn Height s. N. Y. 11577. contacts. will be published For further names. write the tenth annual Festival I'M PEA. Victor Duncan . the Americas. Nov. [0-21 I Inc .. 2659 Fondren Dr.. DaI­ l ias. T ex. 75206.0 the Virgin Islands.



How tell difference between




You don't have to look at a lot of films to tell the difference. Just look at the equipment. At any level of filmmaking from super 8 all the way up to studio Mitchells in 35mm , the pro­ fessionals always pick the best. In super 8, there 's only one camera that is unequivocally the best •• . the Beaulieu. Here is a simple technical explanation of why.

Almost all amateur movie cameras use a beamsplitter prism. It's an inexpensive solution to the problem of directing light to both the viewfinder and the film. But the light loss will be as much as 50% at the film plane And even the finest prism will in some way degrade the image. In super 8, only Beaulieu uses a reciprocating mirror shutter system that tra nsmits 100% of the light to the viewfinder and the film. There is nothing between the tens and the film. Aside from vast ly superior light transmission, there's another impor­ tant advantage to this design, The Beaulieu can use any C·mount lens or any movie or still lens with C-mount

frame as well as rewind capability for super-impositions. Both camera s allow the use of all filming speeds when using eithe r sound or silent super 8 film cartridges. The top of the Beaulieu line is the 5008S Multispeed. The 30085 Multispeed allows you to buy a Beaulieu at a lowe r price. And, of course, for the professional who only uses double-system sound

rr. _ _ •


twogIII. . - - - ­

Tho """ k _ <II , .....


.. ........... .. _ _ '~<11""'h\!

..,..,. .......... '0_'

The Beaulieu super 8 movie cameras are preferred by professional film­ makers. The schemat ic diagram really tells the story. It's a simplified drawing of the Beaulieu super 8 viewing. focusing, and shutler system. It's also a simplified drawing of the viewing, focusing, and shutter system you'd find in professional 16mm and 35mm motion picture cameras which sell for $8,000 to S30,000.

adapter. Fo r the photographer wi th 35mm SLR lenses, that's a big bonus. Anothe r profess ional feature of Beaulieu cameras are the highly acclaimed Schneider power zoom lenses that have zoom ratios uptol1.7tol. When it comes to sound, Beaulieu is again uniquely superior with the most sophisticated high fidelity single system sound. Plus the capability of using double-system sync sound. You can even use both systems, simultaneously. The frequency range is 50 to 12,000 Hz:!: 1.5 dB at 24fps Two Beaulieu super 8 Multispeed cameras are avai lable. Both have the widest range of filming speeds available in super 8 plus single

record ing, there is the extremely ve rsatile 4008ZM4 with speeds from 2-80 Ips. See the whole line of Beaulieu super 8 motion picture cameras at your Beaulieu dealer. They're the only super 8 sound cameras you can stili use when you turn professional. For a beautiful cata· log, write to S. Gibson. Dept. 511, Bell and HoweU/Mamiya Company, 7100 McCormick Road, Chicago, Illinois 60645







o ,



BOLEX PRECISION. The uncommon touch in Super-8 sound. Suddenly. everything falls into place : the lime. the people. the lighting, the mood. A perfect interplay of sights and sounds. Now, your camera must respond w ith instant. unerr ing precision. Any Borex Sound-8 camera w ill, film after film, because superior quality is built i nto everyBolex . Uncomm on Sou nd Capabilities Borex begins with the most important feature in sound: silence. A whisper-qu iet motor that leis you record the sounds you want without adding any of its own. Electronically stabi l ized to assure consistently accurate filming speed. Borex combines this superior motor with a bUilt- in. powerful ampli fier with auto and manual recording-level cont rol, monitored by a VU meter and LED indicators. The result is sound of such consistent quality that the only " wow" you 'll ever hear will be from your audience, Features To Spur Your Imagi natio n Bolex Macrozoom lenses produce images of surpassingly crisp qualily and focus in tight for remarkable effects. Exposure is automatic and thru-the-Iens. Image fades and other special effects capabilities are built-in. Brilliant reflex finders monitor all principal functions. And every model has a buil t-in intervalometer, an action light to signal "it's a take", and a resetlable film counter. All are engineered with the concern for excellence that's always been the Bolex he ritage. Bolex 551 Xl Adds Dim light Filming Capabitities Ordinary roomligh t and outdoor scenes at dusk or dawn are no barriers for its super-fast f1.2 lens. You also have powered zoom over a 5-to-l range, in addition to all other Bolex Sound-8 features. On the other hand . you may prefer the Bolex 5122, with a 12-to-l Macrozoom lens. Or the Bolex 581 . with 8-to-1. Both offer variable-speed zooming . Wilh a Bolex Sound-8 in hand , you'll explore new worlds in film­ making mag ic, And cap ture them with uncommon precision. Your Bolex dealer can tell you more. Or write for LiIlPak P-76 to Photo Produ cts Division/Ehrenreich Photo Optical Industriri::.\nc., Woodbury, N.Y. 11797 , â&#x20AC;˘


New, Improved Wireless Mic You printed some out-of-date in­ formation on the C hinon wireless mic and receiver in " Microphone T ips for Better Sound" in the J ulyl August issue. T he system mentioned in the article was the original prototype, which was never di stributed in the U.S. The prototype model (and mo st other FM wi reless mics .on the market) operated somew here wit hin the standard FM broadcast band, where they were prone to interfer­ ence from local radio s tations. However, Chinon's new wireless mic system now operates on 49.89 megahertz, a s pecial FM com­ munication freque ncy . This is a major improvement. We have found t he new system will produce a clear signal at dis tance s up to 200 feet, somet imes even 300 feet. Anot her feature not mentioned in the article is that the wi reless mic can be used to start or stop the camera, which is useful for remote-control filming . Bob Schindler

Audio 8

Bellerose, N. Y.

The wireless mic system Chinon selll fa Ollr authorfor evaluatioll was redesiglled before IIlIifs were releasedfor sale ill fh e U.S .- Ed. Wanted : Super-B Films I'm interested in buying cop ies ofother amateurs' film s. I'm also in the market for scenes taken all overthe world . All kinds of themes, places , events and people are okay. Joe Donovan 3248Cliff Ave. Richmond, Va. 23222

agroup of20 or so responsible people who would exchange their films in an orderly chain pattern to see what other filmma kers are do­ ing. No money would be involved , other than the cost of mailing and in surance and a small fine payable to the film owner for failure to send the film to the nex t memberon sc hedule. To in sure responsibility, members would have to provide references. Edgar Loar 15290ak Knoll Dri ve C incinnat i, Ohio 45224

filmmaker reasonable and give _ the st udios a small profit from an ~ otherwise useless back lot. As a _ matteroffact, the old Columb ia ~.. st udio in Holl ywood, renamed Major Independent Studios, is .-:::I currently renting space for as little as$IOOa month to anyone who wants it. Major Independent (1125 .-:::I N. McCadden Place) has no back _ lot. bUI it does have several unused "-" soundstages. If the other studios _ continue to be empty most of the ...., time , a new wave of access to rA low-budget filmmakers might nOI . . , . be that far off.

Super-B in Hollywood Anyone who lives in Southern Californ ia has seen the ads for the Universal tour. which feature s the s hark fromjalt's. rear screen pro­ jections, gimm icked "bionic" props (tourist lifts two-ton truck. elc.) and a careful avoidance of any actual filmmaking . To my way of thinking , it defeats the purpose of all those great old

I will definitely ask Loui s B. Mayer if I see him around the pool. In the meantime, just think what you could do with a real bank for you r gangster film, or a real West­ ern street, with maybe a horse or two ... Huntly Haverstock

Hollywood, Calif.

...:::I ...:::I

Sci Fi Film Stock

Recent ly I purchased a large amount ofSuper-8 film stock through the mail. T he ad promised "film at who lesa le ." a great bar­ gain . It wasn't until my fllm re­ turned from the lab that I realized my600-foot mistake. Somewhere in its journey through the mail, the film stock was exposed to heat. It may have been left in the mail truck on a hOI day. Anyhow. the terrific footage I thought I' d cap­ III red turned out to be t he biggest disappointment in all the years I' ve been shoot ing fi lm .

studios , turning them into amuse­ ment park s. How about turning them overto amateur filmmake rs? Michael Newell

Most Super-8 filmmakers are ex­ New Orleans. La.

perts at making the most of what they' ve got. A back lot such as the one Warner-Columbia has in Bur­ Sorry, Wrong Answer I need street scenes and shots ofa bank is divided into hundreds of Yes, Virginia, fhereisadevice 747 plane taken in New York City and Paris to s plice into a movie I'm potential sets. In normal produc­ fhaf wi/{ hold a projeclor alld all tion, a fe ature film orTV co mmer­ /II/m odified ( 110 elec/rOllic SYI/­ workingon.Ifanyonefromthose cial require s room to shoot, so ten cities is interested , I'm willing to chronizer) recorder ill sync. The film s on the lot might requ ire care­ ails weI' to George M1Ie1ler pay for t he footage , oreven better, ful sched uling to avoid different (" Queries, " j ulylA Ifg. 1977) \Va.s trade Brazilian sce nes, s uch as crews tripping over each other. Copacabana Beac h, gauchos iI/correct in 'his regard. The Carol But Super-8 is a small. quick Cil/esolllld Universal SYII­ (cowboys) of the pampas, coffee medium without big crews or chrolliser(Cillemu Sync Systems. plantations and Brasilia, the bu lky equipment. On an off day , 14261 Ave. Melldocino, Irvill e, futuris tic city. the Warn er-Col umbia lot co uld Calif. 92 714) will do fhejob, as will ModestoS. Wie lewicki s upport fifty or more Super-B Edf. Marto, Apto. 5 'he Synchrodek ( H allllar ElITer­ production s. Add up all those prises. Box 793, Niagara Falls, Santa Maria, Brazil em pty back lots and you have Dill., Canada L2E 6 V6 ), which work s willi Eilmig (lnd Bolex pro­ I wou ld like to hear from filmmak­ s pace to s hoot hundreds oflow­ jeclors. Will! fhe Carol system, Ihe ers who have had at least five years budget Super-8 film s every day. A large number of filmmaker s projector does not reqllire a /IF ofexperience with Super-8, in­ cluding sound. My goal is to form could keep costs to the individual conlacl switch. -Ed. SUPER·8 f1L MA KER


• • I'm consider ing ordering some Wtl stock footage to cut into my tra vel .... movies. Wha t can I do to make the _ footage I buy blend in with the .... footage I shoot with my own " " camera? ....

R obenOwens, Dallas, Tex.

• • • If you a re concerned ahout color _ shift s, buy the stock footage be­ fo re your t rip and take a good look a t It. If the colo rs are sharp, s hoot

K odachrome 40 00 your trip.

~ Shoot Ektachrome 160 to matc h

~ grainy stock footage and use a light blue fil ter if it has a blue Imt. To

matc h sep ia, you can eit her s hoot black-and-w hite film an d tone it w it h sepia or order sepia fi lm from Superior Bulk Fi lm (442 N. Wells. C hicago, Ill. 60610) or ESO-$ Pic­ t ures, Inc . (47th and H olly , Kan­ sas City, Mo. 64112). Buying the stock footage before you go will help you decide what scenes to fi lm on your trip . But if this isn't possible, don' t worry too much about color shifts . Concentrate on your editing to provide transitions from one kind of fi lm to another. Dramatic cu ts accompanied by a change in the soundtrack w ill help your finis hed fi lm hold together. All my attempts a t filming projected footage have resulted in a strobing elTect. I know this is to be expected with Super-S optical elTects, but how come they can dot his sort of thing in Hollywood movies without any strobing a t all? B . Anderson, Columbia, S.C.

In Hollywood films , strobing is eli minated because the "projec­ tor" and t he "came ra" are both part ofa precision machine called a n opt ica l benc h which costs over SIOO,OOO . Th e camera shutter an d projector gate a re interlocked so that t he frame of film being photo­ graphed is held at rest, fu ll y IiI , to be exposed . This kind of optical bench runs ve ry slowly at about 2S0 frames per mi nute , compared to 1,080 frames per minute (18 frames per second) for Supe r-8 . If you just want to copy pro­ jected fOOiage, single-fram ing w ill solve your strob ing problem . Be warned, however , t hat the process can become very tedious very qu ickly . An optical printer wo uld also solve your problem and·pro­ vide high quali ty colo r, exposure correction and a host ofoptical effects. T he pri ce will range from SI.000 toSI,500. Robabankand 12

write J- K Camera Engineering, 5101 San Leandro St., Oakland , Calif. 94601. If, however, you want to do front or rear screen projection with live action thrown in, then neither s ingle-framing nor optical printi ng will do Ihejob. If you can get your hands on a Cine Slave sound system , you can inter­ lock a camera and projector to run at normal speed together. The latest Cine-Slave, model CS-S .S costs $395 to prev iou s customers of Inner Space Systems, I nc. , P. O. Box 882, Corvallis , Oreg . 97330. Howe ver, the CS-S.5 is not available on the open ma rket atlh is lime, so look around for an older model. What's t he best way to fo llow foc us wit hout tak ing your eye off the action ? Frank Shelton, Portland, Oreg.

To follow focus you manually turn

outdoors shooting, What should I do? R. G. Weber, Bos/on, Mass.

You may simply be up against the basic quality of your lens , espe­ cially if you're using a very inex­ pensive camera. Remembe r that XL cameras usually sacrifice some clarity in order to produce accept­ able pictures in low light s ituations. A non-X L camera should give better results in direct s un­ lighl. If the XL is the only camera you've got, try to keep the aper­ ture aroundfl5,6, where the lens s hould be at it s best . An aperture larger or smalle r will begin to lose sharpness. Partially closing the shutter (i f it' s possible) will give you a briefer exposure, provid ing sharpe r pictures of moving ob­ jects. Ifan area you didn't focus on appears in fOCllS, check your eyep iece diopter setting to make s ure it's right for your vision. See " H ow To Buy the Be st Camera" (J ul yl August 1977) for instructions on focu s ing a diopter. The prob­ lem could also be ca used by a poorly aligned lens. If your friends are getting better results with s im i­ larcameras, consult a profe ss ional repair serv ice or the manufacturer . What is the meaningof"fullcoat'?" David Miller, MD., Beverly Hi/ls, Calif.

the focu s ring to keep an object mov ing toward or a way from the camera in focu s . E xperience and dexterity are the prime fa cto rs in your s uccess. Before you start wasting film , take an unloaded camera out and practice following focu s until you getlhe knack of turning t he ring at the proper rate in the proper direction to keep your moving subject in focus. As you practice , you will notice that you have to turn the ring much more to c hange focus from 7 feet to S feet than to change from 30 feet to infinity. When you're selto film the scene, run through it a few t imes before you begin filming . If you have an extra person along, you can go the Hollywood route and a ppoi nt him "focus p uller." Have him stand next to you and adjust the foc using ring as the actor moves from one preset mark to another. This method a lso re­ quires re hearsal and coordination. My XL camera doesn't get really good clarity or dept h offield in

"Fullcoat" or "magnetic film stock" refers to a recording oxide material which ditTers from or­ dinary recording tape in being exactly the same width and thick­ ness as Super-8 film. Fu llcoat is also perforatedjust like Super-8 film. Because of th is, it can be run in a projector and in a syn­ chronizer and can be cut and spliced on the frame like film. Sound is recorded on fullcoat for double-system editing, A "ful1coat recorder" isa tape re­ cording machine which can record and playback fu llcoal. In addit ion , it can interlock with cameras, projecto rs and editing tab les so that each frame of sound stays in sy nc with each frame of picture. T he Super8 Sound Recorder (Super8So und , 95 H arvey St. , Cambridge , Mass. 02140) is one example of this type of machine. Q lIery rCI)/ies are prepara/ with th e help oJMark Mik olas. G iIIlfher Hoos(l l1d Dellnis Dugga ll. SliPER·9 f1LMAKER



When you pic k a screen for showing super 8 films, remember that super 8 pro足 jectors throw less light than 16- or 35 -mm units. Unless your screen is highly efficient, your projected image may be weak , dull and unexc iting. The Kodak Ektalite screen is made of a spec ially treated alum inum foil lami足 nated to a spher ically cu rved shell. When properly posi足 tioned , the screen rejects room lights, directing them away from viewers. Images are exceptionally sharp-l ike

those on a matte

sc r een ~

because the microscopically grainy surface of the screen is so smooth

The Kodak Ektalile screen deflects ambient light so th e audience sees a brigh1, c lear image even with dra pes open and th e room lights on

Like a mirror, the Kodak Ektalite screen can be aimed to place the optimum bright足 ness where you want it. And because st ray light doesn't wash out the picture, b lacks are blacker, colors blighter, contrast c risper. The Kodak Ektal ite screen should be part of you r super 8 equipment. It's one of the best ways to be sure that you're seeing virtually everything that you shot. For more complete details on the Kodak Ektalite projector and where to buy one, send the coupon .



Eastman Kodak Company Dept. A0029 Rochester, N.Y. 14650

I'd like to know more about the Kodak Ektalite screen. Please send details.

Kodak Ektalite

projection screen

Name Address C ity




Hot Tip on Splicing H ollywood Musical (United Ar­ lists UAG 29421), which shows I 've come up with a modificat ion ofCleg Ho liman's hot sp licercon­ the Gold D iggers in a seq uence version (''Tools and Tricks, " from the Shadow Waltz with the J uly/ A ug. 1977). H e s uggests usi ng chorus girls looking out from a a lO-wan , 1500-ohm res isto r, but I circle, all playing violin s. Spin it cou ldn't find one that wou ld fit the slowly and hundreds oflovely girls float by. Follow th is w ith your avai lable space in my splicer, so I titles for an enchanting opening to bought a 5-wal1, 3000-ohm resis­ tor, which is half the size. Since it your movie. produces on ly half the heat of the Claudio yon Fresin Los Angeles, Calif. specified res isto r, I decided to in­ sta ll it without a sw itch or pilot light. That way, it's always "on" Computer Paper Counter and producing heat. Th ere doesn't The easiest way to count fra mes is seem to be any danger of harming to measure , si nce each inc h equals the film . as the platen isjus t barely 6 frames. Computer printout warm to the touch. paper-heavily lined each inch lightly lined each 1<3 inc h­ and But doe s it work ? It' s magnificent. makes a very useful frame The splice is dry in 5to 10 seconds, counter. Ran sack your fr ie ndly almost as quickly as I can get the neighborhood computer for cap tightly on the cement bottle . surplu s paper, trim off several in­ My procedure is to first place the ches from one side and unfold the film in the left (warm) s ide of the narrow strip on your editing table . sp licer, then place the film in the right hand side and scrape it. Th e n I scrape the left side, a pply the cement to the right and quickly close the sp lice . The film on the left is warmed whi le it wa it s to be spliced, making the cement dry quickly. My congratulation s to Cleg H oli­ man fo r coming up with a practical way to achieve quick and strong spl ices ofSupe r-8 fi lm. William A . Williams Penn Valley, Pa.

traption , I hung t he whole thing from the ceiling on the rubber band . N ext , I positioned variously colored lamps around an imagi­ nary line from the camera lens [0 the floor, all at d iffe rent angles and heights . Each lamp was fitted w ith a tight barn door to make'it shed a na rrow beam of light : Aftercove r­ ing the floor beneath the lid with al'l a rmful of towels, I wound up the rubber band , poured a quart of wate r into the ups ide-down lid , turned off the room light s, turned on the lamps and switched the camera to "run ." The camera tw irled slowly a round as the rub­ ber band unwound , water dripping around it on e very side. As the droplets fell , they passed through the different bands o fl ight. When projected, the droplets appea red not as wate r but as brightly- lit globs of colo r rushing into dark­ ness. By reversing the film in edit­ ing, you can make the drops eme rge from the darkness a nd rush by the camera. You might also try s ubstituting a large washtub for the towe ls. You'lIleave less ofa mess and avoid the da nger ofelectrical shock . G. H inds

Mt. Vernon, Wash.

Head 'Em Up Remem bert he blazing branding Every 3 inches equals I second of iron effect that opened Bonanza? elapsed time ifyou're shooting at You can create the same effect for Spin the T itle [8 fp s (fra mes per second); 4 in­ your Super-8 Westerns with clea r To dazzle your audiences with ches equals a second at24 fps . nai l polish and any fire resistant spinn ing titles, arrange the lel1ers Mark your paper accordingly and material , suc h as hard wood or of your title in a circle on a piece of use the extra lines for notes o n alumi num foil. Paint your title with colored construction paper. Use each scene. nail polish, connect ing the letters different size tin ca ns as guides to Joseph E . Steckel for a fuse effect. Wood will require help you make accurate circles. Piscataway, N.J . two or three coats, because the Then put a can that is ope n on one nail poli sh sinks in. The title will side over the spindle of your rec­ be in vis ible unt il you light one Garbage Can Odyssey

o rd turntable a nd place the con­ end. Then the flame will spread The special effects geniuses in­

struction paper on top of the can. quickly , leaving a brown , burnt-in vented a "sl it scan" device for

Focus on the titles so that they fill 2001: A Space Odyssey to produce a ppearance. The flame will go out the viewfinder. A tripod and a whirlpool oflight and motion. A befo re the wood or foil has a close-up len s will come in handy if c hance to ignite , but stay away simi lar effect can be created in

yo u ha ve them. Rotate the turn­ from cardboard or other flam ma­ Super-8 with a lot le ss time and

table ve ry slowl y and film the expense. I "borrowed" the plastic ble materials . If you want the tit le spinning tit les. This must be done to burn in without flame, use foil lid from ou r garbage can and

manua ll y; the regular speed of331<3 a nd heat it from the back. drilled 50 1I6- inch hole s along its

revo lution s per minute is much too Robert Schooley outer rim at irregular intervals.

fast. Levitto wn , Pa . Forbalance and s upport , I turned

F oran added attraction, look in the lid over a nd stru ng picture wire

old Busby Berkeley movie book s th rough threeofthe holes. I used a Wewill give a free. one-year subscription to

readers who submit tips that we publish.

fora photo of the Gold Diggers single long rubber band (from a

Send your lips with a self -addressed,

arranged in a circle , one of their balsa wood glider) to faste n the

slamped envelope 10 : "Ti ps." SUPER·8

favor ite poses. I use the record w ire ends together. Taping my

FILMAKER . 3161 FillmoreSt..

jacket of Til e Goldell Age Offill' camera secure ly beneath th is con­ San Franc isco. Ca. 94123.





Plea se begIn my . ub serl pUOfI .. loon •• pOl1ib le:

0 2 years/S17

0 3 ye ars/S25

o bill me later

o payment enclosed

o th is is a renewal

Rales and credit apply OfIty to U.S., U.S. Poss., APO- FPO addresses. All othe rs please add SI .00 per year postage.

Plelle beg in


l ubse rlpUon . . .oon II pOl1i bla:

0 2 years/S17

0 3 yearsf S25

o bill me late,

o this is a renewal

Rates and credit apply only 10 U.S., U. S. Poss., APO- FPO addresses. All others please add SI.OO per year postage.

PLEASE CIRCLE YOUR INTEREST IN SUPER-8: A. Prolessional B. Educallonal C. Student D. Hobbyist


E. Yes F. No


G. Yes H. No






41 ~

12 27 42 "













16 31 46 61

17 32 47











22 37 52











~ ~

o Bill me S910r a 1 year subscrlptlon to Super-8 Fllmaker. Name

PLEASE CIRCLE YOUR INTEREST IN SUPER-8 : A. Profe ssional B. Educallonal C. Student D. Hobbyist


E. Yes F. No


G. Yes H. No





























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0 "










46 61










o Bill me $910, a 1 yea r subscription 10 Super-8 Filmaker.


First Cless

Permit No. 19939

San Ffanc::iSC::o, Ca.

BUSINESS REPLY MA il No postage stamp nec::essary if mai led In the United Sl ates Postaga Will Be Paid By

•,• P.O. Box 10052

Palo Alto , California 94303

First Clan

Permit No. 19939

San Francisco. Ca.

BU SINESS REPLY MAIL No postage stamp necessary if mailed In the United States Postage WlllSe Paid By

•,• P. O. Box 10052

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•,• P. O. Box 13069

Phil adelphia, Pennsylva ni a 19101




•,• P.O. Box 13069

Philadelphia , Penn sylvania 19101

Three obvious es ofKodaks

unique on-camera microphone.

And two new ways to get thenl.

No micropho ne cord or microphone place ­ men t to worr y about. Kodak Ektasound movie cameras are equipped with the microphone attached directly to the handle. So the mike auw­ maricall y goes where the camera goes, and always JXlims at rhe subject. T he on-camera mike is ideal for most general sound situations. such as parries, plays, concerts, and sports evenrs-anywhere a cord would be a distrac­ tio n o r a nuisance. (For picking up specific voices in a crowd, Kodak Ekrasound C<lmeras also include an extension mike.)

There are now fou r Kodak Ektasou nd cameras to choose from. All include the features mentioned ea rlier. The new Kodak Ek[3soll nd 150 movie camera includes a powe r zoom controL The new Kodak Ektasound 260 movie camera has roth the JX)wer zoom co mrol :md coupled-rangefinder fOCUSing. Stop in at your photo dealer's soon for a demon­ stration an d see just how easy sound movies can be.

Freedom of movement. Another nice thing about having you r cam· era and micropho ne together in one srurdy unit is that it frees you to get the shots

and sounds you want-almost anywhere. Move in and out of crowds. across the room, around rhe yard, o r up rhe stairs- without stretching a mike cord. You'll be able to get better angles and more interesting composition. N atural, ca n d id actio n. With the o n-camera microphone, you do n't have to disrupt an activity in o rder to film it. 10u can stay out of the way, so your subjects will remain natural-not nervous o r micropho ne sh y_ Additional camera features include sound-film transport indicator, low· light indicator, sound-level indicator, and film-supply indicator. All these indi­ cators appear in the viewfinder, so you can monitor them as you film. The soll nd monitor earphone tells you what the camera is heari n~-before and during filmi ng. There's even an "ON" light at the front of the camera to let subjects know when the camera is running. Everything yOll need is in one compact, easy-co-handle piece of equipment.

Kodak Ektasound movie cameras



So you've li ned up an excl usive interview w ith wou ld-be tennis pro

figure out in advance most o r the ques tions you will want to ask­ but how you ask them can be Renee Richards, and you t hink you've got it made. Wel l , maybe. decided at the moment , depending Gett ing a good subject to inter­ on how the interview is going. For view is o nly half the batt le. Know­ example. after several minutes ofa ing how to get the most o ut ort ha! gene rall y sympathetic interv iew pe rson , a nd then be ing able 10 with Russ ian diss ident Vladimir capture thai livi ng, breat hing per­ Bukovsky on a recent segment of sonal it y on fil m, is the other-and TV's60 Minures , C BS corre spon­ oflen mo re di rticull-job. The den t Mi ke Wallace as ks the Rus­ fi lmed interview can be an inti­ sian , who has been in and out of mate, emotional insigh t into Soviet me ntal asy lum s: "Well , another human being. o r it can be a then, lei me ask you- I'm boring, disco nnected "talki ng serious-is it possib le that you or" head. " W hich you end up w ith a little mad?" Bukov sky stutters , depends as muc h on you the " Is it possible that I . .? filmmaker as it does on your s ubject. H ow do you find o ut what makes

anothe r person tick? How do you get unde rneath t hat person's skin, a nd then s hare th at knowledge wit h the rest or the world? Let's start at the begi nni ng , with the prel iminary work that mus t be done berore a camera even comes in to the picture. F irst, there is the background research . Is yo ur sub· ject part ofa larger s tory t hat might be to ld through the in terview? What can you find o ut abo ut the person's activi ties or sty le , even before you meet? All of this re­ searc h will pay offlater when you' re deci ding on film pos­ sibi li ties. T he First Encounter

When you first contact your sub­ ject to set upan appoint ment, you have a good chance to get a "fee l" fo r his or her personality . Try to fi gure out whether you can get more out of this perso n by using a s ympat hetic approac h o r a more abras ive, c hallenging role-{)r a li ttle ofboth . You can, and s hou ld ,

Carole K aIm is a docllmentary (lnd educatiollaljilmmaker, and afreelaru;e jOllrnalist . H er la testjilm , The Six Billion $$$ Se ll , about the lures ofT V commercials , \\las madefor Consumers Vnioll. SUPER·S flLMAKER

" It can be very reveal­

ing to have the camer a focused on a tight face shot of your subject while you' re asking the challenging question. " Well .. . " Wall ace in terrupt s: " J ust a moment. Well , he re is a fellow, a young reilow , you've spent o ne·third of your lire in prison , o r in the hos pital. in the asy lum, in prison camps , an d every time you came out you tweeked t he nose of the system once agai n. It's almost as thoug h you wanted to go bac k." (© 1977, CBS Inc. All Righ ts Reserved .) Wallace's sudden challenge prom pts a fasci nating res ponse from Bukovsky. He relates how he once caught three an ts an d put them in side an aluminum mug: "Of course, they tried to get ou t of it , and eve ry ti me I s haked them down. They made some hundreds o r attempts to go out. Bu t afte r that , they stopped completely. T hey never tried to go out agai n. I le ft them on t he grass , and the day ended and nig htgo and the next day go, and they never tried to go out. T hat's the way ou r.people in

the Sov iet Union are." And when lateran , at the end or the inter­ view, Wallace persists and asks , "Why you? Why Vladimir Bukovsky?" Bukovs ky answers, " Ifnot me, then who?" Sometimes when yo u're dealing wit h a very shy o r ve ry uptight subject , it's a good idea to do a preliminary interv iew wit h the person on audio tape o nly. The absence oft he camera makes the interview seem less offic ial, less threatening. And t he material yo u get on the tape may turn out to be the most usable, most natural con­ versation you' re go ing to get . In any even t, use the opportunity orthi s pre-interview to obse rve your subject in action . Does he or s he have any characte rist ic ges­ tu res to which you might want to alert you r cameraperson. What sort of clothing is the person wear­ ing,? You might wan t to suggest that sim ilar clothi ng be worn fo r the "actual" on-camera interview, Are the surroundi ngs appropriate ror the on-camera interv iew? Do they reflect the pe rson' s lirestyle or vocat ion? Does the person have any suggestions for another se ning where he o r she might feel more comfortable? Pla n Your Camera Moves Once you've done your home­ work, know the sort o r person you ' re dealing wit h and the kinds orques tions you intend to ask on-camera, it 's time to coordinate the interview with the person who's goiog to be doing the aClUal shooting. Do n' t attempt to be bo th i nt ~ rviewe r and came raperso n at the same time. It rarely works. E xplain to the camera pe rson what you ' re trying to gel out orthe interview. A good cameraperson s hould listen carerully while fi lm­ ing. l rpreviously sen sitized by you to the subject and the subject malter, the pe rson do ing the fi lm­ ing will have a "feel" for when to zoom in for that tell ing close-up. If 21

of pace, making the viewe r feel more involved in the interview . The a udience gets to see both interviewer and subject talking and reacting , as if each viewer were on the scene. All of these s hots-including your li p-sy nc questions-are normally done anerthe interv iew is completed . Listen ing and over-the-shoulder Shots showing the interviewer and s hots are fi lmed without sound , so t he s ubject in head and shoulder you may later add the voice-over . close- ups, as we ll as extreme One way to get s uch shots to look close-ups, are basic for filmed in­ natural is simpl y to continue the terviews. The wider shot is par­ conve rsation-without recording ticularly useful if you want to re­ it-after the interview is co m­ late the subject to something in the pleted. background, and the extreme Alternat ive ly, you might wait to close-up ca n be priceless 10 show film your own " listening" shots emotion. A zoom-in can be edito­ rially useful-underli ning a critical unt il the interview subject has gone. The cameraperson may ad­ moment in the interview, a key vise you to change position to take point in the res pon se. Like all advantage ofbelle r lighting pos­ zooms, it s hou ld be used spar­ sibili ties. This is fine so long as ingly, o rit will lose the very em­ yo ur head faces in the same direc­ phasis yo u are trying to create. tion as in the interview, Try not to Camera angle is also im portant. In look too smiley, ortoo serious. most cases, you will want the au­ The best "listening" s ho t isone in dience to know that the s ubject is which you are attentive , nodding speak ing to an interviewer rather your head a bit as ifreact ing [0 than directly to the camera. So the someth ing the other person best position is the three-quarter said , or looki ng thoughtfu l and profile where the s ubject look s inquisitive. slightly off-camera at the inter­ You can add variety to the viewer. But you will need more "people" shots wit h ot herc uta­ than frontal s hots an d frame size way possibi lities. Be aware of changes to get the piece to cut together well. Suppose, in the final chances for cutaways in {he room in wh ich yo u're filming. Is there ed it , you want to cut the first part anything on a de sk that would add ofan answe r with the last part, to the interview? In the back­ cu((ingout the middle. To avoid an grou nd? If the person being inter­ awkward "jump-cut," you will viewed has been fiddling with pap· need a "cutaway" orin se n shot of ers during the interview , and that something other than you r main in a wide shot , have the was visible s ubject. A reverse camera angle is s ubject repeat it for a close-up of one of the si mples t and most fre­ the action . quently used cutaways . This can Also be alert to visual possibilities be an over-the-shouldershot, in what Ihe subject says during the looking from you r subject to the interview . Forexample, ifthe sub­ interviewer, or a shot ofthe inter­ ject talks to yo u about a tennis viewer alone, in close-up, listen­ game, plan to film a few shots ofa ing. You can shoot these at a late r ten nis game later on. Ifthe person time and, in both cases, avoid the mention s a particular painting as need for lip-sync. You can simply meaningful in his o r her life , you use the dialogue from the section might film a pan of that painting. If of original track you cut out as the person 's famil y is mentioned , voice-over sound for your cuta­ you might s how a famil y photo­ way shot. graph or a s hot ot'the subject going It's a lso a good idea to do some through the family album. All of li stening or reaction shots of the these s hots can be inte rwoven into s ubject, particul arly if you, as the the fabric ofthe interview to make interviewer, do some ofyourques­ it more interesling , and more re­ tions lip-sync. Such shots not on ly vealing of your s ubject's personal­ provide ins urance in case you have ity, Unlike ac utaway to t he inter­ to edit your question , but also viewer , which is mainly useful for provide foran interest ing c hange edil ing purposes, this kind of shot

can get the subject to tighten up the part yo u don ' t like on a second go-round, do another take , making sure the frame size or the came ra angle is different from the fir st re sponse. Forexample, if you used a medium shot t h~ firs.t time , use a close- up the second time , or vice versa .

In his profile on Billy Carter, The Presi. dent 'syounger brother, C BS News corres· pondent Dan Rather got Billy's candid remarks on everything rrom religion to politics.

you know in advance that a par­ ticularquestion will be a c halleng­ ing one , make sure the cameraper­ son knows it . It can be ve ry reveal­ ing to have the camera focused tight on a face shot of your subject while you're asking the challeng­ ingquestion, as we ll as during the actual response. Some reporters work out a signal system with whomever is doing the act ual filming. I prefer to si m­ ply say out loud something like, "Well, that last shot was a medium shot , let' s do these next questions in close-up." Of course, ifthe meaty part of the interv iew unex­ pected ly come s in the midd le ofa long shot, you've got to rely on yourcameraperson to zoom in for the close-up at the right time. You can try to get the subject to repeat the answer later on, after alerting the camera to s tay in close, but it takes deft questioning to recapture a spontaneous moment. Shooting Techniques Varying the frame size (or focal length) of your sho ts is vital if you want your interview to c ut to­ getherwell. Jt' sagood idea to change the fram e size with eac h major new question. If you like part ofan answer and think you 22


adds content to the interview. For example , s hots of Penthouse pub­ lisher Bob Guccione photograph­ ing model s and dealing with his secretary and other magazine staffers , did as much to tell us about the real Guccione as did the things he actually said to Morley Safer in a recent 60 M inllres inter­ view. Guccione talked like a pretty st raight bu siness man , but hi s shirt open to the navel and hi s chest draped with s ilver jewelry added a touch ofthe " swi nger" to the staid bu siness image. Simi­ larly , in another Saferinterview with basketball star Bill Bradley, it was scenes of Bradle y in a game, on the road and in the locker room, which gave the audience a real feel for the man and the kind of life he leads. Other Creative Possibilities By no mean s does an interview have to be a mere question and answer session. There are man y ways to make an interview come alive. You can talk to o ther people who know the person- people w ho might reveal things your sub­ ject might nol. You can reco rd and fi lm interactions between your subject and ot her people. Con­ s ider this exchange on a recent CBS Wh o's Wh o program be­ tween a surgeon , Dr. Irving Cooper, and a young ch ild w hose mother wanted the doctor to oper­ ate so the child co uld walk again : Dr. Cooper: ., You think we ought to go ahead with the next opera­ tion,ordoyou . . . doyou ?" Girl: " You know what? There's three good things about the opera­ tion and there's three bad things . " Dr. C ooper: "What are the three good things and what are t he three bad things?" G irl : "You kind of get sick with the oxygen. When you put it on your nose, it kind of makes you like real drowsy and you feel fu nny. " Dr. Cooper: " Okay. That' s one bad th ing." Girl: "And the clamp 's kind of uncomfortable. " Dr. Cooper: "That'sa real bad thing. I ... I agree with that. What else? " Girl: "And they stick needles in your head. " Dr. Cooper: " That's right. " Girl: "It hurts ju st a little bit. " Dr. C ooper: "Now tel l me about the good things." Girl: " I can ride a bicycle." sUPER·a flLMAXER

Dr. Cooper: "You can ride a bicy­

cle now?"

Gi rl :"No, I will be."

Dr. Cooper: " Oh , you will. I hope

so " Girl: "Ye s. I can . I ' ll be able to walk to my friend 's house." Dr. Cooper:" I hope so." Girl: "A nd I can run, skip and Jump. " Dr. Cooper : "Well , those wQuld all be good things, sweetheart. I hope . . I hope I see you do that. We ' ll try like the dickens." More than any thing the doctor could himselfhave said, more than Dan Rather, the interv iewer, could have said, this briefinte rac­ tion with the ch ild gave the a udi­ ence a feel for the gentleness ofthe man and hi s honesty in dealing with even the little st of patients. In decidi ng on related scenes that might enhance your interview . cons ider scene s that might retlect memories as well as current events. The subject may be in these scenes or may not. A travel­ ing shot from a car, for example , may provide a picture ofthe sub­ ject's neighborhood , as we hear the person talk abo ut what it was like to grow up in that commu nit y. You, as interviewer, could also use s uc h a sce ne as a background for yo ur own voice-over narration. Or you can put yourself in the sce ne , and do a s tand-up lip-sync piece to tell the audience more about the person you' re interviewing. Narration can be a valuable tool in tying the different pieces of your portrait together, particu larly when you're trying to relate the indi vidual to a larger story. Scenes shot for narration s hould be com­ plete in themselves . That is, they should have a variety of wide, med ium and close shots, and cutaways ifnecessar y, so that the edited scene tell s a story by itself. Pay Attention to Details In all filmin g, but particularly in the interview format, it's impor­ tant to pay attention to details of lighting , background , appearance and clothing . You may not intend it , but dull lighting or hair that is mussed will have a defin ite edi to­ rial effe ct on your interview . For example , I once filmed interviews for a news story of two men who had opposing viewpoints. One, a Congressman , came to the inter­ view wearing a light blue s hirt ,

I ~

When Churles Kurult interviewed "Fancy" Tom Wince on CBS's Who 's Who, he was taken back to the 1930sand 40s when jau impresa rio Wince featured names lik e Louis Armstrong , Lionel Hampton and Duke Et­ lin gton in his Vicksburg, Mississippi night_ club.

medium bl ue suit and a co lorful tie. He was fi lmed in his brightly lit , cheerfully decorated office. Hi s opponent, an officerofa nonprofit association , came to the interv iew in a drab olive suit , matching tie and w hite shi rt. Hi s office was equa ll y drab and dark . When the piece a ppeared on telev ision , the assoc iation officer demanded a public apology, claim ing we had deliberately made him look bad. The moral: if you want your s ub­ ject to come out at his or her best, don't be shy about suggesting a p­ propriate clothing to wear for the interview, and be sure to check out the location in advance-at th e very least yo u' ll know to bring more lights . A Question of Taste

Finally, there is the question of taste . It is panicu larly important here because by it s very nat ure , the interview probes into the human psyche, One of the most poignant moments I have seen in an interview happened because the filmm aker used restraint , avoiding w hat could have been a cheap e motional shot . It was in the Who's Wh o show on the s urgeon , Dr. Cooper. Thefatherofoneof Dr. Cooper's patients was talking 23

about hi s daughter , a pretly 16 year-old with a crippled body, ly ing on a hospital bed wai ting for a "mi racle" operation . The father start s talking about how hard it is for hi s daughter: "It's very painful when times come around like just recent ly, when her high school had a Christmas dance . see. And all the pretty girls and the good look­ ing guys-they all pair oITto go to the dance, and you realize that yo ur daughter just doesn' t have anyo ne to ask her." Atthis point, the daughter starts crying , and the father , fu ll of emotion , looks down and tells her, ''I'm sorry-exc use me." Instead of panning to the girl and baring her agony, the camera stays with the fa ther, as he strug­ gles to regain control of his own emotion . He continues, "S he just doesn'thaveaboytosay , 'Can I take you to the dance. ' And th is probably hurt us as much as it hurt her, you see. It 's very sad." Again he breaks off, biting his lip and forcing back his own lears, to tell his daughte r, "\ 'm sorry."

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It was a highly charged, emotional momen l-a rare and beautiful moment- a rare and beautiful in­ sig ht into the live s of this father and daughter. And it was so be­ cause the came ra person used re­ straint. To have shown in close-up the raw emot ion of the daughter wou ld have been in poor taste , too much of an invasion of privacy. By stayi ng on the fat her the whole time, the audience knew what was happening, was involved, but not made to feel like a Pee ping Tom. As a filmmaker , you must decide when you're probing too much or too little into another's private life, This is where the art of the inter­ view li es . Whether you're out to film t hat interv iew with Renee Richards or your elderly grandmother, avoid the tyranny of the "talk ing head. " Plan to vary your film with some of the techniques we've di sc ussed. You'll not only hold yo uraudi­ ence' s interest, you may also get a deeper in sight into your subject, a closer look at who that person really is. 0

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,. I don '{ believe it! 11' s incredi­ ble ," I cried. The water in the scene I was shooting was blue , but the crests of the waves were an iridescent pink! In front army lens was one ora new breed of color fitters, which can change a scene from one color to another by rotat­

ing the front element. These and o ther special fi lters can give your films spectacular color and light

effects, enhance the natural light­ iog ofa scene or let you take shots you wouldn't otherwise be able to. Fi lters can solve practical prob­ lems, as well as let you have some creati ve fun.

The filter I was using for the water scene was a red-b lue filter wh ich lets you color the world with a deep red su nset effect , move to lighter and lighter reds and then into increasingly deeper shades of blue. Atthe midpoint, the scene appeared as nature intended­ except for the unusual appearance ofcertain reflective surfaces such as the pink waves. T his is due to the two polarizcrs which make up the filter. SpiralOne call s these Colorfiow filters and Tiffen terms them VarieD/or (see manufac­ turers' addresses at end of this Photos (Iell to right); A red-blu e Colorfl ow filter puts iridescent pink hig hli ghts 011 a blue ocean . A circ ular defractioll pattero sur· rou nds a cand le flame us ing a Color Trix filt er. A purple Vibraco lor filter pa in ts but­ tercups red and grass purple. Va ri ab le color filters CIUI change a scene such as this ocean front from onecolor to a nother.


article). You can get them in red­ green, blue-yellow, red-yellow and red-blue. These are the bi­ color variety . There are also single color filters that will go from deli­ cately pale to deep shades of red , orange , yellow or green with a turn of t he ring. You'll need a sunny day or fast film s uch as Ekta­ chrome 160 when using these amazing filte rs. They cut out a considerable amount oflight at their maximum settings where color is the richest.

with fringes or bursts of color. Filming with dark backgrounds works best to emphasize the color, You'tl want to experiment with your len s at various foca l lengths and the fitter rotated at various angle s. You might even s hoot with two filte rs at the same time . Hollo, Kalt, Sam igon, Spiratone and Tif­ fen make one or more glass­ mounted variet ies. Edmund Scien­ tific sells inexpensive sheet s of "Cotor Burs t" grating that you can cut and mount in a filter holder ormattebox,

"Filters can solve

You can add color to a picture by introducing a color filter , but you haven't seen anything until you've tried Spiratone's Vibracolor fil­ ters. Spira tone makes these in aqua blue and rose red, but wait till

practical problems as well as let you have some creative fun." These are but a few of the many spec ial effects filters a vailable to the filmmaker. By "special e f­ fects" I mean that these are not the ordinary, essential filters that, for example , let filmmakers use in­ door film in sunlight or eliminate the ghastly effect caused by fluorescent lights. They are crea­ tive , unusual tools-some that en­ hance nature or overcome the limi­ tations ofoptics, and some that border on gimmickry. Many spectacu lar effects can be done with holographic diffra ction filters. With these, you point your camera toward a brightly illumi­ nated subject, and surround it wit h circles, spokes or lines of spectral colors, depending on the type of filter you've chosen. There 's even one that will produce several im­ ages of the subject , coupt ing them


muc h clearerthan the bac kgro und . T he double fog filte r helps keep the appearance of the near subject in keeping with the rest of the pic­ ture. For distance sho ts, however, the double fog is not as realist ic. So you may fi nd you rselfswitchi ng back and forth between fog and double fogs if yo u can' t keep ev­ erything at least ten feet away.

you use the purple! I saw yellow objects tu m a luminous red , as I fi lmed rich red butterc ups nest led in deep purple grass. T he colors were enough to inspire a whole fi lm! J' ve also tested some more practi· ca l filt ers-prac tical in the se nse that they enhance reali ty, not alter it , They are, nonetheless, exci ti ng to work with. F og fil ters, fo r example, are espec iall y useful . I love the et hereal look ofa land­ scape bathed in fog, but fog is not always available when I want to fi lm it. For years, fi lmmakers have re lied o n fog fil ters to give the look they needed, eve n aft er the sun has burn ed off the early morn ing mist. These filt ers simul ate Mother N a­ ture best when they are used on an overcast day. or at least when there is no bright sunshine to de­ st roy the ill usion . Tiffen and Harrison fog filt ers are made in graduated densities. with the highest numbe r fog fi lter ap­ proaching a pea soup effe ct. If that 's no t suffic ient , you can al­ ways combine two filters . Al­ though you can pretty much see the effect you ' ll get, if the scene is cri tical you shou ld run some tests to de termine how muc h filtration you' ll need for a spec ific lighting situation, fi lm stoc k and lens foc al length .

Fog fi lters have anot her, and very beautifu l use . In brightl y lit situa­ tio ns, and espec iall y with backlit subjects, these fi lters cause the b right areas to Hare and add a romantic glow. T he effec t cer­ tainl y doesn ' t look anythi ng like a foggy scene. For this reason. when us ing a fog filt er. be careful not to pan from diml y lit areas to bright ly lit ones, or the effect offog will be de stroyed.

"Filter s can give your

films spectacular color

and light effects,

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Have you eve r wanted to photo­ graph an object fro m a few feet away whi le keeping the dista nt bac kgrou nd in focus'? Even wi th a wide-angle lens at a maxim um ex­ posure setting, the depth offield is too limiting to accom pl ish this. The solution is asplirjiefd le ns attachment si milarto a close-u p lens. An ordi nary close-up lens wi ll let you foc us on a subject close to the ca mera. How c lose depend s

on its stre ngth. rated in d iopters. A split fiel d lens. o n the other hand , is actuall y a close-up le ns cut in half. mounted in a rotatable ring, so yo u can have bot h a near and far field of focus. To use it, yo u fi rst foc us the came ra on the di stan t subject th rough the glass less part of the fi lter . Th en you focus on the near objec t by moving the ca mera bac kward and for\.Vard until the subject is sharp. As with any close- up filming. you should stead y the camera on a tripod. There are a couple o frequ irements you should observe when usi ng a split fi eld attac hment . The edge of the glass splitti ng the lens should be positioned so it co inc ides with an area in your sce ne that has very little de tail. O therwise the out-of­ foc us region along this edge will be conspicuous. If your exposu re read ing isfl80r higher, there will be only a smal1 out-of-focus area, where near and far images overl ap. O n the othe r hand , if th e le ns is wide o pen atfl2, fo r example, the out-of-foc us area may be large enough to be objectionable. Don't be put off by these fe w precau­ tions: the attac hments are well wort h using, I once fi lmed a dog­ wood blossom 20 inches fro m the camera, along with a waterfa l1 7S feet away-with both in foc us. If you want to have fun, try the ci rcu lar and paral1el m,tftipfe image filter s fro m Spiratone , Tif­ fen and Viv itar. Ifo ne image is good. then two, three ... eve n six may be bett er. You can get effects like a sharp image in the center of the pictu re wit h slight ly dimmer su rroundi ng images, or a sharp image on half the fra me with up to five images o f the subject o n the ot her half. I film ed a di stant boat wi th a parallel type fil ter, and as I panned the camera, the secondary images of t he boat disappeared o ne by o ne into the ocean.

Th ere are alsodollblefog fi lters. These do not refer, as one would expect, to double strength filt ers. They are designed to be used when the subject you're fi lming is close to the came ra . Regular fog fi lters tend to render a close-up object SUPER·S FILMAKER


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My favorite multiple image filt er is Spiratone's S ixshooter, which give s agenuine kaleido scope ef­ fect when you rotate it, es pecially when shooting a close-up object. All of the multiple image filters gi ve t he best re sults when used with a lens focal length ofl5mm or more , and when the subject is well lit again st a darker background.

Super-8 fi lm.

Before buying an y fi lter, fin d out what size your lens will accept. The manufacturer of your camera may indicate that the lens will take a specific size filter , but sometime s these figures are wrong. C heck it out with you r camera dealer. T he de aler can measure the le ns exactly and try various size filter s, or perhap s s upply you with an Points oflight from candles or ring. Knowi ng the exact adapter sequined costume s can be made size is essential if you order your dazzling with the use of a star filt er. T here are varietie s t hat pro­ filters b y mail. duce fo ur-, six- or eight-po inted Whene ver you take your camera stars, and you can even use two out to shoot , bring along a variety fi lters in combination to do uble the of these s peci al effects filt ers. number of point s. Star fi lt ers are T hey may help sol ve some lighting made with a gridwork of lin es problems, and th ey' re sure to add etched into the glass. At one mil­ co lor and sparkle to you r fil ms. 0 limeter apart , t hese lines ca use light to fla re a bit and give the For more information on fi lters, sc ene a romantic look. With great­ w rite to: er spacing, the contrast of the Edmund Scientific Co,

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PART ONE OF A THREE PART SERIES LENNY LIPTON 3-D filmmaking in Super-S! Sound fanta stic? In a way, it is. People have described the three­ dimensional image I've produced o n the screen as "Iooking out a w indow." Forms. shapes, te x­ tures are experienced in ways tha t are closer to our act ual perception of the world. And yet a nyone can make their own 3- D films with econom ical Super-Sequ ip ment. I know-I 've been do ing it fo r the past year a nd a half.

Depth Perception a nd 3-D Movies This is the first part of a three part report to the readers OfSUPER-S FILMAKER. It is essentially a how-to-do-it article, desc ribing tools I used and techniques I leamed in my research. I be lieve any sk illed filmmaker , familia r with double-system sound techniques and possessing good stereoscopic depth perception can master the form. This account , because of the nalUreofspace limitations, mu st be brief. A nyone inte rested in a fuller discuss ion of ste reoscopic filmma king, may want to read my book, Three­ Dimensional Filmmaking, to be publis hed next yearby Th e U ni­ versity o f Calif6 mia Press (Berkeley , Cal if. 94720). By three-d imensional filmmak ing, I 'm talking about motion pictures that evoke the unique sensation ca lled stereop.)· i.~. or "sol id see­ ing,"' w hich requires two eye s able to fuse left and r ight eye images into o ne integrated depth image. There are other depth cues, be­ s ides stereops is, a nd these were firs t clearly e nunciated by 30

Leonardo da Vinci a nd other Re­ naissance painters five centuries ago. They include what psychol­ ogis ts call illlerposilioll. perspec­ live andllerilll perspecTive, to name o nly three out of more than a halfdozen. You know tha t your friend is between you and the TV set becau se he 's blocking off part of the pic ture-th at's interposi­

"Anyone can make their own 3-D films with economical Super-8 equipment. " tion. You 've leamedto look at the world in terms of receding straight lines which, in the case of railroad track s. seem to meet at the horizon-pe rspect ive. When you see distant hill s through a vei l of haze, they tend to look fa r away-aerial pers pective. These mOl/ocII/ar depth c ues (whic h you do not need two eyes to pe rcei ve) comprise the major input we need for judging depth. While we've had film s wit h sound a nd color, show n o n giant screens and in wide aspect rat ios fo r many years, s tereoscopic or 3- D cinema has been essent ially dormant . Co lo r, so und , giant and w ide­ sc reen as well as stereo fi lms were all demonst rated in the first years afterthe invention of motion pic­ tures. There are two esse ntial rea­ sons why stereo isn't w ith us to­ day: tec hnical snags, and the fact that o the r depth cues, s uc h as the monocu la r c ues mentioned above.

are so well conveyed by the mo­ tion picture medium that they tend to make the use of stereoscopy less than imperative. Nevenheless, the se nse o f depth human be ings get from having two eyes is an ext remely pleasurable and important se nse . Think of how difficult it would be for people to work on precision mac hines. fro m camera mechan isms to elec tro n­ ics, without stereopsis. Stereops is has made a basic contribution to human intelligence , and if you want to get dow n to the nitt y gri tty. s tereo movies a re fu n ! Stereops is wasn' t clearly under­ s tood to be a separate sense until Sir Charles Wheatstone publi shed his report on his invention of the "stereoscope"' in 1838. Mostof us are fami lia r wi th the popu la r mod­ ern descendant ofWheatstone's inve ntion , the GAF" Viewmas­ te r," w hic h e mploys seven stereo views mounted on a circ ular card. The s tereosco pe presents the left eye with a photo laken by the left lens ofa stereo camera, and the right eye wi th a photo ta ke n by the right lens. T he mi nd is able to combine the left and right photos into a si ngle s tereoscopic image. When projecting stereoscopic films on a screen for an audie nce. the si mple solu tion o ffered by the s tereoscope for getting the appro­ priate image to the left eye a nd righteyeisof no use. l fthei mages a re projected side by side, as they are in a s tereoscope, then bulk y and costly pri smatic "eye glasses"' would be needed. Such devices SUPER·S F1LMAKER

restrict head movement , which can lead to a great deal of a udience d iscomfort. But there is a good so lution to the problem-the use of polarized light for a selection device. I w ill discuss this in more detail later on. At first , the requirements for stereoscopic fil mmaking sound simple : film left and right eye views, a nd project these so that the left eye sees its view and the right eye it s view, H owever, there are a number of comp lex problems that have to be solved first. Forone thing, I was faced with a lack of suitable ste reoscopic equipment. I decided to tackle the problem by using adouble film, mechan ical­ electron ic approach rather than a s ingle film , optical approach . Let me explain, The design and fabr i­ cation of an opt ical system that would record both left and right images on a single film might have cost hundreds of thousands ofdol­ lars. But by synchronizing two came ras and two projectors , re­ cording left and right images on se pa rate films, I was able to spe nd only a few thousand dollars to obtain the desired re sults . During the first nine months of my study, J vowed that I wou ld call it quits if J could not produce stereoscopic images that w ere as good as the best images one can see through a stereoscope. It re­ mained to be seen w hether or not the Super-8 machines a t my dis­ posal could do thejob. I fo und that they can, and with them you can create high quality stereoscopic images that are pleasant to look at for pro longed periods.


and teft images for

and for experimentation by the creative filmmaker , to name a few areas of interes t. It' s also impor­ tant to know that al l of the compo­ nents in the system can be discon­ nected and used individually for conventional filmma king. Recently , Super8 Sound (95 Har­ vey St., Cambridge , Mass. 02140 decided to offer my complete 3-0 filmmaking system. This is the first time that a ste reoscopic motion picture system offering full crea­ tive controls has been made avail­ able to the small format filmmaker. You can w rite to them fo r more information .

The Stereoprojector and 3-D Projection It may seem peculi ar that I'm going to consider projection before photography, but there are two good reasons forth is. In the firs t place, projection can make or The overall sys tem employs two break three-dimensional filmmak­ electron ically interlocked Nizo 561 cameras (wh ich J call my Mark ing. Poor project ion has been the major reason why stereoscopic 2a cameras), or Minoha XL-400 hasn't gained an ac­ filmmaking cameras (Mark 3 presently under development) , and two mec ha ni­ cepted place in the techno logy of cinema. Second, the con ditions of call y interlocked Eumig sound projectors. You can use a conven­ projection actually determine the technique of photography , With­ tional two sprocket synchronizer out clearly understandi ng the pro­ editing bench to edit the two fi lms jection system , it is impossible to for 3-0 projection. The total cost do good ste reoscopic photog­ forthis system is about $4,000, using t he N iz0561 's, and should be raphy. somewhat less with the Minolta The projectors used in the system XL-400 's. are made in the Eumig facto ry. My techniques cou ld open up Since they make most of t he Bolex ste reoscopic films to a vast range sound machines, these can also be of users, This is the ideal system e mployed. As far as the Eumig line for presenting medical proce­ itself is concerned , you' ll achieve dures , train ing fi lm s of all kinds adequate illumination for a I me ter SUPER·S FILMAKER

wide image w ith the Eumig 802 or 807 model projectors. But you'll probably need models 810, 8200r 826 for large r screens . Th e machines run in sy nchronization us ing a kit by Super8 Sound, origi­ nally devised for image-sound interlock projection (running a film in one projector in sy nc with a fullcoat magnetic sound track in the other). Super8 Sound has made a s tereoscop ic ve rsion of th is inter­ lock, based on my adaptation of their original design . One mac hine sits above the other, resting on a flat wooden platform that bolts to the lower projector's carry ing handle (see Figure I) . In add it ion to the platform, t he 3-0 kit from Super8 Sound in­ cludes timing gears which replace the Eum ig's original inchi ng knobs , and a timing belt that couples the projectors together. One of the gears is fitted with a simple clutch device for decou­ pIing the projectors for establish­ ing sync or for rew ind. Don't be put offby the fact that one projecto r is highe r t han the other. It may seem peculiar, be­ cause both our eyes an d ~he lenses of the ste reocame ra are in horizon­ tal al ignment. But this project ion arrangement will successfully project overlapping images that coinc ide well w ithin necessary tol­ erances . Havingone projector above the other simply permits easy access to the controls of both machines. You can purchase both projectors a nd the necessary kit for adapting 31

Fij;lure 2: A PQk ofste reol:lasses worn by 3-D viewers se lects th e right and lert ima ge to the QPpropriQtc eye.

Figure 3: SMPTE test film s such as the one

above are used to align the images from the

two projectors.

the mach ine s directly from Super8 Sound, or you c<'n sim ply pur­ chase the kit by itself. or with one projector. Projectors purchased from Super8 Sound will have a digital pu lse switc h added fo r syn­ chronous running with their Super8 Sound Recorder models I and II. Using the kit to adapt projectors you own is a very sim­ pl e operation. If you already own a double-band projector, Super8 Sound wi ll modify you r platform to stereoscopic specification for a nominal fee. The double-band stereo kit also includes two polari zer filters which are mounted directly over the projection lenses (snapping into holes originally meant for a rear-screen viewing device), an SM PTE alignment film and several pairs of stereoglasses (see Figure 2). During projection, the Eum ig mac hines may be stopped or run in reverse , without losing sync. The mac hines may also be used to mix down two sound chann els to one track when running in sync wit h a magnetic fi lm (ful lcoat) recorde r. These projectors can also serve as dual screen projectors, keeping left and right images in sync on adjacent screens for multimedia presentations . They are also per­ fect for c hangeover operation, for uninterrupted screenings ofany length. And while in the stereo­ scopic mode, t he projectors can provide two channe l sound. 32

After you've se t up the double­ band stereoprojector, the next im­ portant step is to set up the screen properly. A Kodak "Ektalite" sc reen, either in it s original 40- by 40-inch form or a modified 40- by 54- inch model fab ricated by TIW ( P.O. Box 594, Rochester, N.Y. 14602), must be used, fo r reasons I' ll give shortly. Light is reflected from this screen in a highly direc­ tional manner, and poor adju st­ ment fo r agiven screening s pace will result in ad im image. It is poss ible to adjust the screen­ projector relationship to max imize the light from both projectors. Alignment instructions come packed with the screen . Next , you'll ha ve to adjust the projectors' zoom lenses, so that they produce images of exactly the same size. Without film in the machines, project the beams onto the screen and zoom the lenses so that the images are exactly the same size. You'll also need to adjus t the elevation feet so that the images perfectly coincide. You then use the SM PTE test films that come with the kit (see Figure 3) to help fine IUne this first approxima­ tion . Project both SM PTE films in perfect focus. You want to wind up with two images projected on top ofeach other and al igned as per­ fectly as possible. Not only s hould the images be exactly the same size, but they should also have their vertica l and horizontal edges parallel. When this is done, t hey will be in what I call the crossed lellsaxes (e LA ) mode. In ot her words , the optical axis of the lenses must perfect ly cross at the surface of the screen to achieve C L. A (see Figure 4). On the test fi lms, you' ll notice the line marked M = .050(Figure 3) . T his is your key to sett ing up the lenses. Use the frame line control ofone of the projeclOrs to rai se one of the M =.050 lines, so that it is right above the other foreasy comparison. Are the lines marked by the arrow s the same length ? If not , adjust one of the zoom lenses so they are. Are the lines parallel? Ifnot, you can tilt the lOp projec­ tion platform by adjusting th~ ele­ vation of th e leg ho ldi ng it up unti l the lines are para llel. Or you may have to add paper sh ims under the projector legs . Now adjust the frame line controls so that the M = .050 lines coincide , or mo re

properly, so that the centercircu­ larte st patte rns coincide. You do thi s by laterally shifting or slightly rotating the top projector un til the CLA condition is achieved. T he res ulting twin image should look as ifit is being projected by o ne machine. On ly at the extreme corners of the screen should you be able to find any doubling o f the images indicating that two pro­ jectors are at work . Make sure the image bleeds onto the black border ofthe screen an inch ortwo to provide cri sp edges. Otherw ise , stereoscopic projection can be quite annoying . After the projectors are aligned in t he CLA mode, you must put the proper tension o n the timing belt as explained in the man ual that comes packed with the double­ band stereo kit. The next step is to place the sheet polari zers over the projection lenses (see Figure I) . Their holders are marked "left" and "right ," respectively, and should be placed on the appropriate machine (the left is the higher projector). The fi lters are neutral in color, making it possible to screen films in color. I stress thi s because I' m always asked why the filters aren't green and red . That's another syste m, qu ite obsolete in the present con­ text. The purpose of the projector polarizers and viewer polarizers (stereoglasses-Figure 2) is to transm it or se lect the right image to the right eye, and the left image to the left eye. This is the same thing that is accomp lished in an ordinary stereosco pe . like the modern Viewmasterdevice. The polarizing material fo r each eye of the glasses is set at an angle (45 and 135 degrees) that matches the pro­ jector polarizers and, thus, se lects the appropriate right o r left image fort he eye . T he sc reen is a crucial part of the projection optical system. The light refle cted by the screen mus t preserve the polari zat ion charac­ terist ics determined for it by the sheet polarizers mounted on the projector lenses . If the screen de­ polari zes the incident ligh t, t hen the image meant for the left eye only, for example, will pass thro ugh the right filter of the stereoglasses c reating aghost imSUPER·S FlLMAKER

age. Many screen surfaces will result in strong ghost image, or "cross talk." However, a screen with an alu minum surface, like the Kodak Ektalite, produces essen­ tiall y no cross talk. The type of screen you use is also important because the sheet polarizers lose about three­ quarters ofeach proj ector's start­ ing illumin at io n. We need to boost the avail able illumination by four times to get back to where we would have been without polariz­ ers. The Ektalite has very high gain , some three o r four times the gain of a beaded o r lenticular screen, and the re sult is agood, bright image without ghosting.

bands. If you use aclapboard or slate during shoot ing , simply put the left and right bands on the Supe rS Sou nd motorized edit ing bench , and, by observing the closed posit ion of the clapper in the viewer, adjust the film s until sy nc is achieved.

edi ting benc h, and the yel low grease pencil mark s serve as a guide for sy nching the bands . When you're read y to project, both film s have to be focused per­ fec tl y. This can be done by run­ ni ng both projectors, but by turn­ ing off one lamp so that the othe r lens may be foc used. You can also set focus with the" project ionist' s helper," a special double pair of stereoglasses. These are made by cutting a pair of cardboard viewers in half, and then taping the halves to either en d of another pair. By looking thro ugh the left end , only the left image is seen, and th rough the right end, t·he right image is seen. By looking through the mid­ dle a stereosco pic image may be seen .

It's also poss ible to find sy nc with the projectors if shots haven't been slated during shooting, which may be the most conve nient way to gO'while shooting on the run. In th is case , you declutch the proj­ ectors and adjust by hand , crank­ ing one machine clockw ise or co unterclockwise until sync is es­ tablished . Having the lamps in the "off ' o r standby setting as before wi ll provide enough illumination Screening the 3-D Film Now we'll turn our attention to the forthe Ektalite screen, so you may actual rout ine of screening a observe when the pairs of ste reo It is also exceed ingly important frames are in sync. To make sure stereofilm . Let's suppose you that you se t the frame li ne controls have a completed film ora work in acc urate ly. Corresponding left progress with appropriate sy nc and right image eleme nts must be "People have marks. Punched hole sync mark s placed at the same ho rizontal are best, and may be obse rved by level. If they are not aligned, they described the three­ looki ng direct ly through eac h lens will cause discomfort and eye dimensional image wit h the projector plugged in , but strain , since o ne eye is forced to with the lamps off. T he la mps tum upward with respect to the receive a low voltage standby cur­ I've produced on the other. Once the frame line controls rent in the "ofr' position-enough screen as ' looking out have been adj usted , you should light to obse rve the sy nc marks. not need to readjust them often. a window.' " With the inte rlock declutched , Make su re you align the images for each band may be jockeyed into the central portion of the picture. position by running the motoror Whateverthe perceptual by hand inching. Once you can mechanism involved, the com­ observe both sync marks, clutch pari so n of these superimposed im­ the projectQrs together. It 's possi­ ages can be tricky , and care mu st ble to have the sh utters of these be taken with this adj ustment. It machines running to wit hin IOde­ may take a couple of shot s to grees out o fth e 3607deg ree inter­ tweak the co ntrols just so. mittent cycle of pull down and projection, by carefully adjusting Finally, I oug ht to mention that the timing belt and by observi ng "Bonum" reels and cans, wh ich , . the shutters of both projectors. My ,' clip togethe r, are perfectly suited expe rimen ts show that acc uracy to " to the needs of the medium. These ""• 100 degrees is al l that's actually are imported by Eumig, and are Screen needed fo r project ion. avai lable from most Super-8 re­ When threadi ng up your film s, tailers. The cans have four circ ular loc king de vices, similar to clothing make sure that the left-hand fi lm is snaps. Any numbe r of same size on the left mac hine, and so o n, to cans can be clipped toget her to prevent " pseudoscopic" o r fa lse Lens axis images that can be disturbing to store reels. Forexample, three can the eye. I use a system ofo ne hole be clipped together to hold left and right image reels and a reel of punc hed at the very head ofthe magnetic sound. right film, and two at the head of the left to keep things straighL You now have the basic informa­ Above , I've assumed th at your tion needed to get started with footage has been sy nched , but it stereoscopic projection. Of may not be when it returns from course, you have nothing to pro­ processing. The came ras do not j ect until you shoot so me stereo* Figure 4: You must align the images from start and stop at the same instant, scopic footage. That's what we'll both projectors so that the axes of the lenses a nd there may be a few fra mes di sc uss next month. (© 1977. meet a t the surface orthesc reen. This Is the difference between left and right "crossed lens axes" or CLA point. Ll'I1IIY Lip/Oil) 0




Its for the serious film maker who wonts a lot more than a home-movie camero, without spending a lot more.



Nlzo 2056 sound

- -' "

V• .



The new Braun-Nizo 2056. It's the Iirst and only one of its kind. It has automatic controls that gently introduce the serious film maker to its enormous creative potentiaL Iloffersev,' r/lhinQ your creative impulses


could demand. It does cost


to manua l e xposure Ustop you w o nt. Click the gain phone sensitivity 0 1any of three positio ns,or set levels manually. sound-setting switch for a one-second


cameras, but a lot less than the cinematic heavy artillery

Simple yet sophisticated. Expla ining the Brau n-Nizo 2056 sound camera takes a lot o f words

But look a ga in . With just a fe w moments to plan your shoot· ing , another world opens up. Turn the speed dia l to 24 fps for increased quality, lock the automatic rea d·


The big switch. '1 h?O ded T •

delay? Never heard of Ihem? Thai's o other ca mera has them. Here's w hy the Braun-Nizo 2056 does: If yo u plan on more than casual editing , you know it can get tr icky with sound-on-film, since sound is recorded on film o n a magnetic stripe 18 frame s in advance of its corresponding image . Whe re do you cut 10 insert a differenl a ngle, a new sce ne? At the e nd of a precedi n g image? At the sound s tart o f th e follow ing shot? Confusing . A nd e ithe r way you lose o ne second o f sound or image at the cut. The Bra u n -Nizo c h anges a ll th at. It s un iq ue

---"" 'e- ·_ .- ­

and pictures. Using it is easier than reading about it.

Take a look. For rapid-breaking documentary action, all controls can be qUickly snapped to the Red Dot positions. This gives you automatic light metering. automatic sound

leveling, and insta nt picture and sound start at 18 ips. Camera loa d ed w ith a super-B sound cartridg e, microphone a t the ready (in a convenient case at yo ur side), and all you do is press the e lectro-magnetic soft relea se . You' re now making s traightfo rward s yn­ chronized sound movies.


aUla-leveling p ress the sound delay.


sound-edit switch lets you i ncrease control by delaying the sound exactly one second between shots. That silent initial second of sound can then beleft in or edited out when yOll insert culaways, reaction shots. or whatever YO;lf creative instincts demand. But

whether you ChOO38 instant sound-start or one-second delay, sound begins cleanly in sync with its image.

Gee whiz but no wow. There's no warm-up "wow: no fluctuating levels of

volume. That's because the Braun-Nizo sound system is controlled independently - by a molor separate from the transport mechanism. There are, in fact, lour

molors housed within the comero: one for the sound system, one for film transport (at six different speeds),

one for automatic exposure, and one for two-speed power zooming. The electro n ics in the Braun-Nizo 2056 are so advanced that seven in tegrated circuits, 30 transis­ tors, 33 diodes, and three film circuits are compressed into its compact housing.

No fidgety godgetry.


Yet there is no gadgetry. Only purposeful controls designed to put on film what you have in mind. For instance, a central button on the sound-levelling dial cuts the audio while you continue filming silently, if you choose. For silent shooting, an automatic setting for time-lapse cinemaphotography, a built-in inter­ valometer that allows you to program single-frame exposures every two, five, and IS seconds. There's even a button to fade out sound and picture. Nine and 36 ips settings fo r speeding up or slowing down a silent shot, plus the inbetween speeds of 16¥.! and 25 fps (European 1V broadcast standards), plus single-frame for animation work. The 24 fps setting is for semi-slow motion or for smooth, steady panoramic shots. When using one microphone or two a t a time (via Braun-Nizo's special split cab le). or even when connecting a tape recorder or other line source, you're always aware of the input. Sound is monitored t!'ir .:>ugh an earphone simply by glancing at a three-stage LED display in the finder. And while you're glancing, check your working aperture, filter position, and film-run signal ~oll clearly arranged. There's no cluttering up the big, bright reflex viewing screen. The uniquely angled grip, swing-oul, built-in shoulder pad, and eye-piece form a tripod effect for rock-steady handling. The final image formed is made by an B-to-I (7 toS6mml f/1 .4 Schneider Macro-Varlagon motorized

zoom lens. Sharp, fast, well-corrected whether you're in tight for screen-filling macro-closeups, or zooming out to infinity. There's another -""" Braun-Nizo super-B comera, the 1048. It has a 6-to-1 (8 to 48mml flI ,4 Schneider Macro-Varlagon '. , ­ motorized zoom lens and film iny speeds of 18 and 24 ips. You get just ~ about everything you get in the 2056 including the Red Dot system except onesecond delay for editing, sound-mute button or intervalometer. You also get a lower price.

We've saved the best for last. Braun-Nizo cameras help you create great films, so Braun has a projector that makes them look great: The Braun Visacustic Stereo 10Cl0 Super-8. It combines the most desired qualities of a high-performance projector with those of a top-quality tape recorder. Sharp, crisp reproduction is accomplished with an ultra-fast fiLl Will-Travenon zoom lens (\4.5mm to 26mml with a highly efficient halagen lamp system. Deluxe features include: four projection speeds, sing le- frame illumination, and pause control for editing. As a tape recorder, it has high-quality stereo sound reproduction with two amplifiers and a built-in detachable speaker system. It offers unlimited ways of adding sound to the dual magne­ tic soundtrack stripes. If you're serious about going beyond home movie cameros, without spending a lot more, ask your dealer to demonstrate these new Braun-Nizo products. T.A.G. Photographic, Inc. 800 Shames Drive, Westbury, N. Y 11590



With the TlTLE·MASTER, you can film mov ing titles across a stationary background (photos, slides, illustra­ tions , posters. etc.). o r film stat ionary titles across a moving background . Us ing rear projection . you can even move titles across your moving fi lm. T hree levels ornon-reflective glass and motorized ro!1er~ make the T itle-Master so versatile. T he top and bottom leve ls of glass are stationary. while the middle level includes a transparent tape wh ich moves hori­ zontall y or vertically. You can place the device flat to use non-adhesive material o r set it upright to take advan-

How well does your camera sw im? If its breast stroke leaves something to be des ired, tuck your filmmaking equipment in a waterproof. buoyant SPORTS POUCH before you hit the beach. You may drown. but your cam­ era, film and accessories will float· safely. T hedust-proofvinyl carrying case inflates by mouth-power, provid­ ing air-cushioning to protect against bumps and bruises. T he pouch comes with a de tachable shoulderstrap in bright yellow (for visibili ty on the water orin the woods) and basic black (evening wear). When deflated, the pouch becomes flat and com pact. Available from Sima Products Corp., 7574 N. Li ncoln Ave., Skokie, Ill . 60676. Li.l"t price: $14.95.

tage of rea r projection possibilit ies. Animation and special effects are also made easier by the T itle- Master. A landsca pe can move past a toy car or under a model plane. With rear projec­ tion, an animated character can move across a live action background. A vailable from Preibisch & Uhlig. 753 Pfo rzheim . D urlacher Str. 39/4Q. West G ermany. List price: Title-Master: $185 (pl us $19 for postage and handling or $47 ifsh ipped air-mail). Designed for use with any Super-S camera . the UNIVERSAL 808 FLUID HEAD we ighs in at a svelte 2.8 pounds. Special features include a self-adjusting (Look, l\1 a, no knobs!) breakaway free pan. a lock tension device for safe locking in any tilt position and a quick-leveling claw-ball and cavity system (when used with Ihe 808 TRIPOD,)The fluid head and tripod permi t smooth pan-and-tilt movements in a temperature range from -4 degrees Fahrenheit to + 167 degrees without changing flu ids . A camera mounting screw enables the head to fit ball or flat-top tripods . Available from Cinema Products Corp .. 2037 Granvil le Ave., Los Angeles. Calif. 90025. List price: 808 fluid head: $150: head and tripod : $300.


T he biggest cover-up since Watergate. MP-I COVER-ALLS will protect your projector from dust and smoke. T he see-through plastic covers fit mosl Super-S projectors and can be silk­ screened with your logo orother in­ fo rmation . Cover-Ails are made of flexible, heavy-duty vinyl. Available from C reative Exchange, Inc. 5408 N . Main 51., Dayton, Ohio 45415, List price: $6.50. CIRCLE IN FOCARD 28




No man (or beast) shall put asunder film joined by a 2218 ultrasonic splicer. High frequcncy sound wclds polyester-based film without tape. cement or sc raping the emulsion. Some acetate-based film splicing is also possible. Splicing time from film insertion to fi lm removal is le ss than 10 seconds with the semi-automatic splicer. The final weld is almost as thin as a single stripoffilm. according to

So you want 10 shoot double-system Super-8. With the CRESTA FULL­ COATER. you can tran sfer sound re­ corded on location to fullcoat (perfo­ rated magnetic tape), wh ich runs on the unit' s modified Phillips 45 11 recl­ to-reel recorder. Picture and sound can be edited together, frame for frame and le ngth for length . Sync is main­ tained by varying the speed of the F ullcoaterto match incoming pulses. Full two-chan nel. stereo sound re­ cording .md playback make the Full­ coatcr especiall y versati le. A special "Slip Sync" feature allows yo u to move the sound track forward or backward in relation to the picture while funning in sync . Sync lamps ind icate the amount of displacement . You can also lock the F ullcoater at speeds of 18 or 24 frames per second (fps) or vary the speed in a ra nge between 15 and 30fps. A vailable from


the manufacturers. who will send a sam ple splice to you for inspection. Shoot plent y of Single-8 but start sav­ ing YOUT pennies : ultrasonic is also ultraexpensive. Available from Mctro/ Kalvar Inc., 745 Post Road, Darien, Conn . 06820. List price: $1570.

Your cutting room floor looks like a bad day at the spaghctti factory . There are more clot hespins on the wall than o n the line. Whcn you look for your big Godzilla Eats Indianapolis scene. all you can find arc outtakes of yo ur mother-in-law's birthday party. Get organized before Godzilla Eats Mother-in·Law . Plastic SCENE SELECTORS hold up to 30 shots in numbered sequence for easy organiza­ tion. The self-adhesive backing on the Scene Selectors sticks to the wall above yo ur edi ti ng bench. Super-8 or Regular-8 film slips in and out of the pince rs without scraping. Available fl'Om Halmar Enterprises. P.O. Box 793. Niagara Falls. Ont. . Canada L2E 6 V6. List price: S2.50. CIRCLE INFOCARO 31


Cinema Sync Systems. Inc .. 14261 Ave. Mendocino. Irvine. Calif. 92714. List ("ice: $1.695. CIRCLE INFOCAR030

If yo u have double-system dreams and a si ngle-system budget. the SUPER 8 EDITING KIT will transfer you r sound track to \4-inch. pul sed. magne­ tic tape, using the kit' s strobe nasher to keep everything in sy nc . Once the sound and picture arc sep.1rated , you can edit one without disturbing the other. Tape and film can be repeatedly started and stopped and run in reverse for short periods without losing sync. A fter edit ing. you transfe r t he sound back to stripe. Voi la! [fyou already own an editor/viewer. an ordinary . sprocketcd sound projec tor and al­ most any reel-to-reel stereo tape re­ corder. you're ready for poorman's double-system sync sound . Available from Super 8 Tape Product s. 1168 S. WaShington St.. Denver, Colo. 80210. Li.\·t prit:l': $30. CIR CLE INFOCARO 32


THRILLSr CHILLSr LAUGHS Enjoy Great Movies in your own home!

Entertain your family and friends

with these Columbia Pictures Classics.

Super 8, Sound and Snent, D/Wand Color, on 200' and 400' Reels.



400 ' Reels_50UNO _ B W

400' Reels_SOUND_BIW and COLOR

SCREAM OF FEAR. Susan THREE DARK HORSES $trasberg, Chri stopher Lee, (1952). Po lit ical satire. The Ann Todd. Murder is calcu­ Stooges are drafted as dele­ lated to drive young heiress gates to a political conven­ insane. 8 /W (MM ·1029) tion by a corrupt party boss. $39.95 (ST-4014) 539. 95 TWENTY MIL.lION MILES TO MICRO PHONIES (1945). The MYSTERIOUS ISLAND. TH REE SAPPY PEOPLE EARTH. A zoologist and his Slooges , clowning In a re­ Michael Craig, Gary Merrill, (1939). The Stooges, pretend· granddaughter open a co rding stu dio, are mistaken Joan Greenwood . Five men ing to be psychiatrists, are sealed container, releas ing a fo r a famou s singi ng trio. escape from a Confederate hired by a rich man to clawed mons ter. B/W (MM(ST-l026) $39.95 pri son in a balloon and land examine his nutty wife. (5T­ 1031) $39.95 THREE PESTS IN A MESS on a strange island. COLOR 4002) 539.95 (1945). A gang of swindlers (MM-5034) 549.95 STRAIT-JACKET. Joan Craw­ UNCIVIL WA RRIER5 (1935). mistakenly think the Stooges SON OF OR. JEKYLL. Louis ford , Lelf Erickson . Axe mur­ Majors Du ck, Dodge and have won a sweepstakes. deress released after 22 Hayward , Jody L. awrence. Hide are Union spies sent to (ST-4003) $39.95 uncover Confederate Arm y Son of the infamous Doctor years in pri son returns home HOT STUFF (1956). The and th er e Is a second mur­ secret s. (ST·l022) $39.95 lakes up his father 's experi­ Stooges try to protect a pro­ ments. Btw (MM·1018) 539.95 der. BfW (MM-l003) $39.95 VAGABOND LOAFER (1949). fessor who has developed a The Stooges, e mployed to fix secret rocket fuel formula . 200' Reels - SOUNO_BIW and COLOR the plumbing in a high socI­ IST-4004) 539.95 THE CURSE OF THE MUMEARTH vs THE FLYING et y mansion , fa ll in with a DlITlFUL BUT DUMB (1942). MY' S TOMB. Thrill -chili SAUCERS. Hug h Marlowe group 01 thieves. (5T-4013) Th e Stooges photograph a movie-making at its shockstars In this hair-raiser. Fty539.95 secret ra y gun and wreck Ing best. The Mummy co mes ing saucers invade the earth. havoc throughout the coun­ to life and turns killer. B/W BIW (HF-13) 519.95 try of Vulgaria. (ST·401 0) (HF-1B) $19.95, COLOR (HF$39.95 lBC)$29.95 STRAIT-JACKET. Joan Crawford , Lelf Erickson. Axe mur. HOI POLLOI (1935). A famOllS deress releas ed aller 22 professor b ets a colleague year s in prison return s home Iha t he can teach proper and there Is a second murmanners to three g arbage­ der. BIW (HF·205) $19.95 men. (5T-l025) 539.95 SWEET PIE AND PIE (1941) . Three s ociety women lake p ity and marry the Stooges COLUMBIA PICTURES SUPER 8 FILMS • who are about to be hanged. THE BLACK ROOM. Bori s 711 Fifth Avenue (ST-4007) $39.95 Karloff stars in this early hor­ ror classic, a tale of intrigue • New York, N.Y. 10022 POP GOES THE EASEL and murder. B/ W ( HF-22) (1935). The Siooges run wild • Please send me the films listed. Full payment enClOSed. 519.95 in an artist's studio, throwing • Please add local taxes plus 51 .00 handling cost • clay and materials around 200' Reel s-SILENT like c razy. (ST·l021) $39.95 BIW and COLOR I Name • 200' Reels-SOUNO - BIW BATTLE IN OUTER SPACE.

-- ........... -;..


Earth is attacked by enemy planet, and there ensues a space fight to the death. B/W (HF·16) $8.95, COLOR (HF-16C) 519.95 THE BLACK ROOM . Boris Karloff slars in this early hor. ror classic, a lale of Intrigue a nd murder. B/W (HF·22) $8.95 , COLOR (HF-22C) $19.95

I I •






I I •





STUDIO STOOPS. The Stoog es go to the aid of a beautiful movie starlet - but in the end it's our fr iends who need help. (ST-I2255) 519.95 WE WANT OUR MUMMY. Our friends lake a tax i ride to Egypt to locate a mysterious tomb. They should have stayed at home l (5T-1S) $19.95


zoo m ratio with anfl l.4 tof l i.8 lens speed will fi ll t he bill . O n the can 't fi lm a spec ial s hot because wide-angle en d , t here is a cons id ­ your camera doesn ' t have that one erable d ifference in range be tween essential feature. It' s espec iall y 6mm and Smm . While o n the tele­ aggravating to reali ze you could photo end , there is hardly any have bought a camera with that difference between 70mm and opt io n, if you'd onl y known w hat it 80mm . It is also tr ue that anything was and how you might have longer than 50mm is almost impo s­ s ible to handho ld s teadily. A pow­ wanted to use il. Let 's go over ered zoom that takes 10 seco nds 10 some o ft he features that are com­ mon to t he c urre nt so und cameras . t raverse an 8-to-1 distance wi ll ap ­ pear to have greater zoo m le ngth Let' s see what the manufact urers t han a motor that gets you there in had in mi nd when they incl uded halfthaI t ime . ce rtain featu res. and so me ways inve nt ive fi lmmakers can use these Macro Foc using same features. Specifi call y, let's When the w hole frame is fi lled wi th see wh atl hese feature s can really What a drag it is to find oul that yo u

mean to yo u.

T he Zoom Lens Fo rtunately, in Super-8 we have a c hoice of optics far beyond what was pre vio usly avai la ble to eve n the most sophis ticated profes­ sional film makers . Do you crave t he reach of a 13-to-1 s uper zoo m? Or will a short 9-27mm focal length ans we r your need s? How fa s t s hould the lens be ? You alone can make these dec ision s, but you s hould know that , at least th eoret­ ically, the s horter zooms will tend to be s harper. A nfn maxi mum a pert ure will not allow you to shoot in as low light as anf l l. l , but he re too , quali ty is often sac ri fic ed for greate r s peed. As I said , tho ugh. these generalizations are theoretical. A fa irly long Nikkor, Sc hne ideror E lmo lens wi ll st ill o utpe rform many s horter, slowe r vers io ns. A good rule to follow is to sen le on the s hortest foca l length and slowest aperture that wi ll /lOt limi t your c inematic ex­ press ion. For most ofus, some­ thing between a 5-to-1and IO-to-I SUPER·S FILMAJCtR

"Do you cr ave the r each ofa 13-to-l super zoom? Or will a short 9-27mm foca l length answer your needs? How fast should the lens be?" the image of so mething that' s too s mall to get a good look at in real li fe , we are usuall y impressed . Macro capabil ity, now common to so many Super-Scameras, allows and encourages these dra matic close-ups. In practicalle rms, macro can s how the small print on a ma p fo r a travel film , or let us know preci sely where a tiny spring is inserted in the move ment ofa Swiss watch fo r a tra ining film . Zoom capabil ity mus t be relin­ quis hed w hene ver you want to film in macro , s ince the zoom ring is used for focusing in the macro

sell ing. T here is, however, an al­ te rnat ive 10 the macro le ns th at allows focus ing extre mely close to t he lens w hile retaining fu ll zoom capa bilit y. Separa te and ine xpen­ s ive close-up attachme nts (wh ich are rated in + i , + 2 and + 3 strength s) can be screwed onto the front o f a ca me ra len s like fi lters. T hese attac hments wi ll give you the option of zoom ing from a close-up to an ultra close-up . An offbeat but worthw hile s ide effecl ofbeing able 10 foc us right up to the fro nt lens ele ment, as many mac ro cameras can , is bei ng able to c hec k the le ns fo r du st particles. While th is dust might not be not iced by the naked eye, its pre sence no netheless degrades image quality. Varia ble Speeds Mos t sound cameras do not, at this ti me , offer a great variety of s hoot­ ing speeds. With sound , it 's more important to have an accurate 18 or 24 frames per second (fps) moto r than a "wild " motor that can give you fa s t and slow mot ion at the poss ible sacrific e of precis ion. Many sound cameras offer extra speeds. s uc h as 36 fps-slow mo­ tion , but o nly with sile nt car­ tridges. If 18 fp s is your normal s hooting s peed and you have the o ptio n of s hooting at 24 fps , you can introd uce " kines thetic " slow motion . This is not us ually per­ cei ved by the viewer as an abnor­ mal s peed . but it does have an arres ting effect subcon sc ious ly. Many serious filmm akers today use a mu lt i-s peed s ile nt camera for al! their effec ts, and a sound ca m­ era with o ne or two s peeds for lip sy nc scenes. Th is may be the 39

most prac tical solut ion . Fades and Dissolves Some people never use th e m, wh ile others of us can ' t think of filming without them. Profession­ als have the lab c reate their effect s opt icall y o r from a contact prin t made from a n A and Broiled o riginal. The logic of wai ting until the post-product ion stage is tha t you have ac ho ice of introducing (or not introd ucing) the effe ct to suit the development sty le of the fi lm as it' s be ing edi ted . There is also t he possibil ity tha t one action might best be dissolved into a scene taken mon ths la ter at a differe nt location. But opt ical ef­ fects are us ually ex pe nsive and introd uce another print ge ne rat ion w it h its a tte nda nt quality sac­ rifices. The mo re spon taneous, free-flowing style of Super-B tends to make in-came ra effec ts a more na tural c hoice .

PC Contact Switch Th is litt le soc ke t , so common to still cameras, has found its way onto many Super-8's. It allo ws firing an electron ic fl as h in sync with t he single fra me mecha nis m of t he came ra, and it is commonl y used with inte rval time rs in s it ua­ t ions where it would be impractical to leave hot flood light s on fo r se ve ral hours . Some s mart Super-8 people put thi s switc h to a more im po rtant use . Si nce it closes once for each fra me offilm ex­ posed , it can be made to send 18 (or 24) signals 10 a tape recorde r each second , thereby producing a n ac­ c urale record ofthe actu al runn ing speed of your camera . This widely used me thod of double-syste m sy nc sou nd is known as the digital or once-per{rame system . If the sound camera that you c hoose of­ fers this fe at ure , you ha ve t he option of shoot ing s ingle- or double-syste m sync sound- the best of both world s. Shutter Angle Many sou nd cameras carry the now-fa milia r letters ,. XL" in their names. T he XL sta nd s for "exist­ ing light " or ava ilable low light fi lming. To qualify forthe XL designation , a camera s houl d have a fa st len s with a ma ximum a per­ ture offi L l orfl l. 2 (fI l A a t th e maximum). The le ns mu st also have a shutter a ngle o f be tween 200 degrees and 235 degrees, as 40

o pposed to a normal sh utte r a ng le of. say, 170 degrees . T he w ider angle s impl y lets more light thro ugh. The me tering system s hould be able to han dle fil m with a n ex posure in dex of at least ASA 160 as well . This combination of fast le ns, w ide s hutter a ngle and fa st film capability allows fi lm ing in most light situations w ithout use of addi tional lights. The X L cam­ e ra is a practical a pproach fo r the home moviemaker who doesn't wan t to drag o ut hot lights every time he or she wants to shoot indoors . It is also valid for the docume ntari an who wishes to kee p everything natural and avoid maki ng the persons filmed self­ conscio us. Filmm ake rs interested in creat ing. rat he r than simply recording, migh t do well to look at a camera's XL capab il ities in a different light . H igh speed fil ms are just not as c ri sp or grain-free as most slower

"The more sponta ne­ ous, free-flo wing style ofSuper-8 tends to make in-camera effects a na tural choice. "

few are quie t eno ugh e ve n fo r acceptable a mateur ventures, a camera's " blimpabil ity" is an especially importa nt feature. Ifyou' re pla nning to b uy a s ingle­ system camera, but actuall y plan to use it fo r double-system record­ ing with the m uch less expen sive silent cart r idge, th ink tw ice . Most sound cameras fil m on silent car­ tridges at 20 fps (rather than 18 fps). Since no so und proje ctor has a setting for this speed, yo u must choose carefully. Filter Size The size of the fro nt ofa came ra's lens, a nd the size o f fil te rs it will accept might see m like a st ra nge th ing to emphasi ze. However, if you already own fi lt e rs for a movie or st ill ca mera, you might con sider buying a so und came ra that can use t ho se same fi lters. A sound came ra w ith a fro nt ele ment that is the same size or smaller t ha n your present lens can acco mmodate you r old filt e rs, e ither directly o r with a le ns adapt er. (See o ur fea­ t ure on ., Special Effect s" filters in t his issue .)

Control Ma ny serio us fi lmmake rs a re ant i-automatic . I do not s hare t his fee ling. I wouldn't wan t to ow n a sound camera that did n' t offer a u­ tomatic exposure as well as au­ tomatic sound level control, a nd I film s, a nd a normal s hutter angle of look forward to the day w hen we 150 to 170 degrees will produce less w ill have automat ic foc using too . blur in fast moving actions and in On th e other ha nd , I wouldn ' t go pans. fo r a came ra t hat didn' t offe r ma n­ ual over ride of th ese feat ures. My Featurettes philosophy is "automa tion re­ T here a re many ot her less basic places the assistant I can' t af­ fea tures that should not be over­ ford. " But neit her do I want to be looked . How many microphones my assistant's slave. can yo u pl ug into the camera simulta neous ly? D oes the camera Response have a n auxil iar y input for record­ So und freque ncy res ponse fi gures can be dete rmi ned in many ways, ing from a tape recorder o r other and whi le t hey can sometimes source? Can you mon itor sound offe r a gen e ral idea of sound qual­ w itho ut fil mi ng, so you can re­ it y, your own ears s hould be the hearse and arra nge the best mic real test offide lity (see" Buying placement? Will th e lens zoom Yo ur Ca me ra, ,. J ul y/Aug. 1977). without running fi lm th rough t he This holds true fo r meter respon se camera? A nd , most im porta nt if and le ns s harpness as well , a nd you ' re trying to meet professional a bove all for the ca me ra's ab ility to standards with yo ur work, how respond to your com mand s. no isy is the camera, a nd how eas­ Quality is the most im port ant fea­ ily can it be sou ndproofed w ith a "barney" (soft cover) or "blim p" ture a ny came ra has to offer. The came ra thai can film wit h consis­ (ha rd cas ing)? Since no ne of the Super-B sou nd cameras even ap­ tently sharp pic tures a nd good clean sou nd is the main course . proac h t he si le nt operation of Every thing else is gravy . D sound stage standards, a nd o nl y a SUPER·S FILMAKER









I/t .1,7.s.6Ormllel1$

$108-24 $651.50 4.SIbs.

Aulc)'manual room (variable speed) Macro focusing

18, 24, 36 Ips (silent) ~Ie"'ame Int9Mll timer 150" shune.

Auto ± COllection Backighl control Aut()lmanual fades

81).6.300 Hz frequency response Au\Qlmanuailewi control Earphone, LED. VU meter mon~ors Sound and picture fades PO'flash contact

__,M ............

TIl" fetle~ vieWing Microprism focusing

S8mm Mar size

ACCESSORIES Boom "'" Banery chal'ger Ale Photo, Inc. 168 Glen COve Rd.

c..... PiKe. N.Y. 11514


111.2. 8-4Omm lens

lB. 2 4, 36 Ips (silent)


80-6,300 Hz 'requeocy response

$624.25 4.11bs.

Auto'manual zoom

Single frame Interval trner 22O"XLshuttllf

Auto ± correction Backlight control AuIo.'manuai lades

AulO level control Earphone. LED monitor Sound and picture fades

AuIOI'manuai Backlight control AuIOI'manuai laoos

Auto leveI 'controi

Earphone, LED monitor

Same as 5108-24

Aulolmanual Bacldi!111 control Manual lades

Auto ~vel control

Earp/lone, LED monilor

Same as S108-24

Auto'manual Manual lades

50-12,000 Hz Irequency response AuIOI'manuai level control Earphone, LED, VU mete< monitors Miclauxiliary inputs Sound fades PC'flash conl act

Mi(:, earphone

Macro focusing TTL reflex viewing Mieroprism locusing 58mm fitter size

SSG-XL $474.25 3.Sbs.

111 .2. 8-4Omm len.,

Mic , earphone

M icroprism focusing 58mm fiHer size

$ 103-XL $360

111.1, 9-22.5mm lens

Aulo'manual zoom TTl reflex viewing


220" Xl shuner


AutG"manual zoom TIL rellex viewing Alllial Iocusing 56mm rilter sil'e

Single frame 220" XL shutter

eEAUUEU 5OO8S MultlllPftd

111.4, 6-7Omm lens Autor'manuaI zoom (variable speed)

a, 18, 2 4. 45 Ips

$2,100 5.69 Ills.

Battery charger

M&CI'ofocusing TTL reflex viewing Fine grain locusing

3.81bs. Mic, earphone

Single frame Gu~loCine-type

miml< shutler

Time exposure

3008S MultlSpHd

fll.4, 8-SOmm lens

$ 1,600 5.53 Ills. Batte<y charger

Aulolmanual zoom Macro Iocusirlg nL rellele viewing FII"Ie grain focusing 49mm filter size


111.2, 7-45mm lens

la, 24 Ips, 34 Ips (silerlt)

FJlmOsonie 1237 XL

Aulolmanuai zoom (2 speeds) Macro !or:using nL reflex viewing Dichroic 10000sing 77mm filler size

Single frame 225· XL shutter

$499.95 3.6 fbs. Mic, earphone, remote control

1227 XL

remote control

"nt. - through-lite-lens

12, 18,24,36 Ips Single frame Gu~loline-type

18 Ips Singlelrame 225· XL shutter


50-12 ,000 Hz Irequency response AulO level control Earphone, L ED mon~or Miclauxiliary inputs PC'1Iash contact

Autolmanual Aulo :!: correction Backlight control Manual lades

100-7,000 Hz frequency response AulO level conttol Earphone. LED monitor Two mic inputs Sound lades

Shotgun mic Battery pack


Backlight control

Menual fades

100-7,000 Hzlrequency response AUIO level control EIIfPhone. LED monitor Two mit inpuIs

Same as 1237 XL

mirror shutter

Aul(Y'manuai zoom Macro focusing TTL reflex viewing Dichroic tocusng ~ker size

Be.1 .. Ho_IIiMamlya Co, 7100 McCormick Rd. Chla-go, III. 60645

Autolmanual Manual lades

Time exposure

111.2, 7-45rrvn lens

Same as 5108·24

...... ,"'"

Bell .. HoweWMamlya COmpany 7100 McCormick Rd. Chle.!irO, III. 60645

CAMERA BELLa HOWELL Fllmoaonlc 1238 Mac ro 8 $.389.95 3.2 Ibs . Mie, e81ptlone. remote oontrol






#l. B, 7.5-601TWTl lens Autolmanual zoom (2 speeds)

lB, 24 Ips, 34 fps (silent) 200" shutter

Autolmanual AutO:!: correction Baddight control Manual filOOs

1OQ.7,OOO Hz frequency response AUIO level control Earphone. LED mon~Of Sound fades

Same as 1237 XL

18,24 Ips, 34 fps (silent) 200" shutter

Aulamanual Auto :!: correction Baddiltd control Manual fades

1OQ.7,OOO Hz frequency response Auto level control Earphone , LED mon~or Sound fades

Same as 1237 XL

Auto only Backlight control Manual fade-s

1OQ.7,OOO Hz frequency response Auto level control Earphone , LED mon~or

Same as 1237 XL

200" shuner

" ...

Auto only

1OQ.7,OOO Hz frequency response Auto level control LED monitor

Same as 1237 XL

lB, 24. 36 Ips Single frllfll(' ISO' shutter Ir1I8!VaI limer

AulOo'manual Auto :!: correction Bocklight control Aulolmanual fades

Aulotmanual level control Earphone. LED. VU meter mon itors Mia'audiary Inputs Manual sound fades PClIlas.h OOfllact

Directional mit with boom Battery charger

Autolmanual Auto :!: correction Backlight control AuiG'manuai lades

Aulolmanuallevel control Earphone. LEO. VU meter monitors Mia'auxillary Inputs Manual sound fades

Same as 5122

Aula/manual AUlO:!: correction Backlight control AUldmanuailades

Auldmanual level control Earphone . LEO , VU meter monitors Miclauxiliary inputS Manual sound fades PClIIash contact

Same as 5122


TTl rellex viewing Dictlfo;c focusing 5&nm finer size

FllmolOnlc 1236 XL $379.95 3.161bs. Mie, earpnone

fll .3, B.So24nvn lens AtmImanual zoom (2 speeds) TTl ltJal-beam rangefinder 5&nm fiHer size

Fllmol.Onlc 1235 XL $359.95 2.9 Ills. Mit. earphone

111 .3. 8.So24mm lens Alllamanual zoom Foxed /oCLIs rellex viewing

Fllmosonlc 1230 XL $319.95 2.9 Ibs. Mie

1/1.3, 8.5·241TWTl lens Rxed focus reflex viewing

fl1.B, 6-72mm lens Autolmanual zoom (variable spe-ed) Macro focusing TTl reflex viewing Maoprism focusing 72nvn finer size

3.94 Ibs. Mit, earphone

58' $505 4.13 bs. Mie, earphone

1/ 1.2, 8-4l)Tm lens Aulolmanual zoom Macro focusing TTl.. renex viewing Microprism focusing 58rrvn finer size

fl l .7, 7.5-6Omm lens Aulolmanuai zoom (variable speed) Macro focusing TTL reflex viewing Mitroprism focusing 58mm fiRer size

" ...

200" shutter

" ...

Single frame 220" XL shuller Interval timer

lB, 36 fps

Single frame 150" shuIIBf 'nterval timer

E.P.O.I. 101 Crossweys Park West Woodbury, N.Y. 11797

BRAUN·Nll O Nizo 2056 $1,150 (we 9'1t not available) Mie, earphone

fll.4. 7·56mm lens Auto'manual zoom (2 speeds) Macro focusing TTL reflex viewing Split image focusing

g, 16~, 18, 24.25.36 fps Single frame Var iable shutter Time exposure Interval limer

Auto only Aulo :!: correction Bacl<light control Autolmanual fades

80·20.000 Hz frequency response Auto lev&! control Earphone Mic/auxillary Inputs Sound fades

Second mit Cord for two mics

Nllo 1048

fl1 .8, 8-48rrvT1lens AulOo'manual zoom Macro focusing TIL reflex viewing Split image focusing

18, 24 Ips Si ngle frame Variable shutler Tme exposure

Auto on ly Auto :!: correction Backlight control Autolmanual fades

80·20,000 Hz Irequency response Auto lev&! control Earphot\e Mic/auxillary Inputs Sound fades

Same as 2056

5875 (we9'1t no! available) Mit. earphone

T.A.G. Photographic, Inc . BOO Shames Dr. Westbury, N.Y. 11590



Mic, OO1phone,

fl l.4, 9-45mm lens AuIo'manuai zoom Macro focusing Til. reflex v;ew;ng Sptit image focusing

18, 24 Ips Single frame 220" XL shultef

Auto/manual Auto lades

Aulo level con\JoI Earphone, LED monitor Sound fades Miciauxiiary inputs

CHINDN Pacille 12 SMR $000 4.85 Ibs. Mit. earphone. Remote control

fl1.8. 6-72mm lens

1206 SM $690 4.71 1)$. Mie. earphone, Aemole conlrol

111.8, 6-721TVTl lens AulG'manual zoom (variable speed) Macrotocusing TTL reflex viewing Microprism focusJng 72mm filler size

506 SM XL

11 1.2. 8·4Omm lens


Aulo/manual zoom Macro focusing TIL reftex viewing Microprism IoeusJng 56nvn ~Her size


806 •• $50'

Mie. e81phone. ramote oonlrol

External power pack C.... on U.S.A., Inc. 10Ney~


18ke Success, N. Y. 11040

remole $Wilch

3.74 Ibs . Mie. earphone. Aemote controt

Boom m<

Auto/manual zoom (variable speed) Macro focusJng TTl refleX viewing Mi(:roprism focusing 72mm filter Size

111.7, 7.S-6Omm lens Autolmanual zoom (variable !;peed ) Macro focusing TTl reflex ,.;ewing Miaoprism Iocusing 58mm ~lter size

18.24,36 fps Single frame Inlerval timer ISO· shutter

Wireless mie Wireless receiver Battery pack-

Auto/manual Auto:!: correction Bedllighl control Auto/manual fades 72 frame lap dissolve

60·10.000 Hz frequency response Auto/manual level conlrol Earphone, LED, VU meIer mon~ors Sound and picture fades PO flash contaC1

18, 24, 36 Ips Single frame IniatVai tmar 150" shutter

AutG'manoai Auto :!: corredion Baeklighl control AutQlmanoal fades

6(). Hz /Yequency 1esp0n$8 Au1o/manual level control ~. LED. VU malar monitors Sound fades POIiash contact

Same as 12 SMA

18.36 Ips Single frame Interval timer 220" XL shutler

Auto/manual AulD!: correction Bae~ ighl control Auto/manual lades

60-9.000 Hz frequency response Auto/manual level cont ~ Earphone. LED . VU meter monitors Sound fades

Same as 12 SMA

18. 36tp:s Single frame InlatVal Iffler 150" shuner

AutG'maouai Auto :!: eonection BIICkIi!t1t control Aut()' manoal fades

60- 9,000 Hz frequency r&apOllse Auto/manoa! level control Ear~e. LED . VU meter monitors Sound fades Pelflash cantad

Same as 12 SMA

Chino n Corporallo n o f America 43 Fadem Rd. Spring field, N.J . 07081

507 tX L $420 2.97 Ibs. M 'c. earphone. remote control

111.2. 8-4Omm lens


220" XL Shutler

AUlQl manual Ba<:klight eontroj AUlo/manuai fades

60·9.000 Hz frequency reSpo.'1se Auto level controj Earphone. LED mon itor

Same as 12 SMR

AutQlmanuai zoom TIL reflex viewing Miaoprism focusing 58mm fitter size

606 .


Aut()'manual Auto :!: correction Baddi!t1t control Manual lades

60-9.000 Hz frequency response AutQlmanua/ level controt Earphone. LED monitor Sound fades

Same as 12 SMA

Mie. earphone. remote control

111.7. 6-48rrm lens AulcYmanual zoom TTl reflex viewing Miaoprism focusing 58mm 5tter size

607 XL

111.7. 6-48nvn lens AutQlmanual zoom TIL reflex viewin g Microprism Iocuslng 58mm fiHer size

220' XL shutter


AutQlmenual Backfight controt Manual fades

60·9 .000 Hz frequency respo.'1se Auto level conlrol Earphone. LED monitor

Same as 12 SMA



AulcYmanuai Baddi!t1t control Manual fades

6() Hz "equency response Aut()'manual level control Earphone. LEO monitor Sound fades

Same as 12 SMA

$'''' 3.6


2.97 Ibs. M'c. earphone . ramote conlrot

256 SXL

111.1 . 9-22.5mm laos


AulQlmanuai zoom TTL railex viewing Aerial Iocusing 58mm filler size

3.5 1)$. Mie, earphone, remole control

150" shutter

220" XL shuller



CHINON 257SX L $349.50 2.64 Ills. Mlc . earphone. remote control

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fl1.7. 8-32mm lens Auto'mallUai zoom TTl renex viewing Aerial focusing 56mm filter size

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18 Ips 220" XL shuller

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remote conlrol

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Auto'manual level control Earphone. LED monitor MiClsuxii;ary irlputs

This sound camera passed the

toughest test there is. The Pros.

When professional cameraman/ director Jim Gustafson of Chicago first shot a commercial film with the Bell & Howell Filmosonic™ Macro 8 camera, he got quite a surprise. "I knew we would save time and money with super 8. That's why we chose the Filmosonic Macro 8 camera. But I never expected our

results to be this good. Our final product was comparable to a 16mm reduction print:' Jim made good use of its many features. Like the 8 to 1 zoom lens, manual aperture

settings, and macro focusing. ''We were able to get full-screen doseups of micro-circuits smaller than a thumbnail:' Controls like the electric­ eye trimmer, contrast control and viewfinder indicators also impressed Jim. "You can hardly make a mistake on your light or sound levels because LEDs built into the viewfinder tell you as soon as your levels begin to get too low:' And on sound performanoe. "We got a very crisp audio track. It's quite sharp on voioe frequencies. Overall, Macro 8 is an extraor­ dinary sound-an-film camera:' But there's more."After the job was over I took the camera home. And my wife took great movies of our baby:' The Filmosonic Macro 8. Advanced enough for pros. "I:::-:-::=ll Simple enough for amateurs. BHmc BIll &tO.'jEJilWNl'/lt~


C 1976 BELL & HOWEL LIMAMI VA COM PA NY. All Rights Reserved. Bell & Howel l and Filmosonic Ill'" t1adema.1<s of Bell & Howell Company



feat ures of today' s sou nd -on-fi lm cameras. espec iall y s uch recent advances as e lectronic sound and picture fa des. Another of his film s compared t he quality of variou s S uper-8 print stoc ks. A test film printed by Kodak on Kodac hrome stock fared well in com parison to print s made on E kt ac hrome a nd G evachro me print stock by two different labs.


Mikolas s tressed t hat the futu re of Super-S li es in its strengths as a doc um e ntary me dium. "With s ingle system nearly foo lproor. cameras s ma ll a nd unobtrus ive and fi lm inexpen sive. Super-8 is a system ideal fo r perso na l documentary fi lmmaking." Super-8 films can' t com pe te wit h Ho llywood o r TV. he be lie ves . e ven though man y fi lmma ke rs sti ll purs ue sta ndard ca tegories of filmmaking. Many wou ld probab ly di sagree w ith Ma rk: mos t of the film s a t the Caracas fe stival were dramatic rat her th an doc umentary subje ct s.



It was Bast ill e Oay- Venezuelan style. Th rongs of young film en­

thus ias ts lite rally stormed the gales o fl he C in emateca Nuc iooa] in Caracas, August 13-21.10 view two nightl y sc reenings ofSu pcr-B

film s. The A vam Garde Interna­ t ional Fi lm Fes tiva l Supc r-H is so popu lar in V enezuela that many who showed up at the theater

neve r gal a seat. Wh ile fe sti va l en tries were n' t al­ ways "avantgarde:' they were ce rtainly int e rn at ional. Films came from as far away as the Sovie t U nion and Au stra lia. with the major portion from South and North America . Mo st of the fi lm s we re homegrown. and partisan fans wearing T -sh irts emblazoned with the lil ies o f Venezue lan product ion s applau ded an d chee red th e works of th ei r feHo w filmmaker s.

Another hig hlight o f the fe stival was a pres en ta tion by Arnold Schiema n ofthe Nat ional Film Board of Canada. ex plai ning his process for e lec tronicall y blowing up t he Super-8 image 10 l6mm. 35mm and eve n 70mm. The re sult seem s to prod uce a s harper image with beller color rendition than ca n be achieved by conventional ., Filmcraft·· co lumni st and aut hor blow-up method s. Wi th Mr. Schiema n· s me thod, a Super-8 of Tile SlIper-8 B ook. and Mark Mikolas . <luthorof.,.IIl' H amJbook image is translated into an e lec­ tronic s ignal. T his s ignal is the n The grand impresario and OfSIIIJl'r-8 ProdllcTiol1. Lenn y used to reprod uce a fi lm image on. originator of the Caracas festival is came to Ca racas laden with pairs say. 35mm stock. Some image Julio Neri, a young Venezue lan of polari zed glasses and ca n isters fi lmmaker who se film Erase //lUI of his late st experiments in th ree­ q uality is invariab ly lost in the process . but the blow-up to 35mm V l ' ':: ('11 V (,1I(, <:IIe{tI (Once U pon a dimen s ional fi lm ma king. One sc ree ned a t the Ci ne mateca was prick ly fe a ture of hi s talk o n how Time in Venezue la) premiered o n to make stereoscopic movies was a astoni shing ly good. th e o pening night. Forobv ious 3- D film of cactu s b lo sso ms. which reasons. it was not part of the Wh at drew the capac it y crowds to included what Le nny proud ly compet ition . S haring the vas t the seco nd A va nt Garde Interna­ proclaimed is the firs t stereoscopic amou nt of work that went into tional Fil m Fes ti va l S uper-8 we re organ izing the festival was zoom s hot. Lenn y explained the the film s themselves . While not in o perat ion of hi s stereocamera a nd J ulio·s wife, Mercedes. Both the festi va l, J ulio N e ri's 90-m inute hi s 3-D projection sys tem. (See J ulio and Mercede s de serve a lot o pus dese rves a mention. U s ing a page 30 this iss ue for his article o n ofc red it fo r the success of this ble nd of live act io n, a nimation a nd ·' HowTo Make Your Own 3- D fe s ti val. a nd the s mooth way in montage. Erase 1111(1 Vez ell Vell­ w hich it was run. There were imag­ Movie s . ") Although a box ofJ-O a .lIda took a highl y personal look inative touches like the gra phics of glasses was lost in the unfathom­ at the history of Venezuela from able workings o f Vias a Airline s . this year' s progra m, des ig ned in Bolivar's overt hrow ofthe there were e nough glasses 10 ac­ the s ha pe ofa Super-8 cartridge. S pa nis h to the prese nt. A s pages of commodate se ve ral grou ps o f en­ In add ition to the publ ic sc ree ning a his tory book turned in imitation thusiastic viewers. of so me 34 films. the fe sti va l fea­ of early Ho ll ywood c lassics, the tured se vera l spec ial pre sen tatio ns Mark Mik olas gave a state-of­ fi lm dra matize d the ex ploits ofa by luminaries in the Super-8 worl d the-art tal k on Super-8 and s howed series of Ve nezuelan leaders­ s uch as Lenny Lipton. o ur two film s illu strating so ph is ticated most of w hom purs ued their own



interests at the ex pe nse of the country and its people. There we re few humorous films shown at the Cinemateca. Most were serious dramas or social commentaries . It was a great relief to see Dan Rich's bizarre comedy, H UII/all .fOIl rhe Rabbit T rail. On the surface , the fi lm "ex pl ores the unfair treat ment (of rabbits) exhib­ ited by humans," as Dan Rich explains it. But this fast-paced, wel l-ed ited melodrama cen ters o n a rather sad istic duo whose aim is to capture, kill a nd stuff t heir fel­ low hu man bei ngs as we ll as rab­ bits. It 's an elaborate production wit h su perb '"b unn y" costu me s and props li ke giant carrots. The acti ng in Dan Rich' s film is all done carrot-in-cheek you migh t say, with a mean old farm er. his good wife and a weird taxider­ mi st who teams wit h the farmer fo r some nasty bunny -nappi ng. The re' s an especially we ll­ cho reographed rabbit wedding se­ quence co mplete with dance and cere mony parod ying its hum nn cou nterpart. Th e comedy also leans towards the grotesque. One scene shows the bu tcheringofa c hic ken fo llowed by the feeding of the cooked bird to it s mate. who read ily pecks at the "Shake-and­ Bake" legs.

Ca rlos Castill o's film. H U/'Q rn Vrnf~uela (Made in Vennu ela), dre ... a n emot iona l . response from the a ud i~nce in C,.racas.

T hisorn er)' fp rmer a nd masked ta xidermist pl.. ~· the he~"'ies in Dan Rich's biza rre comedy Uumanso n tht Rabbit Trail.

There was also very little anima­ tion work presen ted at the fe stival. Most of the animated entries were done by Ri cardo J abardo, a Ven ­ ezue la n fi lmmaker whose fi lm PUI/to y Coma ( Period and Comma) won the top honors. Punto y COli/a is not strict ly an animated film , but ut ilizes seve ral fasc inat ing animat ion tech niques in its portrayal ofthe fantasies and frustrations of student life . J abardo took stil l photographs of his produc tion , copied th em on a Xe rox co pi er and then hand­ pai nted the copies befo re skillfully ble ndi ng them into the li ve act ion seq uences. The best seq uence in the fi lm oc­ c urs in a cafeteria where the main character has a series o f erotic fa ntasies, part animat ion and part live action, superi mposed o n his reflect ive sunglasses, T here was also a funn y pi xillation sce ne (stop act io n an imatio n where a few frames are shot at a time) in which the main character greets an end­ less se ries o ffr iends with high ly SUPER·8 flLMAXER

\ /

Erast una Vtun Vtntzuela (Once Upon a Tim e in Venezuela ) by J ulio Ner; d ram atized a personal "usion or Vrneuelp '5 hls lory,

accelerated and exaggerated action, Anotherfilm th at got high recogni­ tion in the festival was H echo ell Venezuela ( Made in Venezue la), a powerful, symbol ic fil m about

modern Venezuela di rected by Carlos Castillo. In the opening scene, Venezuelan goods are placed on a c hopping bloc k and , one by one, are axed to pieces while the sound track does a soft ­ 47

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sell commercial for the Ven­ ezuelan econom y. The hacked pieces are sturred in to a cloth dummy and carried by a blindfolded and tattered woman ac ro ss a huge garbage heap, In the background, "fat cats" in tail s and top hats dance on a mo und of refuse. The fi lm drew an e motional res ponse from the audience and was clearly a favo rite . The one truly avant garde fi lm in Ihis avant garde fe stival was Sill Tiwlo (Without Title), a short entry by Jose Man uel Huerga from Spain. Sill Tilllio ex plores the rela­ tionship between the camera eye and the human eye. Filmmaker Huerga stares into the len s, con­ stantly rearranging the camera angle and placing and removing objects from before the lens. T he images range fro m the abstract and amorphous, to a still life ofa typewriter and pile of books. It 's easy for this type offilm to be a trite aesthetic exercise, but Sin Titulo managed 10 rise above this and create exci ting visual juxtapositions . Other film s of note were Jo hn McGovern's Th ose Grand O ld C ars, an almo st abs tract film of light reflections on antique cars cut to the rhythm ofelectronic music , and Boomerang. an animated film by Julio Otero Manci ni of Argen­ tina. Boomerang c reated colorful explosive images by rephoto­ graphing heat destroyed fi lm frame s in slow motion. Of the few documentary fi lm s entered, Betty McAfee'sA Brief Visir to H sill H ila Sc hool in Pekillg was the most enj oyab le , The Caracas fes ti val and ot hers like it give filmmakers from other cultures achance to see what their fellow filmm akers are doing with Super-So In this res pect , fest ivals are impo rtan t events. Not on ly are fi lms seen , but fi lmmakers get to­ gether and exc hange ideas and share their expe riences . That 's the bes t t hing that can happen in Super-S , and it happened in Caracas. 0



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You' re smoM, so compare! Who else but Elmo offers a FOCUSFREE'" Zoom-Macro System, Air Suspension Boom Mike, XL fI 1.2 lens, probably the smallest sim;Jle Bmm sound camera available and virtually pockeillble;? The incredible Elmo Action Mike is air suspended above the comera so thai

no molor noise or motor vibration ever gels on the sound trac k. Elmo d id away with allihe dangling wires. One convenient knob turn s the entire camera system on and off, Incredible design, incredible engineering at an incredible price.

Afte r 56 years of making quality movie equipment, you con look to Elmo for innovative ideas and produc t engineering. And you don't have to look much further than the ST-600 Projector. Incredible in per/orma nce, sound and features. Incredible in price. Without ever disturbing the original sound track, background music, narration or a foreign la nguage can be recorded on track 2. It's goof-proof. Erase and rerecord without ever damaging the original track. Perfect for home, sc hools and muln-languoge use. Model ST-1200HD takes up to 1200 feet. That's 11h hours of film ot 18 ips and 1 hour showing 24 ips. Movie buffs love it. Amazingly small. Remarkably quiet. Theatre quality sound thanks to our new amplifier. All operating controls on the front panel. All recording controls on rear pone!. ProfeSSional quality construction shows in the hinged cover and swing away gate. Elmo projectors- incredible!

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Create a bloody good gunshot wound with wax pellets, a blowpipe and $2 The portrayal of violence is some­ times essential to the fi lm maker's stateme nt. Until now, the creation of realistic-looki ng gunshot im­ pacts on the human body has been limited to Hollywood . where a professional "hit man" charges $IOOa day forthe effect. Wedidn ', have that kind of budget for The Th eta Factor, so I set out to duplicate the effect at home. The results were no le ss t han spectac u­ lar, and I only spent about $2 . He re' s how you do it. First, you' ll need to buy some numberOO empty ge latin capsules, which I got at a pharmacy for $1.69 for a box of 100, and one pound of


paraffin wax, avai lable at large supermarkets fo r less than 50 ce nts . The other suppl ie s are things you al ready own or can improvise. Assemble an eyedrop· per, a needle, thread. tweezers, scissors, an X-acto knife or r?zo r blade, aglass of cold water. a small sauce pan and an aluminum cup. You'll also need a 2-foot long blow tube with roughly a :}f,-inch ins ide diameter. I used a section ofte le­ scoping c urtain rod forthis. Fi­ nally, w hip up a batch of your favorite fake blood . Howmuch you need depends on how gory you want your movie to be . Place c hunk s of the paraffin into the aluminum cup and put the cu p into a sa ucepan ofwater(see Fig­ ure 1). Keep the water level lo w to prevent the cup from floati ng . Heat over a low flame to melt the

Fig ure 2: Pull nL-ed le and thl"t'ad th ro ugh the closed end orlhe ca psule.

wax, and keep it in a molten state throughout the entire procedure. Now th read the needle, pulling the ends of the thread eve n and tying them with a knot. Trim offthe tail of the knot so that the loose threads are no more than YH-inch long . Pull a part a gelat in capsule and di scard the shorter half. keep­ ing the longer, nan'ower half. In ­ sert the needle into this part of the gelatin capsu le and push it through the closed end (Figure 2), pulling the th read until the knot stops against th e inside surface . Holding the th read with one hand and the capsule with the other. place the capsule in the glass of water. with the open en d up so it will fill completely with water. Uft the fu ll capsule out by the thread. Capil­ lary action wil1 hold the water in the capsule. (See Figure 3. I have colored the waterto make it more visible.) Dangling the full capsu le at the end of the thread. quickly dunk it in and o ut ofthe cup of molten paraffin (Figure 4). Allow the paraffin to harden for 4 or 5 seconds. then give it anotherdunk­ ing. This s hou ld insure that the wax case is th ick enough to hold up

under gentle handling, yet thin eno ugh to crush easi ly upon im­ pact with the body. Immediately place the capsule in the glass of water to cool and harde n for 2 or 3 minutes. Remove the hardened caps ule from the water and use the X-acto knife or s im ilar tool to cut off the litt le cap of wax which has form ed on what was formerly the open end of the caps ule (Figure 5) . Be careful not to c rus h orcrack the wax coating. By this time , the water will have softened the gelatin shell of t he original ca psule. Using the tweez­ ers, care fully gras p the edge of the gelat in capsu le. Pull the soft gela­ tin from in s ide the wax s hell (Fig­ ure 6) and throw it away . Be care­ fu l not to grasp the wax she ll during this step, as it is easy to crush. Hold only the thread.

Figure 3: Capi ll ary ac ti on ... illlloia wa ter in the ca pso le.



Figure t : After assembling th e necessary s upplies. hegi n me lting the paraffin.






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Figure 6; Usc I...cezers to pull Ihe _,,,Ocncd gelat in oul or th e "'II~ shell.



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Figure 7: FiIIlhe shell ... it h fake blood. usin g lin eyedropper .

Fill the wax s hell wit h the blood surrogate of your c ho ice (F ig­ ure 7). using the eyedroppe r. Now dangle the wax s hel l ful1 of "blood" by the thread (capillary action again!). and dip the open end into the molten wax a few times to seal it off. Remembe rto dip only the end , not the whole capsule. since too much wax build-up will prevent the capsule from collapsing properly on im­ pact. Place the capsule in the cold water once again to harden. Wait a few min utes before removing it and clipping off the thread from the end of the blood pellet. It is now ready for use. Carefu ll y place the wax capsule in yourtube , aimandblow . When the pel let hits your larget, the impact wil l crush the wax, splattering blood in a very impressive way. ­ Kenneth Gullekson, Glendale , Calif. D SUPER·8 flLMAKER

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Showing sound movies should be a simple pleasure. T hat's the whole idea behind aU Kodak Ektasound Moviedeck projectors. T hey're designed to things as easy as possible- without sacri­ ficing the n iceties that help your movies look and sound their best. Easy screen options. These Kodak projectors give you a crisp, brilliant image on your choice of screens. For Snl.1.11 groups, use tht.! unique 3 1/ 2 x s· inch pull-out SC R"Cn. {It even let., you show movies in nonn.'ll mom light .) For ial1l:cr groupi, project o n a convent io nal screen. Easy film handling. Kodak Ektasound Movicdeck projectors in­ clude automatic thread· in g and automatic rewind. Simply insert (he film lead­ er into the slot and the projector takt.."S over. At the movie's end, the film i., rewou nd amomaticall y so it's ready for the next shon-in!!.

Simula ted projected image.

Easy speed control. You can adjust the speed continuously between approximately 17 a nd 24 fps ­ so that the sound is played back just as you heard it during filming. Easy format change . To switch from super 8 fi lm to 8 mm film, flip a single switch. T he only difficult thing about Kod..'\k Ektasound Moviedcck projectors might be choosing the model that's best for you. The Ektasound Moviedeck 265 projector offl.!rs playback features. The 275 projector ha<; playback and automatic hill recording- for total recording or adding an entirely sound track. The 285 model givcs you playback ao; well as bOlh hill and sound-on-sound recording capab ilities. Dub narration or music onto existing t!<lcks, or record a whole new track. A ll th ree projcclOrs arc ava ilable w ith a 22 mm J! 1.4 le ns or a 20·32 mill J! 1.5 zoom lens. Sec your phmo dealer soon . A demonstration can make your decision a little ca,<;icr.

projectors CIRCLE ItliFOCARD 14


Create smoke, flames and hot infernos without the dangers of a real fire Perhaps the most difficult and po­ tentiall y most hazardous thing to stage and film is a fire scen e. By nature , fire is dangerous, destruc­ tive and difficult to contro l. Creat­ ing a fire fo r film requires consid­ erable planning, experience and expense. You must make provi­ s ion for the safet y ofactors, crew, equipment and facilities. For the Super-8 fi lmmaker, real fire scenes arc practically out of the question. But it is possible to create convinc ing fire sce ne s­ safely , sanel y and economi­ cally-by combining a handful of special eITcets. There are several ways to s imulate fire and flame effects with lighting. You can create a general "fire­ light " wit h a homemade flame projector (Figure I). The flame projector, a cyli nder with s lits cut in it, is rotated in front of one or two mov ie lights . T he result is flame-l ike patterns oflig ht flicker­ ing across your actors and set, giving the impress ion thai there is a fire just off camera. You can make the cylinder from a large s heet of sti ff paper, tag board or s imilar material. Cut ragged, irregularly shaped slit s diagonally across the material, then roll the material into a cylinder about 2 feet in di amete r. A piece oflight plywood (or heavy cardboard) cut in to acircle and fi tted into the top ofthe cyl inder will keep the cylin­ der in s hape and provide a means fo r mounting. You can motorize the un it (a variable s peed motor would be ideal) o r have an assis­ tant rotate it manually. An even simpler method is to suspe nd the cy linder from th e ceili ng by a cord. Turn t he unit by hand unti l the cord is completely twisted, the n re ­ lease. The cylinder will spin throughout a take. Tocolor t he flame s from the cy lin­ der, place co lored ge ls (avail able from theatri cal supply store s) in front ofthe movie lights. What color is fire? Many would say red , but only cool fire s and burning embe rs look red . Fire is generall y more yell ow-orange. It may be 54

wise to purchase several gels in reds, oranges and yellows, and experiment with various combin a­ tions to find a fire color that looks best to yo u.

flame s . Nex t, place one or more lights with fl ame color gels so they shine onto the camera side of the plastic. Don' t all ow any light to shine through the s heet from be­ hind . From the fro nt , the colored light will ripple across the plastic looki ng like large sheets o ffl ame. This effect works best in the backgrou nd; in close-up the effect tends to give itself away .

If yo u want to actuall y see flames To produce a glowing ember ef­ in the sce ne , they can be s imul ated fe et, you can use a small photo­ with clear plastic sheeting, some lamp connected to a light dimmer. lights and a fan . You can purchase The lamp, with a red gel, can be plastic sheeting in large s ize s placed be hin d open ings or hidden (painting drop covers) or scrounge in side fak e wooden beams which pieces from you r dry cleaning. have been painted to look burn t. Hang the plastic be hind set doors , An assistant operates the dimmer windows or "b urn holes ." F asten control , fad ing the lamp up and the plastic secure ly at the top and down to create a glowing effect . bottom, but don' t stretch it too Where there' s flam e , there 's tightl y-there sho uld be a little slack. Use an electric fan to agitate s moke . A fog mach ine-w hich can the plastic sheet. Where you place be re nted from the atrical the fan and how it blows the plast ic suppliers---can provide all the s heet will determ ine the look of the smoke you need. If you're shoot­ ing sync sound , you must fog the set just priorto each take so you don't record the machine ch ugging Sus pended from away in the background . Also , c eij;ng or stand take care to match the volume of s moke in each s uccessive shot. When you' re filming silent foot­ age, the fog machine can be oper­ Movie li ght ated d uri ng the take. To add to the s mokiness of the sce ne , try s hooting with some dif­ fus ion material in front of your lens, Although each is somewhat d ifferent, " diffu s ion ," "soft­ foc us" and" low contrast" fil ters (availa ble at photographic supply stores) will add overall smoky dif­ fusion to the scene. Gauze mate­ rial, one o r more layers stretched ove r th e camera lens, will also produce ageneral haze resembling a smoke-filled room.

Figure 1: A homemade flame projector from ta g board projects " flickering Hames" from movie lights onto your actors and set. Lid


\l /


Glass front and back

Wood frame



£ Figure 2: Construct asmoke holder by taping two pieces of glass toa wood frame and mounting it in front of your camera. Smoke hlown into the holderswirtsaround (or a realistic smoke-filled room effect.

If you want to get an exceptionally re ali stic look , yo u can construc t a "smoke holder" to place in front of the lens. A smoke holder con­ sists of two pieces of glass held about an inch apart by a wooden frame on three s ides ( Figure 2). The glass can be taped to the wood frame. A bracket (from wood or metal) holds the smoke holder in front of the came ra, For the effect, blow cigarette s moke into the holder and seal t he top with a piece of wide tape (o r you may prefer to make a tight fitting removable lid), Since the s moke swi rls around SUPER,a FILMAKER


inside the chamber, filming through the smoke holder gives

excellent, realistic results.



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your fire scene , you should create some heat distort ion. Position an electric hot plate, a candle, pro­ pane torch orother suitable heat source below and in frontoftlJe camera. The heat rising in front of the len s produces authentic heat distortion. Caution: placing the heat source too close to the camera produces an authentic heat di s­ torted lens! Be careful. If you want to show an entire building ablaze, it's possible to do so without resorting to arso n. You ' ll need a vacant build ing, preferably one in the process of being demolished. You'll also need permission to use the building and the know ledge and consent oflocal fire and police department s.

You create the conflagration with highway safety flares. Flares aren't terribly expensive-which isgood, si nce you'll need lots of them-and many of them burn for twenty minutes. Place the flares beneath the building's windows, around doors a nd otheropenings. Eac h flare or group offlares should be placed in buckets of sand to prevent hot fa lling ashes from causing damage. Burning flares produce a fair amount of smoke , but you may need to augment this w ith a fog mach ine o r smoke holder. Making the right script and direc­ torial decisions can add to the effectiveness of your fire scene. First of all, design your story around the possibilitie s and limita­ tions of the effects and your budget--don ' t plan a Towerin g I n­ ferno. Secondl y, it' s smart to plan most of the action around the fringes of the fire, while the majo r portion ofthe blaze remains off camera. Footage ofa real fire could be used for establishing shots and cutaways from the ac­ tions of your c haracters. T hird, like many special effects, simu­ lated fire will be most conv incing if the camera doesn't dwell on it . Fast paced action and editing will improve the effects and increase dramatic tension . Fire and smoke effects take ext ra planning but they pay offwhen your action scenes look like the real thing . D

November 18 and 19






ENJOYl Exc iting events, fim shoMngs. 3'ld seminars in our screening room

• Lemy lipton 3D - Fujica Medical Seminar. • Dennis Duggan _ • Roz Ruh l •

• 8-8 to Video Demo • • • • and many more I


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Sat l Oam - Spm

181 Second SUat Howard) San FranCiSCO, Ca. 94105 (415) 495-3852 CIRCLE INFOCARO 62


in Super 8 Sound

I c.."·c-,-------- - - II I I sun I I c.TY "OORISS

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Try Fluid Art, a flowing, glowing way

to animate pictures without using eels

Several years ago, I wanted to make a film showing the growth of a person from birth to death. Not having the experience , patience or money necessary for eel anima­ tion, I began a search for an inex­ pensive painting medium which could be erased, added to or al­ tered over a long period of time. Nothing I tfied seemed quite right till I touched the tip ofagrease pencil to the warm glass army unventilated homemade light box. As the penci l melted, I brushed the fluid grease paint into brillaint backlit images. Eureka! I had found my magic medium. I have been hooked on this simple , spon­ taneous form ofanimation ever

I went to Hollywood in 1973 and was lucky enough to land a com­ mission to create the Evolution Sequence of The Naked Ape , which was co-produced by Uni­ versal Pictures and Playboy Pro­ duction s. Working in 35mm, I made a IYl-min ute film depicting the evolution of man from a single cell, through the various animal forms leading to early man.

Fluid Art proved to be extremely practicaL My tools were a s imple , static light box. grease pencils, brushes, a few scrapers. rags and paint thinn er. Out-of-pocket costs totalled $4 for a dozen new grease pencils . Supplies for the same sequence done in cel animation Since . (bond paper, cels, paints and ink) would probably have come to "Warm grease paint is easily $450. removed from the glass with a Although the animation was fairly complex and included a fully few sw ipes of a rag and sma ll painted background, I completed areas can be cleared for re­ and exposed a new image about painting with a small scraping every 2 minutes and fini shed the blade. " IVz-m inute Evolution Sequence in one week. Compare thaI to the time faclor for cel animation. as Using standard, square-tipped estimated by Sham us Culhane, sab le brushes, I found that warm animator of Popeye and Bugs grease paint behaves very much Bunny. "A good animator and one like oil paint in the way it produces assistant can make a third ofa texture s and mixes to fo rm new minute offinished film in one colors. Nuances of brushing week." T hat mak~s Fluid Ali nine tec hnique, suc h as lifting the brush times fasler than cel animat ion, a at the end ofa stroke , or favoring considerable savings in time to one side of the brush, will produce match the savings in money . marked differences in appearance. Besides practicality, fluid animaWarm grease paint is easi ly re­ t ion offers beauty and flexibi lity . moved from the glass wit h a few When backlit, Ihe brush stro ke s swipes ofa rag and small areas can are emphas ized and the colors be cleared for repainting with a have a transparent glow. The paint small scraping blade (see Figure almost see ms ali ve. I am partic u­ 2). If the glass is allowed to cool, larly enthusiastic about Flu id the grease paint will harden , but it Ali's ability to express the trans­ will become fluid again when re­ formation ofone image into heated . In this way, a painting can another, and textural or atmos­ be "in progress" for weeks or pheric movement. such as a mov­ months and still remain fresh and ing body of water or a field of grass alive. It's impossible to make a swayi ng in the breeze. Fluid ani­ permanent mistake , because any malion lends itself readily to these portion of the image can be re­ forms of move men I, because the painted at will. Fluid Art naturally paint of one image can be altered lend s itself to making animated withjust a brush stroke 10 effect movies, where a series ofsimilar the change. images are required . (See Take a field ofgrass, forexample. Figures 1-3.) 55

Figures 1-3: T he motion ofa da ncer is fror.en in the initial pose. A metal scraper is used to clear the paint for II second pose. Portions of the dancer and the backgrou nd are th en r~painled.

Th e individual brush st rok es would be oriented to lake on the appearance ofgrass. To make a gust of wi nd swee p across the field from left 10 right, begin at the far left of the painting, c hanging the orientation slightl y so that a few blades ofgrass lie at a greater angle. Modifying the paint ing takes only a few seconds. Expose one or two frames and change the angle ofa few more blades of grass. 1flhis process is repeated , moving across the painti ng to the right. the effect resembles a sweepi ng movement of grass. Directional movement takes more time in backlit fluid animation. Whe n a fig ure moves across a painted bac kground , you must use a scraper or rag to clear the portion ofthe background that w ill be covered by the advancing form and repaint the portion of background revealed by the movement. When repainting , be s ure to keep you r mixed colors consistent. Use a section of the heated glass not in the picture area SUPER·S F1LMAKER

as a palette. Don't try to use the same brush fo r more than one color. If a brush becomes satu­ rated with the wrong colo r, dip it in the thinner and wipe wit h a rag. Of course, you can si mpl ify re­ painting by keeping the back­ ground plain . O r you could take a stab at overhead-l it flu id anima­ tion, which will allow you to use a separate paper background----a watercolor, a pen and ink drawing, a collage or any artwo rk not ad­ versely affected by heat . In orderto retain the heating capacity ofthe light box while elimi nating the backlight, cover t he glass wit h aluminum foil and place the paper background on top ofthe foi l. To complete the sandwich, place a pane of ordinary


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Figure 4: Character in Hear~' Wh ere? is painted on glass set over II collage background. Lighting is from a bo\"e.

single st rengt h window glass on top of the paper background. T he animation is done on the window glass, which wi ll be warmed right th rough t he sandwich offoil and pape r. In my latest film, Hea r .\" Whe re? (Figu re 4), I animated my little c haracter by moving the glass easel I mi lli meter or so and reposi­ tioni ng hi s features slightly before everyotherexpos ure . W hen lit fro m above, grease paint appears fl at and opaque, making it com pat­ ible wit h the fa ntasy collage land­ scape. Lighting is much trick ier with th e ove rhead set-up, com­ pared to the simpl ic ity of back lit animation . Bot h glass and grease can cause unwelco me reflectio ns, ifthe lights are poorly positioned. I prefe r to use o ne light placed off­ center with polarizing filte rs in t he path of th e light and in front of the lens. 0 For more information on sample Super-8 reel, methods and equipment. contact:

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-----------------------------CIRCLE INFQCA RO 57

~ Dig up the buried treasure of a local

.... S E

. . . legend and turn it into your next film

If ghosts and buried treasure seem like subjects fi t fo r a fi lm, you

might begin by looking in your own

backyard. In every community there are scores of local legends, folk tales and anecdotes that can be

brought to li fe on fi lm. Youdon'! have to go fa r to find them .


Pe rhaps you know ora local storyteller, or you can c heck in the local hi sto ry section of you r li­ brary. You fi nd fa scinating tales like the onc I came ac ross for my film , The Legel1d oIShI/ilk.


When I first heard Orley Stu rda­ vant 's talc about buried gold. ghosts and inexplicable events in (flO<: Shunk (that's the name). Ohio. I (..Ll(..Ll was plon ing scenes for a film . At :2:~ age 72, Orley. w ho has li ved in

~E-< ....., 0<:

Shunk all his life, is a natural s tory teller and unofficial keeperof

~ legends. Acco rding to Orley, a


shipment of$40,000 worth ofgold was en ro ute to the American Army general Anthony Wayne. when it was ambushed nea r Shunk by Ind ians in the late 1700s. The Indians killed t he guards and sup­ posedly buried t he gold along Tur­ key foot C ree k, leaving be hind the ghost ofone of their dead Indian brothers to watch over the trea­ sure. People have been searc hing forth e treasu re ever si nce, and a number of pecu liar incidents have occ urred.

A few days later, the cowboy was found unco nsc ious along a nearby road by two ofOrley's friends. He was taken to a local doctorwho discovered the cowboy had no discerni bl e bruises . The cowboy wouldn 't explain his cond ition. and the nex t day he disappeared and has never bee n seen again. I dec ided to dramatize these inc i­ dents in my film, and inte rc ut them wit h a film ed interview of Oric y relating the entire hi story o f the legend. Before I filmed Orle y's tale, I tape recorded him rem inis­ cing a bout Shunk for about an hour. I let him feel at case, and avoided t he legend of the bu ried treasure. When I felt he was re­ laxed enough. I turned on my s ingle-system sou nd camera-pre­ focused and se t up o n a tripod-to film hi s tale. A tiny $ 19.95 "tie­ pin " microphone from Radio Shack worked perfec tl y for the in terview. With an impedance of 6000hms, t he mi c will work with practical ly any sound camera. His s tory lasted for about tcn min-

O ne incide nt describes a local fa rmboy, w ho in 1820 went ou t one day in search of t he gold. Poking an iron rod in the grou nd, he s truck the treasure. Before he could dig it up. he was overrun by an Indian ghost riding a white horse. His parents found him unconscious, but unharmed. Orley tells o f another incident in 1930 w hen he personall y met a mysterious s trange r w hile coon hunti ng o ne eve ning. He de sc ribes the man as a cowboy from Ok­ lahoma, w ho carried a map he'd rece ived from an o ld Indian woman in Oklahoma. She cla imed s he had once lived near Sh unk . The map , of course, showed the locat ion of the hidden treasure , and t he cowboy was intent on findi ng it.

Filming th e title~ o,'er th ese old photographs el'oked II time long pltslllnd sel the historical SlagI' for Th~ J~g~nd ofS hunk.

utes, or a little ove r three rolls o f Super-8 fi lm at 18 frames per sec­ ond. The biggest problem in film ­ ing the interview was the frequent hassle of changing film. At the beginningofeac h roll , I made certa in he repeated the las t few seco nd s of what hadjus t been recorded on the previous roll . That way, I was assured that nothing would be omitted when splicing all t he rolls togethe r for editing. To si mplify editi ng ofthe inte rview and to save wear and tear on the origi nal fi lm, I transferred the so und from the original fi lm to a cassette tape. From this tape , I made a typed transcript and did my initial edit on paper. Thi s drasti­ cally cut editing time and headac hes. Throughout the fi lm , O rley' s interv iew se rved as the narration track fo r sce nes s hot in live action depicting Shunk and e pisodes from the legend. Afteredit ing the inte rview, I re­ turned to Shunk to film th e live action footage that would bring the legend to life, F irst, I took Orley out to Turkeyfoo t Creek to film him personally describing and s howing me s upposed locat ions of the treasure. Since the most graphic parts of Orley's story we re his detailed descript ion s of the boy searc hing fo r the treasure and his own experience with the Ok­ lahoma cowboy, I decided to ree nact both incidents . And to give them an aut hentic, oIdtime documentary quality, I shot these sce nes in sepia toned fi lm. ESO-S Pictures (47th and Holly , Kansas City, Mo . 64 11 2) se lls two Super-8 se pia fi lm stocks-one rated at an expos ure index (E I) of 40and the other at EI 200. Since I wou ld be shoot ing some scenes in slow mo­ tion with a result ing light red uc· tion. I c hose the higher rated fil m. Later I had thi s film (which does not come prestriped) sound striped, and transferred Orley's narrative. I spent a long time looking for someone with a w hite horse who would ride dressed as an Ind ian ghost. Finall y, I found a local 4-H horse club an d two members will­ ing to be in the film. Origin all y, I had planned to dress t he Indi an ghost in un Indian buck sk in suit complete wit h headdre ss. I de­ ci ded ins tead to use a white s heet wi th holes cu t out foreyes. As SUPER·8 FILMAXER

CIROSuper8 film splicer and tape:

cliched as it might see m, it proved to be the most dramatic part of the fi lm. ( shot the ghost sequence in slow motion , on the sepia stock , with a vaseline-smeared sk ylight fi lter over the lens fora diffuse dreamy effect. The scene fades in with the boy po king an iron rod in the ground searching fort reasure. As he strikes something hard , a shrouded ride r comes gall op ing up. The horse and rider seem to fl oat by (in slow motion) as the white sheet flaps in the wind and the boy fa ll s trampled to the ground . It turned out to be a beau­ tiful piece of s upernatural vio­ lence . I shot the cowboy scene in the same location along the wooded creek. Hi s mysterious fate is left hanging in t he air as the scene fades out and Orley describes his disappearance. (ntercut throughout the film are a number of old photos and post­ cards depicting local scenes from app ropriate time period s. T hese still pict ures also worked nicely with the fi lm's credits and titles superimposed over them. I used press-on ty pe (" Prestype. " .. Letrase t ") fo rthe lettering, mounting the titles on clear plastic . I then laid t he plastic o ve r t he o ld photos and postcard s and shot them in the sepia stock. I also shot pictures of the actors on locat io n with a Po laroid camera, and in­ cluded these in the backgro und stills under t he cred its. Making the film has provided me with a profo und sense of pe rsonal satisfaction and community in­ volvement. I've shown the fi lm to many local clubs and organ'iza­ tions. Jfyou contact such organi­ zation s in adva nce , yo u might get a good deal of support- perhaps even fi nancial support- for your proposed fi lm. Since the Bicen­ tenn ial and Roots, many commun­ ity groups are keenly interested in their heritage, be it fa ct or legend.

FOOl SOU..o.O""'U'


Perfect regi stration fa s!. The CIRO makes its own perforations in the splicing tape, and trims the edges automatically.



he C IRO joins film with oped.1 L.anopa rent tape. It punches holes in the tap" Ih"t cxaclly match the ~Im·. o,,'n pe rloration•. P""ition r>in$ hold Ihe ~lm 'tmight and Ra t. It', lasl, easy ~nd, a l>ov~ all. preci,e. The . prlce YOu let a m""h stronger and Innse . ·lu ti ns jnin thin ",ith a cemen t ..,Iice •. And C IRO-e<!ited film ruM mo", >monlhly through you. projeclo. than p ..... taped 0. cemented film. Invisi ble r.~ , dg81 When }'ou attllch Ihe elRO tape. it'. au tomatically ~itioned 10 that hoth its edgel I .e ix:1"wn f. ames of you. film. Sine. tap" it_If io transparent. thi,.ddo up to Ipjictlllh.u a ... practktlly invisible on the . '''..'~n. With both ...ment and pre•• tapea, you can see th e edge. 1"0 loy in mid' &e . een. No 10lt lilm 1.lm.. If you chan,e you . mind IhOUI a cut. ju. t peel th e aplice apart Ind lape the ~Lm 10R"ther t'" "IY it ..... brIo.... Th'!"1 not poi'

~il:olo .. ith cement. You looe one I rameolt""moviewith",~ry..,l~ chan~e you make.

'1'1'51'1'1' In.~lbl al'pe edge.. p.I<:I.. pol;llonlng. 1.1<:. nol co ••tad. A .~I. damigecllilm You C. n u,., the C IRO and ir.... l.a n'I,"","t lape In mend tom film "nd b.ohn oprock"l hoi... [1'0 a.





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I think the most enjoyable experi­ ence fo r me was when I showed the fi lm to those who helped me make it. To see Drley Sturdavant's eyes light up while watching him­ self on that silver screen was like seeing a ch ild's fre sh excitement when view ing himself o n fi lm fo r the fi rst time . 0



J !I !I !:.!.:


10 posi tion each pr~ tape /' UII . ilht. by hand. Wi lli. the C RO ,,·.aplround method. if. I II o n.. ~Iep -. nd p.ecise po.ilionin, io aulonutic. SIV. Ihe soundtrack ClHO ,,·.apamund tape stOI'S sho' l of Ihe ""u nd stripe on Ihat oideof the Rim_so yourlOund ""n·

tin,"" uninterrupled. t.......

co~e. the I.Rck. • lO"nd

dropOUI; a nd "'ilh cemenl ..,1",", you gel I dkkin~ noisf,. Tl pe 5 tim.. ch..~.1 A roll 01 eIRo Sup'" a tlpe ".ill ~i~o Y"" about 350 . plicea. r ..... lal'" oplice. cnst llel"'",,n 2 and 3 c.!ntaeach. Fo. 2% cenla. you gel arou nd'" CIRO .• tJlir:es! Tape 10 • • plice.? C IRO tape i . top qUllity. ( E~e.y mil i. g"o'oM eed nol to tel....,.",." for enmpie. l lt COIOU r•• Ie.. 1"",.u$<! ;1 <'Om.... in ~ mil "rid

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These two women live in a little house in Canmo re, Alberta , a moun tain town a few miles down Ihe road from the touri st resort of Banff. Susan ne teaches st il l pho­ tography at the Ba nff Centre, an d have share d. Too often audiences Elizabeth makes he r li ving doing passive ly view the natu re film s freelance work. They've been on sent to school s or see n on TV . three major fi lming expedition s­ " There' s an appreciat io n for na­ to the Galapagos Islands in the lu re within eve ryone, but most South Pacific. Nahan ni National people have never been asked to Pmk in Canada's Nort hwest Ter­ participate before." Susanne and ritories a nd to the roc ky island bird Elizabet h not o nly involve Iheir sanc lua ries off Ihe coast of New­ a udience in stunning visuals. but found land . also try to impart their personal On their various expeditions. the y fee lings about man's place in na­ often have to hike in(Q wilderness tu re. Man is an integral part of areas . Super-8 is the only medium nature, they feel. an d not a c re a­ pot1able eno ug h for their type of ture that siands apart and above. filming. A professional still pho­ Sw ibold and Garsonnin have done tographer. S usan ne is able to lise seve ral presentations to groups of her excellen t Hasselblad and Nikon 35mrn C-rnount lenses o n young people, some com m is­ he r S upe r-B Beau lieu for te lephoto sioned by National Muse um s of Canada. a nd o th e rs by loca l sc hool c lose-ups of su bjects. She find s the larges t 35mrn lens s he can put on groups. One particu lar school in the Beaulieu is the ZOOmm. The Montreal had never had a group presenta tion other than rock weight of a 250mm lens would bands, but Swibo ld a nd Ga rso n­ probab ly warp the front of the nin 's fi lms and slide s were a suc­ camera. H owever, she's in the cess. " We are Joe Average to the process of testing a brace that kids, not National Geographic." wou ld hold the lens in place. The

Super-8 on the wing: an adventurous filmmaking team takes to the wilds You probabl y did n', know thi s. but the puffin , a seab ird na tive to Newfoundland. has an extra toe that is specifically used for d igging la rge ho les for his ncst. Puffin s only dig a hole once a year. When thaI time came. fi lmmaker Su­ sanne Sw ibold paliently waited in the learing wind on the A valan Peninsula of Newfoundland. H e r tripod weighed down with sa nd­ bags and her camera focused in on onc puffin , she waited for the phenomenon to begin. Sure enough , the puffin started his laborious task. bu t Su sanne was so awed by the process that she j us t watched , and ne ve r shot o ne frame

of fi lm. While it might drive some serious filmmakers off the deep end, the fact that she missed this once-in­ a-l ifetime shot doesn't really bot her Susanne. In fact , it' s hap­ pened to her more than once. It' s the natural process that int e rests her; fi lm is mere ly a medi um for capturing it. S he and her pa rt ner Elizabe th Garson nin do not see eye-to-eye with people making "big time" nature films. They claim that t hese profess ional people set up many of the "nat­ ural" events th at they record on film , sim ply because they haven't time to wait for them to happen. T ime is money, you know.




Swibold a nd Garson nin, o n the C"lia Bra ver USf'SB pa rabolic reHeclor' o the r ha nd , have s pent hours si t­ 10 record natura l sou nd s from a distanct', ting a nd waiting. O ne sequence of a puffin tossi ng a fis h to its baby in a hole took a full hour to develop. The puffin was be ing ve ry close ly watched by a gu ll who would have eaten either the fi sh o r the baby, given the chance. The puffin had to t hrow the fish far enough into the hole so the baby would n't have to crawl ou l far to retrieve it. Gett ing the footage is some times on ly half t heir batt le. The rest is presenting it to their a udien ces. Susanne and Elizabeth don't j ust send out a can of fi lm-t hey take it themselve s, along with a ba nk of six to te n slide projec(Q rs. T hey wan t their audie nces to part ic ipate in the ex pe riences they themselves 60

A pu fti n Sirikes a stately pose for S"'ibllid and Gllrsonnin's lo ng ra nge wns.


Susanne Swihold (a t ca mera) a nd Elizabeth Garsonntn filming with It Super·S Beaulieu fillffi with B 250mm Hasselbald lens on a sp«ia l mou nl d esigned for them by the Ca nlld ia n Na tio nal Film Board. SUPER·S F1LMAKER




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Canadian National Film Board is qu ite inte rested in her problem and has giyen her help in de signi ng the brace. Fil ming with telephoto len ses de­ mands the use of a tripod. The enlargement prod uced by a 35 mm lens on a Super-8 camera is enormou s. Sw ibold has been able to obtai n clear close-ups, for example, of single birds out o f tremendous colonies, from hun­ dreds of yards away. In wildlife photography , a black fini sh tripod is a must , since anything shiny tends to frighte n away wild bird s.

Sound effec t s are impo rta nt. They can make or break your movie. From grunting goril las (wi th or without chimpanzees in the background} to an A·Bomb .. you name il.. . we 've got it. Over 600 unique, authentic hi·fidelity sound ellects available on a set of 18 LP albums. Only $6 per al· bum (each contains abou t 30 sound effects}. Sound effects reo corded the professional way­ allowing you to be your own pro­ ducer. Send for our free brochure and pick ou t the "sounds" you need to add a professional touch 10 your films.

Until now, all their Super-S work has been blown up to 16mm lor presentatio n. In nature filmin g, lig ht cannot be tampered with. there are contrasts that ca nnot be avoided and man y of nature's phenomena occur in th e dim times of early morn ing o r late afternoo n. Sixteen millimeter prints can be timed in the lab to alleviate many of these exposure problems.

Thomas J . Valenti no, Inc.

151 West 461h SI.

New York, N.Y. 10036

The two fi lmmakers have little use fo r sync sound. "Wild sound " recorded o n location is perfectl y sati sfactory in most cases. They often leave portions of the ir foot ­ age si len t. so that the audience takes more notice of the visual image-the flight of a gannet. for instance. Ce lia Braver. who acts as t heir so und person, take s a Uher portable stereo recorder on location and gathe rs wil d so und with a Dan G ibson parabolic re­ flector mounted on a tripod . Swibold and Garson nin do a lo t of practicing in their own bac kya rd, and they recommend it. Swibold says that by doing this, you ca n come to fee l when somethi ng is going to happen. They live in the Rocky Mou ntains. but you don't need such fa ntastic scenery and wild animals to do nature filmin g, One day j ust as they we re sitt ing down to dinner. the y noticed a s pide r, who had taken up resi­ dence in the moose-skull ce nter­ piece on the table, goi ng to work to capture an insect. The meal was forgotten as they watched the pro­ cess for hours. T hat' s what man and natu re is all about as far as they ' re concerned. They and t he spider were li vi ng side by side , neither bot hering the ot her. Come to thin k of it, t hey were even eating their meals at the same time! 0

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The truth behind the XL camera boom and how to test one before you buy "A- I-' h-o- U - g-h-'-'-' -e -w- '-;'-' -en- -.-bO -U-' -X-L-----m - -a n- y- C --a m - -e-" -S-g-;-, e- n -'h- e- X-L- n- a- me

" " ' - fi lmmaki ng in pas t columns. I've _ skirted t he challenging question of what the photograph ic industry mean s by the acronym .. XL." The term X L stand s for existill g light, and is generally appl ied to camerdS with the abi lity to s hoot in low ligh t orexisli ng light conditions (for example , under artifici al lighting indoors without the help of photoflood s) . But what is ac tuall y meant by ex ist ing ligh t, and how many cameras given the X L label reall y conform to a true XL s tandard?


Let' s take the ques tion of what ex isting light means in terms of filmma king. Given an X L camera with its fast lens , us uallyfl l ,2, and its broad shutte r angle of220de­ grees or thereabouts. you should be able to get good expos ure s even in a measl y five footcandles of inciden t light when yo u s hoot wit h a fa st film li ke E ktac hro me G.

reall y don't conform to this stan­ dard. Here's a testing procedure you could use to definitely estab­ lis h whether or not a camera actu­ ally could take good exposures

under five footcandles. At least, it's a way to determ ine compara­ live exposu re leve ls o f various cameras. Illuminate an 18 percent Kodak ne utral gray test card , sold for exposure test purposes by mo st large photographic dealers, with five footca ndles of light. You'l! need to use a handheld incident meter to get the light j ust right. o r rough gue ss doing the test in an artificiall y lit room, Then shoot the card with your test cameras wide

And what, might you ask , are five foot candles of incide nt light? Wh y, that' s how muc h light you have w hen yo urillcidem light meter reads five o n its scale, A n incident meter measures light co m­ ing from the light so urce rathe r open at an ex posure reading of than measuring light reflected by fl l.2. The cameras should be run­ the subject you're filming (as do ning at the s ame speed ([8 or 24 lightmeters built into most fp s) . Meas ure the density of the cameras). The re ex ists an actual processed tes t fi lm with a den­ standard "candle" which w hen burned is supposed to produce one sitometer , or compare the density of the exposure by eyeball, and footca ndle o f ill umination , when you'l l know soon enough w hic h measured a foot from the fl ame . (Actually, w hat is measured is n't a cameras are th e fastes t. candle at all , but rather the light It seems obvious t hat the industry emitted by a crucible of molten could adopt s uc h a standard , and platinum , under certai n specified that cameras co uld be objectively cond itions .) Five of these uni t rated in te rms of their actual foot­ candles will prod uce the intens ity candle capability, I, fo r one, that is the mi nimum illumination would like to see thi s happen , required by the modern XL sys­ Perha ps the Society of Motion tem for good expos ures using fa s t PiclUre and Television Engineers (l60exposure index)colorreversal shou ld concern the mselves about s tock. these s tandards. Actually, you'd To give you some sort of idea w hat ex pect the industry itself to be concerned about fa lse claims of this measure mean s, there are XL capability. I'll do my part here about a thousand footc and les on a and now by attempting to educate sunny day. Five footcandl es is a the buying public to the facts in the pretty representa tive fig ure for your ty pical arti fi ciall y ill um inated Great XL Race, kitchen or living room. One could be generous an d say that , s ince s tandards do not exist , However, and here's the rub, 62

manu facturers claiming XL capa­ bility fo r cameras w hich don' t meet t he five footcandle s tandard can' t be blamed for thei r en­ thus iastic or d is hones t claims. It 's an open joke that a growing numberof cameras labeled XL withfll .7 orfll, 8 lenses, light ab­ so rbing broad zoom ranges, view­ finder optics and be hind-the-Ien s me ters, have one, and on ly one , claim to being XL- t he broad 220 degree s hutter angle . T his shutter let s more lig ht t hrough to the fi lm than the us ua l 170 degree s hutter found on Supe r-8 product ion cameras. However, there's more to being an XL than mere ly having a 220 degree s hutter, A standard production camera , with only th is addition ofa 220 degree shutler, is going to gain about 300r40 percent in exposure , hardly haIfa stop. True X L mac hines, howe ve r, have a healthy two or three stop im­ provement in exposure . So don't be roo led, Nobody can make a ca mera with anf l1.8 lens that 's as fast as a came ra with anfl l.2 Iens . Can't be done, Manufact ure rs may be t rying to salvage their production camera designs by ad­ ding 220degree shutters and call­ ing them X L mac hines. But iflow ligh t capa bility is w hat you crave most of ali, s tay away from these s hucks, whic h, sad to say , are being brought to you by a few of you r most reputable manufactur· ers, T hese fol ks shoul d know bet· ter, since in some cases they are also making true X L cameras. Forthe last two months, I've been working with two XL cameras, and t hey are both capable per­ forme rs in the fi ve footcandle range, One is a Kodak mac hine , the XL362 wit h anjl1.2 , 9-2 1mm Ektar lens, and the other is the Mino lta XL-400 with anfll,2, 8.4­ 34mm Rok kor lens. Both cameras have first-rate opt ics. They are cri sp and contrasty and just about every thing you' d expect from a mode rn lens. The Kodak mach ine departs from t he tradi tio nal concept ofcamera de sign and handles like a pair or binoc ulars, In terms of fi nis h and trim , t he Kodak machine makes good textural use of plastic and metal that I fin d to be very pleas­ ing. T he Minolta design is an at­ tempt to make a smartly styled SUPER,S FlLMAXER




Canadian National F ilm Board is q ui te int erested in her problem and has given her help in designing the brace.

Filming with te lephoto lenses de­ mands the use of a tripod . The en largement produced by a 35mm lens on a Super-8 camera is enormous. Swibold has been able

to obtain clear close-ups. for example. of single birds out of CRA VEN BACKWINOER Works with ANY Silent Super 8 Camera. Til les;oissolYi!!s, Mu ltiple Images, Special Effects.

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• Color and B & W Reversal

Developinl and Printinl

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Sound effects are important.

They can make or break your tremendous colon ies. from hun­ movie. From grunting gorillas dreds of yards away. I n wild life (with or without chimpanzees in photography, a black finish tripod the background) to an A·Bomb . you name it ... we've got it. Over is a must. s ince anything s hiny 600 unique, authentic hj·lidelily tends to frighten away wild birds.

sound effects available on a set of 18 LP albums. Only $6 per al· bum (each contains about 30 sound effects). Sound effects reo corded the professional way­ allowing you to be your own pro­ ducer. Send lor our free brochure and pick out the " sounds" you need to add a professional touch to your films.

Unti l now. all their Super-S work has been blown up to 16mrn ror presentation. In nature filming. light can not be tampered wit h.

there are contrasts that cannot be avoided and many of nature' s phenomena occur in the dim times of early morni ng o r late afternoon. Sixteen millimeter prints can be timed in the lab to alleviate many of these exposure problems.


The two filmmakers have little use for sync sound. "Wild so und" recorded on loca tion is perfectly satis factory in most cases. The y often leave portions of their foot­ age s ilent. so that the audience takes more notice of the vi s ual image-the flight ofa gannet. for ins tance. Cel ia Braver. who acts as their sound person. hikes a U her portable ste reo recorder on location and gathers wild so und wi th a D an Gibson parabolic re­ flector mounted on a tripod. Sw ibold and Ga rsonnin do a lot of practici ng in their own backyard. and they recommend it. Swibold says that by doing this, you can come to fee l when something is going to happen. They live in the Rocky Mou ntains, but you don't need suc h fantastic scenery and wild animals to do nature fi lming. One day ju st as they we re s itti ng dow n to dinne r. they noticed a s pide r. who had take n up resi­ dence in the moose-skull center­ piece on the table , going to work to captu re an insect. T he meal was forgotten as they watched the pro­ cess for hours . T ha t' s what man and natu re is all about as far as they're concerned. They and the spider were living side by s ide, nei the r botheri ng t he other. Come to think of iI , they were even eati ng the ir meals at the same time! 0

J . Valentino, Inc.

151 West 46th SI.

New York, N.Y. 10036

(212) C16·4675





0 5

45 95



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The truth behind the XL camera boom and how to test one before you buy A lthoug h I' ve wrillen abou t X L fi lmmaking in past column s, I ' ve s ki ned the c hallenging que stion of w hat the photographic industry mean s by t he acro nym " XL. ,. The te rm XL stands for exisling figllf , and is gene rall y a pp lied to came ras with the a bili ty 10 shoo t in low light or existing ligh t condition s (for e xa mple , unde r a rt ificiai lighting indoors w ithoullhe help ofpholO­ flood s). But what is ac tuall y meant by ex is ting light , a nd how many cameras given the X L labe l reall y conform to a true XL standard ?

Let 's take the ques tion o f what e x ist ing lig ht me a ns in te rms of fi lmma king. G iven an X L came ra with its fast le ns, us uall yfl 1. 2, a nd its broad shutter angle of220 de­ grees or the reabouts, you s hou ld be a ble to get good e xposures e ve n in a measly five foot candles of incident light w hen you shoot wit h a fast fi lm like Ektac hrome G.

man y cam e ras given the X L name reall y don't con fo rm to thi s s tan ­ da rd . H e re 's a te sting procedure you co uld use to defi nitely estab­ lish w he ther o r not a camera act u­ ally could take good ex posures unde r five footcandles. A t least , it 's a way to determin e co mpa ra­ tive e xpos ure leve ls of var iou s cameras. Il lumina te a n IS percent Kodak ne utral gray tes t card , sold for exposure test pu rposes by mo st large photog raph ic deale rs. w ith fi ve footca ndles ofli ght. You'll need to use a hand held inciden t meier to gel the light ju st right , o r rough guess doing the test in a n a rtifi cially lit room . Then shoot the card w it h yo ur tes t ca me ras w ide

And w ha t, might you ask , a re fi ve footc a ndles of incide nt lig ht? Why, that' s how much light yo u have whe n yourillcidell1light me ter reads fi ve on it s scale . An inc ide nt mete r measure s light co m­ ing from t he light source rathe r open al a n exposure reading o f tha n measuri ng light refl ec ted by f l l.2 . The camera s shou ld be run­ t he subject you're fi lmi ng (as do ni ng at the same speed (IS or 24 lightme te rs buil t in to most fp s) . Meas ure the density o f the cameras). T here ex is ts a n ac tual processed tes t fi lm with a de n­ stan da rd "candle" which when bu rned is s upposed to produce one s itome te r, o r com pare the den s ity o fl he ex po sure by e yebal l, and foot candle of ill umi natio n, when you'll know soon e no ugh whic h meas ured a foot from the fl ame. (Actually , w hat is meas ured isn't a cameras a re the fa s lest. ca ndle a t all , but rat her the light It see ms obvio us th at the indus try e mitted by a cruci ble of molte n co uld adopt s uc h a s ta ndard . a nd platinum, under ce rtain s pecified that ca me ras could be objec ti vely conditions.) F ive of t hese unit rated in term s of their act ual f00 1­ candles will prod uce the inten sity can dle ca pabi lity. I, fo r o ne , that is the min imum illum ination wou ld like 10 see this hap pe n. req ui red by the mode rn X L sys­ Pe rhaps the Societ y of Motion tem fo r good expos ures us ing fa s t Pic ture a nd Tele vis ion E ngineers (l 60 e xposure inde x) colo r re ve rsal shou ld concern t hem selves about s toc k. these standards. Ac tua ll y, yo u'd To give you some sort of idea wha t expec t t he industry it self to be concerned about fa lse claims of this measure means, there a re X L ca pabil it y. I' ll do my pa rt he re a bout a thousand foot candles on a sunny day. Fi ve foolcandles is a and now by atte mpt ing to educate the buying publi c to t he fac ts in th e pre tt y re presentative figure for yourt ypical art ific ially ill umina ted Great X L Race . kitchen or li ving room. One cou ld be generous a nd say However, a nd here 's the ru b , thai, since standa rds do not ex is t , 62

ma nufacture rs claiming X L capa­ bility for came ras w hic h don' t meet the fi ve footcandle s ta nda rd can ' t be blamed forth eir e n­ th usiastic or dis hones t claims. It 's a n o pe n joke tha t agrow ing number of cameras la beled X L withf l l .7 orf l l.S le nses , light ab­ sorbing broad zoom ranges , view­ fi nde r optic s and behin d-th e-Ie ns me ters, have one , a nd only one , cla im to bei ng X L- the broad 220 degree sh utte r a ngle . This s hutter lets more light through to the film tha n the usual 170 degree shutter fo und on Supe r-8 produc tion ca meras . H owever, t here' s mo re 10 being an X L th an me rely hav ing a 220 degree s hutter . A standa rd produc tion came ra, w ith only this addition ofa 220 degree s hutter, is go ing to gain a bout 30 0r40 pe rcent in expos ure , ha rdly haIfa sto p. True X L mac hine s, however , ha ve a health y two ort hree sto p im­ proveme nt in e xposure . So don't be fooled . Nobody can ma ke a camera with a nf l l. Sle ns tha t' s as fast as a ca me ra w ith anfl l. 2 Ie ns. Can' t be do ne. Manufact ure rs may be try ing to salvage their production ca mera des ign s by ad­ ding 220 degree shutters and call­ ing the m XL machines. But ifl ow lig ht capabi lit y is wh at you crave most of all , s tay away from these shucks, whic h, sad to say , a re being brough t to you by a few of your most re putable manufactu r­ ers . These fo lks should know be t­ te r, s ince in so me cases they a re also ma king true X L cameras. Fo r the last two months. I ' ve bee n working w ilh two XL cameras, a nd they are both capable pe r­ fo rmers in t he five footcandle range. O ne is a Kodak machine, t he X L362 w ith anf l 1.2 , 9-21m m Ekta r le ns, a nd t he othe r is the Minolta X L-400 w it h anf ll.2, S.4­ 34mm Rokko r lens . Both cameras have first-ra te optics . They a re crisp a nd contras ty and j us t about e ve rything you' d ex pect from a modern lens. The Kodak mac hine de pa rt s from t he tradit ional conce pt o f came ra design and handles like a pair of binoc ula rs. In te rms of fi nish and tri m, the Kodak machine makes good te xtural use of plastic a nd me tal that I find to be very pleas­ ing. The M inolta de sign is a n al­ te mpt to ma ke asma rt ly styled SUPER·a FILMAKER


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camera that has the look of trad i­ (ional quality. It may seem peculi ar t hat in t he first pari o f this co lumn I conce n· trated on tec hnical aspects o f XL came ras and , now that I'm talking about two spec ifi c cameras. I' m rapping about the estheticsofac ­ l ua ll y ho lding and feet ing the in­ s tru ment. When all is said and done. this is as i mpo rtan~acon s i d · cration as how X U sh the camera is. o r as impo rtant as il s various featu res.

In terms offeatu res. the Minolta machine ha s il ove r the Kodak camera . The Mino lta X L-400 hu s II built-in interva lometer fo r low frame s per second (fps) settings, in addit ion to its normal 18 fp s speed . It also has a PC fl as h out let fo r double-system sync, a macro zoom lens t hut allows forextreme close-ups andjlsto ps which can be se t manual ly. Th e Kodak XL362 has a meter lock which may be depre ssed to hold the de sired se t­ ting. It also has a separate mOtor forth e power zoom, while the Minolla takes its power zoom by way of gearing off the drive motor. Practicall y speak ing, this mean s that the Minolta' s power zoom cannot be used when the camera isn't ru nning .

Probabl y the major fealUre differ· ence is t hat the Kodak mac hine uses an adj acent type view fi nder. and th e Mi noJta uses a thro ugh­ the-len s re fl ex viewing system with s pl it-image foc using. Whichever is bette r is up to you and your eyeball . The Kodak mac hine with it s si mple r optics. fewer airto glass s urfaces and external meter for e xposu res, i ~ proba bl y \6 or!4 stop fastcr than the Mino lta , alleas l o n paper.

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Allows you to superimpose your own moving litles onto your own film background with a wide range of other special effects. The Cinegraph· ica comes complete with everything you need to start titling--detailed in­ structions. titling drum and flap·over board, special effects masks and supply of " l etraset" instant lettering.

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---- .





" ~~

Tho lim . . . . is lellec1ed vii. !he Cinotgraphb·. DoWn ~ .."........cj nWfof into Y"'If ("""'-1. whicl1 also pid<I up II>e ... age 01 the lilies from !he !>ad< o! !he uN. lJsr9 I .""'0U!1> tIM. ! _.. viewng e.merlyou can see jusl wnal)'OU ar. ~ lming. with 1M I'WO images I Uper,.,pesed . An... prOCes5o.g. the roew lengths ale spliced 03Ck e>nIO)'OUI Mm.

Distributed by: Test.He I<l.t,urnenl Co .• In<: .

135 Mon<OI

StJ New~.

N.J . 07105

Ki n Corporation

2036 Broadw..,/ SantI Mor.:a. Ca


Ge!n..: Metketl<lll Ccwp.

3 Ea.,281h St / New Yor ~ . N .Y. 10016


T he exciting K~20 ed ition of Porter's 1 12 page il lu­ strated newspaper type catalog is fi lled with name bra nd eq ui pm ent and su p p li es like Minolta cam eras and accessories pl us hundred s of u nusal p hotograph ic items. S ee fo r y ourself. Send cou · pon or w rit e for you r F REE copy of Porter's K-20 Ma il Order Photo·

There a re doze ns of XL designs to choose from. Which is for you? Certainly the choice ex tends be­ yond t he Minolta X L-400 an d the Kodak X L362. al though they wo uld be good cho ices for man y readers, In the dozen years since Super-8 was firs t introd uced t here have bee n two major ad vances­ sound-an-fi lm came ras an d X L came ras . It' s like comparing Ihe proverbial apples and oranges. Of the two, th e X L fea tu re is more import ant to my way oflooking at t hings . After a ll. if you can't pro­ duce a we ll ex posed image , who needs sync so und? 0 CIRCLE INFQCARD 35

With all t hose cameras for you to pensive Extend-A- Reel ava ilable, reel capacity is no longe r a vital peruse in o ur " Sound Came ra Buying Guide ," we decided to te st consideration in selecting a Su per-8 projec tor. And a profes­ some ot her handy filmmaking tool s. The four we've chosen have sional screening atmosphere that a few things in common-simplic­ shows your film s to their best advantage with a min imum of in­ ity of design , straightforward ap­ terruption is now at everyo ne's proach and lack offrill s. disposal. Extend Your Reel Capacity Having made a Super-8 fi lm that is Two Projector Hum Filters Another bugaboo in the way of 1,600 feet long, it was only natural that I should try the Extend-A-Reel sl ick screenings has been the hum that is often introduced when pro­ from Ra-Cine Produ cts Company jectors are coupled to external (see address box at end ofarticle). speakers. Yo u probably know that This unit stands like a monolith our brother and sister fi lmmakers behind (III)' Super-8 projector and in Engla nd were deepl y in volved allows long uninterrupted in sync sound Super-8 in the days screenings of your epi c pro­ when mo st of us were content with ductions up to 2.200 feet lo ng. At the projector roar as the onl y ac­ fir st it took a little adju stment o f compani ment to our visual ex pre s­ the dial to matc h the speed of th e sion. It 's no t surprising the n that unit to the projector I used fo r many pieces of sy nc and ot her testing . But once t his minor cor­ sound gear originated across the rection was made , trouble-free Atlan tic . One such unit is th e projection and rewinding was the Craven Hum Filter. This simple order of t he day (or night). black box con sists ofa two-pin If you're the kind offilmm ake r " din" jack (similar to the external who gets your message out in a speaker inpu t jack found on most matter of minutes, you might won­ so und projectors). a dial and a wire der wh y you wou ld need a machine lead wi lh a t wo- pin plug. Yo u plug with a 2,2oo-foot potent ial. Maybe the un it into your projector. and your film s are short. but what if then plug the speaker into the hum you had a chance to show several fi lter. The C raven in struct ion of them on one even ing. Or sheet gi ves detailed in structions perhaps you ' re part ofa film group on how to reposition the co il in or club that shows the work of yo ur projecto r to minimi ze t he many filmm akers . Aud ience s tend 60 Hz line hum. Thefiherthe n to fidget and lose patience during easil y filt ers the re sidual hum . breaks in a sc reening . With int er­ which, in most cases , can be to­ rupt ions "due to technical diffic ul­ tally e liminated. Since the hum ties" commo nplace in the world of filter is, in effect. a bass tone amateur productions , it seem s control, or limited low freq uency on ly practical to keep planned in­ equalizer, it also serves to reduce term issions to a minimum . With the Extend -A- Ree l, it is possib le to leave the hou se light s offfor a couple of hours, or to stop at any time and begin again without the inconvenience ofrethreading the projecto r. The con struction oft his unit is simple and sol id , wit h feed and takeup reel s placed side by side on a single split shaft. Th e heavy base of the uni t prevents tipping. The reels on the test unit were of the 1.600-foot capacity , a simple in ex­ pensive plastic variety. The 2,200-foot reel s are probably simi­ lar in construction. With this well t hought out, inexThIS pf()d uct ••• Iu"oo~ IS ba.!ied upon PlOoCtc" t~d uW fI.II,." It\an lIboI.toty data Dec8uSA we Coei_ a P'OoClICai aPPlOOoCh II the most 'NVanllO!tIe

o r eliminate the "boominess" as­ soc iated with so und recorded on stripe. Like the reel extender, thi s unit is simple , we lt built and free of frill s. It does its job admirab ly a nd should last a lo ng time. If you ' re in the hab it of usingrwo s peakers from yo ur projector's amplifier . you might wanl lo try a simil ar hum filter unit made by Bal four (also an English com­ pany). Th is one has two jack s to accommodate a pair of s peakers . Thejack s are wired in se ries, so the fihe r s h o uldn ~t pre sent any impedance problem s in no rmal use. The Balrour Hum Eliminator fu nct ions essentia ll y like the Craven, e xcept for it s twin recep­ tacles and th e ' '0" to "10" calibra­ tion o n the dial. As a matteroffact. th is dial is the one thing that bothered me on both units. The Craven dial is black wi th a single white line engraved o n it , but there are no numbers or reference points of any kind on the body of the filt er to line up the dial for repeat per­ fo rmances. T he Balfour. o n the o ther hand . has a numbered di al, but no line orot her reference o n the body for lining up the num be rs. Aside from this minor deviation from logical des ign. both unit s produce their intended result­ clean sound . A Clean Splicing Machine Turning away from projectio n a id s for the mome nt , but sti ll in the real m of simple , welt designed hardware , come s the Minette Model II tape splicer. Perhaps the best de sc ript ion of the Minette is











_"'II Su"",.a ~_e,



an explanation of how it works . F irst, th e end o r e nd s ofthe film (0 be c ut for s plicing a re registered on s proc ket pins in the cutti ng area. By closing t he s plicer lid , t he un­ wanted film is c ut free. Upon re­ leasing the lid , the blade returns to it s position behind a metal spring hi nge. The cutti ng edge is never exposed to your bare fl es h. a nd its open-l id pos ition preven ts nicks in the blade itself. When the lid is o pened , the trimme d e nds of the film are pos itioned on multiple reg­ is tration pin s in the splice area along w ith a paper-cove red tape patch. The patch lays on pins of its own to maintain its exact registra­ tion . By closing the lid "slowly and steadi ly," t he tape paper is removed , and both sides offilm are cove red w it h tape. Jus t two frame s of fi lm a re covered , and the su ipe area is, of course. left bare. A com pa rtme nt at the base ort he s plicer stores the tape patc hes . The Minette I I is the eas iest and cleanest working two-frame tape splicer I have ever used . S pli ces are made in record t ime and are always perfect. The paper re sidue see ms a bi t wasteful ecologicall y. but w it hout it. t he tape would attract dirt. At 4 cents a splice. t he price is also a litt le steep , but the time and effort saved with this great litt le un it probably makes it mo re economical t han it might seem. Nevert heless. I wouldn' t object if Minette could see their way c lea r to a slight lowering of t he tariff. N e itherwould I mind if the tape included a blac k li ne printed t hrough the center. As I men­ tioned in m y art icle ''Tips for Mak­ ing Be tter Splices" (May , 1977), this black lin e wou ld prevent that a nnoying fl as h oflight during a screening tha t happen s when tape spliced fi lm separates from stress . Badmout hing aside. t he Minette I I has found a permanent home on my editing table. 0 For more information on these prod­ ucts. write to: £xrend-A-Reel

Ra-Cine Products Co.

1687 Perry Ave.

Racine. Wis. 53406

Balfour and Craven Hum Filrers

Super-S Studios 220 Pierce St. San Francisco, Calif. 94117 Minette Modell/Splicer

Hervic Corporation 14225 Ventura Blvd . Sherman Oaks. Calif. 91423 SUPER·S F1LMAKER

NOVEMBER Conrerence on Visual Anthropology. March 8- 11,1978 in Philadelphia. ?-d. Ellfry deaellinc Nov. I. All 8mm gauges, 16mm. Contact: Jay Ru by, Director. COVA-78. Departmentof Anthropology . Temple University. Philadelphia, Pa. 19/22. 8rl10- 16 Festival. Nov. 3-6 in Brno. Czechoslovakia. AlI 8mm gauges. 16mm. Contact: Miloslav J elinek. S.K . Neumann Town C ultu ral Center. 656 01 Brno. Radnicka4, CSSR. Movie Madness.--I977. Nov. 19 in Sellllle. Wash. El1Iry deadlill e Nov. 4. AlI8mm gauges. 16mm. 6O-min . time limit. Open to residentsofWllshington State between ages or13 and 20. $100 first prize. Con tact: Jan F reeman Young, King Coun ty Library System. 300 Eighth Ave .. North Seattle. Wash. 98 109. Gasser 's Supcr-8 Trade Show. Nov. 18-19 in San Francisco. Calif. All major lines ofSupcr-8 equipment on exhibit. Seminllrs. demonstrations, special events. No admission charge. Contact: Robert Price. Adolph Gasser' s Photography. Inc .. 181 Second St .. San Francisco. Calif. 94121. East Bay Super.8 Filmmakers, Nov. 19 in Oakland. Calif. Organizational mee ting , screening and disc ussion of film s. 25-cent donation. Contact: Doug Ke ister, 5826 Fremont St .. Oakland , Calif. 94608. 1977 Filmrest . Dec. 3 in Auburn . Calif. Ell/I), deadlille NOI·. 29. Amateur, professional. S2 entry fee . Contact: Dann Hagstrom. P.O. Box 1395. Auburn, Calif. 95603.

DECEMBER Undergro und Cinema Expo '78. February 1978 in Santa Barbara. Calif. El1In' r/eall/ille Dec. 10. All 8mmgauges. 16mm . Amateur, professional. Co ntact: Pierre C , Delong, Sant a Barbara Indepen­ dent Film 1\·l uscum. 855 Sand Point Road , Cltrpinleria, Calif. 93013. Filmsouth '78. J1tn. 20-21, 1978 in Spartanburg. S.c. El1Iry llt'llelline V ec.31. All 8mm gauges, 16m:n. 30-minute lime limit. Amateur.

independent. Cash prizes. certificates. Guest speakers. filmmak ing workshops. Contact: A.a. Sc hmitz. Humanities Center. Converse College . Spartanburg. S.C. 29301.

JANl1ARY Filmex. March 1978 in Los Angeles, Calif. Entry l/i>flllline JIIII.I./978. Super-So Regular-8, 16mm , 35mm. 70mm. Amateur. professional. Contact: T he D irector. Filmex. P.O. Box 1739. Hollywood. Calif. 99028. Movie Maker Ten Best Amateur Fitm Competition. En/I"Ylit'adlille JUII . 1, 1978. AI18mm gauges. 16mm. Amateursonl y. Cas h prize. trophies. S4 entry fee. Contact: Editorial Secretary. M Ol'ie Milker. 85 High 51., Hemel Hempstead , Herts .. England. National Audio-Vis ual Convention and EXhibit . Jan . 14-17 in Houston. Tex. Exhibits of audio-visual material and equipment, sem inars. forums. special programs. $27 registration fee. Contact: Nora McGillen. exhibit manager. NA VA. 3150 Spring 51.. Fairfax. Va. 22030.

MARCR Grt'at Lakes Film Festival. March. 1978 in Milwaukee. Wis. Emry llefullille M arch I. 1978. Open to filmmakers from Ohio. Minnesota. Wisconsin. Illinois. Indiana and Michigan. Cash prizes. Contact: Jo Schmidt. Coordinator, Great Lakes Film Festi val, P.O. Box 11583, Mil waukee. Wis. 532 11.

lIPRJL Palo Alto Film Festival. A pril1978 in Palo A lto. Calif. A1I8mm gauges .16mm. Open to amateur. independent filmmakers in Northern California. Cash prizes. Contact: C lyde Dodge. Film Festival. Palo Alto C ultu ral Cen ter, 1313 Newell Road, Palo Alto, Cal if. 94306. II your organization has news of an UPComing fi lm festival. cooferenceor film school event. please let us know at least three months in advance of the event Write: Calendar, SUPEA-8 FtLMAKEA. 3161 Fillmore St , San Fran­ cisco.Calif.94123. 65

Classified ud.-ertlsing is un liable for 60 cen ts per word with a 59 minimum. PoSt Office Box numbers cou nt as two words; abbreviat ions and zi p codes one wo rd . D isplay s pace is available for 555 per column inch. minimum one inch. All classified and di s play ads mU SI be accompanied by a check or money orde r. Any display types ett ing will be billed. T here is a 10% discount on all classified and di splay ads paid in advance for cig ht consecutive issues. Classified and classified display ads are nol agency comm lsslonah le. All ads are accepted at the discretion of the P ublisher. All ads must be received by the lsI day of the month, IWO months preceding the firs t month of the issue. For iss ue months. see bollom paragraph on the Table ofConlents page. Thus. to be in the Jan.fFeb. issue . you r ad must be received by November lSI. Advert isi ng and inquiries should be sent to: SU PE R-8 F ILM AKE R. Supcr Services.3 lM Fill more SI .. San Francisco. Calif. 94113. This adverlisin g is not in any way endorsed by SUPE R·S fl LM AKE R and we suggest you wrlle the ad"ertise r before se nding money.

EDUCATION Hollywood's Oldest Fil m School. T wo­ week evening courses in motion pkture production. Cameras. ligh ting. edi ting. etc. ROUZE R STUD IO. 7022 ,\-Ielrose Ave.• Hollywood. Calif. 90038. Fihllll1l1 kcr s: One of thc most unique apprentice-study program s in the US specializing in directing. cinematog­ raphy. production aesthetics. NEA gran ted. 6th yea r. See Ju ly 1976 SU I'E R-8. Opcn to beginning men, women. ATE li ER. Box 70. Hoosick Falls . N.Y. 12090.


LeARNING KIiS, I of SUPPLIES , EQVIP. • New 1'10.106 Catal", "' !f


b eat b p r od u ction•• I nc:. IU1 Su" A......

w. I,"p,

N. Y.


Lear n Scrlptwr iling. New ideas for MP, T V ne eded. Free detail s. ASTROCAL SCRIPT I'R ESENTATIONS, 7471 t- Iel­ rose. Hollywood. Calif. 90046. Re port: " Television Production and Super·S Film"; also "Everything You Wan ted to Know About Inexpen sive' Color Video Cameras"-both repo rt s $3. SWENSON PRODUCT IONS, 40 Winsor Place. Glen Ridg e. N.J. 07028. Im pro" e yo ur fi lm maki ng skills! Seven film s originally shot in Super·8 show you how! Free brochure. C INEMA AL­ BERT A, 4A-I0228 97th St.. Edmonton. Alberta. Ca nad a T 5J OL8.


Free Flint Sou nd Track record elllalogue! Valuebook: 54. RT SU, 711 W. 17th, G-l. Costa ~·I esa. Calif. 92627.

Kodak· Ektachrome 160 sou nd movie film (E l A 594) $4.59. wi lh processing 55.99. Kodak Mailers PK-59 for Supe r-8 50 ft. cartridges. Kodachrome or Ektachrome. so und or silent. November special. F i l M lAB. 52 1 North 7th St.. Allen­ town, Pa. 18102. Speclallll'5 Edi tor . For use with Elmo viewer. Excellent condition. Only 5500. DA V ID WAXMAN . 847 Westgate. SI. louis. Mo. 63130. (314) 862·9312. Ca non Doub le Supe r-! Ca mera. with si x Hoya filters: $650 or besl offer. Elmo ST-1200 M with ext ras : $450. TRAJAN WEA VER. 5908 South Starlite D r.. MUTTaY, Utah 84107. Phone: (801) 266­

'990. 66

So und Tr u k Edili ng/Dubbing Re ­ corder-the AUlo·Cue Cassc tt e-(lnly $109.95. Write for informution . . AU­ TOMAT ED SOUND. 584 Cortez St.. Salt Lake City, Utah 8410).

Chinon, Elmo, C05ina so und mov ie products at low. low prices. Chinon 12S MR Pacific with la~di sso l\le: wire ­ less microphone. Elmo STI200 H D 2-tmck. Cosina 13:1 low-light. AUD IO 8. 246-17 Jamaica Ave. Bel­ lerose. N. Y. 11426. (211) 347·8887. Kodak Super-8 140 sound camera. zoom lens. Excellent condi tion. complete in original carton: SI60. ROB E RT MclN· TU R FF. Box 251. McGa heysville. Va. 22840. PcrfedO Str iper, 5 bottles oxide: $40. Elmo ST-1200. excellent: $350. H OYE R. 908 Lawrence. lawrence. Kan s. 66044.


""""' ,"

Super'S Him Compa ny going out of busi­ ne ss. Writ e for eq uipment list and prices-must se ll editing table. S8S R. sync block and Eumig projector. Ad­ dres s inquiries 10: SOUTHSiDE F i lMS. Box 15095. SI. Louis. Mo. 63110. All Brand- New: Fujita ZC1000 7.5-75mm Macro/ Zoom, 5.5mm Ma c ro/ Wide Angle, filters, H alliburton case. Pur­ chased S I.685 in June. must sell: SI.200 firm. TONY AVA LlON. P.O. B. 24771. los Angeles. Calif. 90024. (213) 822-9914 day s.


• Mo.I.- K·UY • Mle' Ol lim • MOlo, O,I ..n-PO,Uble

• B' .oc~ .. wnU. -C olo, • G""an,"" 5228 I nc! up


Ac e _Ilia


• I !III!!!!!.'





Filmograp hies-actors, directors. In­ cludes siudio. year re le ased, major cast members: S2. COCO ASSOC IATES. Box 1615, New Castle, Pa. 16101.

: ':~~~'rt'oufo~~oo Ft. Anim ated Supcr.8 mm tItles. Cuslom done to orde r. $1.25 each. Free circular and sample title. MAM CO.. Box 134·A. Burli ngton, Mass. 01803.

Unusua l MO"ie Supplies, 8mm, Supe r· 8 and 16mm . Free catalogue. E50-K. 47th & Holly. Kan sas Ci ty. Mo. 641 12.


,.,,,. .......

SAN '''><c'sco. c.o.. to,,7









!a a


))2 ~ Gold~n G.,. A•• San F.anc'Ko. CA 94 102




0 0


Super-8 Sound T ransrers, full coat. sy nc sound stereo/mono 4 ~ centsJfl. Wild so und 3~ ce nt s/fl. Include s Pyml stock. Price list 50 cents. C INEMA SYNC SYSTEMS. INC .• 14261 Ave. Men­ docino. Irvine. Calif. 927 14 .

Super 8 Services

Micro Record CcKp.

4 87-38 $0\1111


IIncon . N.V. 12501

Make Cr ealin So un d Tracks using the exc lusive Filmixa. Only S49.95. Writ e for brochure. AUTOMATED SOUN D . 584 Cortez St .. Salt Lake City. Utah 84103. Professional Super..fl Titll'5 lite within your budget! 120 colorful titles available or cus tom-designed 10 your specifica· tion s. Send SASE for 8-inch sample and listings. W ILMAN, Suite D-1607, 25 C lifton Ave .. Newark. N.J. 07104. Discount mO"ie suppli l'S and equipment. F ree catalogue. COAST A L, 1428 San Marco Blvd .. Jacksonville. Fla. 32207.

• fullcoat transfers • sound mixes • videocassette transfers

• equipment rental Send for free brochure

Super 8 Sound, Inc. is H¥'ieJ St..... Cembr• • MMe. 02M.C1

No ce nso rship. Confident ial photo finish­ ing. Write 10 FOTO WI;ST, P.O. Box 60SX. Lemon Grove, Calif. 92045.



II you have any

size molion picture lilm

and you need



Release Prints



Bolex Magnetic Str ipc_ 800 ft. $10.50 ex· !;hange spool. Buy ~ement free. Ce­ ment. 4 o:o!:.: $9.95, C IN Er>.l A SYNC S YSTE MS. INC.. 14261 Ave. Men ­ docino . Irvine , Cali f. 92714,

,1/" ,

At 1< /It• • _~ "';.... '... FORM" l A '-I TM "_, ..w...... ,';'O .., "'" ' '' ' ~ T , ' lAM.ATR AO. · , ....... _

on reels,cartridges, cassettescall in the super 8mm lab experts­

".. .." ........."........" •. SH. ....

12 000 ft. lO·r.. t pock"9f S 120,1)0 6000 ft. 5,r..,t pock_ $ 72 .00

r ~,

11 1'1


bebell~ :::.magnet@ne~.:::

• _.c=:e>_-=-«>_ _TIEIK:»

' 11i' O.C..........


c.. ~ , .... ,_, a.... "'W .H., C. .... . .

Qualit y Soo nd Stripin g: 3 centslft. FI LMLAB. 521 Nonh 7th St.. Allen­ town, Pa. 18102.

416 West 45 St. New York 10036

PHONE: (212) 245-8900

ThiSyea' tnOfe than 20 mil~oo dol lars w ~ 1 be given away for motion picture proje<:ts from over 50 foundations and grant prog rams. Many of these grants will be given to filmmakers with linle Of no production experi"""". Send for!ree information describing a new guide to film grants that lists sources ot lunding , eligibility requirements, selection guidetines and metl'Ods of applying witll the greatest Chances of success, Write'


Santa Barbara. Calif. 93102

OJll·'-THE-WALL C INEM A! Needs filmmakers, fi lms and friends for bi­ monthly S.F. open showcase in Super-8/ 16mm. Call : (415) 626-9222/647-7408. Creatc Scicnce Fiction and Special Effects Films! Every issue of C INE MAG1C magazine tells and shows yo u huw! Slick paper. 811.! x II size. full-color covers! Subsc ribe now: 4 issues for $8 (foreign $11) from: C INEMAG IC. P.O. Box 125, Perry Hall ..Md. 21128 , Rent and Sa" c (Super-8 SOllnd films). Yearly membership only $1. SU PER-S MOV IE CLUB. 52 1 Nurth 7th St.. Al­ lentown. Pa. 18102 .

Professiona l magnetic stripin g. 8 and Super-S with balance stripe. CBS liquid oxide. will nOl pee L 12 hour service. no Kodak 's New # 7244 Ektac hrome proces­ my lar fi lm. 3 cents/fL postnge pnid. T-S hirt s for filmmak ers_ SevenlCcn popu­ sed in only one day . E xclusive ly in the C INE-MAGNATONE. 283 Baymend­ lar ,professional fi lm equipment de signs. East at STAD I U M MO Tl O N rl c­ ows Dr., Naples. Fin. 33942. Send fur free brochure. ALAN GOR· TU R E LA B. 12246 Frankstown Rd .. DON E NTE RP R ISES INC .. . 1430 Pi llsburgh. Pa. 15235. Sl.50/cartridge: Contact prin ts-Optical prints-Original Ca huenga Blvd.. Hollywood. Calif. $10.001200 Ft. Include 35 cents postage film. Agfa F5 lamina ted stripe-balance 90028. Attn: Dep!. TS. and handling. Penns\' lvania residents stripe-ste reo/ mono sound transfers. Ind exes to SUPER-8 FlLMAK ER. Send include 6% tax. (412) 371-1211. Lnbs inquire on letterhead. CINEMA 50 cents to: SU PE R-8 FILMA K E R. SYNC SYSTEMS. INC.. 14261 Ave. SUPER_S LABORATORY SEA VICES r-,'Iendocino. Irvine, Calif. 92714 , 3161 Fillmore 51.. S.F.. Calif. 94123.

"'our 26th year"



• Sour>(! Duplicates ird....:ling

oouool rarlSl"r: • Color Duplicates: • Ma9neticSooooSt,iping:

20cperh 14cpe,n. 4cpe,H.

• 3·4 day servlCa----V,sa ar>d Master Charge honored.

• Send 25<: {refundable) tor 84 ""9'1 calalGg . SU PERIOR BULK FILM CO. 442-450-AN . WelisSL Chicago, 1~ . 60610

C ustom-processin g_50 ft. Super-8 color or blac k-and-white. $1.25 per !;artridge. F I LM LAB, 52 1 North 7th St. . Allen­ tow n. Pa. 18102. Luxurioils red carpeted, air-!;onditioned editing facilities for rent. 24 hour ac!;ess. Your choice of 6 or 10 plate S.E.R.A. editing consoles. also completely equipped double and single-system edit­ ing benches. Super-8 sound re sulving. transfers and mixes. Call or write for Tates and reservations. AI Lindo (2 12) 858-8729. SU PE R 8 WOR KS H OP INC.. 84 Livi ngston 51.. Brooklyn. N.Y. 11201. PROFESS IONAL SUPER·S SERVICES • Ek t ach rome developing 10 ASA 500

... workpfi nt s wit h edge numbering

A&B pri nling for dissolves and lades • sound st ri ping and t ransfer • prol ess i onat lam in ated VITATONE stri pin g


... Pre-str iped Prints ... Low Contrast Masters


Reduc t ions~Bl ow_ups:;:



Sil ent:;: Sound



(213) 462 -68 14

NEWS FILM LABORATORY, INC. 516 No. L" chmo nt Blvd .

Lo. Ange l... Call1o,nl, 9D004


Super-8, 16mm, Slides to or II.! video­ casse tt e. Low cost. quality guaranteed. A lso! First time ava ilable- Regular-8 to or II.! videocasse tte. F IL M & T A PE SE RV ICE. 8139 Van Noo rd A ve.. No. H ollywood . Calif. 91605. (213) 997-6339.



Introd uci ng






" Bantam" $350

~ _r


For lamination-process st riping 01acetate base

BmnVS uper-g or 16mm ori gina lfi lm and optical pri nts. Only stripers guaranteed to produce exCellenl striping lor the first year of original owne rship. Four models and eig ht variations li ll every commercial. professional, inslrtutional and amateur nood. From $175 for NBlS8 Converter to $1,350. In­ dudes 22-page Instmdion Manual/stri ping course. "Freebies." Write for free il lustrated broc hure. WILMAR ENTERPRISES 56 Porterfield Place

Freeport, N.Y. 11 520 Profession al la minated stripi ng-211.! centslf1. Free samples. 24 hour service. SUPE R-8 ST U D IOS. 220 Pierce. San Francisco. Calif. 941 17. Prccision i\'lagnctic Stripin g since 1958, S uper-8!8mm. 3 eentsift. Fast service. AE RCO. Box415. Medford. N .J . 08055. Genuinc Mugncto ne"" Lamnatrack prec i­ sion striping , F jnest quality. H ighest sound fide lity. 4 centslfL ROBERT SWANSON . P.O. Box 17221. Chariolle. N.C. 28211.

MISCELLANEOUS Uniq ue "I' d Rather Be Filming" bumper stic kers . O nly $3 to: PRO ME NA D E PROD UC TIO NS. 1261 The Prom­ enade. Santa Moni!;a. Calif. 90401.

" let' s Gat Acquainted" Special O11art

TWO GREAT features!

DNL Y $89 each (Regular SI29 ea" SAVE $40)

Of BOTH for DN LY$169 (Reg ular $258. SAVE $90)

--,'-'--_ ..---" _--_.""-_ ... _ ­


_ _ s:uo>.._ ...."...,,.._

.......... _ _ _'" _



t"""l GI '. 1.,.,..·.,.8,_ c...ou (;JN fM . AlBERTA , _ _, A _,


Ne w Releases Super-S Movies-at dis­ count prices! F IL M LAB. P. O. Box 2691. Lehigh Valley. Pa. 18001.

Buy Films Direct and save. Yearly mem­ bership only 51. F ILM LAB. 521 North 7th St .. Allentown. Pa. 18102. Super-8 Rock Concert Films. Zeppelin. Kiss. Frampton. Elton. Tull. Qlleen. Who. Buy or rent. Catalog 25 cents. PAUL G IL ES. Box 43S6 F. Burbank. Calif. 91503. Super_S or Standard 8 films exchanged fo r S1.50 per reel. Sound and colo r at same low fee. MI L LE R'S MOVIE MART. 167 Ravenwood Circle. Rt. 2. D ickson. Tenn. 37055. 67

Chicago's O nly Film Sl or~hund reds of Super·S fi lms in stock ! Comedies. West­ erns. cartoons. sci-fi-in sou nd or sile nt. short or fe:lture-Ien gth. D rop in and see us! H A LC YON F ILMS, 3827 No. Lin· coin. Chicago, 111 .60613. (312) 472-3334. Kin g Ko ng, C iti u n Kane, Rancho Notorious. hundreds more . New exci t­ ing feature I;lassies. Free I;atalogue. D01o.1 IN IQN F IL MS LT D .. 90lI W. 7th Ave .. Vancouver. B.C.. V5Z lC3 Canada. Cas h pai d for used 8mm, Super-S movies. Details free. HART. Box 452-S. Bir­ mingham. Mil; h. 48011. FANT AS TIC Super-S . 16mm films. Gian t se1el; tion. Lo ng "ersion of Wa rs. Rare Beat les. Elvis. St:lr Tre k. Jam es Bond. Old TV show s. com mer­ cials. FlllSh Gordon. Sherlock Holmes. Behin(] the sce nes production shorts and lots of tmil ers- Godfath er. Exorc ist. J aws. Logan's Run. 2001: A Space Od yssey. King Kong. Rock concerts­ Stones. J anis Joplin. J imi Hendrix. Jef­ fe rson Ai rplane. Joe Cocke r. Santan a. SLnny and C her. Musical!>--Jud y Gar­ land. Streis.lnd. Cartoons-Betty Boop. Pope ye. Chaplin. Kcaton. Laurel & H ardy, Abbott & Costello, 3 Stooges. HollywoOlJ's besl feature film s. short s and war documen tar ies. M uch more. Big catalog ue: $1 (refund ed with first order). H A LCQ F ILMS. Room 752, 6311 Y ucca Street. Los Angeles. Califom i,l 90028. Fast se rvice. La rge selection of " 8 " Westerns. Super-8 sou nd, also lots of T V programs in Super-!!. 1.000 to select from. Get ac­ quaint ed offer for new or regular cus­ tomers: Woody Woodpecker in " Witch Crdli y:' Super-8 color sou nd . reg. $29.95; our price $ 15.99 posttxlid. In stock read y to ship. OlTer ends De­ cember 31. 1977. Free catal ogue. R E D FOX F ILMS. Mt. Rd . Dept. B. Ly­ ken s. P'l. 17()48. Super-S sou nd hom e movies. Full length feat ures. C'lrtoo ns and shorts. Fast service--big selection- low. low prices. H und reds of exciting titl es featuring e "ery big star from Bugs Bunny to Joh n Wayne. Send 25 ccms ror our deluxe ca tal ogue. BRE N D A'S 1o.IQV I E H OUSE, 3609 Germ antow n Ave .. De pt. SF!!. Phi b delphia. Pa. 19140. Film or the 1\'l onlh C lub: no gimmicks. no minimum purchase required. Largest selection ;onywhere. Membership enti­ ties you to unmatched savi ngs. :llso in­ cluding 25 perce m ofT on equipme nt. Swapping pri\·ilcges. cartridging and more. Yearly membership $10.00. A mu st for every collector. FI U ..' OF T H E ~ 1 0 NT H C L UB. P.O. Box 241H. ~ I eridcn. Co rm . 06450. A Di visio n of Audio Vis\HLI Systems. Inc. Ci nema Classics-Finest in 16mm and S8mm fe(.tures. shorts. documentaries. 4g-p,age r;;l1alogue 51. 16mm dc(,ler in­ quiries in vited. STORAC E FILMS. P.O. Box 4337. Scottsdale. Ari z. 115258 . Super -S Sou nd Films. Send for free list. NORT H WEST CUSTOM MOV IES. Dept. SF, 4600 Union Bay Pl;lce. N. E .. Seattle. Wa sh. 98105.




Spirit ofSt. Loullvllils Havana on Goodwill Tour of latin America, 1928. Arrival greeted by 100,000, cte. Super-8--epproxlmatoly 12 minutes. Not available alsewherc. $11 postpaid U.S., N.Y. res. add sales tax.


Box 123 Larchmont. N.Y 105.:lA

H un dr~ds of Supe r-So 16mm ~" ",' ·' ; I"" fi lms. D iscount house. Catalogue rre e. Specify size. EN T E R PR ISE F I LMS. 561 N.E . 7'11 h 51.. 1245. Miami, Fla. 33 138. F Ai\lO US! The first name in Super-8

so und home movie ent ertainment. We have largest sdel; tion of fi lms originally made at W. 8 .. Universal. RKO . Fox. Columbia. etc. H undreds of features. dige st prints. comedies. eartoons. TV shows and coun tle ss reels of tr:.ilers. Send 25 cents for catalogue. FAMOUS F ILM S INC., 103 N. E. 79th SI., Miami. Fla. 33138. Wi nnin g Ten nis! Teaching pros say. "Finest in~ t ruct ion al films m;,de.·· Color. Forchand. Bac khand. Volley. Ser"e. Super-!! silent ( 100 ft. ). $10.95 each. S39.9S com plele (-100 ft.l . Super-II sou n(]. $ 14.95. $5 4.95 set (400 ft.) . 16mm so un(] . $39.95 eac h (200 fl. ). $129.95 complete (1100 fl. ). Vid eocasse tte. $139.65. Shipping 85 cenlS. FO REST HI LLS PROD UCTION S. Box A 619. /lb dison Statio n. New York. N .Y. 10010. Studio 8 Ent er prises proud ly prese nts a tremendous selcction of Supe r-S sound and silent film s. Prompt se rvice from a company who cares. Send for o ur free catalogue. STUD IO 8 ENTE R PR ISES. P.O. Box 1327. Stone Mount(,in. Ga.

lOO86. 16mm ColorlSou nd TV com mercials. Hamm's Beer. Wheaties. C hiclets. etc. S2 poStage paid . J ACOBOV ITZ. 1206 Belvidere Rd .. Phillipsburg. N.J . 08865.

PRODUCTION AIDS Sy nc li nd Edit sound track s on quarter­ inch Hatchmark Synctape. H ATC H­ MARK . INC.. Box 91. M orri~on . Colo .. 80465 . Aut omatic " Theate r " Light 1)immer re­ ca ptu res the warm. magical nostalgia of the old time th eater. S ingle swi tch Starts ve lvet smooth fade to full brillillnce . or to de sired golden glow preset leve l. $49.95. AUTOMATED SOUND. 584 Conez SI. . Salt Lake City. Utah 8-1103. 5 Wa)'s to Go Fullcoat! From $995 to

51 .695. mo no/s te reo. location/studio. Send $1 for com plete information and specifi c(lt ions. C INEMA SYNC S YS­ TEMS. INC. Exclusive di s tributo r~ for Uher1D-S8 ~·h.gnetfilmrecor(]er and T he Cresta FullcOnlcr. 14261 Ave. Men­ docino , Irvi ne. Calif. 92714. (714) 5SI­ 0987.


ILE C,"O N IC e..... u ,U.. l UTI ,

.J • • t. to r$ ., ;0.


••m .... ,on ,"..., .....

Pyral S u pe r~ Fullcoat 500 fl. $12. Scoll;h "206" Fulleoat . 500 f1. on 5 inch reel S20. C INEMA SYNC SYSTEMS. INC, 14261 Ave. Mendocino. Irvine. Calif. 92714. Projector Con troller: Together with our RCI;order Resolve r it sy nch ronizes your projec tor to your slereo o r 4-(:hannel re­ corder. Use ful for high-fidelity sou nd track production or multi-I;hannel mixing in com plete sy nchronizat ion. B t'uuIiFU 4008ZMII came ra s adapted 10 include digital sy nc pulse out put. Co mp letely electronic. int ernally installed. sub· mini j aek termination. $69. THE FILM GRO UP. Box 9. Wet he rsfield , Conn. 06109. (203) 563-25741529-5531. Resoh'lng S)'nc Casst'tte R«ordtr_ CSSI Superscope C·IOSS. Auto/ Manual re­ cording. PC sync pulse cable . Profes­ sion al quality location sy nc sound. C INEMA SYNC SYST EMS, INC . . 14261 Ave. Mcndocino, Irvine. Calif. 92714.

FREE CATALOG HARD IO· fIHO PAECISIOH TOOLS l ,sts mort Ih'" 3000 'Iems -pl.... s.

d"..,u . Iwee/trs . optical tQU lpmenl.

too l "ts At l oconl,,"S "TODt f,p, ' to ~ I d ,n rool seteC1IOn

5 t-~ :-r. JENSEN • t 11 H Hth TOCJl.S ,Ie '' '',0'1 S uper·8 ed iting tape is a special pre­ pulsed l4·i nch magnetic ta pe with pulses the sa me width as Supe r- 8 film penord­ tio ns. Afi er transfer of a striped film sou nd track. the tape is wrapped up in sync with th e film for double-system bi­ direc tiOO(l1 ediling using most 14 tntck stereo open reel recorders and any Super-S film viewe r. An ex tra plus is do ub le band 5ynl; projection ! Complete kit consists of 600 feet of s pecial tape. neon strobe and capstan speed change r. Complete det ai led instructions. 530.00. E xt~a tape . 600 fl. $6.00. Write: SU PER-8 T A PE PROD UCT S. 1168 So. Washi ngt on St.. Denver. Colo. 80210.

SERVICES Super-S film to ~" and Betamax video­ cassette tnm sfer sentice. Edi tin g ;w,lil­ able; S51S0 feet plus tape cost. Also slide aod slill photo Iroiflsfers to videocassettes. SWENSON PRO DU CT ION S. 40 Win­ sor Place. G len Ridge. NJ. 07028. Sell photos-make mon ey wit h your camera. O ver one million photos and color slides are Dought by newspapers. magazines and hou se organs every year! Learn whal kind of photos lhe y want .. how to submit them ... how much Ihey pay. . laws and regulat ions. Let your camera pro vide a second in· I;o me for you. Booklet indudes di rectory of where to sell you r pictures: 52. SUN­ SET E NT E RP R ISES. 1256 Filbe n SLl P.O. Box 1254. Ri chmo nd. Calif. 94802. Yo ur Perso nal i\tturate Astrological chan reHding on 6O-minu te casse ttc. F ILMMAKER 'S W IF E. Box 78. Car· lisle. Mass. 01741. SUPER·S f1LMAXIR



Pos ition Kodak Moviedeck projector. lift tinted dusrcover. • (The attractive low-profile design makes m;my owners want to leave their Modedeck projector on display. ready for lise ~H a moment's notice.) Select screen . Most Kodak r"lodedeck projectors offer a


• uniqw.: pull·out \"iewing screen . O n Oll r top tlm.'C models. the pull-our screen is now J Y! by 5 inches-:-more than

twice as large ::'l s llCfore. And 1[ lets YOll show movies in normal room light. O f C\lllrsC, you can ::lIsa project on a cotwcn· tio nal screen. Choose film fo rmat. All Kocbk Moviedeck pro jectors ~ show either SUJX:T S or 8 mm him-at the tlip of a switch. T h read the fi lm . Actually, the projector does the threading­ • automatically and safd y (with spl"llckerless film Jrive). You JUSt feed the le"der into the sloL Rewind is auto matic, [Oil, ,m all but the lo west-priced model. Select project ion speed _O n some models, o ne simple • control handles both fon\-ard and reverse at va rio us speeds_




Sixty seconds from shelf to showtime_

O ur new

t\)p-of-the-line 477 mn~ld fl!aturl!s nine s l~\!~l s:

J. 6.1 8,54 fps (forward . md revcrse ) anc\ . Stl'\\" .


Foc lLs to obtain the • sharpest, brightest image. The knurled focus control is e;lSY ro find. even in the dark.


En joy.

There arc six Kodak Moviedeck projectors to choose from, including four new models. All except the nvo lowest­ priced models now feature a pull-out screen. All models are available with a normal or a zoom lens. And all have the distinctive styling that makes the projector as beautiful as your ~ mov ies. See your photo dealer ~ fo r a demo nstration .

Kodak Moviedecko ,,,,,h,,J pro""J ,=",

projectors CIRCLE INFOCARD 40

Super8Filmmaker - Volume Five Number Seven