The power to harvest solar energy
Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the fastest growing source of energy in the world. With decades of experience, DNV provides a comprehensive range of engineering, design, and risk management services to the global PV industry.
DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy solar energy Solar PV the power to harvest solar energy 02 I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I solar energy I GLOBAL SERVICES TO THE SOLAR pHOTOVOLTAICS InduSTRy Independent engineering for financial institutions Owner's engineering for project developers Technology assessments for component manufacturers Turn-key design services for project developers Regulatory standards compliance consulting Solar resource assessments Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the fastest growing source of energy in the world; the industry has experienced an average annual growth rate of 30% for the past 20 years and a remarkable 80% since 2006. Building on humble origins providing power in the remote corners of the world, solar PV has evolved to become a significant source of renewable distributed generation, being found on rooftops and open fields throughout Europe, North America and Asia. As the scale of solar PV deployments has grown, so has the complexity of both the technology and the financial programs required to execute these large projects. DNV provides independent engineering services in support of the global solar PV industry. Working with equipment manufacturers, project developers and financial institutions, we manage risk throughout the value chain, helping to ensure the safety and performance of systems from commercial rooftops to multi-megawatt power plants. the power to secure electricity supply I solar energy I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I 03 COnTEnTS 04 06 Enhancing the safety and performance of solar PV systems Owner's engineering Independent engineering The DNV menu of services 10 11 12 Solar PV design services Technology assessments References Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e 04 I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I solar energy I enhancing the safety and perfor DNV provides independent engineering services to the solar PV industry. Our team includes individuals with expertise in PV system design, PV module manufacturing, inverter performance and structural elements such as rooftop mounting systems and trackers. This brochure highlights the DNV portfolio of services and how we work with customers to enhance the safety, reliability and performance of solar PV systems. DNV provides engineering services to all the stakeholders across the spectrum of the renewable energy industry. Project developers come to us when their internal resources cannot meet the demands of their project pipeline. We provide a range of services from energy estimates to turn-key design packages. Our relationships with many of the premier developers in North America give DNV the opportunity to set the very highest standards of engineering excellence in today's PV systems. Financial institutions engage DNV to perform due diligence on large solar PV projects; many banks, insurance companies and private equity firms rely on DNV to protect their investments. Starting with desktop design reviews and finishing with on-site performance verification tests, DNV helps insure that projects meet their financial goals. Component manufacturers turn to DNV to perform technical due diligence on new products launching into the North American market. Armed with a DNV technology review, a company can help build its case for acceptance into the North American market. dnV'S SOLAR pV SERVICES Owner's engineering DNV works with project owners to ensure a high level of engineering excellence starting with site feasibility studies and progressing through all project phases culminating in final acceptance testing and performance verification. Our team brings a multi-disciplinary approach to each project, providing a broad and deep perspective on design, contract review, pro forma review, construction monitoring and final testing. Independent engineering A few short years ago a 1 megawatt (MW) solar project was considered quite large. Today DNV is engaged on a number of projects in the hundreds of MW's. With the investment in a single large project approaching $1 billion there is increasing need for financial due diligence. DNV provides financial institutions a full-service approach to due diligence. We work closely with project developers and EPC contractors to ensure that every phase of a project is completed safely and with performance in mind. Starting with the initial solar resource assessment and energy estimate, DNV's experience brings valuable insight into areas such as contract review, operations and maintenance, design review and performance analysis. I solar energy I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I 05 mance of solar pv systems PV system design DNV's design team provides turn-key systems design services to project developers. From initial concept through to full systems designs, the DNV team brings a deep knowledge of PV technology to the task. We work with crystalline silicon and thin-film PV modules, fixed-tilt mounting, trackers and various inverter options to produce the optimized design for any site. Technology review The solar PV industry continues to attract a wide range of new companies and technologies. Each of these new entrants faces the daunting requirement to become "bankable", in other words acceptable to financial institutions. DNV has developed a structured process by which we provide evidence that the product will function within the specified limits with an acceptable degree of confidence. DNV has worked with PV modules, concentrating PV systems, trackers, inverters and module-level electronics, providing technology reviews that contribute to the overall "bankability" of a product. Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e BRaD EcclES, DNV/BEW San Ramon 06 I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I solar energy I owner's engineering independent engineering the dnv menu of services DNV offers a range of services to both project owners/developers and financial institutions. For each project the client can select from the following menu of services to tailor a program that meets their needs. TASk/dESCRIpTIOn Site evaluation Evaluate site for suitability/feasibility of proposed installation; potential impact of the following on system construction and operation: �Solarresource �Topography/shading �Site/soilcondition �Security �Environmentalfactors �Military,otherconsiderations Design & equipment review Review design for code compliance and conformance to customary solar engineering practice. Evaluate key components: �Modules �Inverters �Trackerdesign �Balanceofsystem �Systemintegration Design drawings, project schedule, product specs and warranty sheets. Interviews w/ engineers and designers Performance data, designer assumptions, Performance Guarantee Site visit, availability of site host personnel CLIEnT InpuT TASk/dESCRIpTIOn construction support review Review and investigate construction activity, identifypotentialhurdles&recommend solutions: �On-siteconstructionmonitoring �Supply&servicecontractterms&conditions �Keysubcontractors �Installationschedule �Performanceguaranteereview O&m review Review and investigate operations and maintenance(O&M),identifypotentialhurdles and recommend solutions: �O&Mcostestimate �O&Mcontractterms&conditions �O&Mmanual �Keysubcontractors Overall risk assessment Summarize project risk in terms of potential impact on: �Constructionschedule �Systemperformance �Longtermreliability �Performanceguaranteereview Site inspection Visit site to: �Verifyas-builtinstallation �Evaluateworkmanship �Verifypermitcompliance �Verifyscheduleconformance �Performorwitnesssub-systemtesting �Developpunchlistandcheckstatusas necessary Necessary construction drawings and project schedule Schedules and contracts O&Mcontract and manual Supply& service contracts, project schedule, key subs list CLIEnT InpuT Performance estimate Estimate system performance: �Site-specificsolarresource �Systempowerratings (dc/ac, STC/PTC, etc.) �1st-yearenergyproduction �Lifetimeenergyproduction,including degradation Permit status review Identify key permit and schedule milestones. Evaluate on-going status of permits including: �Buildingpermits,easements,grading,dust, etc. �Incentivereservations&proofofprogress �Utilityinterconnection/netmetering/FERC/ISO �Environmentalpermits Permit submittals and approvals I solar energy I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I 07 TASk/dESCRIpTIOn System test Witness or review performance data set to: �Verifyminimumperiodofcontinuedoperation �Assessactualvs.predictedoutput �Othercontractualmeasureofacceptable performance Performance evaluation Complete or spot evaluation of array, tracker, inverter through the use of: �Spotvoltageandcurrentmeasurements �IVcurves �As-installedarrayandsystemratings �Independentperformancemonitoring Final completion Verify the completion accuracy of all items to be declared listed on the Final Completion Notice, such as: �Systemreadyforfull,unattendedcommercial operation �SystempassedinspectionswithAHJ �Utilityinterconnectioninstallationevaulation complete �Systemtestspassedsuccessfully PV system monitoring Training �Utilities,installers,electricians �PVbasics,advancedPVsystems,simulationtools Testing �Systemsandmodules Tool development �Shading �Variabilityanalysis �O&Mmodel �EPCcontractorevaluationtool Industry presentations CLIEnT InpuT System fully operational and access to performance data where applicable System fully operational �Whitepaperauthorsandconferencesessionchairs �PVbooksystemschapterauthors Research �Snowandsoilinglosstestfacility Product development and prototyping Standards activities Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e �IEC,IEEE,UL,CaliforniaEnergyCommission Ray HuDSON, DNV/BEW San Ramon PV POwER PlaNT, Denver International Airport, Colorado Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e Notice of Interim Completion prior to visit, Notice of Final Completion issued by the installer 8 I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I solar energy I I solar energy I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I 9 BEw ENGINEERING aND DNV BEW Engineering was founded in 2004 to provide engineering services to the renewable energy industry. The company wasacquiredbyDNVinOctober2010. The company focuses on three specific areas: consulting services for the solar PV industry, wind industry consulting, and transmission and distribution interconnection support. The former BEW Engineering headquarters in San Ramon, California is now the solar energy knowledge center of DNV. The client base served includes wind turbine manufacturers, solar PV equipment manufacturers, utility companies, project developers and financial institutions. Since its founding, BEW has provided engineering support services for hundreds of PV power plants. By combining the market position and capabilities of both DNV and BEW, our services will be greatly expanded and very useful in helping DNV serve the industry in the cleaner energy markets. Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e SOlaR POwER PlaNT at Denver International Airport, Colorado 10I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I solar energy I solar pv design services Established as a separate team with its own office in San Francisco, the DNV PV Design Group provides turn-key PV power plant designs to project developers throughout North America. Working with the DNV transmission and distribution group, the PV Design Group can take a project from a site feasibility and transmission assessment through to a finished construction-ready drawing set. pV pOwER pLAnT dESIGn Many project developers find that working with the DNV PV Design Group results in the fastest, most cost-effective and, importantly, "bankable" approach to PV power plant design. DNV works very closely with our clients to ensure that each design takes advantage of the natural conditions on the ground or on the roof, that the components are the right match to the site and that the layout maximizes the individual performance of each component in the system. Our team brings to each project extensive experience with crystalline and thin-film modules, fixed-mount racking, various trackers and inverters from around the world. all 50 states and in all the provinces of Canada. Underpinning the financial success of any PV project is a wellconceived design. DNV's PV Design Group provides complete packages, including electrical, structural and mechanical drawings. pERfORmAnCE, RELIABILITy, SAfETy By focusing in these three areas the PV Design Group helps project developers manage risk. Every design is carefully modeled to result in the best balance of land utilization, energy production and capital expense. Strict adherence to appropriate electrical codes stands behind every DNV design - safety is our number one priority. Our work performing due diligence on projects drives the DNV approach to reliability. Every element of each design is intended to contribute to the specified design life of the project. A PV system that reliably and safely performs up to expectations for the life of the project is the goal of every project developer. DNV's PV Design Group works systematically to ensure that every project performs as expected, with high reliability, and conforms to the very highest standards of safety. pOwER pLAnT OpTImIzATIOn Optimizing the financial performance of a PV power plant requires the bringing together and fine-tuning of several disparate elements. These include the solar resource available at the site, terms of the power purchase agreement, performance characteristics of the potential components, operations and maintenance considerations, and, of course, the capital expense required. Through years of experience, the DNV PV Design Group has developed models that streamline the optimization process. TuRn-kEy dRAwInG pACkAGES Working with partner firms, the DNV PV Design Group can produce turn-key, construction-ready drawings stamped by a professional engineer in THE aTHENIaN ScHOOl gets 60% of its energy needs from this A-shaped solar power installation. The school is located in Danville, Northern California at the base of Mount Diablo which can be seen top right in this picture. I solar energy I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I11 technology assessments HELpInG mAnufACTuRERS TO ACHIEVE "BAnkABILITy" Innovation drives the dramatic growth of the solar PV industry, as new products continue to flood into the market. PV modules based on new thin-films, inverters with novel approaches to maximum power point tracking or grid stability features, single and dual-axis trackers and a host of new module-level electronics are just a few examples of new products and concepts. With new products comes the promise of lower costs, higher performance or both. Of course, with new products also comes some uncertainty and risk. A formal technology review by DNV helps to manage this risk, by performing a thorough review of a new product and the company behind it. Company strength and stability THE TECHnOLOGy REVIEw pROCESS A DNV technology review will explore the following areas: Product evaluation Performance evaluation Reliability evaluation Manufacturing capability and maturity Installation and O&M evaluation Quality evaluation Standards compliance evaluation cOllEEN O'BRIEN, DNV/BEW San Ramon Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e 12I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I solar energy I references nELLIS AIR fORCE BASE 14mw SOLAR pV pROjECT nEVAdA, uSA clIENT: mma RENEwaBlE VENTuRES CHALLEnGE In 2007 this was the largest PV project in the uSA � the scale of which required intensive independent engineering review. Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e clIENT: EuRuS ENERGy CHALLEnGE Eurus Energy needed an owner's engineer to represent their interests in this large PV project. dnV'S AppROACH Working with Eurus and the EPC contractor, DNV provided preliminary layout and design drawings and monitored the construction of the project dnV'S AppROACH DNV performed a site feasibility study, energy estimate, design review, site inspections and final performance verification. VALuE TO THE CLIEnT Eurus Energy developed, owns and will operate the PV plant. DNV performed due diligence to ensure that the EPC contractor constructed the system as designed. VALuE TO THE CLIEnT DNV's due diligence enabled the developer to obtain financing for this large project. Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e AVEnAL SOLAR fACILITy 45mw SOLAR pV pROjECT CALIfORnIA, uSA I solar energy I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I13 Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e HELIOS SOLAR STAR A-1 20mw SOLAR pV pROjECT OnTARIO, CAnAdA clIENT: caPSTONE INFRaSTRucTuRE cORPORaTION CHALLEnGE Capstone needed an independent engineer to look out for its interest in a PV project they were acquiring from the developer. HunT ELECTRIC clIENT: HuNT ElEcTRIc CHALLEnGE Provide expertise to support the design of a complex hillside PV system with variable slopes requiring balanced power flows into the DC/AC inverter, and develop an energy model to support the client's contractual requirements. dnV'S AppROACH DNV used its industry experience and state-of-theart design strategies to identify optimal array configurations, sectionalize arrays to balance outputs from various slopes, and perform multiple simulations to determine the net production from all segments. dnV'S AppROACH Subsequent to performing an energy estimate and design review, DNV monitored the construction of the project during multiple site visits. VALuE TO THE CLIEnT DNV's goal in the project was to protect the client's significant investment. VALuE TO THE CLIEnT Timely delivery of design strategies to optimize performance of the system under unusual site conditions, which helped to ensure that Hunt Electric meet its permitting and construction schedules. DNV's energy estimate and performance test plan provided confidence that contractual capacity requirements would be fulfilled. 14I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I solar energy I SOLAR mOduLE TECHnOLOGy REVIEw Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e InVERTER TECHnOLOGy REVIEw Photo: DNV/Magne A. R�e clIENT: cHINESE SOlaR mODulE maNuFacTuRER CHALLEnGE This uS-stock exchange listed Chinese company targeted the utility-scale market, but was relatively unknown to the key participants -developers, financiers, utilities. clIENT: EuROPEaN PV INVERTER maNuFacTuRER CHALLEnGE While the client has a track record in the European solar inverter market, they wanted to launch a new product into the uSA. dnV'S AppROACH DNV evaluated the company's product and approach to manufacturing and quality, including a factory inspection and site visit. dnV'S AppROACH DNV conducted a detailed technology review, evaluating the electronic design, manufacturing process, visited the manufacturing facility and field installations. VALuE TO THE CLIEnT The written report delivered by DNV was used by the client to introduce its products to the utility-scale PV market. VALuE TO THE CLIEnT DNV produced a written report providing a summary of the detailed technical evaluation. This report, intended for prospective customers and financiers, helped to establish "bankability" for the product. I solar energy I DNV SERVING THE ENERGy INDuSTRy I15 gloBal services to the maritime, oil & gas and energy industries Asset risk management Enterprise risk management Offshore classification Safety, health and environmental risk management Ship classification Technology qualification Verification Bew engineering, inc. 2303 Camino Ramon, Suite 220 San Ramon, California 94583 uSA Phone:+19258673330 San Francisco, CA Seattle, WA Boston, MA Houston,TX main worldwide offices Houston 1400RavelloDr Katy,TX77449 uSA Phone:+12813961000 london Palace House 3 Cathedral Street LondonSE19DE UnitedKingdom Phone: +44 20 7357 6080 Oslo Veritasveien1 NO-1322H�vik Norway Phone: +47 67 57 99 00 Singapore DNV Technology Centre 10ScienceParkDrive Singapore118224 Phone: +65 6508 3750 Shanghai House No. 9 1591HongQiaoRoad Shanghai 200336 China Phone:+862132084518 DET NORSkE VERITaS aS NO-1322H�vik,Norwayi Tel: +47 67 57 99 00 i Fax:+4767579911 www.dnv.com THIS IS DNV DNV is a global provider of services for managing risk, helping customers to safely and responsibly improve their business performance. Our core competence is to identify. assess and advise on risk management. DNV is anindependentfoundationwithpresenceinmorethan100countries. the power to harvest solar energy �DetNorskeVeritasAS9-2011.Design:CoorMedia1108-006Print:CoorMedia300/2011.Frontcover:�DNV/MagneA.R�e