The Apostolic Succession and the Coat of Arms of The Most Reverend Edward J Ford, TOR, STD
A booklet detailing the historic lineage of the Apostolic Succession of Archbishop Ford, tracing it back to the year 1566 and showing his coat of arms, together with the blazon, a description and explanation of his coat of arms and its significance.
The Apostolic Succession and Coat of Arms of The Most Reverend Edward James Ford, T.O.R., S.T.D. Historic Lineage Description - Explanation - Significance The Most Reverend Edward James Ford, T.O.R., S.T.D First Edition, 1992 Revised Edition, 2010 COPYRIGHT, 2010 The Most Reverend Edward J. Ford, TOR, DD The North American Old Roman Catholic Church Springvale, Maine __________________________________________________ All rights reserved. No portion of this work may be reproduced in any form, without the written permission of the copyright holder. 2 THE APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION OF THE MOST REVEREND EDWARD JAMES FORD, T.O.R., S.T.D. THE PURPOSE OF THIS WORK The purpose of this short work is to demonstrate that our present Archbishop-Primate, Edward James Ford, is in possession of valid episcopal orders, according to the strict theological terms and understanding as applied by the Catholic Church. TEACHINGS OF THE CATHOLIC CHURCH In order for a person to be considered a validly consecrated bishop according to Catholic terminology, understanding and practice, it is first necessary that he be validly baptized and be of sound mind and spirit. He must also have previously received a valid ordination to the Diaconate and the Priesthood. Further, the church requires that the following conditions be fulfilled: a. b. c. There must be a valid line of Apostolic Succession. The proper form must be used in the ceremony of consecrating the bishop and in the consecrations of all the bishops in his line of Apostolic Succession. The bishop conferring Holy Orders and he who receives this sacrament, must have at the moment of this consecration, the correct intention. The Catholic Church has promulgated many other laws (canons) relating to the transmission and reception of Holy Orders, including the spirituality and required knowledge of the candidate, but nothing included in these laws affects the validity of the reception of Holy Orders. 3 A FEW EXPLANATIONS ABOUT POINTS (a) (b) (c) _______________________________________________ _ (a) A bishop for valid consecration, must stand in Apostolic Succession, which is an unbroken chain of bishops, traveling across the centuries from the Apostles, who were consecrated as the first bishops of the Church by Christ Jesus, Himself. Each bishop must receive his episcopal consecration from the hands of another bishop already standing in this uninterrupted chain. (b) In the Sacrament of Holy Orders, the words and actions, particularly for the consecration of a bishop, are very clear and without ambiguity, and reflect the essential grace and power given to the newly consecrated bishop in this sacred ceremony. Above all, in the two ordinations, to the priesthood and to the episcopate, there is given the grace and power to offer the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, according to the declarations of the Council of Trent. The Sacrifice of the Mass properly said, is offered to God on behalf of the living and the dead. In the consecration of a bishop, this grace and power go hand-in-hand with the ability to confer it upon others. It i s the t eachi ng of t he C at holi c Church t hat t he essent i al chara ct er of Hol y Orders in consecrating a bishop is expressed by the words and actions of the rite as contained in the Roman Pontifical (i.e. the ritual prescribed for the consecration of bishops.) (See Remark #2). 4 (c) Those who confer Holy Orders and those who receive this sacrament must have the correct intention. In its simplest form, this consists of having the intention to do that which the Catholic Church does when she consecrates a bishop. The desire to confer Holy Orders in the proper manner and with the right intention is sufficient. 5 IN WHAT MEASURE DOES ARCHBISHOP FORD FULFILL THESE THREE CONDITIONS ESSENTIAL FOR VALIDITY ? ________________________________________________ Let us examine these three requirements, one by one, and see how each of them applies. APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION On the following pages we have indicated the details of Archbishop Ford's consecration and the line of his episcopate as it traveled through the centuries, a succession which is well documented and historically proven. FOUNDATION AND FORM When Archbishop Ford was consecrated on May 30, 1978 the rite used was an English translation of the Pontificale Romanum, translated from the Latin by Archbishop Arnold Harris Mathew of London, bearing the Imprimatur of Archbishop Gerardus Gul, Archbishop of Utrecht. It is also an historical fact which is well documented, that all of the previous bishops in his episcopal line of succession, were consecrated in accordance with the rite prescribed by the Pontificale Romanum, without exception. INTENTION Since the North American Old Roman Catholic Church has no other Sacramental Theology which is essentially distinct from or differs from that traditionally held by the Roman Catholic Church, but rather shares the same, there is no doubt that it 6 maintains the correct intention on the part of the bishops and other clergy as regards the conferring or reception of Holy Orders. In particular, the Constitution and Canons of the Church certifies its faith and fidelity concerning these requisites, as does its Profession of Faith. It maintains the essential character of Holy Orders and the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass in all of its teachings. 7 APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION OF THE MOST REVEREND EDWARD JAMES FORD, T.O.R., S.T.D. ____________________________________ "Have you an Apostolic Succession? Unfold the line of your Bishops." (Tertullian, 3rd Century) The following table of Apostolic Succession shows the direct and unbroken continuity of the Orders of the Bishops of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church and their predecessors. For the sake of brevity, the succession prior to 1566 is not recorded here. The records in the Archives at the Vatican in Rome, trace the common line of succession before that date. SCIPIONE CARDINAL REBIBA, Archbishop of Albano and Prelate to the Papal Court, did consecrate on MARCH 12, 1566... GIULIO CARDINAL SANTORO, as Archbishop of Saint Severine and Prelate to the Papal Court, who consecrated on SEPTEMBER 7, 1586... GIROLAMO CARDINAL-BERNERI, as Bishop of Albano and Prelate to the Papal Court, who consecrated on APRIL 4, 1604... GALEAZZO SANVITALE, as Archbishop of Bari and Prelate to the Papal Court, who consecrated on MAY 2, 1621... 8 LUDOV1CO CARDINAL LUDOVISI, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and Prelate to the Papal Court, who consecrated on JUNE 12, 1622... LUIGI CARDINAL CAETANI, Titular Patriarch of Antioch and Prelate to the Papal Court, who consecrated on OCTOBER 6, 1630... GIOVANNI-BATTISTA SCANNAROLO. as Titular Bishop of Tyre and Sidon, and later Bishop of Sidonia, and Prelate to the Papal Court, who together with Bishop Bottini, Domestic Prelate of the Pope, and Bishop Laurenz Gavotti of Vintimiglia, consecrated on OCTOBER 24, 1655... ANTONIO CARDINAL BARBERINI. nephew of Pope Urban VIII, as Bishop of Frascati. Cardinal Barberini was born in 1607. The Pope nominated him on August 30, 1627 as the Grand Prior of the Order of the Knights of Malta at Rome, and Cardinal of the Roman Church. As Cardinal Deacon he received the title of Sancta Maria in Acquiro. When he received ordination to the Priesthood and promotion as Cardinal Priest, he took the title of Trinita' dei Monti. In 1628 he became Legate at Avignon. On December 22, 1667 Cardinal Barberini became Archbishop of Rheims in France. Towards the close of the year 1669, he journeyed to Rome for the last time. He took up his abode at the Castle of Nemi, a few miles from Rome, where he died on August 3, 1671. Before his final journey to Rome, Cardinal Barberini consecrated as his coadjutor with the right of succession, on NOVEMBER 11, 1668... CHARLES LE TELLIER, at the Church of the Sorbonne in Paris, who was later to become Archbishop of Rheims. Archbishop Le Tellier, by order of Pope Clement X, in the 9 Church of the Cordeliers at Pontoise, France, consecrated on SEPTEMBER 21, 1670... JACQUES-BEN1GNE BOSSUET. author of "The Exposition of the Faith", as Bishop of Condom in the Department of Gers. Bishop Bossuet was translated (transferred) by Pope Clement X to Meaux in 1671, and was ordered by the Pope to consecrate as his successor on OCTOBER 24, 1693... JACQUES GOYON DE MATIGNON, at the Church of the Chartreuse in Paris, as Bishop of Condom. By order of Pope Clement XI, Bishop de Matignon did consecrate at Paris, assisted by the Coadjutor Bishop of Quebec and the Bishop of Clermont, in the Chapel of the Seminary of the Foreign Missions, on Quinquagesima Sunday, FEBRUARY 19, 1719... DOMINIQUE MARIE VARLET. a former missionary priest in North America (Quebec and the Louisiana Territory), as Bishop of Ascalon "in partibus infidelium" and coadjutor to Bishop Pidou de St. Olon, whom he automatically succeeded in the See of Babylon, when he learned on the same evening of his consecration, of the death of Bishop Pidou, which had taken place at Ispahan on November 20, 1717. While traveling to Persia to take possession of his See, Bishop Varlet, as an act of charity, administered the Sacrament of Confirmation to 604 candidates unable to travel to other countries in order to be confirmed, at the request of the clergy of the Church at Amsterdam in Holland, since the Church of Utrecht had been without a Bishop for 18 years during its dispute with Rome. For this act of Christian Charity, he was suspended and deprived of his See by 10 uncanonical means and procedures, and finally retired to Holland, where he resided with the Carthusian Fathers. On October 15, 1724 the Twentieth Sunday After Pentecost, at 6 A.M., in order to allow the assisting priests to celebrate Mass in their own parishes, Bishop Varlet, in his private chapel at Amsterdam, in the presence of the whole Cathedral Chapter, consecrated Cornelius van Steenoven to be the Seventh Archbishop of Utrecht (the first under that title in Dutch territory since the Reformation) and canonical successor of Saint Willibrord. Archbishop Steenoven died suddenly on April 3, 1725. On September 30, 1725, the Nineteenth Sunday After Pentecost, in the Church of St. James and St. Augustine at The Hague, Bishop Varlet consecrated Cornelius Johannes Barchman Wuytiers as Archbishop of Utrecht, who had previously established the Statutes of the Seminary at Amersfoort which had been founded in 1724, and in which the priests of the Old Roman Catholic Church of Holland have been trained ever since. On May 13, 1733 Archbishop Wuytiers died suddenly at his home at Rhynwyck, near Utrecht. On October 28, 1734, Bishop Varlet consecrated Theodorus van der Croon as Archbishop of Utrecht. The new Archbishop was a man of particularly gentle disposition, and like his two predecessors, left no successor when he died suddenly on June 9, 1739. Thus again, Bishop Varlet consecrated an Archbishop for the See of Utrecht, when he did consecrate on OCTOBER 18, 1739... PETRUS JOHANNES MEINDAERTS, as Archbishop of Utrecht. Archbishop Meindaerts had been secretly ordained priest in Ireland (due to the dispute between Utrecht and Rome) by Bishop Luke Fagan of Meath, who later became Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin. Archbishop 11 Meindaerts lost no time in providing for the succession. As Metropolitan, he nominated "per jus devolutionis" Hieronymus de Bock as Bishop of the See of Haarlem, which had been vacant since 1587, and whom he consecrated on September 2, 1742. He also revived the Bishopric of Deventer, as a Titular See, by consecrating Bartholomaeus Johannes Byeveld on January 25, 1758, the Feast of the Conversion of St. Paul. Archbishop Meindaerts convoked a Provincial Synod in 1763 (the first in 198 years) to secure the position of the Church of Utrecht both religiously and administratively. Archbishop Meindaerts consecrated on JULY 11, 1745... JOHANNES VAN STIPHOUT, as Bishop of Haarlem in Holland, who, assisted by the Bishop of Deventer, consecrated on Sexagesima Sunday, FEBRUARY 7, 1768... GUALTER1US MICHAELIS VAN NIEUWENHUISEN, as Archbishop of Utrecht, who consecrated on the First Sunday After Trinity, JUNE 21, 1778... ADRIANUS JOHANNES BROEKMAN, president of Amersfoort Seminary, as Bishop of Haarlem, in the Seminary Church at Amersfoort; and on the Feast of St. Simon and St. Jude, October 28, 1778, Nicolaus Nellemans as Bishop of Deventer. This time the Bull of Excommunication from Rome was published with greater solemnity than usual, on January 18, 1779 the Feast of the Chains of St. Peter. At the moment of publication, the great bell of St. Peter's split and the huge lamp that hung before the Pope's throne fell to the ground but without hurting anyone, though the basilica was crowded. Bishop 12 Broekman, assisted by Bishop Nellemans, consecrated on JULY 5, 1797... JOHANNES JACOBUS VAN RHIJN, as Archbishop of Utrecht, who, on October 28, 1801 consecrated Johannes Nieuwenhuis as â€˘ Bishop of Haarlem, and who, assisted by Bishop Nieuwenhuis, consecrated on NOVEMBER 7, 1805... GISBERTUS DE JONG, as Bishop of Deventer, who consecrated on APRIL 24, 1814... WILLIBRORDUS VAN OS, as Archbishop of Utrecht, who, assisted by Bishop de Jong, consecrated on APRIL 25, 1819... JOHANNES BON, as Bishop of Haarlem. Bishop Bon was the only bishop of the independent Utrecht succession l prior to Vatican 11, who was never excommunicated by Rome. In 1827 he was nominated by the King of Holland to the vacant See of Bruges, but for various reasons never obtained the See. Bishop Bon, on the Third Sunday After Pentecost, June 12, 1825 consecrated Gulielmus Vet as the Bishop of Deventer, in the parish church at The Hague. Together with Bishop Vet, Bishop Bon consecrated on the Sunday Within the Octave of St. Willibrord, NOVEMBER 13, 1825... JOHANNES VAN SANTEN, parish priest of Schiedam, as Archbishop of Utrecht, in the Cathedral of St. Gertrude at Utrecht. Archbishop van Santen, when informing the Pope of his consecration, addressed himself as "brother" not "son". This was the first time that any of the bishops of the independent Utrecht succession had done so. During Archbishop van Santen's episcopate, the most intense 13 attempt at reconciliation with Rome took place, but without success. It would not be seriously attempted again until after the Second Vatican Council. Archbishop van Santen, assisted by the Bishop of Haarlem, consecrated on JULY 17, 1854... HERMANNUS HEYKAMP, as Bishop of Deventer, who did consecrate, in the Church of St. Lawrence and St. Mary Magdalene in Rotterdam on AUGUST 11, 1873... GASPARDUS JOHANNES RINKEL, as Bishop of Haarlem, and Josef Hubert Reinkens as the first bishop of the Old Catholic Church in Germany, (who in turn on September 18, 1876 in the old parish church at Rheinfelden consecrated Eduard Herzog as the first bishop of the Christian Catholic Church of Switzerland (Old Catholic)). At this ceremony, the formal proofs of election were read in the place of the Papal Mandate, and the two bishops did not notify the Pope of their consecration. Bishop Rinkel, assisted by the Bishop of Deventer and Bishop Reinkens of Germany, consecrated on MAY 11, 1892... GERARDUS GUL, as Archbishop of Utrecht. On September 29, 1907 Archbishop Gul, assisted by the Bishops of Haarlem and Deventer, consecrated Francis Hodur as the first bishop of the Polish National Catholic Church in the United States. Archbishop Gul, assisted by Bishop van Thiel of Haarlem, Bishop Spit of Deventer and Bishop Demmel of Germany, consecrated on APRIL 28, 1908... ARNOLD HARRIS MATHEW, at St. Gertrude's Cathedral in Utrecht, Holland as the Old Roman Catholic Bishop of Great Britain and Ireland. In December 1911, 14 Bishop Mathew was elected as the Old Roman Catholic Archbishop of London. Archbishop Mathew brought about a union with the Patriarchate of Antioch on August 5, 1911 and with the Patriarchate of Alexandria on February 26, 1912. Archbishop Mathew, in his domestic chapel in London, consecrated on JUNE 29, 1912... RUDOLPHE, PRINCE DE LANDAS BERGHES ET DE RACHE, as Old Roman Catholic Bishop for Scotland. At the outbreak of World War I, Bishop Berghes emigrated to the United States with the assistance of the British Foreign Office, to avoid a potentially embarrassing situation, were he to be interned as a "resident enemy alien", since he was still a subject of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, with whom Britain was at war, and was also related to most of the royal houses of Europe, including that of Great Britain. Bishop Berghes arrived in the United States on November 7, 1914 with the intention of establishing the Old Roman Catholic Church in this country, and took up residence at St. Dunstan's Abbey (Old Catholic) in Waukegan, Illinois. On January 12, 1915 Bishop Berghes participated as co-consecrator of Hiram Richard Hulse, the Second Missionary Bishop of Cuba, for the Episcopal Church, at the Cathedral of St. Joan the Divine in New York City, as is documented in the 1953 edition of the Episcopal Church Annual. In 1916, Bishop Berghes was elected Archbishop and First Primate of the Old Roman Catholic Church in America. Archbishop Berghes, assisted by Bishop William H.F. Brothers (whom he had consecrated on October 3, 1916), consecrated "sub conditione" in his domestic chapel in Waukegan, Illinois on OCTOBER 4, 1916... CARMEL HENRY CARFORA, as his perpetual coadjutor with the right of succession. It is believed that at 15 some time prior to June 14, 1912 the date of the incorporation in Columbus, Ohio of the National Catholic Diocese in North America, Carmel Henry Carfora had been consecrated by Bishop Paolo Miraglia-Gullotti, who had been consecrated as Old Catholic Bishop of Italy at Piacenza on May 6, 1900 by Archbishop Joseph Rene Vilatte. By May of 1908 Bishop Gullotti had emigrated to America and was living in New York City and later in West Virginia, where he worked closely with the then, Father Carfora. There is no other way to explain the conditional re-consecration by Archbishop Berghes in 1916 or the existence of Bishop Carfora's National Catholic Diocese in North America prior to 1916. By 1916 the name of the organization had been changed to the National Catholic Church of America. Soon the National Catholic Church of America entered into union with Bishop Berghesâ€™ Old Roman Catholic Church and was reincorporated on October 17, 1917 in Illinois, as the North American Old Roman Catholic Diocese, with the Primatial See at Chicago. Upon the death of Archbishop Berghes in 1919, the title of the church was amended to the North American Old Roman Catholic Church, and Archbishop Carfora succeeded to the Primatial Chair as the Second Primate. Archbishop Carfora consecrated "sub conditione" on JULY 30. 1942... HUBERT AUGUSTUS ROGERS, as Bishop of New York, at All Saints Church in Chicago, Illinois. Bishop Rogers had previously been consecrated on November 7, 1937 by Archbishop William E.J. Robertson, assisted by Archbishop Edmund Bennett and Bishop Robert Jackson of the African Orthodox Church. In 1946 Archbishop Carfora elevated Bishop Rogers to the rank of Archbishop of New York. Following the death of Archbishop Carfora, Archbishop Rogers was elected in May 1958 as the Third 16 Primate of the Church, with the Primatial See at New York City. Acting under a mandate from Archbishop Carfora, Hubert Augustus Rogers consecrated on January 25, 1948, his son, James Hubert Rogers, as Auxiliary Bishop of New York. Upon the resignation of his father as Primate of the Church, James Hubert Rogers was elected at the 2nd session of the Special Synod on May 20, 1972 as the Fourth Primate and was installed on Saturday, June 17, 1972 at the Cathedral of St. Augustine in Brooklyn, New York. Archbishop Hubert Augustus Rogers, assisted by Archbishop James H. Rogers and Archbishop George T. Koerner, did consecrate on Saturday, JANUARY 21, 1967... JAMES EDWARD BURNS, "sub conditione" at St. Paul's Church in Brooklyn, New York upon his entrance into the North American Old Roman Catholic Church from another independent Catholic body. Bishop Burns was appointed as Bishop of Staten Island. On January 24, 1970 Bishop Burns consecrated "sub conditione" Armand Constantine Whitehead of Brooklyn, New York. Bishop Burns did consecrate on MAY 30, 1978... EDWARD JAMES FORD, as his Auxiliary, with the title of Titular Archbishop of Amida, at Marsh Chapel on the grounds of Boston University in Boston, Massachusetts. In 1979 Archbishop Ford was elevated to the position of Ordinary of the newly created Diocese of New England, with the See City at Boston. Archbishop Ford had been Tonsured, and received the Minor Orders, the Subdiaconate and the Diaconate from the hand of Bishop Whitehead in 1975 and was subsequently ordained Priest on October 22, 1977 by Bishop Burns. Archbishop Ford's consecration took place so early in his career, with dispensations granted 17 due to the needs of the church in New England and the growing disability of Bishop Burns, a diabetic amputee, whose eyesight was rapidly failing. Archbishop Ford did consecrate on September 8, 1984 Edmund Floyd Leeman, Jr. as Vicar Apostolic of New Jersey, who assisted Archbishop Ford in consecrating on May 11, 1985 Beldon Edward Gannon as Missionary Bishop for New York State. On June 14, 1986 Archbishop Ford consecrated as the First Bishop of French Canada, Herve Lionel Quessy, who was subsequently elected to be the Fifth Primate of the Church upon the retirement of Archbishop James H. Rogers. Archbishop Quessy's term as Primate ended on May 26, 1991 due to reasons of health and incapacity to fulfill the responsibilities of the office. On Sunday, September 1, 1991 during the 2nd session of the Special Synod of 1991, Archbishop Ford was elected to the office of Primate. He was formally invested with the Sacred Pallium and enthroned as the Sixth Primate of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church at St. Joseph's Church in Monroe, New York on Sexagesima Sunday, February 23, 1992. On October 3, 1992 Archbishop Ford consecrated Wayne Robert Matthew Price as Vicar Apostolic of Niagara Falls, in the historic Old Roman Catholic Church of Holy Saviour in Niagara Falls, built and pastored by the late Bishop Bernardino Sandonatto, and which was consecrated by the late Archbishop Carmel Henry Carfora. Archbishop Ford resigned from the Office of Primate for health and personal reasons [cancer] on March 10, 2002 and was immediately succeeded as Primate by Archbishop Edmund F. Leeman, who was enthroned on that day at Our Lady Queen of Holy Apostles Old Roman Catholic Parish in Forked River, New Jersey. Archbishop Leeman resigned the Primacy for health and personal reasons [heart attack] on June 27, 2006. 18 Archbishop Ford, as Primate-Emeritus, had been previously named Primatial Co-Adjutor to Archbishop Leeman. Archbishop Ford was now requested by Archbishop Leeman to resume the Primacy and was officially designated as Primate-Elect on June 27, 2006. Archbishop Leeman remained at his post until June 16, 2007 when Archbishop Ford was solemnly enthroned at Saint Michaelâ€™s Old Roman Catholic Church in Boston, Massachusetts as the Eighth Primate of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church. 19 REMARKS Remark #1 His Excellency, Archbishop Edward James Ford was born in the City of Boston, Massachusetts on May 13, 1952 and grew up in the section known as South Boston. He was baptized thirteen days after his birth in the Gate of Heaven Roman Catholic Church (South Boston) and received his elementary school education from the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth at the Nazareth School in Saint Brigid's Parish in South Boston. He received his First Holy Communion on May 30, 1960 and subsequently was confirmed on April 14, 1966 in the same parish of Saint Brigid. Archbishop Ford graduated from the Christopher Columbus Central Catholic High School for Boys (Boston) in 1970, and upon entering the Franciscan Order at Mt. Assist Monastery (Loretto, Pennsylvania) began his ecclesiastical studies for the priesthood at Saint Francis College. After returning to the Boston area, he pronounced his Solemn Vows as a Franciscan Friar on April 20, 1975. He was received into the Old Catholic Church in March of the same year, and completed his studies for the priesthood at Saint Francis Theological Seminary in New York, under the aegis of Bishop Whitehead and Bishop Burns, earning degrees in Sacred Theology and Canon Law. He was ordained to the Diaconate by Bishop Whitehead on May 24, 1975 after having received the First Clerical Tonsure and the Minor Orders of Porter, Lector, Exorcist, Acolyte and Subdeacon earlier that year. He proceeded to organize Saint Raphael's Parish in Boston, serving as Deacon-in-charge until his ordination to the priesthood by Bishop James E. Burns on October 22, 1977 when he became the first pastor of Saint Raphael's Parish. He at this time was also released from his vows as a Franciscan due to the many serious internal problems besetting the Franciscan Order, which were 20 pointing to the ultimate suppression of the Order by the ecclesiastical authorities, and thus began his life as a Diocesan priest in Boston. Due to Bishop Burns' deteriorating health condition, Father Ford was named Vicar Forane for New England and given the title of Monsignor early in 1978. With Bishop Burns' illness progressing rapidly, Father was named Auxiliary Bishop for the New England region and was consecrated with the title of Titular Archbishop of Amida, at Boston, Massachusetts by Bishop Burns on May 30, 1978 according to the Rite prescribed in the pre-Vatican II Pontificate Romanum. With Bishop Burns' formal retirement in 1979, New England was raised to Diocesan status with Archbishop Ford as the first Ordinary of the new diocese. Since that time, Archbishop Ford has worked tirelessly to extend the work of the Church. Through his efforts the church has spread throughout New England and also reached into parts of Virginia, North Carolina, New York, New Jersey, Washington, California and Canada. He was instrumental in attempts to heal the breach of schism which had torn apart various sections of the church, and to bring them together under the leadership of Archbishop James H. Rogers, the Fourth Primate of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church. Since the reasons which had led to his release from vows no longer existed, Archbishop Ford with special dispensations from Archbishop Quessy (Fifth Primate of the Church), again pronounced Solemn Vows as a Franciscan Friar on January 6, 1991 and was commissioned to revive and re-organize the Franciscan Order in the North American Old Roman Catholic Church. Archbishop Ford was elected on September 1, 1991 as the Sixth Primate of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church, to fill the vacancy left when the College of Bishops where required by Canon Law to declared the See vacant due to the serious ill health 21 of Archbishop Quessy. He served until his own resignation for health reasons [cancer] on March 10, 2002 and was succeeded by Archbishop Edmund F. Leeman as the Seventh Primate of the Church. As Archbishop Fordâ€™s health was restored and the reasons for his resignation had ceased, he was named as Primatial Co-Adjutor to Archbishop Leeman. When Archbishop Leeman resigned on June 27, 2006 also for health reasons [heart attack], Archbishop Ford was named as Primate-Elect. Upon his enthronement at St Michaelâ€™s Church in Boston, Massachusetts, on June 16, 2007 Archbishop Ford resumed the Office of the Primacy and currently serves as the Eighth Primate of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church. Remark #2 After the Second Vatican Council, the Roman Catholic Church discontinued the use of the traditional Pontificale Romanum in favor of a new liturgy and a new Roman Pontifical, adapted to the rites of the new liturgy. The North American Old Roman Catholic Church never adopted the new liturgy, but remained faithful to the liturgy and the Pontificale Romanum in universal use throughout the Roman Catholic and Old Roman Catholic Churches prior to Vatican II. The clergy of the North American Old Roman Catholic Church continue to faithfully offer the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass according to the Tridentine (PreVatican II) Rite, in either Latin or the vernacular language. Remark #3 His Excellency, Bishop Dominique Marie Varlet was consecrated by the Archbishop of Paris, acting under instruction from Pope Clement XI. En route to his diocese in Syria, he arrived in Amsterdam, Holland and was persuaded by the clergy of the Little Church of 22 Utrecht, to remain awhile with them, due to stormy weather and unnavigable seas. The last Archbishop, Petrus Codde, had been dead for nine years, and the Pope had most probably refused to name a successor as punishment for his (Archbishop Codde's) support for many "Jansenist" clergy. Jansenism was an alleged heresy which never actually existed as claimed, and which to this day has never been proven to exist, except in the minds of the accusers. The Little Church of Utrecht (Old Roman Catholic Church) condemned the teachings alleged to have been the basis of the Jansenist heresy in the strongest terms, as had Rome, but refused to condemn the book, The Augustinus of Bishop Cornelius Jansen, where the teachings were alleged to have been contained, since they too had read the book and had found nothing therein which could not be found in the exact same context in the writings and teachings of Saint Augustine. Ordinations to the priesthood had not taken place for 15 years and no Confirmations had been performed for 12 years. As an act of Christian Charity, Bishop Varlet on the 19th, 21st, and 23rd of April 1719, confirmed 604 persons who were too poor to travel to another country in order to be confirmed. As an act of prudence and safety, Bishop Varlet decided to proceed on his journey to Khamache by way of the Caspian Sea (due to piracy occurring in the Mediterranean), even though it would delay his arrival. For his act of charity in Holland, he was dismissed and suspended from all his functions as Bishop. With great courage and honor, Bishop Varlet returned to Holland and was persuaded by the clergy of Utrecht to consecrate a bishop for them. In fact, after consultation and with the unanimous agreement of Theologians and Canonists throughout the Catholic world, he ultimately consecrated four. Cornelius van Steenoven was consecrated on October 15, 23 1724 but died only six months later. Bishop Varlet then consecrated Cornelius Johannes Barchman Wuytiers on September 30, 1725 who passed away eight years later without leaving a successor. Once again the clergy of Utrecht had recourse to Bishop Varlet to consecrate a new bishop. On October 28, 1734 Bishop Varlet consecrated Theodorus van der Croon who also died before he could consecrate a successor. Finally, Bishop Varlet, who was now very ill and advancing in age, consecrated Archbishop Petrus Johannes Meindaerts on October 18, 1739. These four consecrations were declared valid but illicit, (i.e. true and real but unlawful), by the Papal Court in Rome. They were declared illicit because they were done without first obtaining permission from Rome. For 114 years, Archbishop Meindaerts and his episcopal successors in the See of Utrecht, were considered by themselves and by all other Catholics throughout the world, to be true and loyal Roman Catholics, who were unjustly separated from Rome, with whom they desired union. However, on March 4, 1853 Pope Pius IX established a new hierarchy in Holland, completely ignoring the existence of the Archbishop of Utrecht, the Bishops of Haarlem and Deventer and their associates in the Old Roman Catholic Church, by naming another bishop to the same See and duties, in complete and total violation of the Canons and Traditions of the Church and in contradiction to the decisions of the Fathers of the Undivided Catholic Church, and thus created a "new" church in direct opposition to the ancient Catholic Church in The Netherlands, established by Saint Willibrord, Apostle to the Frisians. The people of Holland rejected this new hierarchy and rallied to the support of their own Archbishop and Bishops, declaring their loyalty to them and to the Old Roman Catholic Church. The Old Roman Catholic Church, as the successor to the Little Church of Utrecht, can be found throughout the world. The North 24 American Old Roman Catholic Church is the American successor to the Church of Utrecht, founded by Saint Willibrord. Remark #4 Luigi Cardinal Caetani was consecrated on June 12, 1622 by Ludovico Cardinal Ludovisi, assisted by Ulderico Cardinal De Carpegna from whom were descended ecclesiastically both Pope Benedict XIV and Pope Pius IX. Cardinal Baggio, the recent Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops is also of this same line of Apostolic Succession. Springvale, Maine August 2010. 25 EXPLANATION and SIGNIFICANCE of the COAT OF ARMS of ARCHBISHOP EDWARD JAMES FORD, T.O.R. THE BLAZON OF ARMS Arms impaled. In the sinister: quarterly Argent and Or a cross throughout Azure cantoned of four Greek crosses potent Gules (NAORCC); overall on an escutcheon in pretense Azure fimbriated Argent a barrulet wavy Argent between in chief a Greek cross fleury and in base a mullet of six points both Or.(Diocese of New England) In the dexter Argent a Latin cross throughout Azure charged on the upper arm and the two arms to dexter and sinister with an escallop shell and on the lower arm with a mullet of six points all Or; overall on an inescutcheon per fess Azure and Or in chief the Franciscan conformities Proper and in base three nails disposed in a pile inverted surmounted by a crown of thorns all Sable; on a chief Gules a sword point downward Argent with the pommel and hilt Or and a royal scepter Argent topped by a jewel Or in saltire enfiled by an ancient crown Or between two crescents to dexter and sinister Argent. (Abp. Ford) The shield is ensigned with a bishopâ€™s mitre Or and Argent and a crozier and a patriarchal cross placed behind the shield palewise both Or. Above this is a galero with cords 30 tassels disposed on either side of the shield in five rows of one, two, three, four and five all Vert. On a scroll below the shield is the motto: Lucrum Christi Mihi 26 THE EXPLANATION When a Bishop's coat-of-arms is designed, it is the usual practice to include various symbols and emblems that are descriptive of him and which signify special aspects of his family, life, and vocation. If the Bishop is not an Ordinary, (i. e. if he is not the Diocesan Bishop), his personal coat-of-arms fills the entire shield. When he is the Diocesan Bishop, it is customary to impale (i.e. to divide the shield in half and place the two coats-of-arms side-by-side) his personal arms with the coat-of-arms of his Diocese. In a very real sense, the coat-of-arms serves as a pictorial description or signature of the Bishop. When describing the coat-of-arms it is described from the perspective of the person behind and carrying the shield, and thus the right side of the shield (dexter) is actually the left side as we look at it, and vice versa. The position of honor is the dexter side, and it is here that the coat-of-arms of the Diocese is placed. In the coat-of-arms depicted above, Archbishop Ford has incorporated four different coats-of-arms into his own. They include the coat-of-arms of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church, the coat-of-arms of the Diocese of New England, the personal coat-of-arms of the Archbishop, and a variation of the coatof-arms of the Franciscan Friars of The Third Order Regular. THE NORTH AMERICAN OLD ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH The dexter side displays the coat-of-arms of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church, of which Archbishop Ford is the current Metropolitan-Primate. That coat-of arms is a shield which has been quartered in silver and gold, the colors of the Papal flag which is displayed in many parishes of the Roman Catholic Church from which The North American Old Roman Catholic Church is descended, and which it considers itself to still be an integral part of. In each quarter is found a red cross potent. Overall the entire arms of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church is divided by a large blue cross. This large cross indicates that it is under the banner of the Cross of Jesus Christ that we, as soldiers of Jesus Christ, wage a Holy War 27 against sin, the flesh, and the devil or Satan. It reaches to the edges of the shield to indicate that we are charged by our Divine Savior to take His message of Love and Salvation to the four corners of the earth, and to make disciples of all nations. The four quarters represent the four Sacred Gospels upon which our Catholic Faith is based. The silver represents the purity of the Catholic Faith and the human nature of our Lord, while the gold represents the preciousness of our Catholic Faith and also the Divine nature of Jesus Christ. The large cross is colored blue to represent our dedication to the Immaculate Mother of our Lord, God, and Savior, Jesus Christ. For it was by her cooperation with God's plan for salvation that the Savior of the world was born and thus enabled to take on our human flesh and nature. The crosses potent are formed by joining four "T" shaped crosses, known as a Tau from the Greek letter of that name. This was an ancient symbol associated with the Old Testament passage of Ezekiel where he is told to: "Go through all the city...and mark the Tau on the foreheads of all". It is also said to be the form of the staff used by Moses to mount the bronze saraph or serpent upon. Additionally it is also emblematic of the Franciscan influence which has been associated with The North American Old Roman Catholic Church since the Primacy of Archbishop Carmel Henry Carfora. Three of the seven men to hold the office of Primate have been Franciscan Friars. The red crosses potent are so colored to represent that we are committed to spend our blood, sweat and tears in labor for the spread and propagation of the Gospel and the Catholic Faith. They are placed in the center of each quadrant to indicate that the focus of the Gospels is Jesus Himself, and that it is He alone Whom we preach and teach. They do not reach the edges of their quadrant to indicate that our mission is yet unfinished and that we are committed to continuing the work and ministry of our Divine Savior. Overall, the combination of the blue and red crosses form a stylized version of the Jerusalem Cross, which indicates the birthplace of our Faith, on the First Pentecost in the year 33 AD. 28 THE DIOCESE OF NEW ENGLAND As Archbishop Ford is also the Ordinary or Diocesan Bishop of The Diocese of New England, he bears the coat-of-arms of that Diocese in a special position of honor which is known as an escutcheon. It is a smaller shield placed in the center of the arms of The North American Old Roman Catholic Church. The Arms of the Diocese of New England bears a blue shield to indicate the dedication of the Diocese to the Blessed Virgin Mary, Patroness of the Diocese. It is bordered by a small silver band to indicate that we are surrounded in all we do, by the loving protection of Almighty God. The principal charge in the shield is a Greek cross with fleur-de-lis tips, all displayed in gold. This indicates our profession of faith in the saving power of the cross of Christ, which is the foundation and bedrock of our Catholic Faith and which we treasure more than gold. The fleur-de-lis ends represent the fact that the Catholic Faith was first brought to the territory which comprises the Diocese of New England by French missionary priests. Beneath the cross is a silver wave to symbolize the fact that the coastal waters of the area of the diocese plays such a vital role in the life of the region, and is also an allusion to the waters of Baptism by which we receive the grace of Eternal Life in Christ Jesus. In the base of the shield is placed a six-pointed Creator's Star. This is a traditional depiction of the star of Bethlehem which announced the birth of our Divine Savior. The six points represent the six states which comprise the Diocese of New England. Overall, the star represents the birth of Jesus, the cross represents His death, and the Gold and Silver represent His Resurrection and Victory...thus the three principal feasts of the Church (Christmas, Good Friday and Easter) are represented and the entire message of our salvation is proclaimed in the Arms of the Diocese. 29 THE ARCHBISHOP'S PERSONAL ARMS On the sinister or left side of the shield is displayed the personal arms of Archbishop Ford. The traditional coat-of-arms of the Ford family from Ireland displays a silver shield with a blue flanche, three golden roses and two blue martlets. Archbishop Ford's arms have taken the traditional family arms and differenced them as follows. The silver shield has been retained. The blue flanche has been changed to a blue cross to represent the Archbishop's vocation as a priest of the Catholic Church. The three golden roses have been changed to three golden scallop shells, which are the traditional emblem of St James the Greater, who is the Archbishop's secondary Baptismal patron Saint. The shells have been placed in the upper arms of the cross to indicate that St James has historically been identified as kin to our Lord. In the lower arm of the cross has been placed a golden six-pointed star taken from the arms of the Diocese of New England to indicate that the Archbishop is a son of that Diocese, and that it was to that Diocese that he was first appointed as Diocesan Bishop. In the upper third of the shield, known as the chief, is a red field on which is placed a golden crown out of which, in a saltire position, issues a silver scepter with a golden head and a silver sword with a golden hilt. This is the traditional emblem of St Edward the Martyr, King of England, the Archbishop's primary Baptismal Patron Saint. The red signifies the struggle, loyalty and fidelity to the Faith even in the face of death. The saltire position represents the cross of St Andrew and the cross of St Patrick which are incorporated into the flag of Great Britain, which includes Scotland, Ireland, England and Wales, over which King Edward the Martyr reigned. It also represents a part of the Archbishop's family heritage...his father's family coming from Ireland, and his mother's family having Irish, Scottish, English, Welsh, and Dutch origins. On either side of the crown is placed a silver crescent to indicate the Archbishop's personal devotion to the Holy Mother of God, and the tips are pointed heavenward to indicate the direction to which we focus our gaze, and to which we aspire eventually to go. 30 THE FRANCISCAN FRIARS of THE THIRD ORDER REGULAR Centered on the lower portion of the Archbishop's coat-of-arms, in an escutcheon, is a differenced version of the coat-of-arms of the Franciscan Third Order Regular, of which the Archbishop is both a Friar and the Minister Provincial. It consists of the traditional emblem of the Franciscan Order, known as "The Conformities". On a field of blue, is displayed the bare arm of Our Lord Jesus Christ crossed over and in front of the gray robed arm of St Francis of Assisi, both bearing the marks of the Stigmata or Sacred Wounds which were made by the nails in Our Lord's hands when He was crucified, and which St Francis, who is known as "The Mirror of Christ", bore as a precious gift from God, in imitation of his Divine Savior. Projecting above the crossed arms is a golden cross. The base or lower portion bears the Crown of Thorns and the traditional three Nails of Our Lord's Passion, all displayed in black, and placed upon a golden field. The Crown of Thorns and the three Nails are the traditional symbol of the Third Order of Saint Francis, and tradition has it, that St Louis IX, King of France, who is the principal Patron Saint of the Third Order, rescued these sacred relics from the Holy Land in 1239 during the Crusades. THE MOTTO The Archbishop's motto is also the traditional motto of the Ford Family..."Lucrum Christi Mihi", which when translated means: "To me, Christ is gain (the reward)." It is an allusion to the scriptural passage in Philippians 1: 20-21 "According to my expectation and hope; that in nothing I shall be confounded, but with all confidence, as always, so now also shall Christ be magnified in my body, whether it be by life, or by death. For to me, to live is Christ: and to die is gain." THE ENSIGN Ensigning the Archbishop's coat-of-arms is the traditional double barred Archiepiscopal Cross in gold. Over the arms of the Diocese is 31 placed the precious mitre and over the personal arms is placed the crozier of a Diocesan Bishop, with the curve pointed outward to indicate that he exercises proper jurisdiction over his diocese. The Pontifical Hat is displayed above the entire coat-of-arms in a green color, which is the traditional color for bishops and archbishops. On either side are fifteen tassels displayed in five rows. This configuration is common to Cardinals who display their hat and tassels in red, to Patriarchs who display their hat and tassels in green and gold, and in our jurisdiction, to Primates, who display their hat and tassels in solid green. An Archbishop who is not a Primate has ten tassels on each side of the shield, while a Bishop has six tassels on each side. 32