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DISCOVER POCKET GUIDE TO GIBRALTAR

EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT YOUR VISIT TO G I B R A LTA R

FREE FOLD AWAY MAP INSIDE www.discover.gi

An oasis... in a busy world

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Free unlimited Wifi access to residents and meeting delegates Gibraltar’s Premier hotel since 1932 Discounts when you book online Breathtaking views from every room Snacks on the beautiful Wisteria Terrace Fantastic views across the bay from our award winning restaurant Private dining a speciality Licensed for Civil Wedding ceremonies

Tel: +350 200 73000 reservations@rockhotel.gi www.rockhotelgibraltar.com

Table of Contents THINGS TO SEE

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Sightseeing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Historic Buildings and Fortifications . . . . .21 Churches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Caves and Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Flora and Fauna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Tours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 THINGS TO DO 52 Beaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Marinas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Restaurants and Bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 THE HERITAGE OF GIBRALTAR

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History of Gibraltar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Multi-Cultural Communities . . . . . . . . . 70 Military Ceremonies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 INFORMATION AND SERVICES

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A-Z Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Financial Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Medical Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 MAPS AND INDEX 104 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Index of Advertisers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Overall plan of Gibraltar attached to inside back cover with Town Centre on reverse.

INTRODUCTION ecause the Rock of Gibraltar can be seen for over 100 miles, it has attracted visitors (and conquerors) since the dawn of time. Neanderthal man made their home here, and more recently, the Phoenicians and Romans stopped at Gibraltar, then the Moors came to conquer the Rock, followed by the Spanish and the British. All of these groups were impressed by Gibraltar’s strategic location between two continents and joining the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea, as well as its imposing appearance and, of course, its subtropical climate. As well as the British, Spanish and the Moors, the Genoese, Portuguese, Jews, Maltese and Hindus have also left their mark on Gibraltar. Today Gibraltar is an important tourist destination,because of its heritage and history, but also for its shopping and dining.Visitors can tour Gibraltar, visit caves and tunnels, see Barbary Apes roaming freely on the Upper Rock, as well as dive under the sea and go on dolphin watching trips. We are proud of this fifth edition of the Pocket Guide to Gibraltar and in it you will find extensive information on things to see and do in Gibraltar. The book is divided into 4 sections. ‘Things to See’ has an A-Z guide to sightseeing, descriptions of historical buildings and fortifications, churches, caves and tunnels, as well as information on flora and fauna. Here you will find a list of tours including our own do-it-yourself historical walking tour. ‘Things to Do’ is the section for beach goers, yachters, scuba divers, dolphin trippers, anglers, shoppers and for those who enjoy dining out. ‘The Heritage of Gibraltar’ discusses the history of the Rock, major cultural influences on Gibraltar, and military ceremonies you can watch. ‘Information and Services’ has phone numbers, facts about Gibraltar, and the services you can find here - from beauty salons to medical services to offshore financial services to offshore betting and more with the latest addition of a fold away map. This edition includes advertisements from businesses interested in visitors to Gibraltar and who offer quality service and products. We hope you enjoy your visit to Gibraltar.

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HINGS TO SEE

SIGHTSEEING Europa Point Lighthouse The Gibraltar Lighthouse, which has stood for over 150 years, is 162 feet high from the light to the high water mark. It is perched on the cliffs at Europa Point, the most southerly point in Gibraltar, where its 3,000 watt light bulb reaches out 21 miles on a clear night. During a heavy fog it can only be seen for two miles. It is an important navigational signal for ships passing through the Straits of Gibraltar between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The foundation stone was laid in 1838 by Lady Dowager Queen Europa Point Lighthouse

Adelaide three years prior to completion. In 1994 the Lighthouse, the only one managed by Trinity House outside Britain, was fully automated.

Gibraltar, a City Under Seige This exhibition, located on the Upper Rock, shows what it was like for the soldiers who lived in Gibraltar under siege. There is graffiti dating back to the 18th century as well as an old water system. Open 9.30am - 7.15pm daily. Cost included in Nature Reserve fee.

SIGHTSEEING Gibraltar Museum

The Gibraltar Museum is a mustsee for any visitor interested in finding out more about the rich and varied history of this Rock.The story of how Gibraltar gained an importance and a reputation far exceeding its size, and how this influenced and shaped the communities that came to reside here is told via a series of informative galleries that display a multitude of interesting and unique artefacts. Excavations in the Museum grounds attest to the continued habitation of his area by a succession of cultures.‘The Gibraltar Story’ is a 15-minute video which provides the visitor with an overall view of the genesis and evolution of the Rock and its inhabitants, and the Gibraltarians gallery, with its Maltese-made horsedrawn carriage continues this theme. Another gallery based on maritime themes looks at the Rock’s many seafaring visitors,from early Phoenician sailors who left offerings at Gorham’s Cave before setting out into the unknown Atlantic Ocean, to the Royal Navy and well-known personalities such as Admiral Lord Nelson who died at Trafalgar and whose body was brought here after that famous sea-battle. Perhaps the most important and imposing of the exhibits are the remains of a 14th century medieval Hammam, or bath-house, being one of the best preserved remaining medieval baths in the Iberian Peninsula. Another gallery houses the impressive model of the Rock completed in 1865, which shows what Gibraltar looked like at the height of the Victorian Empire, when the phrase ‘Strong as

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the Rock’ echoed across the world as a statement of inexpugnability. A notable period in Gibraltar’s history is its Great Siege, during which a small Garrison and population held off attacks from the combined forces of France and Spain for three and a half years, and there is an entire section of the Museum dedicated to this important event. A series of new galleries looks at how, in periods of peacetime during the late 18th and 19th Centuries, the Rock became a hub of intellectual, cultural and sporting activities. Relics of this ‘age of Empire’ include an Egyptian mummy, found floating in the Bay after the ship transporting it sank in the Strait, and of course, the cast of the world famous Gibraltar skull belonging to an adult Neanderthal, discovered in 1848. Environmental reconstructions of Gibraltar during these prehistoric times, and some of the many artefacts found in subsequent excavations are on display. They attest to the Rock’s international status as a site of world importance in terms of Neanderthal occupation, especially now that recent research by the Gibraltar Museum has established that this was the last place on earth where this different kind of human held out before becoming extinct around 24000 years ago.The Museum is open Monday-Friday between 10am and 6pm, and Saturdays 10am to 2pm. Admission fees are £2 for adults and £1 for children under 12 years of age. The Museum also has a gift shop which stocks a wide range of books and souvenirs. Last admission: 30 minutes before closing time.

SIGHTSEEING Great Synagogue The Great Synagogue, located on, Line Wall Road is one of the oldest in the Iberian peninsula, dating back to 1724. Guided tours of the ‘Flemish’ synagogue, accompanied by a short history of the Gibraltar Jewish community can be arranged. Tel: (350) 20076477.

Rock. It was the first carriage of its type in the world. Tight wadding had to be used in the 24 pounder to stop the balls from rolling down the barrel. The gun on display outside the Tourist Office, at Casemates, was presented to the City of Gibraltar by the Royal Artillery in April 1981 when the regiment was granted the freedom of the city.

Ibrahim-Al-Ibrahim Mediterranean Steps Situated on one of the Mosque cultivated terraces above Jew’s Located at Europa Point, this beautiful domed mosque was built in the mid-1990s as a place of worship for Gibraltar’s Muslim community. It has an impressive tower that overlooks the Mediterranean.

Koehler Gun The Koehler Depression Gun Carriage was designed by Lt. George Koehler R.A. in 1782 during the Great Siege (17791783) for firing down on the enemy from the North Face of the

Koehler Depression Gun

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Gate lies the pathway leading to the Mediterranean Steps. A right turn through a copse leads to the start of the walk. If you park near the lookout, a sign on the side of a white building nearby indicates the way to the steps. There are two sections to the walk. The first part people of all ages can enjoy as it is an easy trail and only takes five to ten minutes. From there you cross a stretch of loose rock then come to a set of steps going down. The second stretch, about 3/4 of the walk, is not extremely difficult but requires more effort, especially the climb up to the big guns. On a hot day it can be somewhat demanding but when you reach the end of the climb, where the World War I gun emplacements are, you get spectacular views over the old

SIGHTSEEING water catchments and up the Costa del Sol. For those interested in plants or bird watching, it is an excellent place to find a variety of specimens of both. If you walk the full length it will take about an hour going and to return. A good pair of walking shoes is required and a cold drink is recommended.Anyone suffering from vertigo should avoid this walk

The Military Heritage Centre The Military Heritage Centre located on the Upper Rock contains an interesting variety of military artifacts housed in gun positions which pre-date World War I. It is located in Princess Caroline’s Battery, named after King George II’s third daughter. The development of Gibraltar’s military defences through the ages is chronicled and there are many relics from when the battery was in use. The original hoists, used to service the 6 inch gun that was put in place in 1905, are on display along with shells and artefacts from the period.Weapons used by the British army from the time of the Great Siege to present day are also on view. In the Memorial Chamber there is the Roll Call of the Regiments that have served in

Gibraltar since 1704. This display honours the men and women who dedicated themselves to serving Britain in the Armed Forces. Located at this site is an Arts and Craft Centre where souvenirs, paintings and prints are on sale. Open 9.30am - 7.15pm daily. Cost included in Nature Reserve fee.

Monuments The American War Memorial was erected in 1932 by the American Battle Commission to commemorate the co-operation between the American and British navies at Gibraltar during World War I. Dr Paul Gret, of Philadelphia designed the archway monument and steps. The Black Watch Memorial is located at the eastern end of Devil’s Tower Road. The Cairn was erected as a memorial to the 4th BN The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) for their unrelenting work on the defences of the north and east sides of the Rock from July 1940 to April 1943 when the Battalion formed part of the garrison. Commonwealth War Graves Commission was established in 1917 to mark and maintain the graves of the members of the forces of the Commonwealth who were killed in World War I and to build

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The American War Memorial

SIGHTSEEING memorials to those who have no known grave. In Gibraltar’s North Front Cemetery there is one plot of land dedicated to those who died in both World Wars. Eliott’s Monument, a column located in Alameda Gardens, is dedicated to General Sir George Augustus Eliott who defended Gibraltar heroically during the Great Siege. He was rewarded for his efforts with a pension of £1,500 a year, was given the Order of the Bath and the thanks of Parliament. The ceremonies for his investiture took place at King’s Bastion. Four years later he was given a peerage with the title Baron Heathfield of Gibraltar. The Queen Victoria is situated in Memorial Governor’s Parade and was unveiled on May 24, 1910 by Governor Sir F.W.E. ForestierWalker. Set on a pillar of limestone the bust is the work of the Italian sculptor Lazzarini. The Sikorski Propeller is located on Devil’s Tower Rd near Eastern Beach. General Sikorski was Prime Minister of Poland during World War II, and Commander in Chief of the Polish Forces in exile. On July 4, 1943 his Liberator airplane crashed into the sea just after take off from the airport. Sikorski and his daughter both lost their lives, and her body

The Queen Victoria Memorial

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SIGHTSEEING cost of a day’s pay by the entire garrison and from civilian employees in official employment and was put in place in 1819 by Governor Sir George Don. The bust was cast in bronze from guns captured by the Duke. Nelson Statue, this true to life size statue, which stands outside the Trafalgar Cemetery has been cast in bronze by the well-known sculptor John Doubleday, and contains copper taken from HMS Victory.

Moorish Baths The Moorish Baths are located inside the Museum lying partly under Bomb House and Ordnance Statue of Sir George Rooke was never found. First Lieutenant Edward Pichal, the pilot, was the sole survivor. A monument was made from the propeller of the aircraft in tribute to General Sikorski, but he is not mentioned on the plaque. The Rooke Statue, located along route from the coach park to Main Street in honour of Admiral Sir George Rooke to commemorate 300 years of British Gibraltar. Wellington’s Monument in the Alameda Gardens is protected by 18th century mortars and guns. The monument was raised at a The Nelson Statue.

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SIGHTSEEING House, and recently opened to the public after extensive restoration and excavation.The architecture of this ancient structure has now been revealed to show a much more complete picture of a previous culture. There are no baths where one can clean oneself, which has disappointed many tourists who have shown up with their towels. Mr. Budgett, an authority on Moorish antiquities wrote of the baths, “Except in the Alhambra there is nothing in Spain to compare with it.”

original walls of the castle enclosed a considerable area reaching to the sea. Of these walls, the Moorish Pier is still to be seen. Tarik-ibn-Zeyad (who gave his name to Gibraltar, Gebel Tarik or Tarik’s Hill) was the Moorish leader who conquered much of the Iberian Peninsula. He took Gibraltar in 711 and in the following two years completed the Moorish Castle.

Moorish Castle The Tower of Homage is one of the best preserved remnants of the Moorish Castle and dates back more than six centuries. (A much older castle exists beneath this latest tower of 1333 AD.) The Moorish Baths

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SIGHTSEEING conquest which would put a large portion of Europe in Arab hands for over seven centuries. Tarik’s successors built the first fortifications near the site of the present tower. A larger castle replaced these in 1160 to provide protection to the growing town. The fortifications were needed as war was continuous throughout the period that the Arabs held the land. King Ferdinand IV of Castille and Leon attacked Gibraltar in 1309 and captured it but the Rock was only held for 24 years before the Moors retook it. The battles of 1333 did extensive damage to the tower so it was rebuilt and this helped keep the Spanish at bay for another 129 years.What remains the gatehouse, walls and bastions dates from that period, which is contemporary with the Alhambra in Granada.

The 100 Ton Gun

When the British took Gibraltar the Spanish attempted to recapture the Rock several times. Their artillery fire made little impression on the solid mass of masonry. Admiral Rooke raised the British flag on the Tower when he captured it in 1704 and it has flown there ever since. The Inner Keep was used by the British and continues to be used as a prison, however there are parts of the castle that are open to visitors. Open 9.30am - 7.15pm daily. Cost included in Nature Reserve fee.

Nelson’s Anchorage and 100 Ton Gun Nelson’s Anchorage, at the far end of Rosia Road, is a fascinating monument to Victorian artillery

SIGHTSEEING and technology. It has commanding views across Rosia Bay where HMS Victory was anchored after the Battle of Trafalgar with the body of Admiral Lord Nelson on board. In 1805 the bay was the only deep water anchorage in Gibraltar. The present battery was constructed between December 23, 1878 and March 31, 1884 at a cost of £35,717. Built on the site of the old 2nd and 3rd Rosia Batteries it was named after then Governor, Lord Napier of Magdala. An exhibition is housed in the chambers that form part of a large underground complex serving the magnificent Victorian super gun, the 100 Ton Gun. Nicknamed “The Rock Buster” the gun was built in 1870 and remains the best preserved of its type in the world. Installation was a very laborious task taking three weeks to transport it barely one third of a mile from the docks to its present emplacement. Once in place a sophisticated hydraulic system was devised to move the gun. Response time was close to three hours, which today may sound inadequately slow, but as the prime targets were sailing ships prior to the invention of the steam engine, it was sufficient. Although much of the gun would have been familiar to a gunner in Nelson’s navy it also had

many revolutionary features. For example it was not fired by igniting a fuse but by heating platinum with electricity from a battery. Designed during a period of rapid advance in artillery technology the 100 ton gun was soon obsolete - having never fired a shot in anger. The site remained strategic and four 3.7 inch anti-aircraft guns were mounted here during World War II. Bren guns were mounted in a passage which had been made for one of the giant hydraulically powered ramrods. More detailed information is available at the exhibition, along with an interesting range of souvenirs. Nelson’s Anchorage is open from 9:30am - 6:45pm daily. 100 Ton Gun open 9.30am 7.15pm daily.Tel: (350) 20040280.

Nun’s Well The Nun’s Well is a large underground cistern located on the flats at Europa Point. It is believed that its name came from the nuns who were at the nearby Shrine of Our Lady of Europe who took their water from it and tended to its upkeep. It is also thought that it may have received its name at an earlier point as an old map described it as “a bathing place for ye Nuns of Nostra Senora de Europa.” Water enters the cistern

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SIGHTSEEING through porous limestone after draining south to Windmill Hill Flats and then running through a large geological fault in the cliff. There is some thought that the cistern is pre-Moorish which might make it Roman, or maybe even earlier. It is commonly believed that it is Moorish and may have once been a part of an extensive Moorish village at Europa Point. The arched vault is about 80 feet long and supported by (what is believed to be) pillars of 14th century Moorish construction.

Rings When you are on the Upper Rock you will probably notice a series of rings along the roads. These rings were used to anchor pulleys to haul guns to the top of the Rock.The 9.2 inch gun barrel for the O’Hara Battery was conveyed to its position in this manner.

particular interest is the crosssection of a stalagmite which shows its history of growth. The Cathedral Cave was long thought to be bottomless, which may be why some people once believed in an underground passage which linked Gibraltar with Africa. The Cathedral Cave is now used as a theatre where concerts, plays and other live performances are held. During World War II the cave was to be used as a military hospital but, fortunately, was never needed. However, whilst mining during World War II, Lower St Michael’s Cave was discovered. Open 9.30am - 7.15pm daily. Cost included in Upper Rock Nature Reserve fee. Tel: (350) 20074975.

St Michael’s Cave This cave is one of Gibraltar’s most famous attractions. Neolithic inhabitants are thought to be the first inhabitants of St Michael’s Cave, and it is known that the Romans visited it. The cave features an upper hall and has five connecting passages with drops which range between 40 to 150 feet to the smaller hall. Of

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St Michael’s Cave

SIGHTSEEING Shrine of Our Lady of Europe The Moors built a mosque on the site of the present Shrine of Our Lady of Europe before 1309. This was when the Spanish occupation of Gibraltar began and until 1333 the Islamic holy site was used as a Christian shrine. A labourer working nearby in the late 1900s found an image of the Madonna which dates from that period. In 1333, the Spanish were expelled by the Moors who reconverted the site to a mosque. For another 100 years it was a holy place for Islam but when the Spanish “reconquista” was completed in 1462 the shrine once again became Christian. After this, the shrine was attacked and partially destroyed by Turkish pirates and then, during the British and Dutch seizure of Gibraltar in 1704 the Image of Our Lady was badly damaged and thrown over a cliff into the sea. The Shrine of Our Lady of Europe

It was later recovered and taken to Algeciras for safe keeping where it remained until 1864, when Bishop Scandella brought the image back from Algeciras and it was placed in a temporary shrine in a chapel opposite the present Government House on Main Street. In 1866 it was moved to the Little Sister of the Poor, where Mount Alvernia Home now stands.The marble altar and throne were donated by Pope Pius IX. Because of war, it was taken to the Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned in 1939 for safekeeping. In 1961 the guard room was restored to the church and in September of the following year Bishop John F. Healy celebrated the first mass there in 258 years. However, it was not until 1968 that the image was returned to the shrine. The present chapel, small but solidly built, is located in a housing development at Europa Point.The way is clearly marked and is not difficult to find. In 1996 the building was extended and a bell tower added. The Shrine is open (Summer Hours) 11.30am - 2.00pm daily, (Winter Hours) 10.30am 1.00pm, 2.00pm - 6.00pm daily.

Trafalgar Cemetery In October 1805 one of history’s greatest sea battles was fought between the British and Franco-Spanish fleets near Gibraltar at Cape Trafalgar.

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SIGHTSEEING It was a fierce and decisive victory for Britain but their great leader, Admiral Nelson, was fatally wounded by a French sniper. Most of the sailors who died in battle were buried at sea, and two sailors who died of wounds in the battle are buried at Trafalgar Cemetery near Southport Gates. Nelson’s body, however, was returned to England for greater honours. He is entombed in a crypt in St. Paul’s Cathedral. The HMS Victory called on Gibraltar immediately after the battle. One story has it that Nelson’s remains were kept in a barrel of rum to preserve them for the return journey to England. Another legend would have us believe, though there is no evidence to support it, that while the Victory was undergoing repairs the cask containing Nelson’s body

Trafalgar Cemetery

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was brought ashore and taken to St.Vincent House. It was placed in what is now known as Nelson’s room where William Beaty, Victory’s surgeon changed the barrel of brandy (as some believe it was) to spirits of wine.

Upper Rock Nature Reserve With its rich vegetation, spectacular views and large variety of mammals, insects, butterflies, reptiles and birds, both serious botanists and the casual ramblers find the Upper Rock Nature Reserve a source of fascination. It is a great place for bird watchers, especially during times of migration as a large number of species move between Europe and Africa over this area. Over 270 birds have been spotted in Gibraltar. Booted Eagles, Egyptian Vultures, the Griffon Vulture and Barbary Partridges are among the many that have been seen. There are over 600 species of flowering plants some of which are unique to Gibraltar. Dense matorall is the dominant species on the upper rock and there are many plants that are unique to Gibraltar. The Dwarf Fan Palm, Europe’s only native palm can be found here. There are rare, and not so rare butterflies, lizards and snakes.

HISTORIC BUILDINGS surviving vent of an aqueduct which was built by the Spanish on an older Moorish system.

City Hall

The Barbary Ape roams freely on the Upper Rock and can usually be seen at the Ape’s Den in the Nature Reserve. The reserve is open from 9.30am - 7.00pm and admission costs £8.00 for Adults, £4.00 for children, £1.50 for vehicles (As from 1st October 2009 £10.00 for Adults, £5.00 for children and £2.00 for vehicles). This includes admission into St Michael’s Cave, the Apes Den, the Great Siege Tunnels, the Military Heritage Centre, A City Under Siege Exhibition, and the Moorish Castle.Walkers price on request.

Aqueduct Between the Alameda Gardens and Rosia Road is the sole

City Hall is located on the western side of the Piazza at John Mackintosh Square. Officially opened on November 28, 1924, by Governor, General Sir Charles C. Monro it is home to government offices and that of the Mayor of Gibraltar. (The Mayor is selected from the members of the House of Assembly by the members themselves.) This site is believed to have had a hermitage on it and Our Lady of Mercy Hospital. The present building was constructed in 1815 by Aaron Cardozo, a prominent Gibraltarian, for use as his family home. From 1833 to 1839 the building became the Club House Hotel, in which the writer William Thackeray was a guest. In 1875 Cardozo’s nephew sold the house to Pablo Larios, a wealthy Spanish businessman and long time resident in Gibraltar. In 1876 the home was put at the disposal of H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught, son of Queen Victoria, who lived in the mansion during his tour of duty in Gibraltar. Until 1924, it was known as Connaught House. In 1920 the property was sold to the Colonial Government and

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HISTORIC BUILDINGS used as the parcel post house. In 1924 it was transferred to the newly created City Council who held their meetings here until 1969 when the Council was merged with the Gibraltar Government. In 1995, on the initiative of the Gibraltar Heritage Trust, and with donations from the Marifold Trust, the Gibraltar government and many local businesses and individuals, the exterior was restored.

The Convent From 1728 the Convent, located on Main Street, has been the official residence of the Governor of Gibraltar. This is where the Changing of the Guard takes place several times daily Monday-Friday by the Gibraltar Regiment. Prior to the British taking Gibraltar’s City Hall

possession of the Rock, Franciscan Friars resided in the Convent from 1531. The nave of their chapel forms the ballroom but the billiard room was not a part of the building when the order lived there. It was added in 1879. The Convent was further expanded upon in 1864 when the banquet room was built. On display here are the shield of arms, flags and mottoes of all of Gibraltar’s governors and distinguished persons connected with Gibraltar since 711. The panels of the end doors are made from cedar washed ashore from Spanish wrecks engaged in the Grand Attack of 1782. Still clearly visible are the shot holes. On the patio is a statue of General Eliott. It was cut from the bowsprit of the Spanish man-of-war San Juan, that was taken at Trafalgar.

HISTORIC BUILDINGS The beautiful garden is enhanced with some rare and exotic plants and includes some very old Dragon Trees. Royalty has contributed to the lushness of the garden by planting trees. King Edward VII, the German Emperor Wilhelm II, Queen Alexandra, Japanese Crown Prince Hirohito, and Queen Elizabeth II have all added trees to the garden. Some believe that the Convent is haunted by the Grey Lady. She was a Franciscan Nun who was caught trying to elope with her sweetheart, who was a monk. Pursued, the couple tried to flee to Algeciras in a row boat but a storm blew up and he perished. She was caught and executed in the Convent.

The Garrison Library The Garrison Library which holds the finest collections of English language books in the Mediterranean, was established in 1793 by Col. Drinkwater. The Colonel was posted to Gibraltar during the Great Siege and having been trapped on the Rock for four years without any books he was determined not to have to suffer another siege without reading material so he set about establishing a library for the officers of the Garrison. The library was constructed at

The Convent Governor’s Parade on the site where the Spanish Governor’s residence had previously stood. It was inaugurated in 1793, but this was not to be its permanent home. The new building was completed in 1804 with a new wing added in 1867. The library boasts a comprehensive collection of works on Gibraltar. It is now a research library and is open to researchers Summer Hours Monday - Friday from 9.00am - 3.00pm, Winter Hours Monday - Friday from 9.00am - 1.00pm, 2.00pm 5.00pm. Free Tours are conducted on Fridays at 1.00am.

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HISTORIC BUILDINGS House of Assembly

John Mackintosh Hall

This building, located on the eastern side of the Piazza, was established in 1817 as the Exchange and Commercial Library under Governor Sir George Don. (Don is known as the father of modern Gibraltar because of the many projects which were undertaken during his administration, including the building of the law courts and Alameda Gardens.) Don’s bust overlooks Main Street from the top of the House of Assembly. The building was damaged by fire in 1919 and the roof was redone in a different style. It was to be six years before in was reopened by Governor, Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien, on September 25, 1922. On November 23, 1950 the building became the Legislative Council and on August 26, 1969 became the House of Assembly.

John Mackintosh, a wealthy philanthropist, born in Gibraltar in 1865, was a simple man of a retiring nature who went little into society. He was very approachable, however, and had many friends in all walks of life. He was well-read and fond of music as well as very public-spirited; he could always be counted on for practical help in any worthwhile cause. His genuine interest in the welfare of his native Gibraltar and the needs of the aged, sick and poor was reflected in his will when he provided homes for the aged poor, for an additional wing to the old Colonial Hospital and also for various charities. He was keen to foster the connection between Gibraltar and Great Britain and the educational provisions of his will were designed to promote and strengthen the ties between England and Gibraltar, particularly in the cultural and educational needs of the young people of Gibraltar. It was

The Garrison Library

HISTORIC BUILDINGS through the provisions of this will that the John Mackintosh Hall was built. The John Mackintosh Hall opened its doors to the public in April 1964 and has been the centre of Gibraltar’s cultural activities ever since. The building was purpose built and the architects were keen to make use of the Mediterranean light that was reflected off the Rock, and used shade and movements of air to relieve the heat of the summer months – an environmental approach well ahead of its time. The architects used the Mediterranean architectural traditions in designing the interior of the building too, as a series of interconnecting courtyards in which the direct sunlight was controlled, and which became ‘rooms without roofs’, with trees, fountains and shaded areas. Since its opening, ideas about the use of the building have only been slightly modified and adapted to cater for changing times: certain rooms have been put to entirely new uses and an increasing emphasis has been given to adult and cultural activities. The library now occupies the entire east side of the building and the theatre, which was originally conceived as a multi-purpose school hall, has changed in character so that it is now better-suited to conferences and lectures, as well as musical and dramatic productions, than before. The John Mackintosh Hall continues to be the centre of Gibraltar’s cultural activities where over two hundred societies and associations meet regularly.

Law Courts The Law Courts are located on Main Street near the Convent. From the 1830’s when Gibraltar was granted its Charter of Justice sessions have been held at these premises. Many famous cases, such as that of the Mary Celeste ‘ghost ship’ trial have been heard. The Registry Office was formerly situated in an annex of this building where a number of famous people have been married. John Lennon and Yoko Ono were married here in 1969 (this event is commemorated on a Gibraltar phone card); Sean Connery in 1975 and Des O’Conner tied the knot here in 1987.

Law Courts

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GATES, WALLS & FORTIFICATIONS

The Main Guard The Main Guard home of the Gibraltar Heritage Trust since 2001 dates from the middle of the 18th century. Over the years and commencing as a guard house occupied by the Garrison, it has variously been used as a fire station, public baths and Government offices for the payment of utility bills and road licences.

The Main Guard

Gates, Walls & Fortifications Casemates Gates the first gate was opened in 1727 and was followed by others in 1859 and 1884. Passing through them from the outside one goes into

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Casemates Square, at the north end of Main Street. Above the Square the batteries and walls lead up to the Tower of Homage (Moorish Castle.) This area was under the protection of the old castle and was within the confines of the old 15th century Spanish town. After 13 sieges by the Spanish this area was in such ruin that it was pulled down and the Square was made in 1731. Charles V Wall, which comes down from the ancient Moorish wall, past Trafalgar cemetery at the southern end of Main Street was built in 1552 by Calvi, the Italian Engineer. Calvi was sent to Gibraltar by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, (Charles I of Spain, a Habsburg, and grandson and heir to Queen Isabella) to fortify the defences after an attack by pirates in 1540. Attacks by pirates were frequent, but on this occasion Turkish pirates, under the command of Barbarossa, took over 70 captives with the intent of selling them into slavery. Charles’ son, Felipe II commissioned another Italian engineer El Fratino to extend the wall to the summit. Devil’s Tongue was situated on the present Waterport Wharf road and was originally an old Spanish pier built during the reign of King Philip III. At the time it connected to the counterguard by a narrow bridge and a sally port

GATES, WALLS & FORTIFICATIONS which can still be seen today in the wall of Montagu Counterguard near the roundabout. A drawbridge by the “Chatham Wicket” opened up onto the Mole and the cemented over opening in the sea wall is still visible. The name is believed to have come from the Great Siege (1779 - 1783) when the Spanish christened it so due to the tremendous fire power of the battery. This site was probably an improvement on the Moorish one. Devil’s Tower played a significant role in the Rock’s defences. A tower, similar to the Martello Towers along the Spanish

Casemates Gates

coast, was situated at the end of Devil’s Tower Road on the isthmus near the eastern end of the road. The Spaniards used this tower to warn of pirates and other attackers sailing towards Gibraltar. When they were spotted large bonfires were lit which could be seen by defenders further up the coast, alerting them to danger. Grand Battery, the lowest part of the original Moorish Northern Defence, was known by the Spanish as the Curtain of St. Bernard. The northern area provided defenses for the Landport entrance, the Watergate and the Cooperage. A narrow causeway connected Spain to the narrow land entrance into Gibraltar though Landport Gate. The sea would lap the causeway on one side (Glacis area) while on the other side there was water from the Inundation, dug on the orders of the Prince of HesseDamstadt. Years later the inundation was enlarged and many deep pits were excavated in it. This was done so that sharp shooters above King’s Lines could fire at anyone attempting to cross the causeway. Jumpers’ Bastion was named after Captain Jumper who was the first to land his troops in 1704 when the combined BritishDutch force captured Gibraltar. Jumpers, along Rosia Road is

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GATES, WALLS & FORTIFICATIONS divided in two, the north bastion and the south bastion. King’s Bastion was built in 1773 by General Sir Robert Boyd on the site of an old Moorish Gate and a Spanish Bastion (1575), and designed by Col. Sir William Green, Chief Engineer. The bastion, which provided accommodation for 800 men was the keystone of the defences during the Great Siege. It was part of the Line Wall and the position from where the red hot shots were fired, and where General Eliott stood during the heaviest shelling by enemy during the grand attack of 1782. During Victorian times the original bastion was modified and the cannon, fireproof curtains and

King’s Bastion Leisure Centre

other structures could still be seen. When it was no longer required for defence, it was turned into an electricity generating station. The station was designed by local architect Natalio Langdon and was opened in October 1961. It closed down during the 1990s and was eventually demolished in 2005. The original bastion façades were then re-exposed. Today, the bastion has been totally redeveloped into one of Gibraltar's premiere leisure facilities, the latest lease of life for this important monument. “The King’s Bastion Leisure Centre” Landport Gate was built by the Spaniards in the late sixteenth century on the site of an earlier Moorish gate. It was the only land

GATES, WALLS & FORTIFICATIONS entrance into Gibraltar. It was destroyed and had to be rebuilt in 1729 by the British. The drawbridge went into a state of decay but in 1922 it was repaired and is now in full working order. During the Great Siege, General Eliott's troops stole out through this gate for a surprise attack on the Spanish lines. Bomb Proof Battery (1790), Hesses' Demi Bastion (1705) Couveport Battery and King's Lines Battery provided flanking cover for Gibraltar's only land entrance, Landport Gate. Line Wall from the time the British captured Gibraltar in 1704 there has been a co-ordinated system of defence from the North Face of the Rock to Europa Point. These defences, which became known as the Line Wall, were built on the Moorish sea-wall using

white Portland limestone. The sea lapped at the foot of the walls which were almost entirely reconstructed and fortified. All the land to the west of this wall has, over the years, been reclaimed from the sea. As a memorial of his regard and welfare of the people of Gibraltar, Governor Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien had the esplanade and steps constructed along the Line Wall in 1921. The Gibraltar War Memorial on Line Wall Road is in honour of the fallen during World War I including a number of Gibraltarians. It was unveiled in 1923 by the Governor General Sir Charles Monro and is the work of Jose Piquet Catoli from Barcelona. As the Royal Air Force did not exist in its present form until the 1st April

Ragged Staff Gates

GATES, WALLS & FORTIFICATIONS 1918 (amalgamation of Royal Flying Corps & Royal Naval Service) it relates only to soldiers and sailors. The two Russian guns were captured during the Crimean War and were given to the people of Gibraltar for the help Gibraltar gave during this war. They arrived in Gibraltar in 1858. O’ Hara’s Tower and Battery was named after General Charles O’Hara who was the Governor of Gibraltar from 17871799. He believed that if only the Rock was a little higher, his lookouts would be able to see the Spanish ships as they left Cadiz. He had a special tower built on top of the highest point of the Rock at the southern end where O’Hara’s Battery stands today. O’Hara’s Tower proved to be a failure and it became known as “O’Hara’s Folly.” The tower was later demolished and a gun battery was constructed in its place. It was subsequently reconstructed in 1935 with a 9.2 inch gun that had a range of 16.82 miles. O’Hara was very popular with the officers and men and was nicknamed “The Old Cock of the Rock.” Prince Edward’s Gate is in the Charles V Wall overlooking Trafalgar Cemetery and was named after Queen Victoria’s father, the Duke of Kent. From 1802 to 1820 he was the Governor of Gibraltar.

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Ragged Staff A gate was cut through the Line Wall in 1736 to access victually warships after a wharf 350 feet long was built by a contractor to the Navy Victualling Office. The wharf was accessed by a flight of stone steps, and a drawbridge. There are many theories to the origin of the name, though none of them have been verified. One theory suggests that the Ragged Staff was a badge of the Emperor Charles V. Another suggests that at the end of the jetty there was a ragged mast that was used to hoist the barrels from the row boats. (A naval term for the mast is staff, hence, ragged staff.) Yet another suggests the name derived from the rough finish of the original work because staff can mean cement or similar building material. Major General Sir John Jones called the area, “an ill-conditioned spot...” The gates provide passage through the wall at a site that was known as the Ragged Staff Couvreport. Rock Gun Battery during the Great Siege work was started on a road up to the highest point of the North Face (1300 ft), but it took far too long so the impatient gunners took matters into their own hands. Using block and tackle they hauled a large cannon to the summit where they established

Southport Gate Rock Gun Battery. From this lofty position they could harass the main Spanish camp. During the World War II the battery was reconstructed and a light anti-aircraft gun platform was positioned on the very edge of the North Face of the Rock. Southport Gates were constructed in 1552 during the reign of Emperor Charles V. The Arms of Gibraltar and the Spanish Arms are above the original gate and a second gate, opened in 1883 bears the arms of Queen Victoria and General Sir John Adye, a Governor of Gibraltar. The third, and widest of these gates is Referendum Gate. It was opened in 1967 and commemorates the referendum in which Gibraltarians voted by an

overwhelming majority, to retain their links with Britain. All these gates provide access through an ancient Moorish wall. Wellington Front was constructed by convict labour in 1840. Over 900 convicts worked on the construction of walls and other defensive work. The Owen Glenower (named after a Welsh Prince) anchored off the Front was the home for the convicts. The ship’s bell, which is now in the Gibraltar Museum, was rung whenever a convict escaped. In 1875 it was decided that it would be cheaper to employ local labour as the prisoners did not work hard enough to pay for their keep.

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sightseeing

Cathedral of St Mary the Crowned on Main Street

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CHURCHES Cathedral of St Mary the Crowned The Cathederal of St Mary the Crowned is built on the site of what used to be a very beautiful and richly decorated mosque.After the Christians drove the Moors from the Rock in 1462 the mosque was used as a church until the Spanish King Ferdinand and his wife Isabella decreed that it be stripped of its Islamic past and be enlarged. They donated the bells and clock for the 100 ft tower, which remain to this day. Their coat of arms was placed in the courtyard where it can still be seen. The courtyard was four times its present size and contained an orange grove surrounded by cloisters. The church itself extended to the opposite side of what is now Main Street. During the Great Siege, the church suffered extensive damage, and despite attempts to rebuild it little progress was made. In 1790, Governor Boyd offered his assistance in return for a third of the land, which enabled him to re-route Main Street. An on-going after affect of this loss of ground is that mortal remains are frequently uncovered during routine excavations of the road outside. During the recent beautification of Main Street the opportunity was taken to do an

archeological investigation when the asphalt was removed to make way for the paving stones. Inside the Cathedral the high altar is very grandiose, done in the style of that of St. Peter’s in Rome. The beautiful marble plinths and columns, with the six ton bogatino top were originally bound for South America when the ship carrying this precious cargo sunk in the harbour. It was salvaged and placed in the church. The Cathedral is named after Our Lady of Europe. There is a statue in her honour at the altar, a duplicate of the original in the Shrine at Europa Point. Another statue has been given the unusual name of Our Lady of the Flannels. It was found floating in a box in the harbour sometime in the 18th century in flannels!

Cathedral of St Mary the Crowned

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CHURCHES Cathedral of the Holy Trinity The foundation stone for Holy Trinity was laid in 1825 and the design was done in the Moorish style to commemorate the fact that the Moors first landed in Europe at Gibraltar in 711. It was not first used as a church but as an emergency hospital when a ravaging epidemic of yellow fever broke out in 1828. Although the church wasn’t completed at that time, it was far enough along to be used in this capacity. With the Dowager Queen Adelaide present, Holy Trinity was consecrated in 1838. With the creation of the Diocese of Gibraltar the church became a cathedral in 1838. In 1979 it was extended to the Diocese of Gibraltar in Europe which means the Anglican Bishop of Gibraltar is responsible for all Anglican churches in Europe excepting the British Isles. Holy Trinity is located at Cathedral Square

Church of Scotland The Church of Scotland has a small but devout congregation in Gibraltar. Scotland’s national church found its way to Gibraltar with Presbyterians in the military forces. Its followers experienced many years of persecution for their worship. It was not until 1840 that

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St Andrews (Church of Scotland) Presbyterianism became an established church in Gibraltar. It served expatriates, servicemen and members of other Reform churches. This did not stop the opposition, and it says much of the faith and the generosity of the Church’s followers that the beautiful Church of St Andrews in Governor’s Parade was built about 140 years ago from their own resources. Neither the government nor the armed forces made a contribution.

CAVES AND TUNNELS

King’s Chapel King’s Chapel is the name of the Garrison church beside the Convent. Although is was known as Queen’s Chapel during Victorian times, Queen Elizabeth II did not wish to change its name a second time. The wife of the Spanish governor (1648) is buried here as are British governors O’Hara (1802) and Campbell (1813.) Regular Sunday services are open to the public. Located in the heart of the town. Its five bells, hanging from the towers, give it a unique and appealing beauty. Inside are many statues that were brought from Genoa. The Government began construction in 1812 and the church was meant to serve both the military and civilian population.

King’s Chapel on Main Street

Stalagmite in one of Gibraltar’s many caves

Caves There are over 140 caves in Gibraltar, some of which have proven to be valuable archeological sites as Neanderthals and early humans found them to be accommodating homes. Gorham’s Cave has had two major excavations which have yielded valuable information and artefacts. The first dig occurred in the 1950’s while a second began in the early ’90s. Gorham’s Cave is difficult to reach from land as it is one of a number of caves formed by the sea at the southeastern tip of the Rock near Europa Point.There are stone tools and other artifacts left by humans and deposits which are

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CAVES AND TUNNELS Neanderthalic (40,000 B.C.) and Neolithic (6,000 B.C.) in origin. Romans, Carthaginians, Phoenicians, and Moors left remains of camp fires, glass beads, broaches and lamps in the upper levels. Bones of animals that no longer live in the area, such as hyenas, lion and grey seals have been found.

Great Siege Tunnels

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Great Siege Tunnels The Great Siege Tunnels, once known as the Upper Galleries, are one of Gibraltar’s most popular tourist attractions. During the Great Siege, (1779 -1783) Spanish troops were gathered on the eastern side of the isthmus where they were sheltered from British fire by the Rock itself. A projection called “The Notch” on the northern face would have been an excellent place for a gun but the problem was how to get it up there. Sergeant Major Ince offered to try to blast a way through the rock. Work commenced May 25, 1782 and after six weeks the troops had advanced 36 metres. However, the air in the tunnel was thick with blasting fumes and it was clear that ventilation was needed. A hole was blown in the side of the tunnel overlooking what is now La Linea and it was immediately realised that such a hole would prove a wonderful position for a gun. By the time peace was declared four guns had been mounted in prime positions overlooking the Spanish lines. By the following June nearly 230 metres of tunnel had be excavated and “The Notch” was reached. A large chamber, now known as St George’s Hall, was hollowed out and embrasures were put in place.

CAVES AND TUNNELS The heavy guns were put into place with the aid of large iron rings attached to the rock by spike of over 30 centimetres long. Molten lead was used as the adhesive. Two large chambers, called magazines, were created in which to store gun powder. Considerable steps were taken to prevent accidental explosion. During the Great Siege the garrison used nearly 800 barrels of gun powder and fired 200,600 rounds of shot. During World War II search lights and a generator were installed and a group of Royal Engineers were detailed to operate and maintain them. The Cornwall's Chamber, with three embrasures overlooking Western Beach, served as their living quarters and remains of the original access steps can still be seen. Also during World War II the Holyland tunnel, which leads from St. George’s Hall to the eastern side of the Rock, was excavated. Now, inside the tunnel 18 lifelike figures depict scenes from the time of the Great Siege. A life-like tableaux in St. George’s Hall depicts Lord Napier of Magdala dining with former President Ulysses S. Grant of the United States in 1878, although most historians do not believe they dined inside the tunnel, but at the Convent. Sound and visual effects bring to life what it would have been like to be in the caves when they were being used by the military.

Open 9.30am - 7.15pm daily. Cost included in Nature Reserve fee.Tel: (350) 20043832.

Tunnels The Tunnels through the rock, over 30 miles (48.28 km) are greater in length than the 27 miles of outside road in Gibraltar. Prior to World War II there were only seven miles of tunnels, and five of those were added just prior to the First World War. Some of the excavation after 1940 was done by the Royal Canadian Engineers who were pioneers in the use of diamond drill equipment. During World War II the longest and main tunnel was named “The Great North Road” as a tribute to them. The Engineers constructed an underground city with its own telephone exchanges, frozen meat stores, water distilleries and hospitals with enough provisions to be able to survive for six months in the chambers in the event of an attack by the Axis powers. One drive-through tunnel is easily accessed: the tunnel between Camp Bay and Europa Point. Harley Street Tunnel across from the Royal Naval Hospital, leads to Gorts Hospital that was named after General The Viscount Gort of the Grenadier Guards who

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CAVES AND TUNNELS was the Governor of Gibraltar in 1941. Several hospitals were built inside the tunnels to be used in the event of an attack on Gibraltar during World War II. Landport Tunnel was built by the Spanish in the late 16th century and was the only land entrance into Gibraltar. It was destroyed and had to be rebuilt in 1729. The 1898 Tunnel to the Dockyard is a half mile long tunnel and has recently housed the offices of the Maritime Headquarters and NATO communication centre.The offices

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were also used by General Eisenhower and his staff during World War II as they prepared the North African campaign “Operation Torch.” The tunnel was excavated to transport stones from the quarry to build the dockyards, which, at the time, was the biggest excavation in the world. The quarry, situated where the oil tanks are, was worked by English and Scottish convicts. The Scots were called “Red Legs” because their legs were sunburned because they wore kilts.

SELEC

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G

IBTEL

“The only GSM provider offering full coverage of the Rock”

15/21 John Mackintosh Square, Gibraltar Tel: +350 20052200 Fax: +350 20071673 Email: info@gibtele.com Website: www.gibtele.com

FLORA & FAUNA Gibraltar Botanic (Alameda) Gardens The land for the Alameda Gardens was dedicated in 1816, outside the city walls. It was the vision of General Sir George Don who wanted to create a place where the people of the Garrison could stroll in peace. Alameda Gardens

A period of neglect allowed the gardens to go to ruin but in 1990 a program of revitalisation began which finished in 1996 with the completion of the beautiful outdoor theatre. The main walkway leading from the Rock Hotel entrance features an exhibition of the different groups of plants found all over the world while other areas are dedicated to the unique plant life of Gibraltar.

Flora and Fauna, Birds and Butterflies

Trees are central to the beauty of the gardens and the name means “Poplar Grove.” There are many trees now well over 200 years old as they were mature at the time the garden was formed.

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Gibraltar has over 600 species of wild flowers, some of which are unique to the Rock such as the Gibraltar Sea Lavender and Gibraltar Chickweed.The Rock is the only place in Europe that the Gibraltar Candytuft grows. Gibraltar’s position between Europe and Africa, the Atlantic and the Mediterranean makes it an important crossing point for migrating birds, whales and dolphins. Migration counts in Gibraltar have reached 11,500 birds of prey, of up to fifteen species in a single day during peak movements.The Rock is a popular location for bird watchers. Gibraltar has its own unique bird, the Barbary Partridge. Like the

FLORA & FAUNA

Alameda Botanical Gardens

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Rock Monkeys are Gibraltar’s most famous attraction ape, the bird was imported by the British during the 18th century and the ones that live here are unique to Europe though native to Morocco and Algeria. Butterflies also migrate along the same path, and on a calm spring day the Painted Lady Butterflies are sometimes spotted.

Rock Monkeys One of Gibraltar’s more popular attractions is the monkeys which live on the upper rock. They are often called Barbary Apes but they are tailless Macacas Sylvanus. One of the popular stories about the monkeys comes from World War II.When Winston

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Churchill was in Gibraltar he worried that the apes would die out and provide propaganda for the enemy (legend has it that when the apes leave Gibraltar so will the British). He ordered the military authorities to care for the apes, and to import more if necessary, which they did until July 1992 when the government took over their care. There are now 230-240 apes living in six packs on the Rock and they are a major tourist attraction but, unfortunately for the apes, the tourists are a major health hazard. People often feed them chocolate and other things that aren’t good for their health.

TOURS They are fed regularly, though they could survive on their own. The regular feeding ensures they get a healthy supply of fruit and keeps them from descending into town where they would search for food. Care must be advised as apes have a tendancy to appropriate foods in plastic bags and other items loosely held. You are reminded that feeding the apes is not permitted. The Ape’s Den is open 9.30am - 7.15pm daily. Cost included in Nature Reserve fee.

Cable Car The Cable Car is the best way to the “Top of the Rock” and a must-see

attraction for all visitors to Gibraltar. The journey takes passengers 412m above sea level in approximately 6 minutes offering spectacular views all the way. The Top Station is perched at the very summit of the Rock of Gibraltar, with the sheer cliffs to the east and tree-covered slopes leading to the City of Gibraltar to the west. Visitors to the Cable Car Top Station will be able to meet Gibraltar’s oldest residents, the famous Barbary Apes, in their natural environment. The Cable Car Middle Station is located at Apes Den. Should visitors wish to visit Apes Den it is suggested that they do this on their way down. Included in the above price for adults is the Multimedia Tour, a personal state-of-the-art Interactive

View from the Cable Car

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TOURS Multimedia Guide which allows visitors to gain an insight into Gibraltar’s fascinating history whilst being guided around the Top Station terraces. The commentary is available in eight languages: English, Spanish, French, German, Italian, Swedish, Portuguese and Hebrew. (only available to adults) Visitors have access to the Upper Rock Nature Reserve from the Top of the Rock. Sites include St. Michael’s Cave, the Ape’s Den, the Great Siege Tunnels and the Moorish Castle. Tickets are available at the Cable Car ticket office and at the Souvenir Shop. St Michael’s Cave is located 0.9km down hill from the Cable Car Top Station (approx 15/20 min walk). Visitors can then continue down hill for a further 0.8km to the Cable Car Middle Station. (Approx 15/20 min from St Michael’s Cave) Also located at the Cable Car Top Station is the Top of the Rock self service, air conditioned restaurant where visitors can enjoy a meal whilst enjoying the spectacular views and a Souvenir Shop with a unique range of gifts. Opening Times: 09.30 hrs-19.15 hrs 7 days a week. Last Cable Car down 19.45 hrs (Except 1st Nov to 31st March 09.30 hrs-17.15 hrs. Last Cable Car down 17.45 hrs).

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The Cable Car runs continuously throughout the day, approx every 10 minutes. Ticket Information: Cable Car Return, Multimedia Tour & Apes Den = £8.00 adult £4.50 child. (Multimedia Tour not included). 3 years and under go FREE. Group prices also available. (20 pax or more). No reservation required Prices and times may be subject to change.

Dolphin Watching Gibraltar Harbour is a natural breeding areas for three types of dolphins, the Striped, Common and Bottlenose.Whales and turtles are occasionally spotted. Dolphin watching trips are available from Ferry Terminal,

Gibraltar harbour is home to many dolphins

TOURS Marina Bay and Queensway Quay docks. All trips feature the beautiful scenery of the Strait of Gibraltar with views of Africa, the coastline and the Rock of Gibraltar. A unique and unforgettable opportunity to get close to three species of dolphin and up to nine species of whale, together with flying fish, turtles and sunfish often just inches away.

Do-it-yourself Historical Walking Tour This is a do-it-yourself tour that takes about 1 hour and 10 minutes including taking time at each stop to flip through this book and read the relevant passage aloud. Time spent in the museum or on the optional tours is not included. This tour is along very flat ground, and only if the optional tour to Alameda Gardens is taken, is there any uphill walking. Be very careful crossing the streets as traffic can be very heavy at certain times of the day. The starting point for this tour is the Line Wall (Waterport, Casemates) opposite the fountain roundabout on your way into Gibraltar town centre. Walk

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towards the Grand Casemates Gates (p.26) The bus stop is on your left and the Public Market on your right. Go through the gates and continue on straight ahead toward Casemates square. Turn right onto Main Street. On your right is the Koehler Gun (p.10) and then a Statue of a Gibraltar Defence Force Soldier Continue up Main Street, past the International Commercial Centre and turn right on to Cooperage Lane. Carry along Cooperage Lane until you are past the back of the Shopping Centre and go up

The start of our do-it-yourself historical walking tour

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TOURS the flight of stairs in the wall on you left.Turn left at the top of the stairs. Cross at the light (60 metres on the right.) In front of you is the American War Memorial (p.11) Go up the steps to the left of the memorial. There are gun mountings along the Line Wall (p. 29). Remember that in front of these gun mountings was the sea the land that is here now has been reclaimed since the guns were used in the Great Siege (1779-83.) The Spanish gun that once sat here is now missing. Return up the memorial steps to cross the street at the traffic lights, turn to your right and walk on down Line Wall until first opening on your left and continue down the steps (there is a green railing here which leads to Irish Place). Turn right at the first turning - this is Irish Town. Continue past the old police station (p.89) and turn right at the end of Irish Town (at John Mackintosh square) and left in front of City Hall (p.21). Directly opposite City Hall is the House of Assembly (p.24). From City Hall we do a short detour, turn right, go to the Traffic Lights, Cross Line Wall Road and decend the English Steps going left when you reach the bottom about 100metres on, you will come to the entrance of

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King’s Bastion Leisure Centre (p.28). (Once again site for a break. From here retrace your steps to City Hall. Cross the Piazza (square) to Main Street and turn right. Go past the Cathedral of St. Mary the Crowned (p.33). Just past the Cathedral turn right at the statue of the Garrison soldier down Bomb House Lane. Turn left to pass the Gibraltar Museum (p.8) and Moorish Baths (p.15). At the end of this street is the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (p.34). Cross over to the square and turn right past the children’s playground. Cross Line Wall Road. Go up the ramp. To your right is King’s Bastion (p.28) and Line Wall esplanade. Again, remember that the cannons which are here would have been firing over water, not land. Return to the ramp, and go down.Turn right and go down the stairs through the archway to Queensway.Turn left. Carry along the same side to Wellington Front (p.31). Cross at the crosswalk to reach Queensway Quay (p.58) and walk along the harbourside. Leave Queensway Quay and cross the road near the roundabout. At Ragged Staff Gate (p.30) turn left. Continue along Ragged Staff Road and go straight through the intersection to Trafalgar

TOURS Cemetery (p.20). Opposite is the South Bastion (1540) and a Statue of Nelson (p.14). (Here there are several options, noted below). Turn left (toward City Centre) and continue through Southport Gates (p.31) down Main Street past John Mackintosh Hall (p.25). Continue along past the Convent (p.22) and cross Convent Square staying on Main Street. On your right inside the gardens are the Law Courts (p.25). Continue along Main Street, and turn right up Library Street. At the top of the street is the Church of Scotland (p.34). Cross Governor’s Street and go through the white archway next to the old Gibraltar Chronicle office. The Gibraltar Chronicle is one of the oldest English language newspapers in the world and was first published in 1801. Go up the stairs. At the top is the Garrison Library (p.23). If the gate is open, go through the gate and cross the street to Governor’s Parade, if not, go back down the stairs and through the archway. At Governor’s Parade there is a monument to Queen Victoria (p.13).You can continue along and reach Main Street from here - the Piazza is quite close and this is another opportunity to take the

Taxi Tour (p.51) or there is shopping on Main Street. Alternatively, you can go back up to Governor’s Street and walk along this street until it takes you back to Main Street, near the International Commercial Centre.

Optional Tours for the Do-it-yourself Historical Tour at Trafalgar Cemetery Alameda Gardens: From Trafalgar Cemetery, continue up the hill and turn right at Europa Road. Continue along the right hand side of the street until you reach Alameda Gardens (p.40). A stroll in the gardens will lead you to Eliott’s Monument (p.13) and Wellington’s Monument (p.14). Go back out the way you went in and backtrack down Europa Road. Do not turn left at Trafalgar Cemetery, but carry on through Prince Edward’s Gate (p.30) in the Charles V Wall (p.27). Take your first left and continue along this road. Take your first left to Main Street and John Mackintosh Hall (p.25). Continue along as above. Taxi Tour: You can get the official Gibraltar Taxi Tour (p.51) at Trafalgar Cemetery (p.20). This

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TOURS Lower St Michael’s Cave

Lower St Michael’s Cave Tour is recommended for those who want a guided tour of the Upper Rock. You can return to Trafalgar Cemetery and continue along with the above tour. Cable Car: Turn right at Trafalgar Cemetery (p.20) (towards Queen’s Hotel) and cross at the roundabout. Turn left and then right to find the Cable Car (p.43) in Grand Parade.

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Lower St. Michael’s Cave was discovered in 1942, accidentally, whilst blasting a second entrance at St Michael’s Cave in order to prepare it for use as an emergency hospital during the Second World War. There are reasonably priced organised tours available to the general public. The tour normally lasts around three hours, however due to the fact that there is some scrambling and minor climbing with ropes involved, duration times may vary. The cave is totally in its original natural state (although it is fully lit). This cave could be referred to as a show cave as many unique and interesting formations are found here. One of the sites visited during this tour is a beautiful underground lake and fortunately for the visitor, who will no doubt not want to forget this wonderful speleological experience, photography is permitted. People are advised to wear stout shoes and casual clothing. Group sizes range from 5-10 people. Due to the unusual nature of this tour, children under the age of ten years are not allowed.Three

TOURS of taking in the highlights of the Rock is with a guided tour. The driver not only knows his way around Gibraltar but is knowledgeable about the history, the flora and fauna, and the legends of the Rock. Plus he knows where to take the best pictures! Sights include the Great Siege Tunnels, St Michael’s Cave, the Rock Apes, Europa Point, O’Hara’s Battery, etc. Various tours are offered and you can negotiate your own customised tour. Parodytur Tel. (350) 20076070 Bland Travel Tel. (350) 20048880 Calypso Tours Tel. (350) 20076226 Exchange Travel Tel. (350) 20076151 Taxi Association Tel. (350) 20070027 www.gibtaxi.com St Michael’s Cave days prior notice is also necessary for bookings. Times: Weekdays 6.00pm onwards; Saturdays 2.30pm onwards; Sundays by reservation only. Tel: (350) 56639000 / (350) 54231000 / (350) 54004160

Mini Bus and Taxi Tours If you have only a brief time in Gibraltar one of the quicker ways

Tunnel Tours The Rock is honeycombed with a 32 mile-long network of tunnels. As may be expected with military tunnels, parts of the system are inaccessible to the public. Guided Tunnel Tours start at Hays Level (Exhibition of photographs on Tunnels) and run Monday - Friday from 10.00am 4.00pm, cost £6.00.Tel: (350) 200 45957.

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HINGS TO DO

BEACHES The tunnels covered were excavated from 1939-1944. Sites included are the Great North Road, Calpe Hole, Clapham Junction and Jock’s Balcony. You will also visit the underground power station, underground hospital and the gun divisions in the North Phase.

What Else does Gibraltar offer? Well, besides the sightseeing, touring, caving, wildflower spotting, bird, dolphin watching, and wildlife watching mentioned in the last chapter, Gibraltar has

Our Lady of Sorrows at Catalan Bay. some great beaches, scuba diving, fishing, as well as shopping. As well, there are some excellent restaurants to go to...

Catalan Bay Nestled on the eastern side of the rock there is a feeling of isolation in the little village that curls around the bay beneath the steep slopes of the rock of Gibraltar. Catalan Bay was settled under Spanish rule by Genoese who lived in the fishing huts around the bay. They decided to

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BEACHES remain there when the British took power and they were joined by other Italians, Portuguese, British and Spaniards who fled Napoleon’s army during the Peninsular War. Improvements to the beach have made this already popular area even more so. Great quantities of sand were hauled in and a mini breakwater was formed below Caleta Palace to protect the shore. During the hot days of summer this is one place where locals and tourists like to cool off. The four star Caleta Hotel overlooks the beach on the south edge of the village. Some of the best seafood in Gibraltar can be enjoyed at the beach restaurants here.

Eastern Beach Eastern Beach is located off Devil Tower’s Road stretching up to the end of the airport runway. This is the longest of Gibraltar’s beaches. There are changing facilities and a number of food kiosks operate in the summer.

Sandy Bay Sandy Bay is located beneath Both Worlds on the eastern side of the Rock a short distance south of Catalan Bay. Although it is called “sandy” bay, the beach is a mixture of pebbles and sand. There is a small bar/café located at beach level which is a pleasant place to while away an afternoon enjoying views of the Mediterranean.

Marina Bay

Eastern Beach

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Excellent dining is available at Marina Bay’s many restaurants where views of the water and the marina make for an interesting and relaxing ambience for dinner or an early evening drink. For souvenirs, gifts and postcards there are a number of stores to explore. On Saturdays a small market is held where local crafts and homemade items can be purchased. For the adventurous, diving courses and excursions are

BEACHES available. Dolphin excursions and deep sea fishing trips are made frequently from the docks. Marina Bay also offers all the services the boater requires while on the water or ashore. Gibraltar has been an important harbour for hundreds of years so there is extensive experience in all facets of the service industry. Marina Bay has water, electricity, TV and phone connections and a security system to protect boaters and their valuables. Laundry and showers are close at hand. Chandlery services, insurance, and bonded storage for duty free goods are available. International boaters will find all the facilities they would expect from a top class marina and there is no problem with live aboards - people can stay as long as they want, but there is a half day minimum stay. Sailboats occupy most of the Marina Bay’s berths but power boats are certainly welcome. The smallest they take is 6-7 metres, because the piers are fixed so if the boat is too small it may be difficult to get on and off at low tide. Every year in September a beer festival is held at Marina Bay where a variety of beers are sold at a discounted price. Live entertainment is on hand and the

party goes on until the early morning hours.

Dining out The var ied restaurants situated on the waters edge in Gibraltar’s foremost yachting marina, Marina Bay. Offers an extensive range of a la Carte and freshly cooked daily specials, steaks, fish & pizza. children's menus, vegetarian menus and superb selection wines.

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BEACHES Diving The waters around Gibraltar have been witness to the sea going vessels which have plied the waters from the earliest of man’s sea faring days. A combination of accidents, sea battles and the scuttling of vessels have contributed to the interesting dive sites which nature provided. Diving in Gibraltar is different from diving in other areas of the Mediterranean. The flow of water from the Atlantic, although not as clear as other areas of the Mediterranean, is less polluted and full of nutrition leading to a vast array of marine life. Visibility is normally near the 10m+ mark with better visibility in the winter months. It is colder than the rest of the Mediterranean so divers need a full wet suit all year round and a semi-dry suit in winter. Some of the 30 sites include: SS Rosslyn - a huge freighter foundered during a fierce storm in 1890, lying just 20metres below the surface the bow and stern sections are fairly intact although the mid section has not stood the test of time quite so well. Covered in bright soft corals she is certainly one of the Rock’s prettiest wrecks.

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Seven Sisters - a group of rocks and a must for any underwater photographer. Stunning rock formations and dense marine life will keep even the most discerning photographer snapping away for hours. The most popular wreck in Gibraltar has got to be the 482 cable laying barge, scuttled less than ten years ago she has evolved into a most exciting dive. Only 17 metres deep, divers have plenty of time to explore this large wreck that is now home to Octopus, Spider Crabs and some rather large Conger Eels. Europa Reef - a reef with depths of 15 - 40m and abundant marine life. The top of the reef is fairly flat with the odd rocky ridge and trench to add to its interest. This reef is littered with Phoenician and Roman anchors as well as a large Admiralty anchor. Tides in the area can produce good drift divers. SS Excellent - a 1600 ton, 260 foot steam schooner which sank after a series of collisions on the 29th of February 1888. She sits upside down in a maximum depth of 30m. Much of her remains intact with a large cavernous interior. Her engine remains in place as does one of the boilers.

MARINAS The large iron screw makes an impressive sight with the rudder lying on the sea-bed. Portholes can be seen on this wreck along with a profusion of marine life. Los Pecos - A spectacular rock reef with a vertical wall from 20 - 60 m+. Abundant large marine life makes it one of the best dives in the western Mediterranean. Situated south of Europa Point in the Strait between Europe and Africa this area is susceptible to strong and unpredictable currents, but it is well worth the effort for experienced divers. Aircraft Wrecks - located near the end of the airport runway at Eastern Beach. They lie in 7 20 metres of water but they are not always visible because of moving sand. Gibraltar has two experienced dive companies, Dive Hire (NAUI approved) and Dive Charters (PADI approved).

Ocean Village Marina Ocean Village is Gibraltar’s only integrated residential, retail and leisure complex‌its marina has been developed to feature state-of-the-art facilities and

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MARINAS superb modern services. While the marina location provides secure berthing all year round and in all weather's, the brand new waterfront also features international bars and restaurants. The further addition of Leisure Island, an ambitious and impressive land reclamation project, now offers members of the Ocean Village community and visitors a casino, nightclub, champagne bar and performance area for outdoor events and concerts.

Queensway Quay Marina Queensway Quay is one of Gibraltar’s newest marinas, and as

well as giving safe harbour for boats, the quay is a pleasant place for a stroll, and it has some excellent dining available with top quality restaurants and bars, as well as a few interesting shops. Queensway has floating pontoons, which makes it easier for smaller boats to moor here, although large yachts can also take advantage of the Queensway Quay facilities. All services boaters need in a marina are available, including a laundry, and the management tries to give that personal touch, something you might not find in larger marinas. One of those services is dealing with the cumbersome customs and immigration forms mariners are

Queensway Quay is a very scenic marina with a selection of good restaurants and bars, as well as interesting shops to explore

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sightseeing BAR / RESTAURANTS

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BAR / RESTAURANTS required to fill out when entering Gibraltar. Like the other marinas, though at the south end of the harbour, it is only minutes away on foot from Main Street shopping.

Fishing With its unique position with regards to the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and Strait of Gibraltar, the Rock is an angler’s paradise. Both fighting fish, like the Conger Eel, and delicious eating fish, like 14 species of bream, are found in the waters off Gibraltar.

Casemates busy for lunch

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Bar/Restaurants Dining out in Gibraltar is always a pleasure - whether it be breakfast, lunch or dinner. If you are looking for breakfast, Corks and the Clipper in Irish Town, as well as the Eliott Hotel and the Rock Hotel will get you going in the morning. Corks also has a selection of daily lunch specials and is popular with local businessmen. At night, Corks becomes one of the liveliest places in Gibraltar. A place to see and be seen. The House of Sacarello, also in Irish Town, is famous for its coffee, but don’t miss out on its afternoon

BAR / RESTAURANTS teas as well! They also have great pasta dishes and elaborate sandwiches. The Clipper Bar/ Restaurant situated at the heart of Irish Town, offering a warm welcome with our friendly staff and nautical theme. With large TV screens and a mouth watering selection of foods ranging from sandwiches to fish & chips, are looking forward to seeing you. Located in the centre of Gibraltar, the Eliott Hotel has two restaurants - the Palm Court and the Victoria Garden with a good selection of international cuisine, specialising in Mediterranean flavours. And during the afternoon, enjoy high tea in the lobby. Later in the evening, savour the good life at Eliott Hotel’s Piano Bar, Verandah, which features melodies at the grand piano in a tranquil ambience. Another family favourite, Pizza Hut, is located on the ground floor of the International Commercial Centre and they have the famous salad bar, piping hot pasta dishes and deep dish and pan pizza. For lighter meals, check out Gibraltar’s pubs. The Angry Friar (opposite The Convent) serves traditional English meals and drinks, and if you’re lucky, you’ll

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see the changing of the guard from their terrace. The Royal Calpe, further down on Main Street, offers a wide range of pub grub. For al fresco diners, there is an outdoor courtyard you can eat in as well as tables out front. The Little Mermaid in Marina Bay serves Danish sandwiches for lunch as well as platters of smoked and marinated fish, plus steaks and fish dishes. For dinner try the Norwegian lobster in Cafe de Paris sauce or shellfish soup to start, and follow with fillet steak with blue cheese sauce, roast breast of duck with apples and calvados, butter fried plaice or lamb chops with mint, plus desserts like banana flambé and pancakes with jam. Biancas situated on the waters edge in Gibraltar’s foremost yachting Marina Bay. We offer an extensive a la Carte menu with freshly cooked daily specials, specialising in steaks, fish & pizza. We also have a children's menu, vegetarian menu and a superb wine list. Lovely surroundings to enjoy our popular Sunday roast carvery, a Gibraltar favourite. If you are looking for quality food and drink at competitive prices, then come to Biancas. Located overlooking the marina at Queensway Quay, The

SHOPPING Waterfront Bar/Restaurant has fabulous views from its terrace and serves a wide selection of international dishes. Try it for lunch, dinner, snacks, drinks or its famous summer barbecue. Chicken, steaks, fish and seafood and pasta dishes are all on the varied menu. If you are looking for a Spanish-style tapas restaurant bar, you will find no better than Casa Pepe in Queensway Quay. This is the real thing and you can get paella, jamón pata negra, chorizo, as well as a large selection of tapas and canapes. A little farther up the Rock, you will find the world famous Rock Hotel. Dine informally on the Wisteria Terrace where they serve lunches, dinners, and Shopping on Gibraltar’s Main Street

afternoon teas. Or choose the more formal restaurant with its stunning views and 3 course house menu or full a la carte menu. The Barbary Bar is the place for a quiet drink.

Shopping in Gibraltar Price and selection make shopping enjoyable in Gibraltar but there is far more to attract the serious shopper who is looking for quality, diversity or a very special gift. It isn’t just price that attracts visitors because not all goods are cheaper than elsewhere. There are many factors that lure shoppers to the Rock. Most of the shop assistants in Gibraltar are bilingual providing service in either English or Spanish. Tobacco is one of the great bargains in Gibraltar. A carton of Cigarettes will cost half of what it does in Spain and a third of what it does in Britain. Cigars and spirits are also good buys. Those looking for electronic goods and photographic equipment have a number of stores to choose from. Video cameras and some SLR cameras are the best deals to be found.

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SHOPPING Men looking for a very special gift for their sweethearts will find jewellery a good buy - some items are about 35% cheaper than in Spain. Gold, silver, pearls, diamonds and watches can be found at well established jewellers located on Main Street. Special gifts can be found at some very unique stores. Check out the perfumeries located on Main Street, for all your perfumes and cosmetics. Prices are 15 to 20% cheaper than in Spain while 20 to 25% lower than in the U.K. There are franchises for some of Britain’s best-known High Street shops including British Home Stores, Marks & Spencer, Peacocks, Mango, Top Shop Mothercare and the beautiful designer wear of Monsoon. Shoppers can find the quality and selection they expect from these stores and everything comes in a good range of sizes. If you are looking for U.K. or international newspapers, magazines, stationery, or children’s books drop into the Imperial News Agency - established in 1919 and still going strong. It’s located opposite The Convent. There are several antique stores in Gibraltar specialising in items particular to Gibraltar. There is a great interest in anything military.

Prints, plates from old books and charts are very popular. For a gift made in Gibraltar, you can watch glass-blowers create a genuine piece of Gibraltar Crystal. Remember, not all of Gibraltar’s shops are located on Main Street, and a little exploring may lead the way to some bargains. Located on Engineer’s Lane, just one block east of Main Street, you will find Bargain Stores, which specialises in every toy or game a child (or adult) could want. Whatever you are in search of, it is a good bet that it will be easy to find in Gibraltar and everything is VAT free here.

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THE HERITAGE OF GIBRALTAR

HISTORY Stamps On the 1st January 1886 the Colonial Government of Gibraltar assumed control of its Postal Services. As an interim measure, Bermuda plates were overprinted with ‘Gibraltar’ using different colours. These were replaced by Gibraltar's own design in December of that same year. Gibraltar's stamps were used with peseta values from 1889 to 1898 since trade was carried out in this currency. Stamp designs were rather stereotyped until 1931 when, at the Governor’s request, Captain Garrood, Gibraltar’s Crown Surveyor and Engineer, produced the first pictorial Definitive. The first commemorative issue was in 1935. The release of such issues were confined up to 1966 to Crown Agents 'Omnibus' issues and marked events of international interest. Since 1966 subjects of a predominantly local flavour have been chosen through international events are also featured. Today Gibraltar continues to adopt a conservative stamp issuing policy thus maintaining its high reputation amongst the philatelic fraternity. Current stamp issues range from seven to eight commemorative issues a year

together with a change of definitive issue every five or six years.

Coins All of Gibraltar’s coins have been struck by the Pobjoy Mint in Sutton, Surrey since 1988. Before this time, only Sterling coins were in circulation. In 1991, the Government introduced three legal tender ECU coins. Limited edition coins can be purchased at the General Post Office on Main Street.

Neanderthal Man But for a quirk of fate Neanderthal Man - the best known of the primitives - may well have been called Gibraltar Man as it was in a cave in Gibraltar that the first remains of Homo Neanderthalensis was found. Neanderthal Man lived in the caves around Gibraltar between 120,000 and 60,000 years ago. It was in Forbes’ Quarry Cave at the northern end of Gibraltar in 1848 that an almost entire female skull was found.The significance of this find was not realised until 16 years later when Fuhlrott discovered another skull in the Neanderthal Valley near Düsseldorf in Germany. It was only later, after

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HISTORY this new species had become known as Neanderthal Man, that the Gibraltar skull’s characteristics identified it as being of the same species. In the meantime the circumstances of the Gibraltar find had been forgotten and the skull taken to Britain for further study. It is now on display in the British Museum in England along with subsequent discoveries. Well over 100 Neanderthals have been uncovered worldwide including a child’s skull found in Forbes’ Quarry Cave in 1926. Gorham’s Cave, on the south side of the Rock has been the site of numerous archeological expeditions and many implements of bone, flint and other materials related to the Neanderthals have been uncovered. Replicas of the skulls, and finds from Gorham’s Cave are on display in the Gibraltar Museum.

Both Greek and Roman mythology tell the tale of the Labours of Hercules, which had him opening a waterway by splitting apart what is now Europe and Africa and creating the Straits of Gibraltar. Hence Mons Calpe is one of the Pillars of Hercules with the other being Mons Abyla, a hill east of Ceuta. The Roman name lives on, most notably in the coat of arms of Gibraltar which was presented to the people of Gibraltar by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand in the early 1500’s. Much later the official Royal college of Heralds added the words Montis Insignis Calpe in the scroll at the base of the shield on the coat of arms.

Mons Calpe The Romans christened Gibraltar ‘Mons Calpe’ in reference to the numerous caves permeating the Rock. They had a base at Carteia, which had been a Phoenician colony west of Gibraltar and they left evidence of The Pillars of Hercules appear in their presence here. Greek and Roman mythology

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HISTORY

The Gibraltar flag (flanked by the Union Jack and EU flags) is red and white with the Gibraltar Coat of Arms in the centre

Moorish and Spanish Dominion

was taken by Spain for 24 years. In 1462 Spain re-captured the Rock.

The Muslim invasion of Europe began in the Bay of Gibraltar where the Visigoths sided with Muslims by lending their ships to the Berber Chief, Tarik Ibn Zeyad. Tarik conquered Gibraltar in 711, naming it “Jebel Tarik” (Tarik’s mountain), from which Gibraltar is derived. Gibraltar continued under Moorish dominion for 700 years, but in the early 14th century, it

Coat of Arms The Gibraltar Coat of Arms was granted to the people of Gibraltar in 1502 during the Spanish occupation of the Rock (1462-1704). It is said that when the Gibraltarians asked their monarch for a Coat of Arms, Queen Isabella, passing the time at Santa Fe during the Spanish siege of Granada designed and

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COMMUNITIES embroidered the banner. She used fine golden thread stitched carefully onto a square of bright red damask. The emblem incorporates a three turreted castle, representing the fortress of Gibraltar, from which hung a large golden key. The key represents the Crown’s belief that Gibraltar was the key to the Spanish territories - after all, it was through Gibraltar that the Moors had entered and subsequently conquered a large part of Spain. Above the emblem sits a crown, representing the Spanish monarchy, and a golden wreath encloses the design. At the surrender of Gibraltar to the Anglo-Dutch force in 1704, the Spanish residents fled. Many of them settled just a few miles away in San Roque where they are still know as “the citizens of Gibraltar in San Roque.” They took with them the coat of arms which now hangs in San Roque’s Town Hall. The flag that now flies over Gibraltar has changed little from the original. The crown of Spain has gone and the background is now one-third red and two-thirds white. The castle and the key remain unaltered. To the British the key has come to symbolise

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Gibraltar’s role as the ‘Key to the Mediterranean.’

British ‘in perpetuity’ Gibraltar remained a Spanish possession from 1462 until 1704 when it fell to a combined AngloDutch Force. The Treaty of Utrecht (1813) ceded Gibraltar to the ‘Crown of Great Britain’ in perpetuity, but Gibraltar continued to be subject to bloody conflict with Spain, and in 1782, work began on the Great Siege Tunnels. The Battle of Trafalgar was fought close to Gibraltar in 1805.

20th century During World War II Gibraltar was home to naval fleet Force H and was the focal point from where General Eisenhower masterminded the North African landings in 1942. Spain attempted to revive her claim to Gibraltar during the Franco era. This conflict resulted in the closure of the border between Spain and Gibraltar in 1969 and it remained closed for 13 years. Today there is still conflict between Spain and Gibraltar, as the Spanish government continues

COMMUNITIES to want to make the Rock a Spanish possession.

The Hindu Community Following the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 the first merchants from India arrived in Gibraltar with the permission of the Governor, and had the same rights as any other traders in the area. The present population is comprised almost entirely of descendants from Hyderabad, Sindh (now Pakistan.) Because Gibraltar was regarded as nothing more than a trading outpost, it was not until 1925 (over 50 years after the arrival of the first merchant) that the first Indian was born in Gibraltar. In the mid-1920s proprietors and senior employees began to reside here with their families. Until 1921 there were only about seven licensed Indian traders. Once licensed they enjoyed freedom of trade and the right to have as many alien employees resident in Gibraltar as they deemed necessary. By this time the civilian population of Gibraltar was growing rapidly and the shortage of housing and poor living

Hindu Temple, Al Mandir. conditions resulted in aliens being restricted to one place of business for each license holder and the number of alien employees restricted to the number necessary for the conduct of business. The Governor also decided that no further aliens should be permitted to open businesses here. This culminated in the Trade Restrictions Ordinance which limited Indian traders to deal only in goods which Gibraltarians were not interested in selling. After World War II a large number of Hindus moved out of the sub-continent and some settled in Gibraltar. In 1950 there were 23 licensed Indian traders and by 1961 the number had risen to 26. Traders were allowed two nonGibraltarian employees to reside in Gibraltar.This resulted in about

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COMMUNITIES 50 Indian families living in Gibraltar with the remainder living in the ‘Campo’ area and commuting to work each day. The 1950s saw a radical change in the legal status of (but not the rights enjoyed by) Indians in Gibraltar. The British Nationality Act 1948 conferred upon British subjects aged over 21 and living in a British territory for not less than five years the right to be registered as citizens of the U. K. and colonies. Indians were British subjects and, those who had lived in Gibraltar for more than five years, were registered as U.K. citizens. The withdrawal of Spanish labour in 1969 forced the Government to ease restrictions on expatriate labour residing in Gibraltar. Hindus who held U.K. citizenship and resided in Spain took up residence in Gibraltar. Hindu traders were allowed to recruit more Indian nationals to replace Spanish shop assistants. Restrictions on trading licenses and immigration controls remained. 1973 saw a dramatic change in the fortunes of the Hindu Community with the entry of the U.K. (and with it Gibraltar) into the EEC. Those members of the Community who had acquired

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British citizenship qualified overnight for treatment as EEC nationals with the same rights as 300 million Englishmen, Frenchmen, Italians and citizens of the member states. The right to live, trade and work in Gibraltar has transformed the Hindu Community into a more dynamic and outward looking people. This has brought not only increased investment in

COMMUNITIES property and trade but also a change in the nature of the business conducted. The increased confidence and the sense of belonging to Gibraltar has enabled Hindus to participate fully in service organisations such as the Rotary Club, the Lions Club of Gibraltar, in the Chamber of Commerce and in other walks of public life. In 2004, Mr Haresh Budhrani QC was appointed Speaker of the House of Assembly (now the Gibraltar Parliament) and over the years these members of the Community have been appointed Justices of the Peace.

The Jewish Community Though only numbering about 600, the Jews in Gibraltar have a strong presence in local business and social affairs. The Community’s Managing Board has overall responsibility for communal matters and policy ranging from finance to education.The Board is headed by a president and comprises 11 elected members.

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COMMUNITIES Sephardi Jews, who had been expelled by Queen Isabella in 1492 and had dispersed to many countries, settled here soon after the British took control in 1704. However, Article X of the Treaty of Utrecht, which formalised British ownership of Gibraltar, prohibited both Jews and Moors from residing here. As the Jews and Moors were traders, bringing in much needed goods, local authorities were reluctant to comply with the treaty. Orders came from Britain to expel them, which the governors did their utmost to get around. In 1714 it was reported that all Jews had been expelled, except for those who had not paid their accounts. This turned out to be most of them. In 1717 there were more than 300 Jews in Gibraltar and the pressure was still on to have them removed, and many were. From 1719 - 1721 relations with Spain again deteriorated and Jews were allowed to return to Gibraltar, which was due as much to the Sultan of Morocco as to British authorities. The Sultan said that his subjects in Gibraltar must be treated as well as the British were treated in Morocco. The British signed a treaty with the Sultan

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agreeing to his terms. Many Jews returned to Gibraltar as citizens of Morocco. Those that were here during the first siege by the Spanish in 1727 were of help to the garrison. This is hardly surprising considering the treatment their ancestors had received at the hands of the Spanish. In general, the Jews were treated equitably and though there were a number of nationalities living on the Rock everyone managed to live in harmony. Some attribute this to both the severity and even handedness of the military justice. In 1724 land was granted to Isaack Netto who was given “a piece of waste ground” on which he built the first synagogue. It was seriously damaged in January 1766 when a landslide caved in many adjacent houses and killed 50 people. It was rebuilt in 1768 on a more lavish scale with a new entrance on Engineers Lane. In 1749 a grant of land, in the name of Mr. Isaac Aboab, was made in order to erect a synagogue. It wasn’t until 1768 that the synagogue opened for service. There was another small synagogue in Irish Town, “Es Hayim.” It had been a “yeshiba,”

COMMUNITIES an academy, before becoming a place of worship in 1759. The Spanish attacked again 1779. Many Jews became soldiers and some distinguished themselves. One was Abraham Hassan who was granted a house on Southport Street by General Eliott for his service. The Synagogue was shelled and burned on May 17, 1781. The Nefusot Yehudah Synagogue was built on Line Wall Road in 1800 from a house owned by Semtob Sequerra. It had to be redone in 1812 when it

suffered fire damage. It was known as the “Flemish Synagogue� as many of the people had come from Holland and the synagogue was done in a Flemish style. The Synagogue was again damaged in 1951, along with a great deal of Gibraltar, when an ammunition ship blew up in the harbour. Abudarham Synagogue was built in Parliament Lane in 1820. In 1858 the law was changed to allow Jews to swear an oath of allegiance that did not conflict with their faith. From then on Jews have occupied all posts in Gibraltar, including that of Chief Minister. There are two Jewish cemeteries in Gibraltar. North Gate cemetery is located near the airport. The cemetery on the Upper Rock, is older and is worth a visit. It is known as the Windmill Hill Cemetery and it was closed May 6, 1848.

The Moorish Connection When General Franco closed the Gibraltar-Spanish border in 1967 not only was the steady stream of workers which flowed across the border halted but so was the import of food and water.

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MILITARY CEREMONIES Gibraltar turned to Morocco for workers and supplies. A ferry connected Gibraltar with Tangier bringing in fresh vegetables and workers. Atlas Mountain water was brought over on water barges. In the first year workers numbered 5,000, but now there are about 3,000. Many lived in the old barracks at Grand Battery, the lowest part of the original Moorish northern defence wall. Inside it is easy to imagine you are in Morocco. Men squatted here and there, everyone is speaking Arabic and there were vegetables and general goods for sale. A cafĂŠ offers mint tea, and there is a small mosque. As well, there is the Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim mosque at Europa Point. Most of the Moroccans are from Tangier and Tetuan, which was once called Spanish Morocco. Many of the Moroccans from there speak Spanish, which made them natural recruits for Gibraltar where many residents speak Spanish.

chapels at Catalan Bay, St. Bernard’s, Mount Alvernia, and the Shrine of Our Lady of Europe, at Europa Point. It was in 1462, when Spain expelled the Moors, that Catholicism became permanently established on the Rock. Until 1704 Gibraltar was part of the Diocese of Cadiz. During British rule the Catholic Church formed direct links with Rome, and this relationship remains. In 1704 the Catholics were, of course, in the majority, in Gibraltar. However, at the time, they were being persecuted in England. In Gibraltar the Protestant government went to great lengths to protect the Catholics, going so far as to post guards outside the Cathedral. Spanish speaking Catholic priests were brought from Minorca, then a British territory, to run the church. Today Catholics live in harmony with the Protestants, Jews, Hindus and Muslims with whom they share this territory.

Roman Catholic Community

Military Ceremonies

About 80% of Gibraltarians are Roman Catholics and they are served by five parishes, each with their own church. There are

At the frontier dividing Gibraltar and Spain a model of the Port Sergeant holding the Keys of Gibraltar can be seen.The model is

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sightseeing

Ceremony of the Keys

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INFORMATION and

SERVICES

INFORMATION a reminder of the tradition began by General Sir George Elliot who was Governor of Gibraltar during the Great Siege. He carried the keys of the Garrison on him at all times and was even said to have slept with them under his pillow (currently removed due to major local works). Since this time successive Governors have kept up the tradition by carrying the keys at all official functions. The only time when the keys were not in the possession of the governor was when they were handed over to the Port Sergeant for the daily ceremonial opening and closing of the gates of Gibraltar. This was a daily task which was carried out by the Garrison until the beginning of the century. This ceremony is now re-enacted only once a year during May. Above: Olden days relived. Below: Daily changing of the guard.

Changing of the Guard The changing of the Guard is a daily ceremony performed by the Gibraltar Regiment. It takes place several times daily, on weekdays, outside the Convent - the official residence of the Governor of Gibraltar. Special ceremonial events are held at regular intervals throughout the year, but the dates are not announced very far in advance for security reasons.

Accommodation Bristol Hotel Tel: (350) 20076800 Caleta Hotel Tel: (350) 20076501 Cannon Hotel Tel: (350) 20051711 Emile Youth Hostel Tel: (350) 20051106

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There are flights available to and from Gibraltar daily by British Airways, Monarch Airlines, Iberia Airlines and Easyjet. Gibraltar’s airstrip is on the narrow isthmus connecting the Rock with Spain. O’Callaghan Eliott Hotel Tel: (350) 20070500 Queen’s Hotel Tel: (350) 20074000 Rock Hotel Tel: (350) 20073000

Airport/Airline Air terminal Tel: (350) 20073026 Air terminal car park Tel: (350) 20073913 Flight information Tel: (350) 8998 Iberia Airlines Tel: (350) 20077666 Monarch Airlines Tel: (350) 20047477 Malaga Airport Information Tel: (0034) 95 204 8404 or (0034) 95 204 8484

Bank Holidays January 1 (New Year’s Day,) Mid March (Commonwealth Day,) March/April (Good Friday, Easter Monday,) May 1 (May Day,) Late May (Spring Bank Holiday,) Mid June (Queen’s Birthday,) Late August (Bank Holiday,) September 10 (National Day,) December 25 (Christmas Day,) December 26 (Boxing Day.)

Bookmakers Rock Turf Accountants Tel: (350) 20079720, (350) 20076865 Victor Chandler Tel: (350) 20006996

Business Services Fine Design Ltd Tel: (350) 20076204

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INFORMATION Bus Routes Fares: Adults Single-60p Return-90p, Children Single-40p Return-60p Seniors Single-30p Return-50p Routes, 2,3,4 & 9 operated by The Gibraltar Bus Company Tel: 200 47622 Route 2 - Green Line Mon-Fri. 7:20am - 9pm every 25min. Sat - 9am-9:15pm every 40min. Sunday/Public Holidays 10am 9pm every 1hr. INBOUND - Line Wall Road, American War Memorial, British War Memorial, Cathedral Square, Prince Edward’s Road, Wilson’s Ramp, Castle Road, Sacred Heart Church, Willis’s Road, Arengo’s Palace, Moorish Castle. OUTBOUND - Willis’s Road, Governor’s Street, Line Wall Road, Museum, College Lane, Fish market Steps, Winston Churchill Avenue, Notre Dame School, Referendum House Terminus Route 3 - Orange Line Mon-Fri. 6:30am-9pm every 15min. Sat - 7am-9pm every 30min. Sunday/Public Holidays 8am 9pm every 30min.

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INBOUND - Europa Road. R.N.H., Garrison Gym Mount pleasant, Shorthorn Estate, Casino, Rock Hotel, Trafalgar-Main Street, Convent Place, Line Wall Road, Museum, College Lane, Fish market Steps, Winston Churchill Avenue, Notre Dame School, Frontier. OUTBOUND - Frontier, Opposite the Airport, Winston Churchill Avenue, Referendum House, Line Wall Road, American War Memorial, College Lane, Cathedral Square, Main Street, Referendum Gates, Elliot’s Way, Grand Parade, Europa Road, Rock Hotel, Casino, Shorthorn Estate, Brympton,

INFORMATION Garrison Gum, R.N.H., Buena Vista, Eliott’s Battery, Europa Point Terminus. Route 4 - Blue Route Mon-Fri - 7:15am-9pm every 20min. Sat - 7:30am-9pm every 30min. Sunday/Public Holidays 8:30am9pm every 30min. INBOUND - Both Worlds, Sandy Bay, Sir Herbert Miles Road, Williams Way, Devil’s Tower Road, Eastern Beach, St Theresa’s Church, Winston Churchill Avenue, Referendum House, Glacis Road, St Anne’s School, Europort Avenue, Varyl Begg Estate South, Sir William Jackson Grove, Waterport Road, Varyl Begg Estate East, Glacis Road, St Martin’s School, Line Wall Road, American War Memorial, British War Memorial, Cathedral Square, main Street, referendum Gates, Red Sands Road, Alameda House, Governor’s Meadow House, Rosia Road, Victoria House, Eliott’s Way, Grand Parade, Europa Road, Rock Hotel, Casio, South Barracks Road, Schomberg House, Scud Hill Steps, St Joseph’s School, Rosia Terminus. OUTBOUND - Rosia Road, new Mole House,

Cumberland Road, Junction Scud Hill, Rosia Road, Jumper’s Building, Victoria House, Trafalgar Cemetery, Main Street, Convent Place, Line Wall Road, Museum, College Lane, Fish market Steps, (Peak school hrs only: Winston Churchill Avenue, Notre Dame School, Referendum House Glacis Road, St Anne’s School) Europort Avenue, Morrisons, Varyl Begg South, Sir William Jackson Grove, Waterport Road, Varyl Begg Estate East, Glacis Road, St Martin’s School, Winston Churchill Avenue, Notre Dame School, Devil’s Tower Road, St Theresa’s Church, Eastern Beach, Sir Herbert Miles Road, William’s Way, Both Worlds, Sandy Bay. Route 9 - Black Line Mon-Fri - 7am-9pm every 15min. Sat - 8am-9pm every 20min. Sunday/Public Holidays 9:15am9pm every 15-30min. INBOUND - Air Terminal Terminus, Winston Churchill Avenue, Notre Dame School, Glacis road, St Anne’s School, Market Place Terminus. OUTBOUND - Willis’s Road, Governor’s Street, Line Wall Road, Museum, College Lane, Fish market Steps, Winston

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INFORMATION Churchill Avenue, Notre Dame School, Referendum House Terminus Route 10 operated by Calypso Transport Tel: (350) 20076520 Route 10 - Red Line Departure Frontier Monday - Friday 7.25am 8.00pm every 15min. Departure British War Memorial Monday - Friday 8.30am 7.15pm every 15min. Route No.10 Night Rider service is running half-hourly with departures from the Frontier on the hour and half hour from 8.30pm - 12.30am and departures from City Centre at twenty to and ten past the hour. Saturday 8.15am - 7.00pm every 30min. Sunday / Public Holidays 9.45am - 6.00pm Shuttle service. Frontier, Winston Churchill Avenue, Glacis Road, Watergardens, Sir William Jackson Grove, St. Bernards Hospital, Europort Avenue, British War Memorial.

Casino If you have a gambling streak in you, you can satisfy it at The Gala Casino which, unlike

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other European casinos, has no entrance fee. There are no membership or passport requirements. Coral Sports Lounge,VIP high stakes area, 150+ Jackpot slot machines, Cocktail balcony with stunning views of the African coast, chargrill & mediterranean restaurant, 18 Degree Below Zero Ice Line Bar, Casino Magic & Poker Zones, or just want to relax with a drink and watch the action. The Gala Casino, Located in Gibraltar’s new Ocean Village Marina, Tel: (350) 20076666 www.galacasinogibraltar.com

Coach/Car Parks Air Terminal Tel: (350) 20073913 I.C.C. (Main Street) Tel: (350) 20078454 Queensway (Naval Ground) Tel: (350) 20048632 Waterport Coach Park Tel: (350) 20074326

Consular Offices Belgium Denmark Finland France Greece Iceland Israel

Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350)

20078353 20079478 20075149 20048070 20076615 54342000 20077735

INFORMATION Italy Liberia Malta Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland Poland Thailand

Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350) Tel: (350)

20047096 20078312 57339000 20073462 20048352 20072663 20041138 20074593 20046315

Currency Gibraltar Government notes are legal tender in Gibraltar, and it is accepted at par with Pounds Sterling. U.K. notes and coins are accepted and circulate freely. Credit cards and traveller's cheques are widely accepted. There is a full range of international banks which are generally open from 9.00am 3.30pm weekdays. There are a number of Bureaux de Change open regular business hours for exchanging money.

Driving Driving is on the right. Hire cars are available for trips into Spain, for which you need a valid full licence. Generally, car hire companies expect you to return the car to the point of collection.

Electricity 240 V, 3 pin plug (as in U.K.)

Emergency Emergency Tel: 112 Ambulance Tel: 199 Fire Tel: 190 Police Tel: 199 Fire Brigade Tel: (350) 20079507 Police Headquarters Tel: (350) 20072500 St. Bernard’s Hospital Tel: (350) 20079700

EU Status Gibraltar entered the EU with the United Kingdom in 1973 and it derives its membership from the U.K. and is not a separate member state. Gibraltar is considered outside the customs territory of the EU, but has free movement of capital, services and persons. The citizens of Gibraltar are British Dependent Territory Citizens, but are considered U.K. nationals for Community purposes with all the rights and entitlements of any EU state.

Golf Courses (Spain) Alcaidesa Tel: (0034) 956 79 10 40 San Roque Tel: (0034) 956 61 30 30

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INFORMATION Valderrama Tel: (0034) 956 79 12 00 Almenara Tel: (0034) 956 79 50 60 Sotogrand Tel: (0034) 956 79 50 14* *wait for tone, then dial 3 La Ca単ada Tel: (0034) 956 79 41 00 La Duquesa Tel: (0034) 95 289 04 25 Estepona Tel: (0034) 95 211 30 81

20044226

Gibraltar has its own unique vernacular, Llanito, a corruption of English and Andaluz with a smattering of Genoese. Llanito has its own specific words and even its own dictionary, compiled by Manuel Cavilla OBE. Many of the Llanito words were brought by immigrants who came from many diverse areas of the world. The words worked their way into the language until eventually their origin became obscured. During the 19th century many Italian words entered the language.

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Marinas

Health/Medical Chiropractic Clinic Tel: (350) Crown Pharmacy Tel: (350) Foot Health Clinic Tel: (350) Hearing Aid Centre Tel: (350) College Clinic Tel: (350) Louis Pharmacy Tel: (350) Passano Opticians Tel: (350)

20041576 20073341 20077777 20044797 20076544

Internet www.gibraltar.gi www.gibraltar.gov.uk www.gib.gi/museum www.gibraltar-stamps.com www.finedesignstudio.com

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Llanito

Marina Bay Complex Tel: (350) 20074322 Queensway Quay Tel: (350) 20044700 Yacht Terminal (Shell) Tel: (350) 20048218

Measuring Up Gibraltar is 5.8 square kilometres (2.25 square miles) in total. Much of this is precipitous rock and cliff which measures 426 metres (1400 feet) in height. The Rock can be seen from up to 100 km away, Morocco is 13 km (8 miles) across the Strait of Gibraltar.

INFORMATION Passports,Visas and Places of Worship Anglican: Vaccinations A British Visitor’s Passport is valid for entry to Gibraltar, but a full passport is required to visit Spain and North Africa. Visas are not necessary for EC nationals, but citizens of other countries should check with the appropriate authorities. No vaccinations are required for Gibraltar, Spain or North Africa.

Cathedral of Holy Trinity, Cathedral Square, Tel: (350) 20075745 King’s Chapel, 302 Main Street Bethel Christian Fellowship, 95 Main Street, Tel: (350) 20052002

The Rock measures 426 metres (1400 feet) in height

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INFORMATION Church of Scotland: St. Andrew’s, Governor’s Parade, Tel: (350) 20043351 Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints, 2nd Floor, Don House, 30-38 Main Street, Tel: (350) 20050433 Evangelical Church of Gibraltar: Ragged Staff Gates, Tel: (350) 20078656

Old style telephone box

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Hindu Temple, Engineer Lane, Tel: (350) 20042515 Methodist: Wesley House, 296 Main Street, Tel: (350) 20040870 New Apostolic Church: 14 Victoria House, 26 Main Street, Tel: (350) 20079305 Roman Catholic: Cathedral of St Mary, 215 Main Street, Tel: (350) 20076688 Our Lady of Sorrows, 32 Catalan Bay, Tel: (350) 20073474 Shrine of Our Lady of Europe, Europa Point, Tel: (350) 20071230 St Bernard’s Parish Church, Europa Road, Tel: (350) 20055484 St Joseph’s Parish Church, 28 Witham’s Road, Tel: (350) 20075682 St Paul’s Parish Church, Varyl Begg Estate, Tel: (350) 20077135 St Theresa’s Parish Church, 30b Devil’s Tower Road, Tel: (350) 2003962

sightseeing INFORMATION

The old police station in Irish Town Synagogues: Shaar Hashamayim Synagogue, 47 Engineer Lane, Tel: (350) 20078069, Enquiries Tel: (350) 20074030. Nefusot Yehuda Synagogue, Line Wall Road, Tel: (350) 20076477 Etz Hayim Synagogue, Irish Town. Abudarham Synagogue, 20 Parliament Lane, Tel: (350) 20040223

Police Force The Royal Gibraltar Police Force is the second oldest British Police force in the world. Sir Robert Peel formed the

Metropolitan Police in 1829, just nine months before the Gibraltar Police became operational and officers from the Met were sent here to assist in the formation. The Force operated in conjunction with military authorities until 1871 when it assumed a more dominant role, but there has always been great co-operation between the two. In 1876 whistles were issued as part of the uniform and eight years later long night sticks were replaced by truncheons. In 1992 the Queen conferred a great honour on the Force by bestowing the “Royal� prefix.

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INFORMATION Post Office

Printers

General Post Office: 104 Main Street, Tel: (350) 20075624 Philatelic Bureau Tel: (350) 20075662 Rates: Postcard or letter: 8p Gibraltar (under 50g); 42p Europe (under 20g); 49p all other countries (under 10g). Surface mail (under 20g): all countries 30p. Hours: Mid-September to mid-June 9.00am - 4.30pm Mon-Fri, 10.00am - 1.00pm Sat; Mid-June to mid-September 8.45am - 2.15pm Mon-Fri, 10.00am - 1.00pm Sat.

Fine Design Ltd provide a complete service in graphic design, advertising and quality bespoke printing. Fine Design Ltd Tel: (350) 20076204 Email: info@finedesignstudio.com www.finedesignstudio.com

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Public Library John Mackintosh Public Library: 308 Main Street. Open: Monday Friday 9:30am - 7:30pm. Tel: (350) 20078000.

INFORMATION Sports Football, cricket, athletics, grass hockey, basketball, volleyball, netball, badminton, 5-a-side football, martial arts, gymnastics and squash facilities are available at Victoria Stadium Sports Centre. Ice Skating an 10 Pin Bowling facilities are available at King’s Bastion Leisure Centre.

Tattoo Artists Ritual Tattoo Tel: (350) 20072227

Taxi There are eight taxi stands in Gibraltar: at the Frontier, the Coach Park, Casemates, Piazza (town centre,) Cathedral of St Mary (Main Street,) Cathedral of Holy Trinity (Cathedral Square,) Trafalgar Cemetery and the Cruise Terminal. Tel: (350) 20070027 (24 hours.)

Telephones Operator Assistance Tel: (350) 100 International Operator Tel: (350) 100 Local Directory Enquiries Tel: (350) 195 International Directory Enquiries Tel: (350) 196 Maritime calls Tel: (350) 100

(Above services 8.00am-midnight) Calling Spain: dial direct. Mobile numbers: dial 00+34+mobile number. Calling Abroad: dial 00 + country code + area code (U.K. drop first 0 in area code) + local number. Country codes: Australia 61, Belgium 32, Canada 1, Denmark 45, Finland 358, France 33, Germany 49, Italy 39, Morocco 212, Netherlands 31, Norway 47, Portugal 351, Sweden 46, U.K. 44, U.S.A. 1. Other codes available in front of phone book. Mobile phones: dial 00+ country code + mobile number (U.K. drop first 0 in area code) Calling Gibraltar from Spain: Dial 00350 + local number. Calling Gibraltar from Abroad: dial international code 00350 + local number. Calling U.K. direct: dial 8400 for a free call to a BT operator.This can be used to make collect, credit card and third party billing calls. Calling U.S.A. direct: dial 8800 for a free call to an AT&T operator.This can be used to make collect, credit card and third party billing calls or to access 800 numbers in the United States. (An AT&T charge applies to these calls.) Phone cards: Collectable GNC phone cards are available from

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INFORMATION GNC Customer Services at John Mackintosh Square, the Gibraltar Philatelic Bureau at the Post office and other sales outlets in Gibraltar. Note: GSM phones can be used in Gibraltar.

Tourist Info Gibraltar Museum Tel: 20074289 Gibraltar Tourist Information Office: Frontier Tel: (350) 20050762 Cruise Terminal Tel: (350) 20047671 Duke of Kent Tel: (350) 20074950 Casemates Tel: (350) 20045000 Airport Tel: (350) 20047227 Coach Park Tel: (350) 20044929 Gibraltar Information Bureau Tel: (350) 20074950 Weather Info Tel: (350) 20053416 Speaking Clock Tel: (350) 150

Useful Numbers Senior Port Officer Tel: (350) 20077044

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Chamber of Commerce Tel: (350) 20078376 Clamp Removal Tel: (350) 20076999 or Tel: (350) 20076312 or (after hours) Tel: (350) 58857000 Customs Enquiries Tel: (350) 20078879 Financial Services Commission Tel: (350) 20040283 Frontier Queue Information Outbound Tel: (350) 20042777 Inbound Tel: (350) 8987 H.M. Forces Tel. Info Tel: (350) 20053666 Immigration Office Tel: (350) 20051725 Health Centre Tel: (350) 20072355 Passport Office Tel: (350) 20051725 Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages Tel: (350) 20051725 Yacht Registry Tel: (350) 20078343

Weather Two major winds influence the weather in Gibraltar - the Levanter from the east and the Poniente from the west. In the summer, the Levanter brings warm and humid conditions and there is often a persistent cloud which overhangs the top of the Rock. The

INFORMATION

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INFORMATION Poniente, however, brings hot, clear and dry weather. Winter in Gibraltar is its rainy season. December is normally the month with the most rain and on average there is about 143 mm (5.6 inches of rain), but this can vary greatly. Some years there has been no rain in December and some years there has been up to 556 mm (21.9 inches.) Weather Forecasts and Information The Met Office at RAF Gibraltar can be relied upon to give accurate weather forecasts for sailors and for travellers. You can receive daily weather reports from the Met Officer on BFBS 1 radio (93.5, 97.8 FM) Monday-Friday 10.05am and 4.05pm, Saturday and Sunday at 12.02pm and 5.02pm. As well, BFBS 1 broadcasts daily weather information at varied times throughout the day, on local shows. Radio Gibraltar (GBC) at 1458kHz has weather reports Monday to Friday at 7.30am, 8.30am, 12.30am, 13.06pm, 14.00pm, 16.01pm, 17.30pm and 18.30pm; Saturday and Sunday 08.30am. Tel: (350) 20053416 for weather updates.

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Median Monthly Temperatures January . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14°C February . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14°C March . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15°C April . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16°C May . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19°C June . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21°C July. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29°C August . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30°C September . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28°C October . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20°C November . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17°C December . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14°C

Weddings Gibraltar is a popular destination for weddings as it is quite simple to get married in Gibraltar. Those interested in a Gibraltar wedding should telephone the Registry Office on Tel: (350) 20059800 or visit www.gibraltar.gov.gi/about_gib/ wed_registry.htm or Email: csro@gibraltar.gov.gi for information on what documents are required and current costs. Gibraltar has many florists and jewellers, a party planning service, and restaurants which will cater for receptions. As well, some of Gibraltar’s hotels will help plan your wedding, give guests a place to stay, cater for the reception, and are, of course, the perfect spot to honeymoon!

FINANCE Banking Gibraltar offers many well known international names providing the full service expected in modern banking. The industry is well established with total assets at 31 March 2008 in the region of Sterling ÂŁ11 billion. As a location Gibraltar has advantages for bankers and clients which include: banking confidentiality, sterling as well as other currencies, no exchange control, English language and European time zone. The standards of supervision and regulation match those of the Europort

UK and are under the Financial Services Commission controlled by a Commissioner of Banking.

Investments Subject to compliance with the Financial Services Act a range of opportunities exist for Unit Trusts, Experienced Investor Funds, mutual funds and other investment vehicles to be controlled from Gibraltar. Some of the obvious benefits for such controlled operations include, no capital gains tax, no profits tax (in certain conditions), no withholding taxes and minimum

FINANCE

stamp duty requirements. Gibraltar has investor protection in the form of a Deposit Guarantee Scheme (in compliance with EU Deposit Guarantee Directive) and an Investor Compensation Scheme (in compliance with EU Directive on Investor Compensation Schemes).

The Shipping Business With its strong naval associations over the centuries Gibraltar offers considerable shipping expertise. Over 8,000 ships totalling more than 200 million tonnes make use of Gibraltar’s port and harbour facilities every year. Gibraltar is ideally located to serve the requirements of all merchant and cruise ships, without costly deviation or off-hire, as they pass through the Straits of Gibraltar. Efficient pilot assistance, facilities for the maintenance and repair of communications and

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navigational equipment, the provision of bunkering and victualling requirements enables Gibraltar to provide a comprehensive marine service to all types of vessels. Gibraltar is a highly competitive supply point in this region and supplies over 1 million tonnes of fuel to over 1,800 ships a year. Gibraltar registered ships are deemed British and may fly the Red Ensign. The Registry also offers ship owners nationality requirements for Commonwealth countries as well as beneficial ownership in law and the advantage of asset protection through a Gibraltar “exempt� company. Gibraltar has been undertaking major shipping repairs for nearly 100 years. Since 1985 the dockyard has operated commercially, servicing all types of vessels. Facilities include three dry docks able to handle vessels up to 90,000 tons dead weight. There are three custom built marinas providing complete berthing facilities for yachts. Over 4,500 yachts visit Gibraltar yearly. There is a wide range of professional specialist firms, some established for well over 100 years, offering stevedore, harbour launch and lighter services.

FINANCE Taxation Gibraltar is a low tax area under certain conditions and in particular for High Net Worth Individuals and for corporations that do not trade within Gibraltar. Additionally there are benefits for residents and non-residents from the fact that income from bank deposit accounts and from investments in quoted stock exchanges are zero rated.There are no taxes related to capital gains, inheritance or death duties and Gibraltar does not have any VAT legislation nor any form of sales tax. It does however impose import duties on most goods with rates ranging from zero (exempt) to 12%. Category 2 status is available in certain cases where wealthy individuals choose to take up residence within Gibraltar provided that they adhere to certain conditions. In these cases only the first £60,000 of assessable income is taxable subject to a minimum tax payable of £18,000 and a maximum of approximately £23,000. For residents there are basically two methods of taxation and they are only charged at the lower of the two.There is the Gross Income Based system where no personal allowances are granted and the individual is taxed according to income bands ranging from 20%

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on the first £25,000, 30% on the next £75,000 and 38% on any excess. The other system utilises the personal reliefs such as mortgage interest, life insurance, pension contributions etc. and tax is charged on the banding system. Taxable income after allowances is charged at the rates for the first £4,000 at 17%, the next £12,000 at 30% and the remainder over £16,000 at 40%. For non residents that conduct business within Gibraltar they are only liable to taxation on their Gibraltar source income. This relates to the several thousand individuals that work in Gibraltar and live in neighbouring Spain. For Corporations the tax rate for the year 2008/9 has been set at

FINANCE 27% on the taxable base with an expected reduction by 2010 to a rate of 10%. The usual expense of business and capital allowances exist to be offset against the income of the corporation. There is a “small companies’ rate” where taxable profits do not exceed £35,000 which is set at 20% with marginal relief up to £67,667. There are also conditions where the rate of tax is zero for companies that do not trade within Gibraltar and are managed and controlled by persons not resident in Gibraltar. It is possible to obtain tax rulings from the Commissioner of Income Tax to ensure that “offshore” companies have confidence in their future tax liabilities.

Companies that were previously known as “tax exempt” ceased to be registered some four years ago (2005) and will be completely phased out by 2010. Other business opportunities exist especially in the Insurance and Internet Gaming industries where Gibraltar is a leading centre and interested parties are recommended to consult with their advisers to obtain detailed information. Further information concerning Doing Business in Gibraltar can be obtained from the web site of Baker Tilly (Gibraltar) on www.bakertillygibraltar.gi or by telephoning the Gibraltar Federation of Small Businesses (Tel: 200 47722).

Gibraltar is ideally located to serve the requirements of all merchant and cruise ships.

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FINANCE Gibraltar as a conference centre Gibraltar is rapidly growing in the conference business and offers unique opportunities for incentive and in house arrangements. The facilities available are such that Gibraltar can cope with up to 400 delegates but the more usual numbers after considering flights etc are in the region of 40 to 100. Apart from the state of the art facilities available Gibraltar can provide spouse and delegate social programmes that cannot be matched in other territories. For example, visits to two continents and three countries in one day, historical tours showing 300 years of British control and a chance to feed the dolphins in their own environment, just to mention a few. Contact the Gibraltar Federation of Small Businesses. Tel: 200 47722 Fax: 200 47733

DISCOVER POCKET GUIDE TO GIBRALTAR is read by Business Traveller’s from all around the world www.discover.gi 100

St Bernards Hospital When General Sir George Don arrived in Gibraltar to take up his role as Governor in 1814 he found a population of some 10,000 souls living in appalling conditions with the Fever rampant through the colony. Following a wide-ranging enquiry in 1815 he set about major improvements in sanitation, drainage, water supply and the installation of general civic pride among the inhabitants of the day. Don’s work of reconstruction was exemplified by the conversion of the Blue Barracks site above the City into a hospital, that was later called the Colonial Hospital until it was renamed St. Bernard’s in the late 19th century. In late February 2005 the hospital opened in Blocks 1-4 Europort with some 210 beds covering orthopaedic, trauma, maternity, surgical, medical and paediatric wards; • two main operating theatres and an emergency back up theatre; • a hydrotherapy pool with a full rehabilitation clinic; • a day surgery unit and cardiac rehabilitation facility; • an accident and emergency department, with provision for

MEDICAL major and minor problems; • out-patient suites and ophthalmic clinics. Visiting hours are General Wards 5:45pm until 7:45pm daily including weekends I.T.U. 6:30pm. until 7:00pm. Rainbow (Childrens Ward) 11:00am until 7:45pm. Maternity Wards will continue to have special visiting hours. If in doubt call the Help Centre on Tel.: 200 79700. Louis Pharmacy Unit F12, First Floor Int. Commercial Centre Tel.: 200 44797 Full range of U.K. and international drugs and medicines stocked. Qualified chemist on premises. Everything you’d expect from a quality chemist - toiletries and sundries, baby products, first aid, cough medicines, dietary products, hair colouring, sleeping aids, contraceptives, pregnancy tests, blood pressure tests. Open Monday-Friday 9:00am - 7:00pm.

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Index 100 Ton Gun . . . . . . . . . 17

Consular Offices . . . . . . . 84

History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Accommodation . . . . . . . 78

Convent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Hotels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Airline/Airport . . . . . . . . 81

Currency . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Alameda Gardens . . . . . . 40

Devil's Tongue. . . . . . . . . 27

House of Assembly . . . . . 24

American War Memorial . 11

Devil's Tower. . . . . . . . . . 27

Ibrahim Al-Ibrahim

Apes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 42

Dining Out. . . . . . . . . . . 55

Mosque . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Aqueduct . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Diving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Information . . . . . . . . . . 78

Bank Holidays. . . . . . . . . 81

Do-it-yourself tour . . . . . 46

Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Banking . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Dolphin Watching . . . . . . 44

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Bar / Restaurants . . . . . . 60

Driving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

Investing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

Beaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

Eastern Beach . . . . . . . . . 54

Jewish Community . . . . . 73

Black Watch Memorial . . 11

Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

John Mackintosh Hall . . . 25

Bookmakers . . . . . . . . . . 81

Eliott's Monument . . . . . 13

John Mackintosh Library . 90

British possession . . . . . . 70

Emergency Numbers. . . . 85

Jumpers' Bastion . . . . . . . 28

Business Services . . . . . . . 82

Europa Point Lighthouse . . 7

King's Lines Battery . . . . 28

Bus Routes . . . . . . . . . . . 82

EU status . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

King’s Bastion . . . . . . . . . 28

Bus Tours . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Financial Services . . . . . . 95

King’s Chapel . . . . . . . . . 35

Cable Car . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Fishing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

Koelher Gun. . . . . . . . . . 10

Car Parks . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Flora and Fauna . . . . . . . 40

Landport Gate. . . . . . . . . 29

Casemates Gates . . . . . . . 26

Fortifications . . . . . . . . . . 25

Landport Tunnel . . . . . . . 38

Casino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

Garrison Library . . . . . . . 23

Law Courts. . . . . . . . . . . 25

Catalan Bay. . . . . . . . . . . 48

Gates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Line Wall . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Cathedral of Holy Trinity. . 34

General Information . . . . 78

Llanito . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Cathedral of St Mary. . . . 33

Gibraltar, a City Under

Lower St Michael’s Cave

Caves and Tunnels . . . . . . 35

Siege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Tour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

Ceremony of the Keys. . . 76

Gibraltar Botanic Gardens . 40

Main Guard . . . . . . . . . . 26

Changing of the

Gibraltar Museum . . . . . . . 8

Maps . . . . . . . . . . See Back

22, 76

Gibraltar War Memorial. . 29

Marina Bay . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Charles V Wall . . . . . . . . . 27

Golf Courses (Spain) . . . . 85

Marinas . . . . . . . . . . . 57, 86

Church of Scotland . . . . . 34

Gorham’s Cave . . . . . . . . 35

Measurements . . . . . . . . . 86

Churches . . . . . . . . . 33, 87

Grand Battery . . . . . . . . . 28

Medical Services . . . . . . 101

City Hall . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Great Siege Tunnels . . . . . 36

Mediterranean Steps . . . . 10

Coach Parks . . . . . . . . . . 84

Great Synagogue . . . . . . . 10

Military Ceremonies . . . . 76

Coat of Arms . . . . . . . . . 69

Harley Street Tunnel . . . . 37

Military Heritage Centre . 11

Coins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

Health/Medical. . . . . . . . 86

Mons Calpe . . . . . . . . . . 68

Commonwealth War

Hindu Community . . . . . 71

Montagu Counterguard . . 27

Historic Buildings and

Monuments . . . . . . . . . . 11

Guard . . . . . . . .

Graves . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Communities, Multicultural . . . . . . . . 71

104

Fortifications . . . . . . . . 21

Moorish Baths . . . . . . . . 15

Historical Walking Tour . . 46

Moorish Castle . . . . . . . . 15

Index Moorish Dominion. . . . . 69 Moroccan Community . . 75 National Holidays . . . . . . 81 Neanderthal Man . . . . . . 67 Nelson’s Anchorage. . . . . 17 Nelson Statue . . . . . . . . . 14 Nun’s Well . . . . . . . . . . . 17 O' Hara's Tower . . . . . . . 30 O' Hara's Battery . . . . . . 30 Ocean Village Marina . . . 57 Our Lady of Sorrows . . . 53 Passports . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Police Force . . . . . . . . . . 89 Postage Stamps . . . . . . . . 67 Post Office . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Prince Edward's Gate . . . 30 Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Public Library. . . . . . . . . 90 Queensway Quay Marina . 58 Queen Victoria Memorial . 13 Ragged Staff Gate. . . . . . 30 Referendum Gate . . . . . . 31 Restaurants and Bars . . . . 60

Rings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Rock Gun Battery . . . . . 31 Roman Catholic Community . . . . . . . . . 76 Rooke Statue . . . . . . . . . 14 Sandy Bay . . . . . . . . . . . 54 St Michael’s Cave . . . 18, 50 Shipping Business . . . . . . 96 Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Shrine of Our Lady of Europe. . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Sightseeing . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Sikorski Propeller . . . . . . 13 Southport Gates . . . . . . . 31 Spanish Dominion . . . . . 69 Sports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Stamps . . . . . . . . . . . 67, 90 Synagogues . . . . . . . . 10, 89 Tattoo Artists . . . . . . . . . 91 Tax Haven . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Taxi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Taxi Tours. . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Telephone Assistance . . . . 91

Telephoning to/from abroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Temples . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Tourist Information . . . . 92 Tours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Trafalgar Cemetery . . . . . 20 Tunnel to Dockyard . . . . 38 Tunnel Tours. . . . . . . . . . 51 Tunnels . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Upper Rock Nature Reserve . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Useful Telephone Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Vaccinations . . . . . . . . . . 87 Visas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Weddings . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Wellington Front . . . . . . 31 Wellington's Monument . 14 World War II . . . . . . . . . 70

Advertiser’s Index & Map Location Page Map Cable Car ......................... 45 Chiropractic Clinic ........... 102 Discover Pocket Guide ..... 80 Dolphin World ..................45 Europa Group ...................97 Fine Design Ltd ................ 103 Gibtelecom ....................... 39 Gibraltar Tourist Board ......3 King’s Bastion ...... Back Cover Munchies ..........................64 Photography & Art Direction . 38

F-4 B-3 F-3 B-4 B-5 F-3 E-3 F-4 C-2

Page Map Regency ........................... 103 Rock IT ........................... 103 Rock Turf Accountants ..... 80 Ritual Tattoo .................... 90 Terry’s .............................. 93 The Rock Hotel ...............2 The Silver Shop ............... 64 Vassallo Images ................. 93

D-3 D-3 F-3 E-3 H-4 G-3

See full Gibraltar map for Red coordinates

105

Copyright Š 2009 Discover Pocket Guide(s) Gibraltar Ltd. Suite 1, 209 Main Street, P.O. Box 759, Gibraltar. Tel/Fax: (+350) 200 76204 E-mail: info@discover.gi www.discover.gi Printed By:

5th Edition All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system without permission in writing from the publisher. Every effort has been made to make sure the information contained in this guide is accurate. We would like to thank the people of Gibraltar for their helpful suggestions and comments, and special thanks to the Gibraltar Tourist Board for their continued support and photographs, and to John J.Wood,Warren Vassallo, Spencer Montero, Stephen Gross and Phil Langley for photographs and Haresh Budhrani for his article on the Hindus in Gibraltar. Prices were correct at time of publication but are, of course, subject to change.


Gibraltar Discover Pocket Guide - July 2009