spring 2012 studio project
what my team produced for studio. team members listed within the book.
The Macbride Environmental Learning Center Alex Korby | Mariela Bayer | Greg Leichty | Earl Shrader IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY To design is to communicate a spirit that reflects the client. ALEX KORBY architect MATTHEW ROTH construction engineer MARIELA BAYER architect GREGORY LEICHTEY landscape architect EARL SHRADER architect Iowa State University offers a collaborative professional design studio that emphasizes design proposals based on The Living Building Challenge. Students deliver conceptual design ideas, drawings, physical models and energy analyses based on a sustainable approach that reflects the needs of the client. The Macbride Environmental Learning Center Alex Korby | Mariela Bayer | Greg Leichty | Earl Shrader 4 Overview 6 Site 8 12 Event Center • Overview • Eco Machine 16 18 20 22 24 Environmental Education • Wetlands Pavilion • Grasslands Pavilion • Outdoor Recreation Pavilion • Woodlands Pavilion • Avian Pavilion 26 38 40 Energy Analysis • Living Building Challenge™ • LEED™ • Energy Performance Rating Dispersing Education throughout the Macbride Nature and Recreation Area 4 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER >> OVERVIEW Located 15 miles north of Iowa City, the Macbride Environmental Learning Center (MELC) is an extension of the University of Iowa Recreational Services. The vision of the center is to: • • • • Awaken Awareness Nurture Appreciation Inspire Action Create Land Ethic The MELC is comprised of the Event Center and 5 themed environmental education pavilions dispersed throughout the Macbride Nature Recreation Area. It provides primary and secondary educational programs that focus on the environment and its habitat. It also accommodates higher education programs. All UniIOWA STATE UNIVERSITY versity of Iowa Elementary Education Majors are required to complete a halfday practicum experience at Macbride Nature Recreation Area. Business and personal events also attract guests to visit the MELC. The Macbride Environmental Learning Center is site- and context-specific, maximizing views and experiences to enhance the educational vision. It is about the relationship the occupant holds with nature. The design and planning of the MELC draws on sustainable certification programs such as The Living Building Challenge™ and LEED™, reaching platinum level. 5 I D E C B R A M I R R E S E R V O L A K E 4 7 L E 2 C O R A L V I L 3 5 1 8 6 Legend Proposed Classroom Pavilion 1 Event Center Proposed Storm Shelter 2 Grassland Classroom Pavilion Existing Structures 3 Wetland Classroom Pavilion Roads/Shared Use 4 Woodland Classroom Pavilion Path-Universal Accessibility 5 Outdoor Recreation Classroom Pavilion Path-Limited Accessibility 6 Avian Classroom Pavilion 7 Observation Tower/Restrooms 8 Pedestrian Bridge >> Master Plan The Macbride Environmental Learning Center (MELC) is situated in the Macbride Nature Recreation Area (MNRA), surrounded by two important reservoirs 15 miles north of Iowa City, the Coralville Reservoir and Lake Macbride, formed by the Coralville Dam. Constructed during World War II, the dam was built as a flood control project by the United States Army Corps of Engineers. In 1984, the 485-acre tract of land was leased to the University of Iowa. Today the Macbride Nature Recreation Area serves as a park for the public accommodating several hiking and cross-country skiing trails totaling 10 km. MNRA also serves as an extension for the University of Iowaâ€™s Recreational Services Environmental Education Programs: School of the Wild, Wildlife Camps, and Macbride Raptor Project. 6 The Macbride Nature Recreation Area is approached by way of Mehaffey Bridge Road, near Solon, Iowa. Due to its steep terrain and natural habitat, parking for the Macbride Environmental Learning Center has been limited to an existing gravel parking lot along the higher ridge of the access road. The improved master plan accommodates 45 regular vehicles and 4 handicap vehicles. To meet LEED requirements, the parking hub is covered by a solar panel roof. A newly designed sixty-foot tall observation tower is also located at the parking hub, generating electrical power for the main facility through placed photovoltaic panels. A new 1,135-foot constructed bridge connects the Event Center to the Raptor Center for convenient access and opportunities to engage in densely wooded areas of MNRA. MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER The Macbride Environmental Learning Center features a 11,200 SF main facility that houses a 300-occupant capacity Event Center, University of Iowa Recreational Services offices, and its supporting spaces. Also key to the MELC are five education pavilions, dispersed throughout the Macbride Nature Area in order to create a site-specific environment for each educational camp, hosting up to 50 occupants. The environmental education pavilions are: • Wetlands Pavilion • Grasslands Pavilion • Outdoor Recreation Pavilion • Woodlands Pavilion • Avian Pavilion IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Currently the educational camps are located at park shelters near the road. The new site strategy maintains proximity from the road to the new pavilions, while providing strong experiential qualities along unique paths and landscapes. Additionally, public restrooms are located within the educational pavilions or in a nearby location. The existing park shelters will remain usable for the public. In the event of a storm the event center is equipped to protect 300 occupants. Two additional storm shelters are located in the Macbride Nature Reserve Area between the educational pavilions. 7 >>Event Center The Event Center is located on a ridge 750-feet south of the parking hub. The intent is to frame and maximize the views of the Macbride Nature Recreation Area. The occupant experiences undulating berms along the driveway with planted native grasses in an increasing rhythm. Upon arrival to the Event Center, the view is framed to present the Eco Machine, a sustainable waste treatment facility, and constructed wetlands. The pathway then turns down an axial path that frames the view of the MNRA. The building is oriented 15째 due west to take advantage of the spectacular views of the south and west overlooking the Coralville Reservoir while receiv- 8 ing optimal daylight. The heavy timber structure in the event space is an open floor plan, yet provides opportunity to divide the room for smaller events. The south and west decks are extended pathways of the Event Center that encourage the occupant to immerse in the outdoor environment. Precedent Diagram Precedent MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 10 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER Public Use Quantity Light Quality (lux) Main Lobby 1321 SF 300 Thermal Quality Description Located At North Entry 69-73F/21-23C Event Center 6,036 SF 300 Circulation 546 SF 100 Private Use Quantity Light Quality (lux) Open Office 788 SF 500 8-12 Capacity Conference Room 394 SF 300-500 Seats for 12 Capacity Resource Room 377 SF 300 Kitchen 356 SF 300 Catering Setup Kitchen Storage 173 SF 300 Cold Storageâ€” Refrigerator/Freezer Supporting Services Quantity Light Quality (lux) Bathrooms 317 SF, 313 SF 300 Janitorial Closet 146 SF 200 Storage Room 369 SF 200 Storage Mechanical Room 369 SF 200 Geothermal Heat Pump, Water Purification Storm Shelter 1132 SF 200 Janitoral, Kitchen, & Bathrooms IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Max. Capacity of 300 30% of Gross Area Thermal Quality 69-73F/21-23C Thermal Quality Description Storage Description 4 Stalls per Men/Women 69-73F/21-23C Storage 11 >>Eco Machine™ Steps 1 Solid Settlement Tanks Solid settlement tanks is the first step in the Eco Machine™ process at the Macbride Environmental Learning Center. From various sources throughout the event center, wastewater flows into a solid settlement tank underground. All solids settle out in the tanks as sludge and are injected with microorganisms to accelerate decomposition. The remaining wastewater flows out of the solid settlement tank to the equalization tank, step 2 of the Eco Machine™. 2 Equalization Tanks All of the wastewater from the solid settlement tank flows into the equalization tank, the next step in the Eco Machine™ process for natural wastewater reclamation at the MELC. One 1,500 gallon tank equalizes the flow of water over 24 hours. This helps balance out natural surges in water use at the event center (typically during large events), evenly releasing water to the anoxic tanks, step 3 in the Eco Machine™ process. 12 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER Without the equalization tanks, the Eco Machine™, and the Event Center’s constructed wetland would need to have been designed and built at a much larger scale. By using equalization tanks, the MELC is designed for the smallest facility possible, greatly reducing the carbon footprint of the Event Center. 3 Anoxic Tanks Step 3 in the Eco Machine™ at the MELC is the anoxic tank. One 1,500 gallon tank is located underground, which will then output wastewater into the constructed wetlands. Here, naturally occurring microbial organisms use the wastewater stream as food. They begin to digest ammonia, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, and many other substances in the water. This process happens with very little oxygen (called either anaerobic or anoxic) and produces a modest amount of methane gas, though not enough to harvest and use as an energy source. When it’s time for the water to move to step 4 of the Eco Machine™, the constructed wetlands, splitter boxes evenly divide the water and distribute it between the upper two wetlands. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 13 4 Constructed Wetlands The constructed wetland for The Eco Machine™ at the MELC is approximately the size of a basketball court. It is ten feet deep, lined with rubber, and completely filled with soil, gravel, and rock. Wastewater is released beneath the water level, which flows from the anoxic tanks, to the splitter box, then evenly through the constructed wetlands. The wetlands use microorganisms and native plants, including cattails and bulrushes, to reduce biochemical oxygen demand, remove odorous gases, continue the denitrification process, and harvest nutrients such as phosphorus. As the wastewater flows through the wetlands, the microorganisms and plants are fed. In total, a lot of digestion happens in the wetlands of the Eco Machine™ at the MELC. There is a 75 percent increase in the water’s clarity and a 90 percent reduction in the water’s odor by the time it is ready to leave the wetlands to move to step 5, the aerated lagoons. However, not all the water that enters the wetlands travels to the aerated lagoons. The plants absorb some of the water during the purification process in the constructed wetlands, and some of the water evaporates. 5 Aerated Lagoons From the constructed wetlands, the water is pumped into two highly oxygenated aerated lagoons. The aerated lagoons are divided into four cells, each ten feet deep. At this stage, the water looks and smells clean, but it’s not safe to touch. The plants, fungi, algae, snails, and other microorganisms of the aerated lagoons are busy converting ammonia into nitrates and toxins into harmless base elements. There is no soil in the aerated lagoons at the MELC, yet beautiful tropical plants thrive here. The plants live on metal racks and their roots extend up to five feet into the water. The roots of the plants act as a habitat for the organisms in the lagoon, and are sustained by them. The flowers of these tropical plants illustrate the beauty that naturally treated “wastewater” can yield. The blooms are abundant and are a source of flowers for MELC classrooms.| 14 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER Based on this system’s precedent use in the Omega Center for Sustainable Living, many lessons have been learned in regard to the aerated lagoons. One important development is getting to know the microcommunity of bugs that need to be in balance in the lagoons. For example, the discovery of how to identify and treat their overpopulation sustainably so the aerated lagoons can work optimally. 6 Recirculating Sand Filter From the aerated lagoons of the Eco Machine™, the water is sent to a recirculating sand filter. There, sand and microorganisms absorb and digest any remaining particulates and small amounts of nitrates that may still be present, and provide a final “polishing” to the water. After the water has moved through the recirculating sand filter, it meets advanced wastewater standards and is as clean as water from a kitchen faucet at home. However, due to state regulations, the water cannot be used for potable purposes. Potable water is supplied from a separate well. 7 Dispersal Fields After the water has been through the recirculating sand filter, it is pumped to either the bioswale to be dispersed back into the groundwater table, or back into the building to join the rainwater collected off the roof in the cistern for non-potable reuse. The reclaimed water in the bioswale is further purified by nature as it trickles down to the Silurian-Devonian aquifer that sits 500-1,000 feet beneath the University of Iowa campus. With this final step in the Eco Machine™ process, the Macbride Environmental Learning Center completes a closed hydrological loop in its water use. It collects rainwater off its roof and also draws water from deep wells that tap the aquifer; use the water in sinks, toilets, and showers; naturally reclaim the used water with the Eco Machine™ at MELC; and release the purified water back to the aquifer, where the process can begin again. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 15 >> Wetland Pavilion The Wetlands Pavilion is located in an ephemeral wetland. The intent is to create a pavilion that adapts to the natural site context. It is anchored by foundational columns that enables the buoyant floor to rise when water levels flood. Entered by an elevated walkway, the Wetlands Pavilion experiences visual proximity to nature with operable walls that transform into roof overhangs. 16 Inspiration Precedent Diagram Precedent MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 17 >> Grasslands Pavilion The Grasslands Pavilion is located on the northern edge of the prairie at a high elevation to allow a wide vantage point to the landscape. The intent is to integrate pavilion into the landscape. The pavilion is a low structure that is tucked into the ground. The windows match the height of the prairie grasses to focus the view on the natural environment. The path not only allows people to access the Grasslands Pavilion but also functions as a fire break when the field is burned. 18 Inspiration Precedent Diagram Inspiration MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 19 >> Outdoor Recreation Pavilion The Outdoor Recreation Pavilion is located on the edge of the triangle lawn near the vehicular road that leads to the Raptor Center. The intent is to create a pavilion that is itself a play surface. The faรงades are designed for rock wall climbing. The Outdoor Pavilion is a hub for all kinds of outdoor recreation with ample open space on the triangle lawn. Behind the pavilion in the woods to the northwest are pour-in-place rubber mounds and climbing ropes. The playground recreates an experience for children with an undulating terrain where they can run and jump on the play surfaces. Such activities fosters motor skills, eye coordination and depth perception. 20 Inspiration Precedent Diagram Current Condition MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 21 >> Woodlands Pavilion The Woodlands Pavilion is located on a high point surrounded by mature oak and hickory trees. Its proximity to the road is connected by a path that continues on a ridge line that extends to the Lake Macbride Spillway. The intent is to blend the pavilion with nature using a slatted wood double-faรงade system. Through its materials, the woodlands pavilion creates a sheltered classroom while still experiencing the natural environment. The dappled light shines through the wooden slats into the 22 interior space, giving it ample light. The east wall is removed of vertical wood framing and offers views to the east due to the steep drop-off in the land. Precedent Diagram Precedent MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 23 >> Avian Pavilion Located in the Raptor Center complex, the Avian Pavilion is an extension of the Macbride Raptor Project to teach about Iowaâ€™s native raptors. Inspired by bird blind precedents, the intent of the Avian Pavilion is to promote field research and observe birds in their natural habitat. The pavilion structure hugs the topography and adopts a simple wooden-stick frame construction, similar to the vernacular in the complex. The 1,000 square foot gathering space enables a separate quiet area for teaching, discussing and observation. It is accessible from the vehicular road and in close proximity to the bridge that connects to the Event Center. 24 Inspiration Precedent Diagram Precedent MACBRIDE MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING LEARNING CENTER CENTER IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 25 Living Building Challengeâ„˘ is a philosophy, advocacy tool, and certification program that addresses development at all scales. It is comprised of seven performance areas: Site, Water, Energy, Health, Materials, Equity, and Beauty. Envision a future that is socially just, culturally rich, and ecologically SM restorative. 26 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER PHILOSOPHY The International Living Building Institute issues a challenge to all of humanity to transform our civilization so that each adaptation and invention creates greater biodiversity, resilience and opportunities for life. TRANSFORMATIVE IMPACT ACROSS ALL SCALES OF DEVELOPMENT: FROM BUILDINGS TO SITE, NEIGHBORHOODS AND COMMUNITIES. The Living Building Challenge is attempting to raise the bar. It defines the most advanced measurements of sustainability in the built environment possible today and acts to diminish the gap between current limits and ideal solutions. This certification program covers all building at all scale and is unified tool for transformative design, allowing us to envision a future that is Socially Just, Culturally Rich and Ecologically Benign. Whether the project is a single building, a park, a college campus or even a complete neighborhood community, Living Building Challenge 2.0 provides a framework for design, construction and the symbiotic relationship between people and all aspects of the built environment. PROVEN PERFORMANCE RATHER THAN ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES The Living Building Challenge is comprised of seven performance areas, or ‘Petal’: Site, Water, Energy, Health, Materials, Equity and Beauty. Petals are subdivided into a total of twenty Imperatives, each of which focuses on a specific sphere of influence. This compilation of Imperatives can be applied to almost every conceivable Typology, or project type, be it a building (both renovation of an existing structure, or new construction), infrastructure, landscape or community development. Naturally, strategies to create Living Buildings, Sites or Communities will vary widely by occupancy, use, construction type and location – but the fundamental considerations remain the same. TYPOLOGY: BUILDING LIVING TRANSECT: L1. NATURAL HABITAT PRESERVE (GREENFIELD SITES) This is comprised of land that is set aside as a nature preserve or is defined as sensitive ecological habitat. It may not be developed except in limited circumstances related to the preservation or interpretation of the landscape as described in Imperative One: Limits to Growth *Materials taken from Living Building Challenge™ 2.0 IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 27 01 Site: Limits to Growth Projects may only be built on greyfields or brownfields—previously developed sites that are not classified as any of the following: On or adjacent to sensitive ecological habitats such as: • Wetlands: maintain at least 50 feet, and up 225 feet of separation • Primary dunes: maintain at least 394 feet of separate • Old-growth forest: maintain at least 200 feet of separation • Virgin prairie: maintain at least 100 feet of separation • Within the 100-year flood plain RESPONSE: Though the majority of the Macbride Nature Recreation Area is heavily wooded, the Macbride Environmental Learning Center is built on an already disturbed and cleared site. 02 Site: Urban Agriculture All projects must integrate opportunities for agriculture appropriate to the scale and density of the project using its Floor Area Ratio (F.A.R.) as the basis for calculation. RESPONSE: This prerequisite is not mandatory for Living Transect 1 since it is already in a natural habitat preserve. 28 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER 03 Site: Habitat Exchange For each hectare of development, an equal amount of land must be setaside in perpetuity as part of a habitat exchange. RESPONSE: This prerequisite is not applicable since the Macbride Environmental Learning Center development is less than 1% of the 485-acre land. 04 Site: Car Free Living Each new project should contribute towards the creation of walkable, pedestrian-oriented communities. Evaluate the potential for a project to enhance the ability of a community to support a car free lifestyle based on the density and the proportion of the following occupancy types within a defined catchment area surrounding the project site: a. Residential b. Commercial or institutional c. Office or light-industrial RESPONSE: Since the Macbride Recreation Nature Area is located in a rural area outside of Solon and North Liberty, Iowa, there is no current public transportation route near the facility. Therefore, vehicular traffic to the Macbride Environmental Learning Center is expected. To minimize the impact of vehicles at MNRA, the parking hub is located in one central location on an already disturbed site with a maximum of 45 stalls. A solar panel roof covers the parking hub to reduce any heat island effects emitted. A 750-foot pathway leads to the Macbride Environmental Learning Center to encourage a â€˜walkable communityâ€™. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 29 05 Water: Net Zero Water One hundred percent of occupants’ water use must come from captured precipitation or closed loop water systems that account for downstream ecosystem impacts and that are appropriately purified without the use of chemical. RESPONSE: The Macbride Learning Center utilizes cisterns to capture precipitation used for non-drinking water purposes. A water heater, provided by the geothermal heat pump heats water for internal water demands. Drinking water is drawn from a well, then purified with a chemical free system, such as Dolphin Water Care™. 06 Water: Ecological Water Flow One hundred percent of storm water and building water discharge must be managed onsite to feed the project’s internal water demands or released onto adjacent sites for management through acceptable natural time-scale surface flow, groundwater recharge, agricultural use or adjacent building needs. RESPONSE: Grey and black water is treated in the Eco Machine and constructed wetlands north of the MELC Event Center. The purified water is returned back to the soil and fosters further purification and growth in the environment. 07 Energy: Net Zero Energy One hundred percent of the project’s energy needs must be supplied by on-site renewable energy on a net annual basis. RESPONSE: The Macbride Learning Center strives to achieve a net zero energy capacity. With the current photovoltaics on the roof of the Event Center, up to 30% on-site renewable energy is expected. Photovoltaics over the covered parking hub will provide additional sources of energy. 08 Health: Civilized Environment Every occupied space must have operable windows that provide access to fresh air and daylight. RESPONSE: The MELC Event Center has operable windows in the event space, open offices, conference room and restrooms. Operable windows at the bottom of the Event Center’s south façade and at the top of the north ventilation enable cross-ventilation to occur with control of the occupant. 30 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER 09 Health: Healthy Air To promote good indoor air quality, Renovations, Buildings, and buildings completed as part of Neighborhood projects must meet the following criteria: • Entryways must have an external dirt track-in system and an internal dirt track-in system contained within a separate entry space. • All kitchens, bathrooms, copy rooms, janitorial closets and chemical storage spaces must be separately ventilated and exhaust directly to outside air. • Ventilation rates must be designed to comply with ASHRAE 62 and equipment must be installed to monitor levels of carbon dioxide (CO2)), temperature and humidity. • Smoking must be prohibited within the projected boundary. RESPONSE: In order to protect the natural habitat of the Macbride Nature Recreation Area, smoking is prohibited everywhere. The MELC Event Center has a enclosed vestibule on the north entrance that to maintain air temperatures and velocity inside the building. 10 Health: Biophilia The project must be designed to include elements that nurture the innate human attraction to natural systems and processes. Each of the six established Biophilic Design Elements must be represented for every 2,000 m2 of the project: • Environmental features • Natural shapes and forms • Natural patterns and processes • Light and space • Pace-based relationships • Evolved human-nature relationships RESPONSE: The mission of the Macbride Environmental Learning Center is to create a relationship between the occupant and nature. The objective is to awaken awareness, nurture appreciation, inspire action, and create a land ethic. The MELC Event Center features undulating natural berms that guide the curved pathway from the parking hub to the building. Immediately upon arrival the occupant is immersed in the land and encourage to explore down the path to the Event Center. The constructed wetlands not only function for waste water treatment, but also provides experiential qualities to the occupant as they pass over it on a walkway. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 31 11 Materials: Red List The project cannot contain any of the following Red List materials or chemicals: • Asbestos • Cadmium • Chlorinated Polyethylene Chlorosulfonated Polyethlene • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) • Chloroprene (Neoprene) • Formaldehyde (added) • Halogenated Flame Retardants • Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) • Lead (added) • Mercury • Petrochemical Fertilizers and Pesticides • Phthalates • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) • Wood treatments containing Creosote, Arsenic or Pentachlorophenol RESPONSE: The Macbride Environmental Learning Center is committed to providing a safe environment and avoids using paints, glues, and any finishes that does not create good air quality. 12 Materials: Embodied Carbon Footprint The project must account for the total footprint of embodied carbon (tCO2e) from its construction and projected replacement parts through a one-time carbon offset tied to the project boundary. RESPONSE: The Macbride Environmental Learning Center is sensitive to not disturbing the natural site and only building where it has been previously disturbed. 32 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER 13 Materials: Responsible Industry The project must advocate for the creation and adoption of third-party certified standards for sustainable resource extraction and fair labor practices. Applicable raw materials include stone and rock, metal, and timber. For timber, all wood must be certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), from salvaged sources, or from the international harvest of timber onsite for the purpose of clearing the area for construction. RESPONSE: The Macbride Environmental Learning Center uses reclaimed wood for all wood flooring and structural timbers in the Event Center and the Educational Pavilions. Limestone used on the north faรงade is locally quarried in Iowa. The concrete floors are recycled. These materials are not only environmentally sustainable; they also provide economic opportunities for businesses in the state of Iowa. 14 Materials: Appropriate Sourcing The project must incorporate place-based solutions and contribute to the expansion of a regional economy rooted in sustainable practices, products and services. Source locations for materials and services must adhere to the following restrictions. RESPONSE: All stone and wood materials for walls, floors, and structure are regionally sourced from the state of Iowa. The Macbride Environmental Learning Center utilizes local quarries that manufacture limestone for wall construction. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 33 15 MATERIALS: Conservation + Reuse All project teams must strive to reduce or eliminate the production of waste during design, construction, operation, and end of life in order to conserve natural resources. All project must comply with the following: Project teams must create a material conservation management plan that explains how the project optimizes materials in each of the following phases: • Design Phase, including the consideration of appropriate durability in product specification • Construction Phase, including product optimization and collection of wasted materials • Operation Phase, including a collection plan for consumables and durables • End of Life Phase, including a plan for Adaptable Reuse and Deconstruction During construction, teams must divert wasted material from landfills. Hazardous materials in demolition waste, such as lead-based paint, asbestos, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), are exempt from percentage calculations. For all Typologies, there must be a dedicated infrastructure for the collection of recyclabes and compostable food scraps. For Neighborhood projects, there must be onsite compost facilities to accommodate all food scraps. RESPONSE: The Macbride Environmental Learning Center is sensitive to reducing waste during design development, construction documents and actual construction phase. The MELC Event Center will host recycling facilities for paper products, glass, plastic, and aluminum. Food waste will be composted for a natural fertilizer to educate students about planting and gardening. 34 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER 16 EQUITY: Human Scale + Human Places The project must be designed to create human-scaled rather than automobile-scaled places, so that the experience brings out the best in humanity and promotes culture and interaction. In context of the character of each Transect, there are specific maximum (and sometimes minimum) requirements for paved areas, street and block design, building scale and signage that contribute to livable places. RESPONSE: The Macbride Environmental Learning Center is about the relationship the occupant holds with nature. The Event Center is a one-story building located on a ridge that overlooks the heavily wooded areas out to the Coralville Reservoir. Walkable pathways lead to the entrance of the building to encourage a slow approach that experiences the Eco Machine, constructed wetlands and even the bridge that carries the occupant through the woods to the Raptor Center. 17 EQUITY: Democracy + Social Justice All primary transportation, roads and non-building infrastructure that are considered externally focused must be equally accessible to all members of the public regardless of background, age and socioeconomic class including the homeless, with reasonable steps taken to ensure that all people can benefit from the projectâ€™s creation. For all projects types located in Transect L3-L6, street furniture (such as benches) must be provided and accessible to all members of society. For the Neighborhood typology, a minimum of fifteen percent of housing units must meet an affordable housing standard. Provisions must be in place for these units to remain affordable through time. Access for those with physical disabilities must be safeguarded through designs meeting the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). RESPONSE: The vehicular road and parking hub is located at the highest topographic level of the Macbride Nature Recreation Area. All paths leading to the Event Center and Education Pavilions are ADA accessible. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 35 18 EQUITY: Rights to Nature The project may not block access to, nor diminish the quality of, fresh air, sunlight and natural waterways for any member of society or adjacent developments. Fresh Air: The project must be designed to protect adjacent properties from any noxious emissions that would compromise its ability to use natural ventilation. All operational emissions must be free of Red List chemicals, persistent bioaccumulative toxicants. Sunlight: The project may not block sunlight to adjacent building faĂ§ades and rooftops such that they are shaded above the maximum height. The project may not shade the rood of a development with which it shares a part wall, unless the adjoining development was built to a lesser density than acceptable for the Transect. This corresponds to a neighboring building that is at least two stories in L4; eight stories in L5; and sixteen stories in L6. Natural Waterways: (such an ocean shoreline, rivers, lakes, wetlands, ponds, and creeks): The project may not restrict access to the edge of any natural waterway, except where such access can be proven to be a hazard to public safety or would severely compromise the function of the development. No project may assume ownership of water contained in these bodies or compromise the quality or quantity that flows downstream. If a projectâ€™s boundary is more than 197 feet long parallel to the edge of the waterway, the project must incorporate and maintain an access path to the waterway from the most convenient public right-of-way. The pathway must be at least 9 feet wide and allow entry to both pedestrians and bicyclists. RESPONSE: Located in 485-acres of land, the Macbride Environmental Learning Center has ample surface area of surrounding natural environment for fresh air intake. There are no adjacent buildings to the MELC, thus it does not detract sunlight. The building height is under 20-feet in order not to alter the vegetation surrounding it. 36 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER 19 BEAUTY: Beauty + Spirit The project must contain design features intended solely for human delight and celebration of culture, spirit and place appropriate to its function RESPONSE: The Macbride Environmental Learning Center features a designed landscape and building that responds to the surrounding site, climatic conditions, and most importantly, the experience of the occupant. The MELC is designed for people of all ages to create awareness of nature within the Macbride Nature Recreation Area, nurture appreciation of the environment, and inspire action to respect and protect nature. 20 BEAUTY: Inspiration + Education Education materials about the performance and operation of the project must be provided to the public to share successful solutions and to motivate others to make change. Non-sensitive areas of Building, Landscape + Infrastructure and Neighborhood projects must be open to the public at least one day per year to facilitate direct contact with the Living Building Challenge. RESPONSE: The Macbride Environmental Learning Center visually educates the public about sustainable living through the public display of the Eco Machine. It demonstrates a natural waste waster water treatment system. The constructed wetlands also provide educational opportunities for the system. The Macbride Nature Recreation Area already is open to the public. Naturally, the MELC is designed to welcome the public for educational visits and exploration. IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 37 >>Energy Analysis: LEED™ 2009 LEED is a third party certification program and the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings. Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council in 2000 through a consensus based process, LEED serves as a tool for buildings of all types and sizes. Designed with LEED™ and The Living Building Challenge™ in mind, the Macbride Environmental Learning Center is expected to `reach platinum certification. LEED 2009 for New Construction and Major Renovations Project Checklist Sustainable Sites 19 Y Y 1 5 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 Y 4 2 4 38 ? Possible Points: 26 N Ma Y Prereq 1 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 4.3 Credit 4.4 Credit 5.1 Credit 5.2 Credit 6.1 Credit 6.2 Credit 7.1 Credit 7.2 Credit 8 Construction Activity Pollution Prevention Site Selection Development Density and Community Connectivity Brownfield Redevelopment Alternative Transportation—Public Transportation Access Alternative Transportation—Bicycle Storage and Changing Rooms Alternative Transportation—Low-Emitting and Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Alternative Transportation—Parking Capacity Site Development—Protect or Restore Habitat Site Development—Maximize Open Space Stormwater Design—Quantity Control Stormwater Design—Quality Control Heat Island Effect—Non-roof Heat Island Effect—Roof Light Pollution Reduction Water Efficiency Prereq 1 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Water Use Reduction—20% Reduction Water Efficient Landscaping Innovative Wastewater Technologies Water Use Reduction 27 Energy and Atmosphere Y Y Y 19 4 1 1 1 1 Prereq 1 Prereq 2 Prereq 3 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3 Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Materials and Resources Y 1 1 2 Prereq 1 Credit 1.2 Credit 2 Credit 3 10 2 to 4 2 2 to 4 Possible Points: Fundamental Commissioning of Building Energy Systems Minimum Energy Performance Fundamental Refrigerant Management Optimize Energy Performance On-Site Renewable Energy Enhanced Commissioning Enhanced Refrigerant Management Measurement and Verification Green Power 9 Credit 1.1 Possible Points: 1 5 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Possible Points: Storage and Collection of Recyclables Building Reuse—Maintain Existing Walls, Floors, and Roof Building Reuse—Maintain 50% of Interior Non-Structural Elements Construction Waste Management Materials Reuse 35 1 to 19 1 to 7 2 2 3 2 14 1 to 3 1 1 to 2 1 to 2 ? N 2 2 1 Cred 15 Ind Cred Cred Cred Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Prer 6 Inn 1 1 1 1 1 1 Cred 4 Re 1 1 1 1 Cred 90 To MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER Prer Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred Cred vations ints: s ints: ints: ints: MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER Project Name APRIL 2012 Date 26 Materials and Resources, Continued Y 2 2 1 1 5 1 6 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 15 10 2 to 4 2 2 to 4 35 1 to 19 1 to 7 2 2 3 2 14 1 to 3 1 1 to 2 1 to 2 ? N Credit 4 Credit 5 Credit 6 Credit 7 Recycled Content Regional Materials Rapidly Renewable Materials Certified Wood 1 to 2 1 to 2 1 1 Indoor Environmental Quality Y Y 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Prereq 1 6 Innovation and Design Process 1 1 1 1 1 1 Credit 1.1 4 Regional Priority Credits 1 1 1 1 Credit 1.1 90 Total Prereq 2 Credit 1 Credit 2 Credit 3.1 Credit 3.2 Credit 4.1 Credit 4.2 Credit 4.3 Credit 4.4 Credit 5 Credit 6.1 Credit 6.2 Credit 7.1 Credit 7.2 Credit 8.1 Credit 8.2 Credit 1.2 Credit 1.3 Credit 1.4 Credit 1.5 Credit 2 Credit 1.2 Credit 1.3 Credit 1.4 Minimum Indoor Air Quality Performance Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) Control Outdoor Air Delivery Monitoring Increased Ventilation Construction IAQ Management Plan—During Construction Construction IAQ Management Plan—Before Occupancy Low-Emitting Materials—Adhesives and Sealants Low-Emitting Materials—Paints and Coatings Low-Emitting Materials—Flooring Systems Low-Emitting Materials—Composite Wood and Agrifiber Products Indoor Chemical and Pollutant Source Control Controllability of Systems—Lighting Controllability of Systems—Thermal Comfort Thermal Comfort—Design Thermal Comfort—Verification Daylight and Views—Daylight Daylight and Views—Views Possible Points: Innovation in Design: Specific Title Innovation in Design: Specific Title Innovation in Design: Specific Title Innovation in Design: Specific Title Innovation in Design: Specific Title LEED Accredited Professional Regional Regional Regional Regional Priority: Priority: Priority: Priority: Certified 40 to 49 points IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY Possible Points: Specific Specific Specific Specific 15 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 1 1 Possible Points: 4 1 1 1 1 Credit Credit Credit Credit Possible Points: 110 Silver 50 to 59 points Gold 60 to 79 points Platinum 80 to 110 39 >>Energy Performance Rating BUILDING ENVELOPE OPTION 1: Code Minimum Building Shell Mass wall construction is a basic brick, insulation, and concrete envelope with a total R-Value to just meet the energy code minimum requirements: R Value: 11.1 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.09 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Framed wall construction is a basic brick veneer, insulation, wood framing, and gypsum board envelope with a total R-Value to just meet the energy code minimum requirements: R Value: 15.63 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.064 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Fenestrations – Code minimum glazing with metal frame: U Factor: 0.45 Btu/hr-ft2-°F SC: 0.456 Roof construction is basic steel decking with a rigid insulation to just meet the energy code minimum requirements: R Value: 20.8 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.048 Btu/hr-ft2-°F BUILDING ENVELOPE OPTION 2: Improved Walls, Roofs, and Windows Wall construction has been improved to exceed code minimum requirements. For mass walls, this has been done by adding more insulation and of a better quality between the brick and concrete on exterior walls. R Value: 13 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.0766 Btu/hr-ft2-°F For framed walls, this has been done by adding more continuous insulation between the brick and framing on exterior walls. R Value: 22.2 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.045 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Fenestrations have been improved to exceed code minimum values. Window type would be similar to a double glazed low emissivity window with argon. U Factor: 0.39 Btu/hr-ft2-°F SC: 0.30 Roof insulation has been improved to exceed code minimum requirements by adding more rigid insulation. R Value: 25 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.04 Btu/hr-ft2-°F 40 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER BUILDING ENVELOPE OPTION 3: Improved Glazing Since the building has a large amount of south facing glass, only the glazing properties are improved. Mass walls are the same as option 2. R Value: 13 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.0766 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Framed walls are the same as option 2. R Value: 22.2 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.045 Btu/hr-ft2-°F Fenestrations have been improved to exceed code minimum values. A triple glazed, coated window would be comparable. U Factor: 0.22 Btu/hr-ft2-°F SC: 0.23 Roof values are the same as option 2. R Value: 25 hr-ft2-° F/Btu U Factor: 0.04 Btu/hr-ft2-°F HVAC OPTION 1: Single Zone Packaged Heat Pump As required by ASHRAE Standard 90.1 Appendix G, the baseline building system is a single zone packaged heat pump. Electric resistance heat is included for times when the ambient conditions do not allow the heat pump to operate. The efficiency is required to be code minimum. Heat Pump Efficiency: 10.8 EER/3.3 COP HVAC OPTION 2: Code Minimum Ground Source Heat Pump This option is composed of a code minimum GSHP with heat rejection into a Geothermal loop. Heat Pump Efficiency: 13.4 EER/3.1 COP HVAC OPTION 3: HE Ground Source Heat Pump with Energy Recovery Trane’s high efficiency heat pump was used in for this option. Also included is a total enthalpy wheel for energy recovery. Heat Pump Efficiency: 18.2 EER/3.8 COP ENERGY RATES The site for this building resides in the Linn County Rural Electric Coop district. It is classified as a small commercial building with less than 75 Kw of demand, and the evaluated heating equipment qualifies for a separate meter using the Heat Plus rate. The following rates were used in developing the model: Small Commercial Rate (<75KW) First 500KWH $0.1309/kwh Over 500 KWh $0.0955/kwh Heat Plus Applies October-May for $0.0458 /kwh Heating Equipment Only IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 41 42 MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY 43 BOOK DESIGN Mariela Bayer FIRST PUBLISH DATE April 20, 2012 IMAGERY Plans, Sections, Perspectives & Diagrams: Alex Korby | Greg Leichty | Earl Shrader | Mariela Bayer PROJECT TEAM Architect Alex Korby | Mariela Bayer | Earl Shrader All other images courtesy of: flickr.com | NRJA | Olson Kundig Architects | Gianni Botsford Architects | Miami University | Macbride Nature Recreation Area | International Living Building Challenge Institute Landscape Architect Gregory Leichty Construction Engineer Matthew Roth MACBRIDE ENVIRONMENTAL LEARNING CENTER