Praud Boston Olympics February 2014 draft
As Boston prepares to make its case for the Olympics, we suggest not looking at the event as a goal, but as an opportunity to improve our city. This is a preliminary draft prepared by PRAUD showing some of the potentials for hosting the event. Some were explored with the help of architecture students from the RHode Island School of Design (RISD).
Boston 2024 A Stepping Stone for a Future City Draft, February 2014 Prepared by PRAUD LLC 6 Spice Street, Suite 11 Boston, MA 02129 t. 617.2758141 www.PRAUD.info BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 We see 2024 not as the goal, but as a step towards building a better future for our city of Champions. 3 What is the Future Boston? Vision and Concept BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 INTRODUCTION As the bidding process wars on among cities competing to host the 2024 Olympics, potential cities argue the positives and negatives of hosting such event. Will it increase employment and the GDP of my city or will it bankrupt it? These economic concerns usually arise under the public sphere that compares such event to previous models. What we look to promote is not how Boston can hold an Olympic event, because it can, but how we can use this event as a way to improve our city with a vision of the future, Boston in 35 years, Boston in 50 years, Boston in 100 years and beyond. The Olympics hold an opportunity to leave a legacy of improvement and influence the growth and development for Boston. We can do this by introducing a new model for hosting the Olympics that aims at becoming a catalyst of improvement in different neighborhoods throughout the city and not just one location. We want to introduce the typology of the Satellite-Park Olympics. 5 BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 CONCEPT The Satellite-Park Olympics The previous models of Olympic Parks work with a singular area that is usually designated outside of the city boundaries. This model has evolved and adapted to integrate urban renewal ideas, such as the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in London for the 2012 Olympics. Although this has been arguably the most sustainable attempt at hosting the Olympics, it still not the most optimum model. The urban renewal strategy only benefitted one area in the city, and demanded that the public sector takes interest in social housing after the event. The concept of the Satellite-Park could be explained as breaking the Olympic Park into smaller scale campuses distributed around the city. This could be developed in Boston because of the unique characteristic of Boston being both a Sport City and a Higher-Education City. These two conditions provide Sports Venues throughout the city as well as housing clusters. This combination could be enhanced into Micro-Parks that have a secured area combining Sports Venues as well as housing. Most of the criticism of similar concepts had to do with security and the desire for the athletes to interact. The Satellite-Park concept provides the security by combining Housing and Sports venue for specific events. The Aquatorium Park would have housing for swimmers. Athletics Park would have housing for the Track and Field athletes, and so forth. During the Olympic event, the athletes interact with other athletes form around the world within their sport. This is why we can separate the park into smaller parks. Allowing the athletes to focus on their sport. Traditional Model for Olympic Park Micro-Park Distribution 7 How can we use the Olympics? Potentials for Improvement Hosting the Olympics requires a lot of effort and investment from a city in order to accommodate the different events and tourism for the summer period. When the focus is on getting a city ready for that short period, it does seem like a waist to even apply for hosting the event. The focus we want to take is on how we can use the Olympics as a catalyst for improvement, an event that will leave a legacy for the city and allow for the city for tackle some of its needs. Boston is currently facing a challenge of attracting young talent, and convincing them to stay in the city. Our biggest resource, human capital, is been driven away by the lack of HOUSING. We also face issues of Public Transportation, and Tourism Infrastructure (including accommodations, and city navigation tools). We see this not as a challenge, but as an opportunity, a great potential for improving our city. All the new building stock need for new hotels, venues, infrastructure, could be conceptualize to hybridise programs in order to achieve future goals for housing, transportation, a growing tourism industry, and retaining our human capital. BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 New City StadiumNew England Revolution We can promote the sports in Boston by bringing the New England Revolution to the city, providing them with a venue after the Olympics. 430,000 New Housing Units Needed by 2040 We see this as a potential to hybridise Housing plus sports venues, creating new neighborhood typologies. 15,000 New Hotel Rooms Needed This is a great potential to introduce new typologies that combine hotels plus other systems needed by the city. Hotel+ Information Center, Hotel + Bike Sharing Stations. New Tourist Infrastructure Boston receives over 20 million visitors each year. We could use the Olympics to improve information centers, convention centers, communication spots replacing pay phones, increase the navigability of the city. Improved Rapid Transit System Aside form just improving the current subway lines, we could expand connections, introduce new lines, and promote alternate methods of travel like Hubway. 9 Can Boston Hold Big Events? City of Champions As a city of Champions, Boston has hosted several triumphant events to celebrate its victories and spirit. One of these events resulted in one of the TOP 15 largest peaceful gatherings in the history of the world, the Red Sox 2004 Championship parade, which gathered over 3 million people. Similarly, parades for other championships (Boston Celtics 2008, Bruins 2011, Patriots 2004, Red Sox 2006) have gathered over 1 million people each. National events, like the 4th of July fireworks, gathers over half a million people to the banks of the Charles River every year. Although, all of these are single day events, it gives us a clue that the City of Boston can adapt itself to hold mass gatherings. From 20,000 people events at City Hall plaza to a million people cheering runners in the Boston Marathon. With these events in mind, we can conceive to create new typologies of venues that reuse not only existing facilities but some of the geographical, topographical features to accommodate large crowds. BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Red Sox 2013 1 million Boston Marathon 500,000 - 1 million Bruins 2011 1 million 4th of July 500,000 Celtics 2008 1 million LBGT Parade 400,000 Red Sox 2007 1 million Patriots 2004 1 million Red Sox 2004 3 million Patriots 2003 1.25 million Patriots 2001 1 million 11 BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Boston Red Sox 2004 NBL Champions Top 15 Peaceful Gatherings in World History Over 3,000,000 people in a single event 13 Where does Boston Currently Train? Existing Sports Infrastructure BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Boston has a long tradition with sports. Within the administrative area of Boston, Fenway Park, and the TD Garden host the Boston Red Sox, Bruins, and the Boston Celtics. These world class facilities are some of the existing sports facilities that can be easily used to accommodate some of the sports. Gillette Stadium where the New England Patriots and New England Revolution play can also hold up to 68,000 people. Aside form the professional sports, Boston has world class facilities from some of its local institutions like the Harvard Stadium, MIT track and field, BU Agganis Arena, BC Alumni Stadium. The strategy for the sports venues is to reuse the major facilities (professional and university) that are already existing, and adapt the ones that would allow for higher occupancy. The following pages show a list of the potential facilities, and some of the potential â€œnon-facilitiesâ€? that could be adapted to Olympic Standards. The scope of area covered looks at facilities of over 6,000 people in capacity. Some incorporate other cities in MA that would benefit form the event. 15 Metro Boston - Major Facilities Above a Capacity of 6,000 All facilities within the Metro Boston region are within a 8km radius, creating a very tight concentrated ground of venues that spreads to different neighborhoods. This concept would eliminate the idea of one single Olympic Campus, and instead the city becomes the focal point. BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 9 km 8 km 7 km 6 km 5 km 4 km 3 km Constitution Beach 2 km 1 km Harvard Stadium Boston University Boston University Fenway Park Boston College Parsons Field TD Garden City Hall Charles River Hynes Matthews Arena Pleasure Bay Joe Moakley Park Jamaica Pond White Stadium Franklin Park Boston Convention Center East Boston Memorial Stadium Ellis Oval Su olk Downs U Mass 0 1 km 5 km 17 Massachusetts - Population FITCHBURG LEOMINSTER PITTSFIELD NORTHAMPTON WORCESTER HOLYOKE 181,045 WESTFIELD SPRINGFIELD 153,060 6,646,144 Population of Massachusetts 4,591,112 Population of Metro Boston BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 HAVERHILL LAWRENCE NEWBURYPORT/ NEWBURY LOWELL 108,522 DANVERS SALEM BEVERLY Gloucester STONEHAM SAUGUS MELROSE LYNN MALDEN MEDFORD EVERETT ARLINGTON BELMONT SOMERVILLE REVERE WALTHAM CAMBRIDGE CHELSEA WATERTOWN NEWTON BROKLINE FRAMINGHAM WELLESLEY NEEDHAM BOSTON MILTON QUINCY DEDHAM BROCKTON ATTLEBORO TAUNTON PLYMOUTH FALL RIVER NEW BEDFORD 0 12 mi. 19 Massachusetts - Major Facilities Outside of Metro Boston Above a Capacity of 6,000 Amherst -McGuirk Alumni Stadium 17,000 10,600 Spring eld -Mullins Center Worcester -Fitton Field 23,500 14,800 -DCU Center -MassMutual Center 6,679 These facilities in Amherst, Springfield, Lowell, Foxborough, and Worcester would be able to host some of the events, expanding the sense of â€œBoston Olympicsâ€? throughout the whole state of Massachusetts. Gillette Stadium could be the major Olympic Stadium. The triangle formed between Amherst, Springfield, and Worcester would also facilitate the accessibility and transportation in Western Mass. BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Lowell -Paul E. Tsongas Arena 6,496 6,000 -Cawley Memorial Stadium Foxborough -Gillette Stadium 68,756 21 Existing Facilities in Boston Venues with Capacity of over 6,000 1. Harvard Stadium - 2. Alumni Stadium - 3. Fenway Park - 4. TD Bank Garden - 5. Nickerson Field - 6. White Stadium - 2. Conte Forum - 5. Agganis Arena - 7. Parsons Field - 8. Ellis Oval - 9. Matthews Arena - 57,166 44,500 37,000 18,624 10,412 10,000 8,606 7,200 7,000 6,500 6,000 BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 23 Potential Facilities in Boston No Assigned Capacity 10. Suffolk Downs 11. MIT 12. Jamaica Pond 13. Charles River 14. Boston Harbor 15. East Boston Memorial Stadium 16. Joe Moakley Park 17. Old Harbor 18. U Mass Boston 19. Joe Moakley Park 20. Boston Convention Center 21. Hynes Convention Center - BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 25 Existing Facilities MassachusettsCapacity over 6,000 22. Gillette Stadium - 68,756 23. Fitton Field - 23,500 24. DCU Center - 14,800 25. McGuirk Alumni Stadium- 17,000 26. Mullins Center - 10,600 27. MassMutual Center - 6,679 28. Paul E. Tsongas Arena - 6,496 29. Cawley Memorial Stadium - 6,000 BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 27 How Would the Existing Facilities Compare to Londonâ€™s Olympics Boston Existing Facilities Capacity of over 6,000 Gillette Stadium Harvard Stadium Alumni Stadium Fenway Park TD Garden Nickerson Field White Stadium Conte Forum Agganis Arena Parsons Field Ellis Oval Matthews Arena MIT Charles Rive Suffolk Downs Joe Moakley Park Jamaica Pond Boston Harbor Hynes Convention Center Boston Convention Center Franklin Park 68,756 57,166 44,500 37,000 18,624 10,412 10,000 8,606 7,200 7,000 6,500 6,000 Aquatics Archery Athletics Badminton Basketball Boxing Canoe Kayak Cycling Equestrian Fencing Football Golf Gymnastics Handball Hockey Judo Rowing Rugby Sailing Shooting Table Tennis Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon Volleyball Weightlifting Wrestling BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Modern Pentath London Olympic Facilities Capacity of over 6,000 17,320 17,500 12,000 6,000 7,000 6,000 16,000 80,000 5,000 10,000 23,000 20,000 7,500 Olympic Village (beds) Aquatic Center Basketball Arena BMX Track Copper Box Velodrome Riverbank Arena Olympic Stadium Water Polo Arena ExCel Greenwich Park North Greenwich Arena Royal Artillery Barraks hlon 30,000 15,000 15,000 3,000 6,500 6,000 90,000 All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club Earls Court Exhibition Centre Horse Guards Parade Hyde Park Lord's Cricket Ground Marathon Course Wembley Arena Wembley Stadium 29 The SatellitePARK Model Benefits and Potentials BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 The following section will explain the future scenarios that could be explored if we use the Olympics as a catalyst for improvements. The most recognizable form of construction for an Olympic event is the construction of Sports Venues. This is a huge potential to introduce new typologies of venues into the city. The city is in need of Housing so we could combine both and create Venues that could be adapted after the Olympics as housing plus venues. We can find potentials in areas for Housing, transportation, tourism, and neighborhood integration. 31 Olympic Parks of the Past 5 Olympics Areas 1. 2. 3. Atlanta 1996 .38 km2 Sydney 2000 2.42 km2 Athens 2004 .97 km2 4. 5. Beijing 2008 5.35 km2 London 2012 2.49 km2 Boston 2024 2.28 km2 BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 The diagram on the left shows a comparison of construction area for hosting the Olympics for the past 5 Olympics. By introducing the Satellite Park strategy we can achieve maximum impact and minimize costs. Atlanta had a similar strategy, and as we can see from both diagrams, it used the least amount of area and produced profits for the city. COSTS in billions of USD Atlanta Sydney Athens 1.8 7 P&L in USD +10,000,000 0 -15,000,000,000 +146,000,000 0 15 China 40 15 London 33 Olympic Stadiums of the Past 5 Olympics Atlanta 1996 Centennial Olympic Stadium Capacity: 85,000 Cost: $207 million Track and Field, and Closing Ceremony Reconverted as A. Turner Field after the Olympics New Capacity: 49,586 Sydney 2000 Stadium Australia Capacity: 110,000 Cost: $690 million Track and Field, football final, and Closing Ceremony Reduced seating after the Olympics New Capacity: 84,000 Athens 2004 Olympic Stadium Capacity: 75,263 Cost: 268 million Euros Track and Field, football final, Opening Ceremony and Closing Ceremony BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Beijing 2008 Beijing National Stadium Capacity: 91,000 Cost: $423 million Track and Field, football final, Opening Ceremony, and Closing Ceremony Reduced seating after the Olympics New Capacity: 80,000 London 2012 Olympic Stadium Capacity: 80,000 Cost: 486 million GBP Track and Field, football final, Opening Ceremony, and Closing Ceremony Transformed to a UEFA Category 4 venue after the Olympics New Capacity: 54,000 Prices of Stadiums in millions of USD for 2012 Prices Adjusted with Currency Conversions and Inflation Calculations $299 $616 SYDNEY $399 ATHENS $769 $449 BEIJING LONDON 35 ATLANTA The Satellite-Park Model in Boston Distribution 1.09 km2 Revere East Boston Chelsea .51 km2 Charlestown Somerville East Cambridge Everett PARK 2 PARK 1 PARK 5 .16 km2 Allston .22 km2 Dorchester South Boston PARK 3 .30 km2 Roxbury Jamaica Plain PARK 4 BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 The distribution of parks allows to promote and benefit multiple areas of the city. In the diagram on the left we can note that 12 different areas would benefit from the distribution rather than having one single park. Some of the potential sites, like PARK 5 shown below, can benefit from the existing infrastructure around them to stitch the urban fabric. SATELLITE PARK 5 CSX Beacon Park Rail Yard BU - MIT - HARVARD 3km Harvard University 2km 1km 800m 600m 400m 200m Massachusetts Institute of Technology Park St Boston University 37 SATELLITE PARK 1 Charlestown BHCC/ Sullivan Square The idea behind the satellite park is to combine as much of the Olympic Park into smaller parcels. This park can hold the majority of elements in order to still maintain the security regulations for the visitors and athletes at the park. Transportation -Sullivan Sq. Orange Line -Mono-rail connecting the entire site. -Media Tower 20 Storey tower that can hold the 90,000 sqm media center. This can later become apartments, offices, and retail development. -Housing Athletes can stay in these micro-villages for housing. After the event, they can be converted into apartments or condos. -Mixed Use Stadium The stadium can be hybridized with housing. It can also become the new Bunker Hill Community College Campus, and the old campus be developed for housing. -Training Rec Centers Training facilities can become public amenities for the adjacent neighborhoods. -Aquatorium Housing plus Olympic Pools BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 39 HOUSING STADIUM Developed at RISD for the Boston Olympics Studio (Fall 2013) Professor: Dongwoo Yim (Principal at PRAUD) Student: Jung Min Kim Because of its location next to two highway arteries, this site seems to be under utilized. The need for housing in the area hasn’t been addressed because of the lack of land. With this project, there is an effort to reconcile the need of a sports venue plus the need for housing by creating a “Housing Stadium” where the housing units camouflage the stadium in order to become part of the urban fabric. BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 41 Where Would People Stay? Accommodations Weâ€™re in need of 15,000 more hotel rooms. But we see this as an opportunity. 15,000 hotel rooms would be equivalent to 75 new hotel buildings of 200 rooms each. Instead of building 75 new chain hotels, we can use this to implement new typologies that respond to social demands and needs of the city. We can introduce Hybrid-hotels. For example; we need more information centers for tourist, then we could make Info-tels where we combine both to create a network around the city. Another example, we can promote the use of the bicycle as a means of clean transportation in the city. We can combine the need for hotels and the bike agenda by creating Bike-Hotels, again with the aim at promoting a transportation system. BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 1km 2km 3km 4km 5km 6km 7km 8km 9km 10km Hotels in Boston 0 1km 5km 43 INFO-TEL Developed at RISD for the Boston Olympics Studio (Fall 2013) Professor: Rafael Luna (Principal at PRAUD) Student: Lindsay Winstead The need for Information/ Tourist Centers in Boston could be combined with the need for more hotels. By combining both into a hybrid building, we could distribute them across the city creating a tourist network that helps visitors navigate the city. The Weather Channel The Weather Channel T The Weather Channel T T Currently there is only 1 tourist information center in Boston. Although information is available through mobile phones and computers, there is still the need of physical spaces that provide a safe haven for tourist to learn about the city. If new hotels are going to be built, this issue could be addressed quite easily by putting both programs under the same roof. loc al al glob T reg i ona na l na The Weather Channel ti o l Program for the Info-Tel BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Renderings by student, depicting the new typology. 45 How would we move around? Transportation Potentials Boston has one of the best and oldest transportation networks in the country. The Olympics could help promote new agendas in transportation for the city of the Future. We are not worried about traffic congestions because of the Olympics, we are worried about the future mobility of the city. Could we promote biking further, could we implement new methods of transportation using the river? These are some of the possibilities that we should be researching. BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 DATA -TRANSIT TYPE Commuter rail, rapid transit, light rail, bus, BRT, trolleybus, ferryboat -NUMBER OF LINES 12 (commuter rail) 4 (rapid transit) 5 (light rail) 4 (trolleybus) 4 (ferryboat) 183 (bus) -NUMBER OF STATIONS 123 (commuter rail) 51 (rapid transit) 74 (light rail) 22 (BRT) -DAILY RIDERSHIP 1,299,900 (weekday, all modes) -SYSTEM LENGTH 1,193 miles (1,920 km) (total) 38 miles (61 km) (rapid transit) 26 miles (42 km) (light rail) 8 miles (13 km) (BRT) 751 miles (1,209 km) (bus and trackless trolley) 368 miles (592 km) (commuter rail) Mercer Consulting Survey 2012 The cities with the best infrastructure Rank City 6 6 12 30 31 32 Hong Kong London Paris New York City Boston Tokyo Country Hong Kong UK France USA USA Japan 47 Boston Ring Connection The current tentacle formation of the subway system forces people to go into the city in order to change lines. This creates a disconnection between neighborhoods. We could use the Olympics to push the agenda for a ring connection that focuses on the perimeter connections. This can be done with new subway lines, extending some of the existing ones, cable cars, water taxis, light rail systems, designated metro bus, new bikes connections among others. This could really start unifying the Metro Boston area. Everett Broadway Revere Winthrop Ave. Chelsea 6th Street Su olk Downs Union Square Sullivan Square Harvard Square Airport Harvard Ave Coolidge Corner Heath Street Jackson Sq. Andrew Uphamâ€™s Corner Franklin Park Zoo BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Emirates Air Line (gondola lift) In order to create new connections that also benefit the local commuters, London built this Urban Cable Car system, crossing the River Thames in 2010. 49 Water Transportation We could use the existing river infrastructure to create a water route linking the Satellite Parks as well as different neighborhoods that are currently under served by the public transportation network. Suffolk Downs Charlestown Allston Joe Moakley Park BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 Mass Ave Park Developed at RISD for the Boston Olympics Studio (Fall 2013) Professor: Dongwoo Yim (Principal at PRAUD) Group Work: Alexa Asakiewicz, Chris Ardoin, Sean Chen We could integrate the Mass Ave bridge as part of a pedestrian strategy for linking both cities, Boston and Cambridge. 51 What if the athletes get sick? Medical Services List of Potential Facilities Boston -Boston Medical Center 496 -Carney Hospital 159 -Faulkner Hospital 150 -Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary 42 -Massachusetts General Hospital 1,057 -New England Baptist Hospital 141 -St. Elizabeth’s Medical Center 524 -Shriners Hospitals for Children 30 -Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital 132 -New England Medical Center (Tufts) 382 -Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 631 -Boston Children’s Hospital 395 -Brigham and Women’s Hospital 793 11km 10km 9km Newton - Wellesley Hospital US News & World Report Of all 75 hospitals in the Boston, Massachusetts metropolitan area, the 14 listed below are the top-ranking. This metro area includes Brookline, Cambridge, Chelsea, and Quincy. Cambridge -Mount Auburn Hospital -Cambridge Health Alliance 209 229 Metro Boston Ranking Nationally Ranked Specialties 1. Massachusetts General Hospital 2. Brigham and Women’s Hospital 3. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 4. Lahey Hospital and Medical Center 5. South Shore Hospital 6. McLean Hospital 7. New England Baptist Hospital 8. Boston Medical Center 9. Tufts Medical Center 10. Lowell General Hospital 11. Newton-Wellesley Hospital 12. North Shore Medical Center 13. Good Samaritan Medical Center 14. Jordan Hospital Metro Area -Newton-Wellesley Hospital 232 -Lahey Hospital and Medical Center 329 -South Shore Hospital 327 -McLean Hospital 177 -Lowell General Hospital 189 -North Shore Medical Center 395 -Good Samaritan Medical Center 189 -Jordan Hospital 155 Total Number of Beds BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 7,363 Ranging form university hospitals to community health center, Boston posses some of the best hospitals in the world, with the most cutting edge medical research and technology. Organized in a ring formation, the top hospitals could serve the Satellite Parks quite well. Mount Auburn Hospital Cambridge Health Alliance 8km 7km 6km 5km 4km 3km 2km 1km Massachusetts General Hospital St Elizabeth’s Medical Center New England Medical Center Boston Medical Center Longwood Medical Area -Brighams and Women’s Hospital -Boston Children’s Hospital -Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center 0 1km 5km 53 BOSTON OLYMPICS 2024 As we have seen, Boston not only has the capacity to host the Olympics, but it has the capacity to grow towards a better city. 55