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Department of Civil Engineering, N-W.F.P UET, Peshawar Design of Retaining Walls Retaining Walls: Retaining walls are used to hold back masses of earth or other loose material where conditions make it impossible to let those masses assume their natural slopes. They are extensively used in the construction of railways, highways, bridges, canals, basement walls in buildings, walls of underground reservoirs, swimming pools etc. Terms related to Retaining Walls: Surcharge Backfill Arm or stem GL Heel Toe key Figure 1: Retaining Wall. Types of Retaining Wall: 1. Gravity Wall, 2. Cantilever Wall, 3. Counterfort Wall. • The gravity wall (Fig. 2a) retains the earth entirely by its own weight and generally contains no reinforcement. Prof Dr. Qaisar Ali ( Page 1 of 28


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