Adaptive Skins Parametric Design Workshop Report
The five-day workshop program (between 28th Jan-1st Feb 2014) has been designed for participants with no previous experience in Grasshopper or parametric design techniques. Organised by d-NAT and Co-de-iT.
AD APTIVESKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP REPORT ORGANIZED BY 2 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 3 CONTENTS 5 7 11 13 INTRODUCTION PROGRAM AND OVERVIEW METHODOLOGY PARAMETRIC THINKING AND DESIGN TOOLS 15 EXPLORATION OF TOOLS BY GROUPS / PARTICIPANTS __ GROUP FHA __ GROUP TKK __ GROUP RAR __ GROUP SMRA __ GROUP KKS __ GROUP BLA 4 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 5 INTRODUCTION Patterns were used to cover architectural surfaces since ancient times. They have been deployed as decorative elements to accentuate certain features and to communicate meaning and style. Over the last two decades, the digital revolution instigated new design process through which new typologies of architectural skins and patterns have emerged. Patterns started to acquire a new role in the architectural form, moving beyond their historical symbolic decorative role into spatial devices; correlating with form structural and environmental properties. Adaptive Skins workshop aims to explore possibilities of the new design process in developing new formations of building skins based on selected data-sets. It will also explore the paradigm shift of the function of patterns from being decorative additive elements, into performative integral elements with technical responsibilities for daylight modulation, temperature control, and space enclosure. Dubai Marina, UAE, 2014 6 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 7 PROGRAM & OVERVIEW The five-day workshop program has been designed for participants with no previous experience in Grasshopper or parametric design techniques. The program introduced them to both the theoretical and technical knowledge required to explore possibilities of the new design medium. Program has been structured to teach participants not only the use of grasshopper as a generative tool, but also how to integrate it within a real design exercise. On the technical level, participants learned how to compose, edit, and generate algorithmic definitions using Grasshopper. On the design implementation level, they have been supervised and assisted to prepare the logic and structure of their own definitions, with grasshopper and with other plug-ins, and to develop them to reflect their particular design intent. The first three days of the workshop were spent learning the fundamentals of working with grasshopper and establishing logic of definitions, build and manage parametric data structures, and develop data driven responsive geometries and envelops. In the fourth day, participants have been given a selected site in Dubai, and were asked to propose an adaptive vertical structure. The geometry of the tower and the skin were iteratively generated as a response to mapping the environmental forces on the skin. The final outcomes reflect the continuous negotiations between form and patternâ€™s performance and the participantâ€™s aesthetic sensibility. 8 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 9 Software Platform Rhino software was used as the main platform, whilst Grasshopper as the Generative design medium, along with few other plug-ins mainly Lady Bug (environmental analysis), Weaverbird (mesh editing, subdivision, mesh transformations), and Lunchbox (exploring mathematical shapes, surface subdivision, paneling system). The workshop technical tutorials include: __ Software interface __ Components __ Lists & Data Tree: management, manipulation, visualization __ Geometry generation from data stream __ Base exercises (Attractor field, Surface subdivision, Morphing) __ Advanced exercise: Data reactive component â€“ data reactive tessellation on NURBS surface. Data coming from environmental analysis or a spreadsheet table. __ Advanced exercise: Analysis of specific site environmental data to develop a data-set and to use it to generate an architectural envelop with responsive features. 10 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 11 METHODOLOGY The workshop introduced the participants to parametric design techniques as a new medium for architectural design. After covering few exercises on the logic and the principles of this design medium, participants applied the learned techniques in a design exercise of a vertical structure in a selected site in Dubai. Students analyzed the forces affecting that site, developed data-sets for the force field, and mapped these data on the building form to generate a synthesis of form, pattern, and skin. Throughout the use of visual scripting with Grasshopper (Generative modeling plug-in for Rhinoceros), participants learned how to build and manage parametric data structures (from basic simple lists to complex data trees) and to develop data driven responsive geometries and envelops. Geometry and building skins evolved in response to contextspecific data that were derived from a manifold of information such as environmental analysis, orientation, views, and others. In addition to the technical part, the workshop also included three lectures on the subject of “inFORMation” by Andrea Graziano, “Performative Skins” by Zayad Motlib and Raya Ani and the special guest Muhammed Shameel. 12 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 13 PARAMETRIC THINKING & DESIGN TOOLS The recent development of sophisticated computational design tools has instigated new ways of integrating computation in the design process; both within architecture and engineering disciplines. The new set of digital tools has infiltrated a bottom up system to open the design space towards a high level of complexity. The integration of these tools allowed the architect to generate and control complex information derived from a manifold of sources. Consequently, a more complex architectural order emerged as a reflection of sophisticated adaptive structures. Contrary to traditional architectural design where digital tools have been used for presentation and documentation, the emerging parametric design methods allow architect to integrate computation in the design process to establish connections and dependencies between the elements. Designerâ€™s attention has thus been shifted from developing a pre-conceived idea of a form and directed towards the form-generating rules and the dependencies between the parts. These rules are selected by the designer to reflect certain design intent. They might reflect environmental analysis (Sun exposure and shade, wind, views, etc), structural behaviour, material behaviour, energy consumption and so on. This feed-back loop process between the data and the behaviour of the system allows architects to manage substantial complexity related to the relationship between geometry and the desired performance. Parametric design process is initiated by defining a set of parameters (variables), a number of basic rules, and a sequence of operations for their interaction. The interaction between the variables of the design components produces a series of results. The designer takes the role of the author of the process where he/she may modify the rules, the parameters, and the operational sequence in order to generate different design outcomes. In this approach, the traditional linear process of developing a certain form has been replaced by the exploration of different outcomes. One might argue that the new process is of a generative nature as these operations generate different iterations to reflect specific design intent as set by the designer. 14 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 15 EXPLORATION OF TOOLS BY GROUPS / PARTICIPANTS DESIGN EXERCISE In the fourth day of the workshop, participants were given a selected site in Dubai and asked to propose an adaptive vertical structure. The design process has been divided into two stages. The first stage focused on the development of algorithmic principles and techniques to generate different iterations of the form. The second stage is where contextual forces have been generated, analyzed, and mapped onto the forms. Different iterations were explored to create possible outcomes of the tower and the skin. This explorative feed-back process breaks away from the traditional linear design methodology and arrives at a more bottom-up oriented approach to generate possible forms and spatial patterns. Participants were divided into five groups. Each group developed a different concept to generate distinct options of the tower, and the skin behaviour in response to their design intent. After constructing the tower with Grasshopper, Lady Bug was used for sun analysis, and for illustrating the heat map on the skin by assigning different colour coding for the over-exposed and under-exposed regions of the skin. These data were later used as parameters to operate a range of behaviours of the skin components as assigned by the user. These behaviours translated into a system of differentiation and correlation within the selected parametric skin patterns. Participants explored natural systems as a reference for their skin patterns behaviour, and investigated their potential in relation to architectural design. Their design exercise was directed towards the mechanism that generates these patterns rather than the merging patterns themselves. Instead of mimicking patterns found in nature, the developed system generates new types of geometric organization capable of expressing the design intent as set by each group. The parametric design exercise aimed to explore context-specific forms and patterns based on a feedback loop and negotiations between the relevant forces and the participantâ€™s aesthetic sensibility. The two-day design exercise examined possibilities of the new tools in generating different design outcomes, and suggested a close collaboration between architects, engineers, as well as fabricators as an important condition for the design of high-performance built environment. THE PARAMETRIC PATTERNS Spatial parametric patterns depart from the traditional notion of a pattern for being repetitive decorative elements applied to a certain surface. The new patterns were driven by an underlying mathematical logic described by a set of rules and a selected dataset. This logic allows information to create a coherent system of behaviour that get translated into differentiated components in response to certain parameters and a set of rules. 16 GROUP FHA GROUP MEMBERS 1 Farah Al Amin 2 Haitham Issam 3 Asif Arif ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 17 CONCEPT NARRATIVE BEST VIEW LEAST EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION Located on the shoreline of Dubai, view was the first design parameter, the second being optimum orientation to improve performance, creating the best envelope to reduce direct solar .exposure In order to satisfy both equally important design parameters, the profiles of the mass were rotated incrementally to twist and turn, providing access to views, and creating self shaded surfaces on the .south facade DESIGN PARAMETERS Longitudinal Mass Ellipse minimizes east-west exposure Split and shift to create an elongated form Change of orientation to respond to view Twisted, Selfshaded form SELF-SHADED 18 PROCESS Initially, slab profiles were created and later lofted to form the base for the subsequent skin. The latter was panelized to create divisions that will incorporate the module for the .adaptive skin SOLAR & RADIATION ANAL YSIS Solar radiation analysis was carried out revealing the parts most exposed to direct sunlight, which in return becomes a .parameter to control the opening of the module The porosity of the resulting skin was determined by the climatic conditions of the site, resulting in large openings on the north facade achieving best view possible, and self shaded south facade with openings responsive to the level of exposure ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 19 20 GROUP TKK GROUP MEMBERS 1 Marta Krivosik [Krivosheek] 2 Hisham Kaakani 3 Nizar Taha ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 21 CONCEPT NARRATIVE Input Datas & Output Objectives: - Site location - Tower with responsive skin - Solar & Radiation Analysis Approach Tower`s, Void`s and Component panel`s geometry were developed through Rhino-Grasshopper explorations. During the process, we experimented a lot with different program components and its connections. We experienced plenty of trial-error moments, which helped us understand further how the program works and dive into its potential of creating and researching new concept approaches in design. SITE CONTEXT sea beach site nature VOID TO SKIN urban North access road main road INITIAL SKETCHES Sketches of the component panel and its intended position on the skin of the tower. GEOMETRY EXPLORATIONS TOWER STUDIES Tower`s geometry was explored by various approaches. Options i, ii, iii - by defining the floor plate geometry and lofting between them; iv, v - by defined curves and curves drawn around them; vi - by defined curves and metaball component. No. vii represents the final approach. PROCESS TOWER - FINAL SHAPE definition i ii iii iv v vi vii Rhino curves contours along curves & surface contours of final surface slabs 22 VOID void 1 + void 2 scaling intersection one surface COMPONENT PANEL Component is created by control over 3 parameters - a. overall radius to the surface normal, b. scaled radius at the edge of panel points, c. scaled radius at middle of the panel flat surface flat surface [panel] scaling radius in 2 positions patterns a_0.0 c external skin a b a_+8.0 a_-5.0 definition a b c SOLAR & RADIATION ANAL YSIS Solar and radiation analysis produced via ladybug on final tower surface. Analyzed Times 8.00 am | Noon | 4.00 pm Equinox 21st Sep/March Summer 21st June Winter 21st Dec ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 23 REALIZATION slabs with voids panelized surface skin option 1 skin option 2 void option 1 void option 2 24 GROUP RAR GROUP MEMBERS 1 Alya Al-Hashim 2 Ruaa Aljanabi 3 Rahma Muhi ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 25 CONCEPT NARRATIVE INITIAL SKETCHES The aim of this project was to design a tower with an interactive facade, so for our concept we Sha d e wanted to have a facade that would Exp o se d act as a breathing skin for the building. A skin that would have a fluid movement effected by sunâ€™s position. The tower had andorganic Sha e Exp o se d shape and the skin covered the .tower as protection layer act as a breathing skin with outdoor environment Ac t a s b Are ct a a thing sb re skin a thing skin Sha d Sha e d e interact Exp ora se d Inte ra ct Inte with o cot utd with r utd o Exp se d o oo Inte ra c t with o utd o o r e nviro nm e nt e nviro nm e nviro e nt nm e nt Sha d e Sha d e Exp o se d Exp o se d M o ve m e nt with o utd o o r ro nm e nt t as b re a thing skin Inte ra c A c t a s b reA ac thing skin ra c with t with utd o r o utd o o r M oInte veom eto nt aA sc btre skin skin e nviro nm e Inte ra c te with utd o o r nt o o r nviro e nt aa s thing b re a thing Inte ra cnm to with o utd movement e nviro e nt e nm nviro nm e nt M o ve m e nt M o ve m e nt BUILDING SHAPE CONSTRUCTION M o ve m ntm e nt M oe ve contour + extrude slabs PROCESS define cross sections lofted surface De fine DeDe fine C ro ss C ro Se c tio Se c tio fine Css ro ss ns Se c ns tio ns Lo d Surfa c ec e Lo fte dfte Surfa ce Lo fte d Surfa C oC nto ur + ebSla bsbs C o nto ur Extrud Sla s o+ nto urExtrud +e Extrud e Sla 26 COMPONENT PANEL define grid diagonals define control points draw curves create funnels definitionDe fine G rid Dra w Dia g o na ls De fine c o ntro l p o ints Dra w C urve s C re a te Funne ls a b c a movable curves b grid c joints SOLAR & RADIATION ANAL YSIS Analyzed Times 8.00 am | Noon | 4.00 pm exposed shaded Winter 21st Dec Equinox 21st Sep/March Summer 21st June Radiation Analysis ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 27 REALIZATION Skin C o m p o ne nts 28 GROUP SMRA GROUP MEMBERS 1 Amna Omran Alowais 2 Reem Obaid Hantoush 3 Shahad Ghafoory 4 Maitha Khalifa ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 29 CONCEPT NARRATIVE The concept emerged from a mere water droplet and how each drop resonates as it touches the surface. This effect creates a subtle ripple of capillary waves that expands incrementally. Thus forming an astonishing phenomena that can be directly related to sociology; it can be noticed how the initial interaction of the droplet can affect the social interactions indirectly. After several explorations, the idea evolved into a drop of water splashing aggressively. This effect causes a sudden disturbance to a restless surface. Remarkably, the water droplet posed a very intriguing behavior in its .discovery Droplet Ripples Splash 30 PROCESS SOLAR & RADIATION ANAL YSIS ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 31 32 GROUP KSK GROUP MEMBERS 1 Dipesh Kotwani 2 Taufeeque Abdul Subhan 3 Hafez Koohestani ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 33 CONCEPT NARRATIVE The aim of this project was to construct a tower with a skin which was a result of the unit based parametric design procedure. We adopted a strategy of creating a unit that would move in respect to the normal of the surface at a given point with a slight rotation depending on the amount of sunlight exposed on the surface, .similar to the lens of a camera PROCESS INITIAL ITERATIONS FINAL UNIT unit definition 34 STEPS TAKEN TO REACH THE FINAL DESIGN overal definition SOLAR & RADIATION ANAL YSIS ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 35 REALIZATION 36 GROUP BLA GROUP MEMBERS 1 Ban Ameen 2 Lazya Serdar 3 Asmaa Abu Assaf ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 37 NARRATIVE Using Grasshopper we started exploring possible ways to create a form that could interact with weather conditions. Our Twisting Tower responds to heat conditions by closing and opening certain parts of its skin. The twisting effect allows for some of the parts to maintain the size of its opening due to the fact that it experiences constant shade. definition PROCESS 38 Process 01 Process 02 Process 03 Process 04 Process 05 Process 06 Process 07 Process 09 Thermal Study 01 Thermal Study 02 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 39 REALIZATION 40 ADAPTIVE SKINS A PARAMETRIC DESIGN WORKSHOP 41 THANK YOU! CREDITS Tutors Zayad Motlib & Raya Ani - d-NAT Andrea Graziano - Co-de-iT member & co-founder Collaborators - special guest Muhammed Shameel Report prepared in collaboration with Zayad Motlib, Andrea Graziano & Marta Krivosheek Edited by Zayad Motlib Graphics by Marta Krivosheek Participants Toufeeque Abdul Subhan Mohd Khalid Nizar Taha Hisham Kaakani Dipesh Kotwani Eng Abdalla Matar Asif Agha Haitham Issam Farah Al-ameen Hafez Koohestani Alya Abdul Sattar Al-Hashim Marta Krivosik [Krivosheek] Ruaa Janabi Rahma Muhi Asma Abu Assaf Lazia Serdar Othman Shahad Ghafoori Amna al Owais Maitha Almzrooi Reem Hantoosh Ban Ameen LINKS Co-de-iT www.co-de-it.com https://facebook.com/pages/Co-de-iT/260447195929 https://twitter.com/co_de_it https://plus.google.com/u/0/+Co-de-it/posts https://flickr.com/photos/co-de-it d-NAT www.d-nat.net https://facebook.com/dubai.nat https://twitter.com/dubainat http://instagram.com/dubainat http://pinterest.com/dubainat http://dubai-nat.tumblr.com