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_PERFORMATIVE ARCHITECTURE STUDIO THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE, 2011

_PERFORMATIVE ARCHITECTURE STUDIO THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE, 2011

_CONTENTS _contents _introduction _STUDIO AIM 1.0_INDIVIDUAL WORK_KIRILLY BARNETT 2.0_GROUP PROJECT 2.1_CONCEPT 2.2_Teams 3.0_GEOMETRY 3.1_Precedents 3.2_Initial Explorations 3.3_From Models to Patterns 3.4_3d Modelling in Maya 3.5_Complex Modelling 3.6_Low Polygon Modelling 3.7_Generative Design 3.7.1_GRASSHOPPER SCRIPT 3.7.2_MODEL FOR 1:8 SIZE PROTOTYPE 3.7_Generative Design 3.7.3_MODEL FOR 1:2 PROTOTYPE 3.8_The Lantern 3.9_FINAL DESIGN 3.9.1_1:1 SIZE MODEL 4.0_FABRICATION STUDIO THEME : DESIGN THROUGH MAKING 4.1_Research 4.2_Resources 4.3_Prototypes 4.4_HOW TO MAKE A 1:1 SCALE INFLATABLE 5.0_INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE STUDIO THEME: INTERACTIVITY 5.1_Documentation Guide 5.2_Descriptive Working Process 5.3_Interactive Systems

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5.3.1_Software 5.3.2_Hardware 5.4_Base Patches 5.4.1_Lanbox Driver Patch 5.4.2_Base Lighting Patch 5.4.3_Base Camera Patch 5.4.4_Base Sensor Patch 5.4.5_Base Speaker Patch 5.5_Prototype 1.0 5.6_Prototype 2.0 5.7_Prototype 3.0 5.8_Prototype 4.0 5.9_INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR THE PERFORMANCE 6.0_COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS STUDIO THEME : GENERATIVE CAPABILITIES OF COMPUTERS 6.1_Parameterisation and Initial Investigations 6.2_Projection and Sketch Wrapping 6.3_Final Composition 6.4_Localised Interaction 7.0_DOCUMENTATION STUDIO THEME : DOCUMENTATION AND REPRESENTATION 7.1 _Links 7.2_Performance Rehearsals 8.0 _THE PERFORMANCE TREATMENT DOCUMENT ‘THE FOREST’

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_INTRODUCTION Performative Architecture Studio was a studio run at the University of Melbourne in 2011. Studio Leaders: Stanislav Roudavski Roger Alsop & Gwyllim Jahn Masters of Architecture Course Participants: Suleiman Alhadidi Kirilly Barnett Canhui Chen Eva Chen Meng Ho Viet Nam Hoang Muhamad Ismail Hamza Ameer Khan Chin Siong Lim Ni Ma Daniel Ryan Arturo Steinberg Acuna Yin Lih Tham Lok Tsang Andrew Walsh

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INTRODUCTION

_STUDIO AIM

By exploring the generative capabilities of computing, the studio aimed to demonstrate that outcomes of architectural design can be usefully understood as dynamic and responsive performances rather than static and passive objects. Successful integrations of complex geometry and interactivity at the architectural scale are rare and innovation in this area has been constrained by a lack of relevant knowledge in the architectural profession. Performative Architecture Studio sought to address this gap by educating its participants in an interdisciplinary and innovation oriented environment that integrates learning of concepts into the process of making. STANISLAV ROUDAVSKI

INTRODUCTION

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Performative Architecture Studio 2011 1.0_INDIVIDUAL WORK The University of Melbourne KIRILLY BARNETT

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Contents 1.1 Expectations 1.1.1 Studio Tasks 1.1.2 Programs 1.1.3 Resources 1.2 Precedents 1.3 Processing TASK 1.3.1 Attracxtor Point Sketches TASK 1.3.2 Agent Sketches 1.3.3 Emergence 1.4 Cycling 74 Max MSP TASK 1.4.1 DELAY TASK 1.4.2 FOLLOW ME 1.5 Average Location of Motion 1.6 Optical Flow 1.7 Optical Flow Tests on Inflatable Model 1.8 Inflatable Prototypes 1.9 Sketch Design 1.9.1 Optical Flow Projection Tests 1.10 Group Project Roles 1.10.1 Teams 1.11 Learning Outcomes 1.11.1 INDIVIDUALLY 1.11.2 GROUP WORK 1.11.3 THE OUTCOME

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1.1 Expectations I chose Performative Architecture Studio because I wanted to learn new skills and undertake research and design approaches in an entirely new area. The studio brief described a full scale installation combining an inflatable structure with interactive media, developed and staged as a performance at the Open Stage Theatre. To me this presented a fantastic opportunity on a number of levels. One, for being involved in a studio where the outcome was a full scale installation; two where I would learn new technical skills in interactive media; and three to continue extending my knowledge and interest in installation, curatorship and architecture staged as events.

1.1.1 Studio Tasks The set of introductory tasks required me to quickly learn new skills, explore new areas of research and develop creative strategies, in order to design a series of individual proposals for installations. These installation proposals had a strong focus on narrative, for each proposal we were asked to write 100 word descriptions summarising the installations; 50 words describing the experience, and 50 words explaining and supporting the meaning. This approach forced me to think about my designs in terms of an individual or collective experience, and instead of thinking about what your installation is, your perspective shifted to consider what is does and how. Because I didn’t have previous experience in the programs required for the initial introductory tasks it might have been easy for them to be viewed as a technical test only. However the studio leaders did reiterate the importance of using this new approach as a creative strategy, and not just a technical test. However in the initial tasks I struggled to push past the basics, perhaps it was simply too hard to push beyond the technical requirements within the time frame or it wasn’t clear enough where the tasks were leading and what relevance they had in a wider architectural context from the beginning.

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1.1.2 Programs

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This studio required the use of a number of programs that I was not familiar with including: Processing Max MSP 3Ds Max Maya Adobe After Effects Adobe Premiere

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1.1.3 PageResources: Title Goes Here

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Various online studio resources were also used throughout the semester. Email LMS Discussion Board LMS Wiki Facebook Group Processing Profile Vimeo Profile Vimeo Group Page CRIDA Website Genware Tutorials Max 5 tutorials Roger Alsop Max Site Adobe After Effects/ Premiere Tutorials 3Ds Max tutorials Maya tutorials Processing Forum Skype Tumblr

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1. 2 Precedents The precedents I researched varied from inflatable art and architecture to interactive media to film. Through this research I came to understand Performative Architecture as architecture that deals with social interaction, social engagement and events involving dynamic performance rather than static objects.

Precedents researched throughout the semester.

I read about theories of movement and it’s representation in architecture, covering topics of how you see and experience a building, to temporal and spatial qualities of time, to the relationship of cinema in architecture. This I related to inflatable architecture, through research into its history and development in the 1960’s and 1970’s and the temporal nature of inflation.

‘It takes much greater courage to create things to be gone than things that will remain.’ Christo and Jeane Claude

Movement led to ideas of Performative Architecture allowing you to see something you wouldn’t normally see. I related examples of Olafur Eliasson and his ideas of making space tangible through the consequence on a person’s body in the space. His work also focuses on activity causing people being together and being social.

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1. 42, 390 Cubic Feet Package, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, 1966 2. It’s all over, Sibling, 2010 3. Jumping Castle 4. Suitaloon, Archigram, 1967 5. Serpentine Pavilion, OMA and Cecil Balmond, 2006 6. Silver Clouds, Andy Warhol, 1966 7. Mortal Engine, Chunky Move, 2008-2010 8. The KNOT, Raumlabor Berlin, 2010 9. Space Buster, Raumlabor Berlin, 2008 & 2011 10. Aeromads, Alexis Rochas, 2006 11.360 degree room for all colours, Olafur Eliasson, 2002 12. Waterball, Theo Botschuiver, 1970 13. Archigram 14. Beauty, Olafur Eliasson, 1993 15. Breathing PIllow, Lang and Baumann, 1995 16. Access, Marie Sester, 2002

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A Processing file is called a ‘Sketch’. 1.3 Processing Processing is an open source programming language built for the electronic arts and visual design communities with the purpose of teaching the basics of computer programming in a visual context, and to serve as the foundation for electronic sketchbooks. The language builds on the Java programming language, but uses a simplified syntax and graphics.

TASK 1.3.1 Attractor Point Sketches A series of introductory exercises were set in order to introduce the Processing. Like learning a new language these simple tasks seemed difficult at first, but with the help of online tutorials, open processing forums and tips in class my first processing sketches were completed. The Processing sketches shown on this page were simple variations on Task 1: Attractor Point Sketches whereby the mouse position translated the size, colour or position of a grid of 2D shapes.

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Three different Attractor Point Sketches. Basic Grid Translation (top) Basic Grid Translation with colour invert (middle) Inverted Grid Translation (botton)

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TASK 1.3.2 Agent Sketches In these Processing sketches we created object classes called ‘Agents’. We used them to simulate basic flocking and swarming behaviors by looping a population of object classes through a list of simple rules and behaviors. Variations I worked on included Agents following the mouse, and following one object. Craig Reynolds first complied the classic flocking algorithm in 1986 in a project simulating the way that birds and other flocking, herding and schooling animals behave. He called the computer-simulated agents Boids, a contraction of birds and droids. Flocking continues to be an evocative example of emergence, where complex global behavior can arise from the interaction of simple local rules. (1)

1. Arand & Lasch, Tooling, Pamphlet Architecture 27, (New York: Princeton: 2006), 65

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20-21 Flocking Birds and Schooling Fish

1.3.3 Emergence In studio I was directed to the contemporary discussion of movement in architecture, emergence. Emergence is the movement from low level rules to high levels of sophistication. The higher level complex patterns arise out of paralleled simple interactions between local agents. The systems are dynamic, self organizing and respond to the environment. These topics relate directly to the my understanding of what Performative Architecture is. class Agent {

//--------------------------------------------CLASS PRO PVector location; PVector velocity; Float agentSize ; int col ;

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// Red float float float

and r = g = b =

Purple tones selected 255; 255; 255;

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//--------------------------------------------CLASS CON

Agent(PVector LOCATION, float AGENTSIZE, int AGENTCOLOUR VELOCITY) { location = LOCATION; agentSize = AGENTSIZE; col = AGENTCOLOUR; velocity = VELOCITY; }

//--------------------------------------------CLASS MET void run() { flock(); updatePos(); render(); }

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In both video experiments what interested me most was the idea of seeing something that you wouldn’t normally see in motion.

1.4 Cycling 74 Max MSP Max is a visual programming language for music and multimedia. It’s normally used by composers, performers, software designers, researchers and artists for creating recordings, performances and installations. TASK 1.4.1 DELAY Our initial Max MSP exercise in studio required us to create a delayed video. I used a match patch that overlapped a real time recording and a delayed version of the recording. I decided to create a recording of myself on a train journey, whereby the delay exaggerates the motion of the train. TASK 1.4.2 FOLLOW ME In the second exercise we were asked to create a video where we were following ourselves. I mixed two videos to exaggerate the act of spinning.

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Scenes from ‘Train’

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Scenes from ‘Train’ and ‘Spin’

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Scenes from ‘Spin’

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1.5 Average Location of Motion During some research I came across an interesting video where a field of lines were being disturbed by a person’s hand movement. I then started investigating at replacing the mouse as the attractor in my simple sketches and instead using an average location of motion. I went back to some of my original sketches and adapted them. I also looked at replicating the video I had seen. The research then led me to discover Optical Flow codes on Open Processing.

22-26 Video on You Tube, source unknown.

27-28 Translated Field Sketch

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1.6 Optical Flow I found two codes on Open Processing by Hidetoshi Shimodaira and Patricio Gonzalez Vivo which use Optical Flow. I did some tests with the original codes and then began to extend and experiment with the effects. Links to the original codes are: Hidetoshi Shimodaira http://www.openprocessing.org/visuals/?visualID=10435

Patricio Gonzalez Vivo

http://www.openprocessing.org/visuals/?visualID=10534

32-33 Hidetoshi Shimodaira’s Optical Flow Sketch

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Replacing Mouse Location with average location of motion.

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Using Hidetoshi Shimodaira’s Optical Flow Sketch

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1.7 Optical Flow Here Tests on Inflatable Model Page Title Goes These images were captured whilst running the optical flow sketch and moving the inflatable in front of my laptop computer camera.

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1.8 Inflatable Prototypes

I organized an Inflatable Prototype workshop session to have an initial attempt at experimenting with inflatable structures. I also tested the optical flow sketches on the inflatable structures.

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1.9 Sketch Design My installation proposals were focussed on the theme of movement. Instead of moving through a building which is predicable, moving through an interactive inflatable would be unexpected and dynamic.

“A large inflatable pillow is full of more inflatable ‘balloons’. You can manipulate its form, by pushing, rolling and sitting on it. It is movable, interactive, temporal, and tangible. It is here for an event, and in doing so creates a place. As you manipulate the inflatable structure, a camera captures your movement. The fields of projected dots begin to flow and become longer in the direction of your movement. This is the motion, direction and velocity of your movement, something you wouldn’t normally see. A small spark appears in the projected field and begins to work its way through. If you stop, it gets stuck. So you begin moving again and the spark follows the direction of your motion. As more people enter the space more sparks begin to appear in the optical flow field. These sparks cause the inflatable structure to faintly glow”

36-39 Sketch Design Images

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INSTANT vs DELAYED PERSONAL vs PUBLIC UP FRONT vs DISCOVERED

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Optical flow showing movement in a way that isn’t normally seen.

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1.9.1 Optical Flow Projection Tests

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Optical on Goes Agents Test PageFlow Title Here

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1.10.1 Teams The studio of 15 students was divided into 6 teams; Geometry, Fabrication, Complex Behaviours, Interactive Narrative, Documentation and Coordination. From my point of view as a coordinator it seemed apparent that as the teams began to work independently, team tendencies emerged.

1.10 Group Project Roles For the group project we were split into Teams. I was allocated roles in the Coordination and Documentation Teams. My responsibilities were as follows:

COORDINATION TEAM: - Conceptual Documents - Schedules , Deliverables and Budget - Successfully implementing a communication sys tem - Having a successfully completed installation - Records of conceptual development, versioning and case-specific innovation - People management within teams, and tutors. - Timetables of working spaces DOCUMENTATION TEAM: - Photography and video of key artefacts - Photography and video of key events - 2D vector extractions from all relevant develop ment environments - Graphic design templates and implementations ready for the incorporations into the journals - Report on the learning outcomes reflecting the self reported progress for all participants. - Tumblr page of process - Publicity for The Performance.

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The Geometry Team tended to over complicate their designs, and it was a matter of trying to reduce complex design after complex design until a feasible outcome was developed. The Fabrication Team was very practical and systematic about finding suitable solutions for fabrication. Real collaboration between the Fabrication and Geometry teams happened quite late, this appeared to hinder the design outcome in terms of versioning and refinement for the final design. The Complex Behaviours team tended to work quite independently and more artistically than other teams. They of course had technical challenges to deal with, such as 3D mesh wrapping, but again, these tested too late in the process to successfully implement them into the final installation. The Interactive Narrative Team had a number of technical challenges in trying to understand and gain control over their hardware and equipment, which was often temperamental. They worked methodically and consistently but because of this tendency perhaps started to think about the narrative a bit late in the process. The Documentation Team, which includes myself, were available and present as much as possible to cover any key events or developments. We covered the process through a number of photographs, videos and time lapses, however I felt that in doing this I tended to stand back from the project and observe it. It would be interesting to see how the project would have been different had the documentation team had a more influential role based of their overall knowledge of the project. Due to the sheer amount of work that needed to be done and the number of topics and skills needed to complete a successful project, dividing the studio into groups was necessary. Generally this was a success, but due to the tendencies and priorities of the different teams there wasn’t always a clear and concise path to design outcomes and decisions. Greater communication and cooperation between teams would have greatly benefitted this studio outcome, with collaboration within groups often coming too late to allow for adequate time for testing and improvement.

Dividing into teams also affected the learning process, as we were forced to focus so heavily on one area. Whilst helping other teams was encouraged at the start, it was difficult to do so because of the time restrictions. There were some specific times when all groups came together such as, conceptual meetings, 1:2 and 1:1 fabrication days, and the performance day and these I found were the most enjoyable. In general terms everyone in the studio should understand what each group has achieved and how they could go about undertaking these roles themselves if they chose to do so, but in most situations I feel like I would not understand the specifics.

Performative Architecture Studio 2011 The Performance Performative Architecture Studio 2011: The Performance is an installation exhibiting the collective outcome of experimentation and work completed by master-level students during a semester at The University of Melbourne in 2011. Led by Stanislav Roudavski, Roger Alsop and Gwyllim Jahn, Performative Architecture Studio 2011, explored interactive media, parametric geometry, emergence and physical computing. By exploring the generative capabilities of computing, the studio aimed to demonstrate that outcomes of architectural design can be

2nd November 2011 1.00 pm to 7.00 pm The Open Stage Theatre Right: Poster for The Performance Page 42-43: PAS Tumblr Page 44: Vimeo Portfolio Page 45 Journal Templates in InDesign

usefully understood as dynamic and responsive performances rather than static and passive objects.

757 Swanston Street The University of Melbourne Parkville The corner of Swanston and Grattan Streets. Enter via Swanston Street.

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1.11 Learning Outcomes 1.11.1 INDIVIDUALLY: In the beginning I was happy with the challenge of working and learning new programs, because of my background I was constantly learning and that is why I had chosen the subject in the first place. However it was stressful due to time constraints and the frustrations of learning new skills that didn’t come easily to me. Overall I don’t feel as though I ever really achieved completing the work up to a standard that I was happy with. Each week I felt like I was just making it, but never excelling. 1.11.2 GROUP WORK: Being in both the coordination and documentation team for this project was definitely a challenge. Having to understand everyone’s activities, achievements and making sure everyone worked successfully as a group took up a lot more time than expected. I was present at university almost every day, especially towards the end of semester, and helping out as much as I could from team to team. However I felt as though my time was spread too thinly and I wasn’t able to focus on reading, research and writing as much as I should have. I enjoyed taking photos and videos of key events, and I feel as though I have learnt some ways of how to do this successfully on the spot. Acting as a curator for the journals was the biggest challenge. I don’t view writing critical reflections as a personal strength, and in having to do this It highlighted to me the importance of being well read so as to form an well informed opinion. Due to timing I don’t feel as though I have completed this to the best of my ability, but it makes me admire the knowledge of the studio leaders. Right: Photo by Stanislav Roudavski Kirilly Documenting at The Performance.

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1.11.3 THE OUTCOME: Overall I believe our group outcome was a success. We had a number of people come through on The Performance Day, and I personally received a lot of personal feedback. Some people tended to be confused, or unsure of what was happening and I really liked seeing that the project was stimulating enough for people to question what was occurring, As The Performance was an experiment it was interesting to note down some of the reactions and behaviours that occurred in each scene or mood, My personal observations are as follows: CALM: Inside people tended to sit or lie down, from outside people stood away from the structure and observed the beauty of it. The windows were a great opportunity for people to walk up and peer into the inside of the inflatable and then continue to the entry. REFLECTIVE: Being the first state you see as you enter the space, I think it was quite surprising for people as they entered. Especially after telling people at the door it’s dark inside, it builds the suspense. People again generally stopped and observed it for a while before approaching. When inside I’m not sure if the change between calm and reflective was enough to give the impression something was changing. However as it was a busy day I didn’t spend a great deal of time in the one spot. AGITATED: If the participant was told about the sensors, they are immediately aware of the reaction between the sensors and the lights. I believe this took away from the success of the reaction of the participant. I feel it was more successful when people weren’t told about the sensors, which could lead to a greater chance of personal experience. In conclusion, despite the personal challenges; this semester has been a worthwhile part of my academic education and I hope to pursue some of the Studio themes and skills I have developed in the future.

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2.0_GROUP PROJECT: ONE CONCEPT, SIX TEAMS

2.1_CONCEPT The studio’s central task was the production of a full-scale installation combining an inflatable structure with interactive media, developed and staged as a performance at the Open Stage Theatre, The University of Melbourne. The group project’s conceptual development was guided by this initial illustrative description (right). This was developed from the outcomes of discussions we had as a group in the early stages of the group project, and used the Forest as a metphor for the design of a multi layered complex system. This description has since been edited to reflect the changes to the concept as they occurred throughout the process. As the process developed this broad conceptual description developed into a treatment document (See Chapter 8.0).

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“ From outside the organic form is intriguing, so you touch it. You walk around, but you want to explore further, you want to go inside. To enter you have squeeze through an opening. As you squeeze in, some air escapes, the form deflates. Slowly expanding again once you’re inside. Inside the temperature is immediately different, and the light dappled. There is a faint sound, it comes and goes. But you can’t pin point what it is. You notice a flow of movement across the skin of the form. They appear to be tiny particles of light, moving slowly and calmly. You can’t see around the corner and without knowing what is coming next, you choose to explore. There is a lantern sitting on the ground, which you pick it up and use. In exploring you may find a secret spot. The tunnel like path weaves around and you become slightly disorientated. The walls wrap up and around you and eventually curve towards an end that you can’t enter. At certain points light from the lantern appear to trigger changes in light, colour, sound and movement. You notice patterns arising out of the complex interactions- it’s as if the forest is becoming smarter, reacting to you and your interactions in the environment. The forest is aware of your presence. The forest is dynamic. The forest is alive. “

2.2_TEAMS The studio of 15 students was divided into 6 teams; Geometry, Fabrication, Complex Behaviours, Interactive Narrative, Documentation and Coordination. Prior to this division each student had been exploring a number of studio themes as outlined in the studio brief. While the entire studio collectively continued to explore the definition and understanding of architecture as performances (events, narratives or play) (See Chapter 7.0), the responsibilities of the teams, related more specifically to one or more of the studio’s themes. The Geometry Team explored parametric modelling, complex geometry and 3D modelling as a design environment. Software they used included Maya, 3Ds Max, Rhino and Grasshopper (See Chapter 3.0). The Fabrication Team explored digital fabrication and construction and the idea of designing through functional prototypes. They experimented with inflatable textile systems, and used an industrial sewing machine and fans (See Chapter 4.0). The Complex Behaviours Team looked at ideation by experimenting with generative capabilities of computers including agent-based systems in Processing. These agent-based systems are also related to the theory of Emergence in design (See Chapter 5.0) The Interactive Narrative Team was exposed to real-time digital sensing and computer vision and developed opinions on what makes an environment responsive or interactive. They worked mainly in Max MSP, and handled equipment such as computer controlled lights, computer vision systems, video cameras, light sensors, and projection systems (See Chapter 6.0). The Documentation Team focussed on the importance and interest of design process, and attempted strategies for recording and presenting temporal events. They used cameras, video cameras and editing and compositing software such as Adobe Premiere and Adobe After Effects (See Chapter 7.0). The Coordination Team followed the progress of all Teams, and coordinated working spaces, schedules, deliverables, finances and acted as liaison with studio leaders. They were responsible for the conceptual consistency across the group and therefore produced documents such as the conceptual statement and treatment document. Their main responsibility was the implementation of a successfully completed installation (See Chapter 8.0).

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3.0_GEOMETRY: DESIGNING INFLATABLES

3.1_PRECEDENTS The Geometry Team explored the history of inflatables.1 Through this they found precedents to guide their process of discovering what inflatable structures can do, what was possible and how they could attempt something different. A very significant precedent was Anish Kapoor’s Leviathan, which was erected for Monumenta in 2011.

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2 1. SPRIAL OASIS, 1997 2.LEVIATHAN, ANISH KAPOOR, 2011 3. SILVER CLOUDS, ANDY WARHOL, 1966 4. UNKNOWN 5. OASE NO. 7, HAUS-RUCKER-CO, DOCUMENTA 5, KASSEL 1972 6. 42, 390 CUBIC FEET PACKAGE, CHRISTO AND JEANNE-CLAUDE, 1966 7. IMAGE FROM ARCHIGRAM ARCHIVAL PROJECT 8. IMAGE FROM ARCHIGRAM ARCHIVAL PROJECT 9. AEROMADS, ALEXIS ROCHAS, 2006 10. SPACE BUSTER, RAUMLABOR BERLIN, 2008 & 2011 11. IT’S ALL OVER, SIBLING, 2010 12. SERPENTINE PAVILION, OMA AND CECIL BALMOND, 2006

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”PNEUMATICS ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT DISCOVERY EVER MADE IN ARCHITECTURE, THAT THEY CAN FREE THE CONSTRAINTS WHICH HAVE BEEN BOUNDED IT SINCE HISTORY BEGAN AND THAT THEY CAN IN CONSEQUENCE PLAY AND IMMEASURABLE PART IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF OUR SOCIETY”

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“ THE PROCESS OF DESIGNING AN INFLATABLE INVOLVES THEORETICAL KNOWLEDGE; BUT MOST OF ALL A CLEAR SENSE OF THE EXPECTED OUTCOME. ” THE GEOMETRY TEAM

3.2_INITIAL EXPLORATIONS The first stage involved some basic approaches in designing an inflatable structure. The conceptual statement was explored in four versions, from these explorations and direction it was decided a skill development phase was necessary. In this phase stead of approaching the design in a complex way, which simple topologies were explored to transform into more interesting outcomes.

OPTION 1

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Tight spaces envelope the participants as they navigate the twisting and turning tunnels. Gaps between the trunks in the central space offer participants a glimpse of the other side – and of their destination.

Recreates the experience associated with a typical natural forest. It also uses blobs to evoke the feel of organic growth, random in shape, yet organized along a path

Replicate the tight enveloping sensation of the forest and of the house. Also encourages the occupants to explore, when they realise that the direct route is impossible.

The geometry mimics the organic shape of a tree. An open area behind the forest, hidden with a curved wall suspended from the floor partially reveal the space and to hint the presence of other visitors behind

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WANTED

3.3_FROM MODELS TO PATTERNS The whole studio got together to discuss the principles of what were wanted and unwanted characteristics of the Geometry for the final installation. The Geometry Team used this to help guide their next design decision.

Exploration Multi layered Interaction Tactile Fluctuating Digetic sounds Organic Variety Cool Curiosity driven Subtle Movement

A second outcome of this session was a basic geometry to be used as a test for the communication between the Geometry and Fabrication teams. From the basic shape’s model a pattern was extracted and sent to print. From this template the Fabrication Team was able to build the first real prototype (See Chapter 4.3).

BASIC GEOMETRY

PATTERN SENT TO FABRICATION TEAM

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Physical displacement Chaos Rigidity Trees (literality) Extreme simplicity

3.4_3D MODELLING IN MAYA The development of basic software modeling skills in Maya was achieved through a series of exercises that started with basic typologies which were distorted through polygon editing. Using this method, new knowledge was acquired for further development and iterations.

RIGHT: RESULTS FROM 3D MODELLING IN MAYA

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3.5_COMPLEX MODELLING Using the acquired modelling skills, to Geometry Team set out to achieve a new level of complexity for the inflatable design, the team again used basic geometries as starting points in the form finding process. The outcomes were a set of interesting geometries but most options lacked feasibility for fabrication. RIGHT: MORE COMPLEX MODELLING OPTIONS IN MAYA

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3.6_LOW POLYGON MODELLING A basic geometry was developed to lead to a more clear and coherent understanding of the spatial qualities of the expected outcome.

“ First we had to learn to understand the materiality of both fabric and air before attempting any design for geometry “ THE GEOMETRY TEAM

RIGHT: LOW POLYGON OPTIONS

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3.7_GENERATIVE DESIGN 3.7.1_GRASSHOPPER SCRIPT

1. Choose a polyline as the axis 2. Chose another polyline to define the perimeter 3. Choose a number of sides to produce the contour polygon 4. Distribute unevenly the contours along the axis 5. Generate a skin 6. Discern transparent and opaque using an image pattern THE GEOMETRY TEAM WITH GWYLLIM JAHN

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2

3

GRASSHOPPER SCRIPT USED TO GENERATE FORM

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GEOMETRY

4

5

3.7.2_MODEL FOR 1:8 SIZE PROTOTYPE

The 1:8 size model was made out of a simple low polygon generative script as the first experiment in a series of pure generative form finding. The main objective in the quarter size model was to test the clarity of information being transferred to the Fabrication Team. The skin was split into transparent and opaque pieces using an image pattern while the base structure was made out of ribbed like spans. The unrolling process revealed the need of a complete communication method to the Fabrication Team.

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PATTERN TEMPLATES FOR 1:8 MODEL

3.7_GENERATIVE DESIGN

3.7.3_MODEL FOR 1:2 PROTOTYPE

While the Geometry Team continued to improve the generative form finding skills, they worked on refining the 1:4 version for the 1:2 size prototype. Taking advantage of the size increase, the model increased the complexity of the patterning. The fabrication of the 1:2 size model was an key event in the studio’s development. For the first time studio participants were able to really interact with the inflatable and comprehend the scale of the final installation (See Chapter 4.3).

NESTING THE PATTERNS

FIRST INFLATION OF THE 1:2 PROTOTYPE

“ THE DESIGN, FABRICATION AND INFLATION OF THE 1:2 SIZE MODEL WAS A HIGHLIGHT- THE WHOLE GROUP WAS SO EXCITED AND WE ALL RUSHED INSIDE TO SEE WHAT THE SPACE WAS LIKE. ” THE DOCUMENTATION TEAM

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STANISLAV ROUDAVSKI AND GWYLLIM JAHN INSIDE 1:2 SIZE PROTOTYPE

STRIPS AND LOOPS BEFORE NESTING

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GEOMETRY

3.8_THE LANTERN A luminous object to activate the light sensors became a design opportunity for members of the Geometry, Fabrication and Interactive Narrative Teams. The main requirements were lightness, portability, stability and a relationship to the inflatable geometry. It was proposed that light be emmited by series of white LEDs energised by a composite battery that should be in the centre of the lantern. The need to refract light all around the lantern lead the skewed rib pattern wrapping the centre of the lantern. Translucent Perspex was used as it produces a better light distribution effect. The design became a generative exercise where the complete geometry of the lantern was produced by parametrically defined components. It was originally intended to have a rod attached to the lantern allowing the user to extend the lantern to different points within the inflatable. However after fabrication the weight of the lantern made it to heavy and difficult and uncomfortable to hold in this way. Instead a rope was attached as a handle device. The final outcome is easy to hold whether by the handle or by just holding it in both hands.

CLOSE UPS OF THE LANTERN

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3.9_FINAL DESIGN 3.9.1_1:1 SIZE MODEL

The final design process included a series of iterations, testing several pattern mapping, subdivision and geometry options. The process can be divided into three sections. First; to make the geometry, second; to map the pattern and third to adjust the pattern to become the skin of the defined geometry. The geometry was made in a polygonal modelling software, using low polygon and soft modelling tools. Coding what was required to map the image and to set the subdivision, materiality and labelling and tabbing required for fabrication. At this stage requirements necessary for the Interactive Narrative Team’s sensors were also considered. BELOW AND RIGHT: VECTOR RENDERINGS OF THE 1:1 SIZE MODEL

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GEOMETRY

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4.0_FABRICATION: DESIGN THROUGH MAKING

CHAPTER TITLE

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STUDIO THEME : DESIGN THROUGH MAKING “ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN DOES NOT END AS THE TOOLS OF FABRICATION ARE PUT INTO ACTION. ON THE CONTRARY, MAKING IS A DISCIPLINE THAT CAN INVESTIGATE RATHER THAN MERELY SOLVE IDEAS – IN OTHER WORDS A DESIGN PROCESS” B. SHEIL 3 Design through making is an architectural concept that challenges the notion that building production is preceded by design, and where in the process of making no further design ideas are explored. Instead design through making promotes ideation with the tactile, physical nature of architecture and building processes. 4 This theme was important to our studio, as we were learning the technical and tactic skills required through making simultaneously as were we designing. A lot of the technical and tactic skills we learnt informed the design, and the final outcomes was as much about the process as it was the final result. Due to a delay from the Geometry Team in producing patterns for fabrication, the Fabrication Team set a series of their own tasks and designs to explore and gain experience in making an inflatable. With each prototype they were able to assess the success and failures of their models and this information in turn influenced their next prototype. These experiments were also able to inform the Geometry Team about what was possible and feasible for their designs. In a similar way the Interactive Narrative Team developed and designed in this way. With each test of equipment, they recorded and documented achievements and this informed the possibilities for the final installation (See Chapter 5.0).

4.1_RESEARCH The Fabrication Team researched various precedents that informed and guided the series of prototype testing they undertook. A major resource was the Inflatocookbook by Ant Farm. 5 Published in the 1970s, it contains a number of sketches and diagrams suitable for testing.

1

2

3

5

6

4

1. OMA AND CECIL BALMOND, SERPENTINE PAVILION, 2006 2. SLIT SPACE, FOAM LAB 2006 3. AEROMADS, ALEXIS ROCHAS, 2006 4. INFLATO COOKBOOK, ANT FARM, 1971 5. KÜCHENMONUMENT, RAUMLABOR , 2006-8 6. CUSHICLE, ARCHIGRAM, 1966

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The University purchased a heavy duty sewing machine. And purchased material and fans from Giants Inflatables.

4.2_RESOURCES “ MAKING IS AN IMMENSE RESOURCE FOR IDEAS, EXPERIMENTATION AND RESEARCH. “ B. SHEIL 6

NYLITE RIPSTOP NYLON

FAN

THE FABRICATION TEAM ALSO ATTENDED SITE VISITS TO INFLATABLE STRUCTURES AROUND MELBOURNE.

THREADING THE SEWING MACHINE

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FABRICATION

Another resource was David, from Giant Inflatables.7 He gave a introductory lecture on basic issues ranging from materials, basic inflatable types, control systems, seals, and types of entry. He also helped with a feedback session after the 1/2 size model was completed.

BASIC TYPES Frame/ Air Beam Structure Double Wall- Cell Structure Single Skin CONTROL SYSTEMS: Constant air Inflate and Seal Air on Demand SEAL OPTIONS Seam Tape Welding Gluing Sewing (tape then sew) ENTRY OPTIONS Slit opening /Reinforced Slit opening Airlock Zip Entry Pressured Flap Hula Hoop

THE FABRICATION TEAM RECEIVING FEEDBACK ON THE 1:2 MODEL FROM DAVID, GIANTS INFLATABLES.

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4.3_PROTOTYPES Prototype 1:

The Fabrication Team completed a number of prototypes. With each prototype different method and approaches were tested.

Type: Single Skin Air: Constant Seam: Stitched Pattern: clay model, overhead projector.

Prototype 2:

Type: Double Skin, Pin Baffling Air: Constant via fan connector snoot Seam: Glued Pattern: manual calculation

OVERHEAD PROJECTOR FOR PATTERN GLUING SEAMS http://vimeo.com/groups/pas/videos/29655579

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Prototype 3:

Type: Double Skin, Irregular Pin Baffling Air: Constant via fan connector tube Seam: Stitched Pattern: Manual calculation, experimental

" PLAN, PLAN AND PLAN! IF YOU WANT THINGS TO BE MADE SUCCESSFULLY AND EFFICIENTLY, YOU HAVE TO MANAGE THE RESOURCES AND PLAN TO MAKE SURE YOU EXPECT THE UNEXPECTED ” THE FABRICATION TEAM

Prototype 4:

Type: Double Skin, Regular Pin Baffling Air: Constant via fan connector tube Seam: Stitched and Glued Pattern: Unrolled geometry from 3D computer model.

Prototype 5:

Type: Single Skin Air: Inflate and Seal Seam: Stitched Entry: Zip Pattern: clay model, overhead projector

1:8 Size Prototype

Type: Single Skin Air: Constant Air Seam: Stitched Pattern: Unrolled geometry from 3D computer model

SEWING A ZIP ONTO PROTOTYPE 1 http://vimeo.com/groups/pas/videos/30122947

SEWING STRIPS

MATERIAL LAID OVER PATTERN

PAPER MODEL TEST http://vimeo.com/groups/pas/videos/29768128 http://vimeo.com/groups/pas/videos/29717362

PATTERN STRIPS

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" WE DEFINITELY ENJOYED THE GROUP WORK; AS A TEAM WE HAD GREAT WORKING DYNAMICS, AND WHEN WE HAD HELP FROM EXTRA HANDS, IT WAS LIKE A PARTY! " THE FABRICATION TEAM

4.3_PROTOTYPES 1:2 Size Prototype

Type: Single Skin Air: Constant Seam: Flat Seam Pattern: unrolled geometry from 3D computer model

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PAPER MODEL PATTERN EXTRA HANDS FOR CUTTING THE PATTERN OF 1:2 SIZE PROTOTYPE

PAPER MODEL 1:8 SIZE

MISTAKES WERE DISCOVERED AND CORRECTED

CUTTING OUT THE PATTERN

1:2 PATTERNS

SEWING REQUIRES MINIMUM TWO PEOPLE, ONE SEWING AND ONE HOLDING AND ROTATING FABRIC http://vimeo.com/groups/pas/videos/30852725 http://vimeo.com/groups/pas/videos/30657968

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" THE MOST FUN MOMENT WAS WHEN YOU FIRST INFLATED THE PROTOTYPES, YOU NEVER KNEW WHAT IT WAS REALLY GOING TO LOOK LIKE, AND IT NEVER CEASED TO AMAZE! " THE FABRICATION TEAM

THIS PAGE: FIRST INFLATION OF 1:1 SIZE INFLATABLE OPPOSITE PAGE: THE FABRICATION TEAM MAKING 1:2 SIZE PROTOTYPE

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4.4_HOW TO MAKE A 1:1 SCALE INFLATABLE MATERIALS

1 x Sewing machine 1 x Fan 90 sq m of White Fabric (calculated by Geometry Team) 25 sq m of Clear Fabric (calculated by Geometry Team) Nylon thread Cutting tools; Scissors, fabric roller blade, blade and steel ruler Masking tape Clear tape + dispenser Velcro Dress makers’ pins Clips 2 x 1m diameter wooden rings, painted white. Bolts

PREPARATION

With such a large fabrication, preparation procedures are essential for maximum efficiency in production.

Scale Reference Template:

1:8 scale template printed on paper PVA glue

Full Scale Template:

Templates printed on paper (138 A0 for white, 19 A0+27 A1 for clear) Double sided tape a. Fabricate a 1:8 scale paper model to check pattern to ensure errors are correct ed. This model can also be used as a reference model when fabricating full scale. b. Ensure pattern labelling system is designed to easily distinguish all pieces, their interconnecting edges and associated strip section. c. For efficient work flow The Fabrication Team required 5-6 people for cutting, 2 people for taping and 2-3 people sewing and handling.

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CHAPTER TITLE

PROCESS Step 1: Cut Fabric

Roll out fabric along a flat surface. Lay printed paper templates on the top of the fabrics. Carefully cut all the pieces out using either fabric roller blades, scissors or blade; cutting both paper and fabric at the same time. Clip the paper templates to the fabric pieces for later reference.

Step 2: Categorizing Pieces

Arrange the pieces in groups by matching the labelling system. Ensure no pieces are missing. Pieces have a width (short side, joined to make strips) and a length (long side, strips are looped and joined to make the geometry)

Taping

Taping ensures the stitching process is more accurate and convenient. Using 5mm double sided tape, run tape along 10mm from the cutting edge. The middle distance of the seam allowance should now be 30mm.

Step 3: Taping part 1

Tape the internal strip joint side of the clear PVC pieces.

Step 4: Stitching Pieces into Strips

Use a double stitch flat seam with a stitch separation of 10-15mm. The first stitch is run to connect the pieces into strips before second stitch is run to make a double flat seam. After taping, sew pieces into strips by joining the widths of each piece.

Step 5: Taping part 2

Apply double sided tape along the length of the strip. Avoid the Clear PVC sections, as you don’t want the tape to be visible.

Step 6: Joining Strips into Geometry

Join strips one after another, while closing off the loops. The geometry is formed gradually as more strips are stitched to the next. Due to the movement of fabric, patches might be required at the loop joint. As more strips are joined the inflatable becomes heavier, it is suggested at least one extra person is required to help feed the fabric through the sewing machine.

Step 7: Fan Connection

Match the fan diameter to the opening at the fan end (by Geometry Team). Use Velcro to attach the fabric to the fan, by sewing a strip of Velcro to the inside of fabric opening, and by gluing a strip of Velcro to the fan.

Step 8: Entrance

Using the two 1m diameter wooden rings (provided by The Timber Workshop) overlap the rings, secure the fabric in-between and bolt the rings together.

Step 9: Additional Cable Seams

Exterior seam pockets for threading sensor cables through. Cut a 5mm wide white fabric strip to length of seam and hand sew over the existing seam. CHAPTER TITLE 89

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INTRODUCTION

5.0_INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE: HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, NARRATIVE

INTRODUCTION

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STUDIO THEME: INTERACTIVITY Since the discussions of cybernetics in the 1960s by ones such as Gordan Pask, Cedric Price and Norbert Weiner, there has been a continual interest in an architecture of the non-static; user-influenced spatial conditions. Innovations and development in the built environment such as Coop Himmelblau’s Towers of Sound began to change the perception of “buildings” and what they can do. In the same vein, the interest in mediating interactive systems into architecture was the force driving the interactive design team in the 2011 Performative Architecture Studio. The initial challenge for the team was to develop a critical understanding of “interactivity” within architectural discourse. This involved research of critical papers and previous works in the field including the ETH Ada project, Diller Scofido + Renfro’s Braincoat project and Mark Shepard’s Tactical Sound Garden. Reading Usman Hague’s ‘Distinguishing Concepts’ AD article our initial understanding of interactivity was challenged. 8 The article differentiates between reactive and interactive systems. Hague describes responsive systems as making direct reactions to input by persons, whereas; interactive systems have affects not only just on the outcomes but also on how these outcomes are computed i.e. the input/output is not predetermined. This new knowledge of interactivity enabled us to begin exploring how such systems could make space more productive, sustainable, social or meaningful. Mark Garcia in his AD article ‘Otherwise engaged’ takes the “interactivity” concept within architecture and explores the relative social costs, benefits and risks. 9 He references as a benchmark, the Braincoat project by Diller Scofidio + Renfro and the ETH Ada project and highlights their use of technology to generate interactive systems. These works and papers helped shape our understanding of architectural interactivity. Generating a system that is interactive in this regard is a multi-dimensional task. The process incorporates numerous technologies that need to be seamlessly integrated to generate an interactive system. Our process began by familiarising ourselves with the equipment before we began experimenting. Once an understanding of the equipment was established and with the conceptual framework in mind we began to test systems with the potential to develop a level of sustained interactivity within the installation. By combining the possibilities of the hardware systems, interesting effects began to emerge. These effects were individually and collectively considered and designed to create meaningful interactive results.

5.1_DOCUMENTATION GUIDE

prototype 1 base lighting patch base camera patch base speaker patch base sensor patch

prototype 2

multiple combinations

prototype 3

FINAL INTERACTIVE SYSTEM

multiple iterations

prototype 4

multiple development prototypes

THE DIAGRAM ABOVE DESCRIBES THE PROCESS IN DOCUMENTATION OF THE INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE CHAPTER.

INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE

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5.2_DESCRIPTIVE WORKING PROCESS

WORKSHOP SESSIONS Learning software-hardware capabilities. (See Chapter 5.4) Unfamiliar with most of the equipment (speakers, projectors, lights or light sensors), the Interactive Narrative team began an intensive learning phase over the mid-semester non-teaching period. An in-depth review of all the equipment manuals and Internet beginners forums and supervision by Roger Alsop aided in early stages; for example, understanding DMX channels of the lighting equipment. The process yielded base patches (core codes) for each piece of equipment to begin prototyping using Max 5 program. BASIC PROTOTYPING Experimenting; making connections between different hardwares. (See Chapter 5. 5) From here, working prototypes were developed by combining multiple base patches. The intention was to understand how particular equipment could be coupled together with triggers and controls that would affect varying outputs. Early prototypes included using the ‘Eobody’ light sensors to control firstly the amplitude of a recording and secondly the rate of playback. Amplitude of sound affecting the brightness values of the lighting output was another. Web cameras were set up and manipulated in a Max 5 patch to act as motion detectors – this was achieved by detecting the average degree of change in RGB values of the pixels. BASIC TEST SESSIONS Application of prototypes onto early fabricated models. By this stage, a few different sized prototypes were completed by the Fabrication team, which provided the opportunity to test the prototypes at different scales. Limitations of the early prototypes were uncovered through these tests that did not arise earlier due to previously controlled conditions and the interactive codes were improved accordingly. COMPLEX SYSTEMS & TESTING Manipulating layers of data from and to multiple devices. (See Chapter 5.9) After extensive prototyping and discovering the capabilities of the hardware, the studio decided

on having three states (or “moods”) of which to organize and classify the reactive responses of the installation: “Calm”, “Reflective”, and “Agitated”. Within these three states, different degrees of interactive response were employed which used inter-linked prototypes with changing output variables. A “master” patch that contained all the elements required for the seamless integration of the states was slowly written through as many as 25 revised iterations before arriving at the final one. At this point tests between the Interactive Narrative team with the Geometry and Processing teams became largely overlapped. Teams collaborated to develop the ways in which the Processing graphic sketch would respond to the Max 5 outputs from the hardware. This required the use of Maxlink: a platform of external libraries that enable data flow to and from Processing (a Java-based graphic coding programme) and Max 5. Our experimentation began with a colour tracking web-camera system that translated the XY coordinates of the tracked object (from Max 5) into a corresponding location within the graphic code (to Processing). This parallelcoordinate system between the two programmes was the core link within all our corresponding future patches including the final setup. Simultaneously, we started developing an audioscape for our installation: three sets of generative sound parameters, which could be called for each of the three states.

FINAL TESTS Simulate interaction of final interactive narrative within a controlled environment. The final geometry was fabricated, enabling penultimate decisions regarding locations of the light sensors, projectors and LED lights. The positioning of this equipment was crucial as the light from the projectors and LED lights had the potential to set off the light sensors resulting in a continuous loop of the a triggered output. To address this, the system was altered in such that if a light sensor was triggered it was then switched off for a period allowing the installation to return to one of the two earlier states. To overcome simultaneous activation of the three states, the Max patch was designed so as one state was activated the other two would be switched off. The system required concise calibration in-situ to run effectively and smoothly; which took hours of revisions to refine.

After tests done on the large half-size prototype, we had to made several technical execution decisions due to limitations we discovered. We decided narrowed down the input equipment to just the cameras and light sensors to reduce the software computing load. The audience of the installation would affect these input variables. These input variables would be used affect outputs: sound, lighting and Processing variables according to the three states/moods. In order for the light sensors to respond effectively, a strong light source was required to overcome the output lighting conditions. Thus, the Interactive Narrative team commenced working side by side with the Geometry and Fabrication teams to design a lantern, which would become the trigger of the light sensors. INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE

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5.3_INTERACTIVE SYSTEMS

5.3.1_SOFTWARE Cycling 74’s Max 5 Max5 is an application used to connect basic functional blocks together to generate unique systems. It allows for connections and manipulations of multiple inputs to create output streams. Codes written in Max 5 are known as ‘Patches’. These are made up of two main elements. ‘Objects’ and ‘Messages’. These connections are achieved through the joining of objects with patchchords. Objects essentially contain small programs written into them to do specific things. By combining objects, you create interactive and unique software without ever needing to write any code.

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“ PIECING TOGETHER COMPUTED REACTIONS REQUIRES: TWO PARTS KNOWING WHAT YOU WANT, ONE PART PATIENCE, AND ONE PART ACCEPTING WHAT THE COMPUTER CAN DO. ” THE INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE TEAM 1

2 1. TRIPTYCH, UNITED VISUAL ARTISTS, PARIS, 2007 2. LISTENING POST, MARK HANSEN AND BEN RUBIN, NYC, 2001 3. THE WOLFSBURG PROJECT, JAMES TURRELL, STUTTGART, 2009

3

5.3.2_HARDWARE Lighting 2 large LED spot lights 2 small LED spot lights 2 large LED zoom lights 1 DMX USB interface box Camera 2 firewire webcameras Speakers 5 external speakers 1 USB audio interface Sensors 4 light sensors 2 laser cords multiple extension cords 1 sensor USB interface box 2 Projectors Kinect Camera

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RGB Control_These sliders allow for direct control of the Red, Blue and Green channels of the lighting fixtures.

5.4_BASE PATCHES

Initialise Lanbox_Set the port number of the Lanbox connection to This patch was provided to us in the driver package initialise control.

5.4.1_Lanbox Driver Patch

of the Lanbox. It was used as a base patch to send DMX signals to the lights. Numerous sub-patches have been created to control the lights in different ways taking advantage of the various other hardware systems we explored.

5.4.2_Base Lighting Patch The base lighting patch was used in a number of prototypes to test various lighting effects that could potentially shape the three moods we were trying to achieve. Using various external pieces of hardware we began to experiment with the ways in which motion/movement, lighting and sound could impact the lighting conditions.

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INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE

5.4.3_Base Camera Patch This patch was retrieved from an online resource; to enable the camera capture of 2 separate devices simultaneously. To allow Max 5 to accept more than one camera input at a time, the first step was to install the dedicated driver by the camera manufacturers. Without the dedicated driver, Max 5 will still only read one camera at a time, via the default operation system webcam driver. After the installation, a patch was retrieved from the Max 5 forums; to accept multiple camera devices.

WECAMS

Multiple Devices_These objects allow the patch to retrieve other devices attached to the computer that are related to the basic “grab� object.

Basic Camera Grab_This section initializes the camera.

Display_ Camera 2 feed

Display_ Camera 1 feed

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5.4_BASE PATCHES 5.4.4_Base Sensor Patch This basic patch allows the use of multiple sensors including light and laser sensors to control other fixtures within the system. Manipulation of the patch will allow control over individual speaker volume and rate of playback of an input track. When used in conjunction with Processing the sensors can send information to Processing to manipulate the sketch and in particular local variables. The Eobody was one of the more simple pieces of hardware to use. It is connected to the computer via USB and is immediately recognised by Max 5. It provides an output range of numbers that varies according to the surrounding conditions. ABOVE: KINECT & LANBOX BELOW: SPEAKER PATCH TEST

5.4.5_Base Speaker Patch This basic patch allows the control of audio output within Max 5 to external speaker devices. Manipulation of the patch will allow control over individual speaker volumes and speaker output rotation. The speakers required an external program and one additional piece of hardware to connect to Max 5 on the computer. The hardware: a high speed USB audio interface. Two programmes were provided by the hardware supplier; a driver and an external channel/volume control interface, named “Total Mix�.

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Basic Sensor Activation_The ctlin object allows Max 5 to gain control of the connected sensors. Multiple sensors can be connected through numerous ctlin objects. Controlling Output_This section scales the input variable numbers to a range that can be used by other hardware.

Volume Sliders_These number sliders allow input into a volume fader sub-patch below. Basic Audio Input_This object allows Max 5 to load an existing audio file to use. Can be replaced by a generative sound patch.

Speaker Output_ Sends data to 4 speakers

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COMPUTING COMPONENTS

base lighting patch

5.5_PROTOTYPE 1.0 Lighting tests on early “egg� inflatable documented the effects of lighting from inside and outside the inflatable. Using multiple colours creates interesting effects in relation to the mood of the inflatable. The first prototype explored the use of sound (amplitude specifically) as the control of the intensity of different colours of light. Peak amplitude was set to 125 and then scaled between 1 and 255 to correspond to a direct lighting intensity value of the respective RGB channels.

amplitude input sub-patch Max 5 translates an amplitude range of the ambient sounds into a range of numbers, that becomes the input value for the lighting intensity.

The base lighting patch is used in conjunction with an object called peak amplitude. The ambient noise around the microphone that registers causes changes in the amplitude values. These changes are then scaled and fed into the Lanbox as DMX signals and sent to the lights to vary the intensity. See demonstration: http://vimeo.com/groups/pas/videos/29943468

LIGHT TESTS

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INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE

HARDWARE COMPONENTS ambient sounds

built-in microphone

computer

lights

increase/decrease in intensity based on values from computer

perceives ambient sounds

translates ambient sound amplitude into lighting intensity values

increase/decrease in intensity based on values from computer

equipment environment condition

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COMPUTING COMPONENTS

base camera patch 5.6_PROTOTYPE 2.0 The second prototype utilized real time webcam capture set up as a motion tracking sensor to alter the RGB output of colours from the lights. In order to convert the capture of the webcams into motion detection, we had to understand the way in which Max 5 received the input. Max uses matrices which are divided into four layers. Each of these matrix layers corresponds to the RGB channels respectively. This makes it easy to track the average change in colour values which can be used as a form of motion tracking.

base lighting patch

By connecting elements from the base sensor patch to the base speaker patch, values were sent from the former to control the latter.

LIGHT TESTS

HARDWARE COMPONENTS movement

increase/decrease in intensity based on values from computer

webcamera

detects movement through variation in colour

computer

translates ambient sound amplitude into lighting intensity values

lights

increase/decrease in intensity based on values from computer

equipment environment condition

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COMPUTING COMPONENTS By connecting elements from the base sensor patch to the base speaker patch, values were sent from the former to control the latter.

5.7_PROTOTYPE 3.0

base sensor patch

DESCRIPTION Proximity to speakers affect audio volume/track rate. Person who is backlit walks toward speakers. He casts shadows towards speakers. The closer the person gets to the speaker, the more defined/darker his shadow is on the speaker. The light/darkness intensity of his shadow affect values perceived by the sensors taped on top of the speaker. These sensor values affect the audio volume & track rate.

OBJECTIVE To experiment with spatial mapping through the audioscape - akin to how bats “see” with echoes; our hearing can give us cues to the characteristics of a space.

base speaker patch

SENSOR ON SPEAKER

See demonstration: http://vimeo.com/29944020

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INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE

HARDWARE COMPONENTS

shadows cast by person walking towards the speaker affect ambient luminance perceived by sensor cable

lighting conditions speakers sensor cable

sensor box

computer

emits sound based on output values from computer taped above speaker perceives immediate lighting conditions

translates sensor data into number range

input output

number range from sensor cable increase/decrease volume and track rate

equipment environment condition ROGER ALSOP WITH THE INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE TEAM

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5.8_PROTOTYPE 4.0 DESCRIPTION A red object is tracked by a camera. Its x- and y-coordinates from Max 5 are fed through a live link to Processing, which in turn draws a red ball in the same coordinates within the Processing window. OBJECTIVE To establish the most basic connection between Processing and Max 5. Processing is a graphical programming platform that is used in the final installation. A connection is necessary to provide the graphics with input from our perceptive hardware via Max 5.

See demonstration: http://vimeo.com/29944020

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Using Maxlink, we were able to send real time location coordinates from a colour tracking patch in max to a preliminary processing sketch. A localised behaviour around this location was triggered to create a visual link with the position of the object being tracked. This is clearly displayed in the screen capture below.

Colour tracker patch MAX 5

MAXLINK OBJECT

MAXLINK

Preliminary agent sketch PROCESSING

MAXLINK LIBRARY

The maxlink plug-in allowed for Processing and Max 5 to communicate. This made it possible to transfer data to and from the respective programs.

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5.9_INTERACTIVE SYSTEM FOR THE PERFORMANCE HARDWARE COMPONENTS [trigger a] people walking through the entrance will affect this

degree of activity (moving people)

camera

tracks movement

Max 5 patcher groups the reactive changes on the environment (lights, projections, sound) into 3 “moods”: calm, reflective and agitated.

computer

Two triggers (a & b) will change the default “mood” - calm, into either reflective or agitated.

translates data from individual cables into number range

sensor box inside the inflatable

perceives localised lighting changes from 4 different areas inside the inflatable

light sensor 1

[trigger b] person walking with the lantern will affect this variable

light sensor 3

localised changing lighting conditions (moving lantern)

degree of luminance, how bright/dark at a local radius around individual cables 110

light sensor 2

INTRODUCTION

light sensor 4

CALM (default - no triggers)

atmospheric mood 1

CALM (default)

REFLECTIVE (trigger a)

speakers

projector

speaker output low pitch, low volume, hypnotic sounds projector output agent behaviour: still/no movement or low velocity lighting output no lighting/dark

atmospheric mood 2

REFLECTIVE (trigger a)

speaker output low pitch, medium volume, consistent projector output agent behaviour: flocking, medium velocity lighting output greens and blues, slow change

AGITATED (trigger b)

lighting equipment

atmospheric mood 3

AGITATED (trigger b)

speaker output low/medium pitch, medium/high volume, fluctuating projector output agent behaviour: noisy, erratic, high velocity, localised to particular triggered sensor cable lighting output reds, oranges, strobe lighting

equipment environment condition

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# Page Title

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CHAPTER TITLE

6.0_COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS: AGENT BASED SYSTEMS

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# Page Title STUDIO THEME : GENERATIVE CAPABILITIES OF COMPUTERS PROGRAMMING

Designing through digital technologies has become ubiquitous in contemporary architecture however computer programming illiteracy still prevails. If architects and designers defer the writing of code to software providers some creative autonomy is inevitably lost. Whilst this is true of all mediums of design, programming allows us to exercise more fully our creative control. In The Alphabet and the Algorithm, Mario Carpo argues that those who choose to merely manipulate parameters within a system are “only secondary authors – end users and not designers”. 10 Ingeborg M. Rocker is another who has emphasised this distinction. For her “architecture emerges as a trace of algorithmic operations”.11 By experimenting with the algorithmic potential of code we have aimed to explore new digital aesthetics – both through planned design and the accidental discoveries of the neophyte.

PROCESSING

Most of the code-based images produced for this project and those displayed in the following pages used the programming language and development environment Processing. Processing is a Java based programming tool which allows designers to more easily produce graphic results than is the case with more sophisticated programming environments.

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“ THEY ARE COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS THAT DISPLAY EMERGENT BEHAVIOUR. IN THESES SYSTEMS, AGENTS RESIDING ON ONE SCALE START PRODUCING BEHAVIOUR THAT LIES ONE SCALE ABOVE THEM: ANTS CREATE COLONIES, URBANITES CREATE NEIGHBOURHOODS; SIMPLE PATTERN-RECOGNITION SOFTWARE LEARNS HOW TO RECOMMEND NEW BOOKS.” S. JOHNSON 12

EMERGENCE

Emergence describes the way that multiple, simple, local rules can lead to complex global behavioural patterns. It has been used to describe systems of organisation such as ant colonies, bird flocks and human consciousness. The processes used by computers show distinct theoretical parallels. In 1986 Craig Reynolds developed the Boids algorithm that produced flocking behaviour of agents in a digital space, simulating the organic behaviour of birds. For the Performative Architecture Studio exhibition students worked within the scope of digital emergence yet sought to avoid any obvious allusions to the organic. Instead, the flocking behaviour becomes a springboard for new formal and spatial conceptions. Reynolds states that “a significant property of life-like behaviour is unpredictability over moderate time scales”. 13 These aleatory outcomes, within a controlled system, lead to continually nonrepeating compositions that can entrance the viewer. The design as such becomes less a single outcome than a multitude of potentialities.

INTERACTIVITY

It could be argued that all architectural spaces are interactive to some extent: Transforming themselves in response to atmospheric conditions while also echoing the movements of its inhabitants through sound and shadow. If this is true then the interactive qualities of Performative Architecture’s projected images aim only to extend such experiences. Maintaining the unpredictability of any response to movement yet exaggerating its effect. Through the use of motion and light sensors, visitors to the exhibition space prompt changes to the Processing generated moving image – although it is left inexplicit as to how such changes are specifically triggered. The images explode and retract, flock and disperse. These interactive disruptions aim to not only provoke surprise in the viewer but also direct there attention to the poetic motions of the projected images.

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6.1_PARAMETERISATION AND INITIAL INVESTIGATIONS The graphical compositions generated by the Processing ‘sketches’ evolved through a manipulation of variables within the programming script. Embedding parameters within the algorithms allowed the visual outcomes to be tailored to the required atmospheric value. 14 As there were no strictly functional imperatives driving the parameter settings, the rationale for certain values was determined by a more intuitive response to the sketch’s emotive qualities. In other words, parametric adjustment sought to explore the evocative qualities of differing digital ornamentation. Re-parameterisation also prompted new and unexpected forms that could continually redefine the direction of the project.

ALIGN

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FOLLOW

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DENSITY

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AGENT PROJECTION TEST

SPEED

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ADJACENT

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6.2_PROJECTION AND SKETCH WRAPPING The transition from computer screen display to projection upon a three-dimensional form generates new and unforeseen results. At points of severe foreshortening the projection stretches across the fabric like a spectral iridescence. At other points the image arrives through patches of transparent material to blur against the inner wall of the inflatable. Under certain states the agents crawl across the inflatable like raindrops constrained to the curvature of the geometry. Some interaction becomes overt while some dissipates. The projection’s intersection with space, light and sound dislodges the logic of the computer code from its algorithmic certainties. It spills out into a disorderly reality.

3D SKETCH WRAPPING ON PROTOYPE 1.0

OVER PAGE: 3D SKETCH WRAPPING ON 1:1 SCALE MODEL

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3D SKETCH WRAPPING PROJECTION TESTS ON 1:1 SCALE MODEL

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3D SKETCH WRAPPING PROJECTION TESTS ON 1:1 SCALE MODEL

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6.3_FINAL COMPOSITION Three moods or atmospheric values were defined to provide a framework upon which the digitised images could be developed. Nominally these were: Calm, Reflective, and Agitated. There is of course no guarantee that a participant’s reading of the image would align with the formal definition of each term. Also, despite the connotations inherent in such terms there was no desire was an overtly organic result. The architecture can be considered as evolving, almost sentient yet it not the simulacrum of another living thing. The primary ambition was to define and redefine a space through the qualitative changes in the digital ornament. The distinction between each state is achieved through the alterations in movement and flow, though also through spatial arrangement and the interactions between local agents. In effect the composition is an exploration of the spatial concept of field. That is, a configuration of entities whereby the “overall shape and extent are highly fluid and less important than the internal relationships of parts, which determine the behaviour of the field.” 15

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_CALM The agents (individual moving objects), were set to a randomly low speed and a high avoidance parameter. They form an almost grid-like pattern of points, occasionally scattering into crooked paths that appear to flicker from a distance. COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS

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_REFLECTIVE Initially flocking in undulating movements across the inflatable, the agents slowly blanket the fabric in a more dispersed field. This state departs from the relative static of the Calm mode, yet its steady gradations demonstrate a passive visual display. COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS

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_AGITATED Streams of agents race across the surface of the inflatable exploding in burst of energy at regular intervals. This state, together with the accompanying sound and light, activates a rapid mood shift defined by a heightened intensity. COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS

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6.4_LOCALISED INTERACTION While the projected images alternate between three global states, local zones of contrasting agent behaviour can also be triggered by participants through the activation of light sensors. At these localised zones, attraction points are established that draw agents toward them and subsequently alter the parameters of such agents. The endeavour here is provide an interactive capability based on the propinquity of the participant. The conflicting node of activity also provides points of contrast across the inflatable for the participant to explore and observe.

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7.0_DOCUMENTATION: RECORDING THE TEMPORAL

# Page TitleSTUDIO THEME : DOCUMENTATION AND REPRESENTATION “ PROCESSES ARE FAR MORE INTERESTING THAN IDEAS. IDEAS ARE LINKED TO EXISTING CODES, OPERATING CRITICALLY OR IN ALIGNMENT WITH PRE-EXISTING SYSTEMS OF IDEAS. A PROCESS IS THE GENERATION OF A MICRO-HISTORY OF A PROJECT, A KIND OF SPECIFIC NARRATIVE WHERE THE ENTITY OF THE PROJECT FORMS A SEQUENCE. IF GEOLOGICAL, BIOLOGICAL OR HUMAN HISTORY, FOR INSTANCE, HAVE SOMETHING TO TEACH US IS THAT THE PROCESSES OF TEMPORAL FORMATION PRODUCE ORGANISATIONS OF A FAR HIGHER COMPLEXITY AND SOPHISTICATION THAN INSTANTANEOUS IDEAS. THIS SEQUENTIAL, INTEGRATIVE ADDITION PRODUCES MORE AMBIGUOUS EFFECTS, MORE CAPABLE OF RESONATING ON DIFFERENT LEVELS THAN STRAIGHTFORWARD IDEOLOGICAL STATEMENTS, METAPHORS, ALLEGORIES OR REPRODUCTIONS. ” A. ZAERA-POLO 16 The idea of processes being more interesting than ideas is related to our studio in the relationship to narrative we studied throughout the semester, our design approach through making and the importance that was placed on documenting our work. The documentation team was responsible for documenting key events and artefacts throughout the semester. In doing this each team was forced to reflect and respond to each key moment and think about what this meant in the larger context of the group outcome. Throughout the semester processes generated a number of ideas that were not implemented in the final design, however by documenting the process it does not make them less significant than the final installation, it makes the project richer as an outcome of a series of experiments, research and tests.

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7.1 _LINKS The Documentation Team was a daily presence throughout the Group Work, capturing processes and any key moments. A photographical record of the studio’s progress was documented through a Tumblr page. (See http:// pas2011.tumblr.com/ ) Videos of key events and developments, as well as Timelapse videos, and Videos documenting The Performance can be found on out Vimeo page. (See http://vimeo.com/groups/pas ) An online version of The Documentation Team’s poster for The Performance can be found on ISSUU (See http://issuu.com/ertf345345/docs/poster ) The Documentation Team was also responsible for the editing and design of the group section of this publication. An online version can be found on ISSUU.

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# Page Title The Open Stage Schedule Day : Monday Date : 31/10/11 Start : 10:00 Finish : 15:00 Activity : technical rehearsal Comment : bring in equipment, prepare electric connections, plan camera suspension Day : Tuesday Date : 1/11/11 Start : 10:00 Finish : 17:00 Activity : bump in Comment : Install the structure, projectors, cameras, lights (our LED lights) Day : Wednesday Date : 2/11/11 Start : 10:00 Finish : 19:00 Activity : performance and bump out Comment : tune the setup, open doors: 19.00-20.00, bump out

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7.2_PERFORMANCE REHEARSALS Two official rehearsal days were booked at The Open Stage Theatre. These were crucial for final calibrating.

REHEARSAL DAY INFLATION AND TESTS AT THE OPEN STAGE THEATRE

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8.0 _THE PERFORMANCE: LIGHTS, CAMERA, AGENTS

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Peformative Architecture Studio 2011: The Performance Location: The Open Stage Theatre Date: 2nd November Time: 1pm- 7pm

TREATMENT DOCUMENT ‘THE FOREST’ The group installation was developed to encompass the themes of the studio and exemplify the most interesting and intriguing outcomes we explored in the initial studio tasks. The outcome was aimed to be a well-presented experiment of this exploration, within a studio context and during the short time frame of 6 weeks. Using our collective understanding of Performative Architecture we developed an installation that questions the passive-active role of the user or viewer, varying levels of interaction and the experience of discovery. We wanted to explore the ability of a multi layered abstract system to trigger reflection, emotion and surprise. The forest was used as a metaphorical starting point for a complex multi layered system. Due to the complexity of creating such a system, strategies describing three narratives or moods were devised to add structure to the illustrative conceptual description [See Chapter 3.0). Teams developed and defined these moods in a similar approach as you would to setting a scene. The scenes were not intended to follow one after the other sequentially, instead they were aimed to be interchangeable and occur in response to varying interaction from the audience. By structuring the narrative into three moods, we could then identify and analyse how successful the audience interaction were for each of these three moods and then record these observations.

SCENES: Scene 1: Calm is the default state of the installation, no triggers, Sounds: low pitch, low volume, hypnotic sounds. Agents: still/ no movement or low velocity. Lighting: no lighting/ dark. Scene 2: Reflective is triggered by the change in movement as people enter the Open Stage Theatre, captured by a webcam. Sounds: low pitch, medium volume, consistent. Agent Behaviour: flocking, medium velocity. Lighting: greens and blues, slow change, Low interaction is required, and the participant may not be aware of the interaction. Scene 3: Agitated is triggered by the lantern being placed in proximity to one of the four sensors by the participant. This state cannot be over-ridden for 30 seconds. Sounds: low/medium pitch, medium/high volume, fluctuates. Agent Behaviour: noisy, erratic, high velocity, localised to particular triggered sensor. Lighting: reds, oranges, strobe lighting. Direct interaction required, level of interactivity is dependent on instructions given.

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CHARACTERS: Computer: Controls all systems of the installation. The computer is hidden behind a curtain. Inflatable Geometry: A crescent shaped structure with a convex and concave side. With a patterned skin that varies the opacity of the inflatable from the entry to the fan connection. Orientated within the Open Stage to have its convex side to the entry, so as to reveal its concave form, the opening and air source as you walk around the space. As people enter it deflates, depending on your speed of entry quite significantly. It fully inflates within 5-10 minutes. Fan: The constant flow of air from the fan inflates the geometry, giving the geometry its shape and volume. The fan was raised off the ground on boxes to allow the natural curve of the geometry to continue. The Lantern: Fabricated from white Perspex, white LED lights, with concealed batteries, and plastic string handle. It is placed inside the inflatable. When placed close enough to the sensors the light from the lantern triggers the excited state. Sensors: Threaded through a layer of material over 4 exterior seams of the inflatable, Positioned to look inwards by using a custom piece of clear Perspex that holds the sensor in place. The light sensors were calibrated to trigger the excited state after receiving the correct light values from the lantern. Webcam: Placed at the entry in a low position, below eye level. The camera captures changes in movement and triggers the reflective state. Cables: Cables were taped down for safety, thus covered with black gaffa tape. All cables run back to the computer hidden behind a curtain. Only the four sensor cables run up the exterior of the inflatable geometry. These were threaded through a layer of material, so as to not interrupt the projections. Projectors: Orientated to cover most of the convex side of the inflatable. Positioned at the very perimeter of the space, for as much projection coverage as possible. The light beams from the projector are visible as you walk around the space; this is enhanced when smoke is expelled from the smoke machine. People can interrupt the projection and cast shadows when walking across the path of the projection. The projection is also broken up through the patterning of the geometry’s skin. Agents: Projected onto the skin of the convex side of the inflatable geometry. Agents behaviour changes for each mood or scene. Speakers: Placed at the perimeter of the space. A different audioscape is produced for each mood or scene. Lights: Placed at the perimeter of the space. Directed towards the edges of the projections to blur and hide the edges. Vary according the mood or scene. The light is broken up through the patterning of the geometry’s skin.

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NOTES 3.0 GEOMETRY 1. Topham, Sean, Blow-up: Inflatable Art, Architecture and Design (Munich; London: Prestel, 2002) 2. Whiteley Nigel, Reyner Banham: Historian of the Immediate Future (Cambridge;London: The MIT Press, 2002), 219 4.0 FABRICATION 3. Sheil, Bob, Introduction, Architectural Design Vol. 75: 7 (2005) 4 Sheil, Bob, Introduction, Architectural Design, Vol, 75: 5±12 (2005) 5. Ant Farm, Inflatocookbook (1973) 6. Sheil, Bob, Introduction. Architectural Design, 75: 12 (2005) 7. Giant Inflatables website, http://www.giantinflatables.com.au/ 5.0 INTERACTIVE NARRATIVE 8.Haque, Usman, Distinguishing Concepts: Lexicons of Interactive Art and Architecture, Architectural Design, Vol 77: 24±31(2007) 9.Garcia, Mark , Otherwise Engaged: New Projects in Interactive Design, Architectural Design, Vol 77: 44±53 (2007) 6.0 COMPLEX BEHAVIOURS 10. Mario Carpo, The Alphabet and the Algorithm, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2011), 126 11. Ingeborg M. Rocker, When Code Matters, Architectural Design, Vol. 76: 16 ± 25. 12. Johnson, Steven, Emergence: The connected lives of ants, brains, cities and software, (New York; Touchstone, 2001), 18 13. Boids website, http://www.red3d.com/cwr/boids/ 14. Schumacher, Patrik, Parametric Patterns, Architectural Design Vol 79: 6 (2009) 15. Allen Stan, ‘Field Conditions’, Points and Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999) 7.0 DOCUMENTATION 16 Zaera-Polo, Alejandro, ‘Rollercoaster Construction’ , Verb Processing Architecture Boogazine 2, (Barcelona: ACTAR, 2001), 15 IMAGES Cover Image by Stansislav Roudavski. Images on pages 102-107 & 112- 115 by Stanislav Roudavski. Image on pages 8-9 & 110-111 by Firadaus Khazis. All other images by Kirilly Barnett and Nam Viet Hoang of The Documentation Team.


Performative Architecture Studio 2011: The Book