Weighing the Cloud
Thesis work of David Bellona, Ixd Class of 2012, School of Visual Arts.
Weighing the Cloud Thesis work of David Bellona Class of 2012 MFA Interaction Design School of Visual Arts Front Cover: Clouds over Lake Ontario.1 Back Cover : Microsoft Data Centre, Dublin, Ireland.2 "The planet is fine. The people are fucked." � George Carlin Contents 7 8 11 13 15 16 23 24 26 30 35 36 42 46 50 54 61 63 66 76 80 82 Primer Inspiration Statement of Purpose Starting Out Initial Statement of Purpose Summertime A Three-Month Detour Squidfingers Twitter Mention Shelving Unit Detour Statement of Purpose Thesis Presentation to Frank Chimero & Liz Danzico Back to What Matters Most & Early Explorations Outlining the Issues Going Back to the Future, or to July 2011 Understanding Server Farms, Data Centers, and Cloud Computing Seed Cloud and Read Cloud Projects Determining the `What' Research On Emerging Themes of Digital Production and Consumption Interviews User Survey Defining an Audience Adjacent Entities for Competitive Analysis January 2012 � March 2012 November 2011 � January 2012 August 2011 � October 2012 March 2011 � July 2011 97 Concept & Experience Development 102 Emission Bricks Prototype 116 Carry Your Cloud Prototype 130 Defining Features, User Stories, and a Name 132 The Problem Space 134 Coal Button 137 Canary 140 Concept Map 152 Wire Flows 154 Wireframes 164 TAP Prototype 166 Final Designs & Use Cases 177 References & Influence 183 Thanks February 2012 � April 2012 March 2012 � May 2012 Primer "Thesis is process", I've been told. In my persistent approach to a consistent idea [sic], I discovered that the cloud (p.46) is an awesome invention that I absolutely love. I assume you do as well. It allows ubiquitous and convenient access to nearly all world knowledge and an ability to communicate with our friends and family at any moment. There is an unsaid promise of the cloud: as we move from physical to digital products and documents, our environmental impact is lighter. However, our production of digital content is exponentially increasing every day. To house this growing data, we are building a vast physical infrastructure that depends on non-renewable energy resources. This infrastructure comes in the form of data centers � the factories of the Information Age. Similar to the massive structures of the Industrial Age, we are again building systems that are out of balance with the amount of energy this planet has provided. We have an opportunity to create our supporting physical infrastructures sustainably and utilize renewable energy resources. Yet we are missing that opportunity. One challenge is the transparency of the IT industry to report fully on energy and CO2 emissions, and establish a set of standards that they and we can build a sustainable system upon. With continued pressure by Greenpeace, recent literature on the physical infrastructure of the Internet and the paradox of efficient consumption, I have hope that we are moving in the right direction. The work contained in this book is only another step. 7 Sunset at Donahue Pass on the John Muir Trail, Yosemite National Park, California. September 18, 2006 8 Inspiration me In 2005, I went for my first solo hike in Haleakala National Park on the Hawaiian Island of Maui. I had hiked a few three-day loops with my Dad in New Hampshire and Vermont, but this was my first time solo. I stayed at the Paliku campsite in the Haleakala crater and from my tent, I could look south over the Kaupo Gap with distant clouds passing by at eye level. Observing the landscape, I was able to see a history of how the earth beneath me formed, slowly eroded, and allowed for plants to take root. As night fell, clouds rolled over the top of the cliffs behind me to cover my tent; when morning came, the clouds dissipated and a daily cycle was renewed. In a simple moment, I saw the macro and micro systems of this planet we inhabit. In the years since, I've sought these simple moments in nature, going on solo hikes in Montana, California, Arizona, Oregon, Washington, and soon on the Long Trail in Vermont. I, along with others I've met along the way, have found inspiration and mused at the most basic of landscapes, wondering how a pile of large rocks, setting sun, or falling water can be so damn beautiful. 9 Statement of Purpose I'm investigating the environmental effects of our overfed data diets, in particular the disconnect that we as producers and consumers of digital content have with the physical infrastructure of the computing cloud. To frame my hypothesis, I asked the question. "Does demonstrating the correlation of cloud-based computing with carbon dioxide emissions lead to a decrease in digital consumption?" I'm talking about the environmental impact of our data, specifically, the carbon footprint of bytes (kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes) which requires infrastructure and energy to transmit and store. These bytes exist in large data centers, some powered in part by renewable resources with energy efficient architecture, while many others receive all their energy from non-renewable resources. Globally, data centers accounted for 1.5% of total electricity use and 2.2% of energy use in the US in 2010. These figures increased 36% (globally) and 56% (US) from 2005; research estimated in 2011 that global electricity use of data centers increased by 19%.1 I'm not the first to look into the environmental effects of cloud-based computing. The work of Greenpeace and Mike Berners-Lee, author of the Carbon Footprint of Everything, has calculated the carbon dioxide emissions (CO2e) of a text message, Google search, email, and the world's data centers which weigh in at a staggering 130 million tons of CO2e per year.2 Google has also calculated the carbon footprint of a search request at 0.2g CO2e.3 The amount is seemingly small, but with an estimated 200 million to 500 million search queries per day, 1.3 million tons of CO2e are produced per year just from Google searches.4 Notwithstanding any explanation of environmental consequences, this issue may seem to be too small to bother. After all, there is an inherent efficiency and environmental benefit that comes with digitization. But as we exponentially produce more data, we encounter a phenomenon called the rebound effect: as technology allows faster and easier access to a resource, the cheaper that resource becomes and the faster it is used. The consequence is a low-carbon interaction resulting in a high-carbon lifestyle simply because we do it more.5 More notably is the cloud computing phenomenon. 11 As users, we are comfortable with not knowing the systems that house our data, specifically how much data we actually have amassed, where it is actually physically located, and that the government can access our data regardless of 4th amendment protections.6 As producers and consumers of massive amounts of digital content, we are growing more and more distant and dependent, on vast systems that we increasingly do not understand. The goals of my thesis are threefold: �To educate users of cloud-based media about the physical structures supporting online interactions. �To facilitate environmentally conscious behavior in the production and distribution of digital content. �To pressure the providers of digital services to conduct and build their businesses in an environmentally sustainable manner. Starting Out March 2011 � July 2011 Thesis Preparation class with Liz Danzico March 22, 2011 Buying a 50 lb bag of sand at Home Depot for our framework assignment. Benjamin bravely volunteering to build a drizzle castle in class. Success! Water + sand = framework. 14 Initial Statement of Purpose A few terms immediately come to mind in brainstorming a thesis: nature, sustainability, green, climate change, materials economy, renewable, permaculture. Before placing these terms on a cartesian plot of past/future and environment/moment, there are seven other terms not typically associated with the aforementioned: shock, denial, anger, bargaining, depression, testing, and acceptance. These terms are the seven stages of grief, reserved for breakups or passing of a loved one, but when applied the looming energy and environmental crisis, ring true to our emotion and psyche surrounding the subject. Rather than portend the current trends and shifts, let us turn our attention to a term that overshadows much of the environmental movement and is a pillar of our economy: consumption. Consumption is an interchangeable term describing how we, the consumer, use energy, food, and goods. Strict definitions aside, we are in the midst of an enormous shift in economy, world politics, environment, and energy. It all requires a sea change in how we perceive, discuss, and participate in our consumption. It's what Bruce Mau calls "massive change"and is a seemingly impossible, all-encapsulating wicked problem. Consumption as convenience has been established and fortified over the last half of the 20th century. Government initiatives to develop the middle class in post World War II America as well as banking innovations such as the credit card expanded purchasing power to the masses. Through the removal of these financial barriers, we are given the freedom of more choice to consume. How we express this freedom � either through consumption or conservation � is an interesting opportunity for investigation. Environmental concerns aside, how individuals decide to use their purchasing power can be applied to small localities to more macro situations. By focusing on the behavior of an individual, the choices we make everyday allow for more granular opportunities. However, it is not as simple as Bill Hicks suggests as a choice, "between fear and love",7 but rather understanding the spectrum of choices, whether active or passive, that are presented to us every time we consume. This idea lends itself into a first approach, exploring 15 frameworks of individual decision making and as David Foster Wallace describes, our inability in, "being able truly to care about other people and to sacrifice for them over and over in myriad petty, unsexy ways every day."8 This concept, coupled with the current consumption zeitgeist and recent advent of cloud-based computing, creates a curious relationship. Cherished physical objects such as photos no longer need to be carefully stored and documented. In great excess, we can consume digitally at near infinite levels which (I postulate) further removes us from the consequences of our actions. The removal of meaning from the actual object offers another opportunity for investigation on how we consume and ultimately experience these virtual forms. While the first approach involves a study of choice architecture and frameworks, the second is a study on the construction of current consumption (energy, food, goods) behavior. These two approaches will be informed by inspiration from previously and soon-to-be read books during the summer, interviews with workers in energy, infrastructure, food production, and product design industries, as well as ethnographic research with individuals and in group settings. Feedback April 21, 2011 "How can you design interactions to be both a positive experience and reduce consumption and/or affect behavior? Or, can you at all?" - Liz Danzico Summertime Reading The majority of my reading was done on the subway or in Union Square Park during my lunch break from my internship at Case Commons. I wanted to explore relevant topics from my statement of purpose as well as find inspiration in the thoughts of David Foster Wallace and Bob Dylan. (No notes taken) " Trust (is) time based, not tech based." " The opportunities for service innovation are endless if only we shift focus of innovation from work to everyday life." " The design task is to make information digestible, not to keep it out." -John Thackara " Privacy is something you can sell, but you can't buy it back." " Happiness isn't a road to anything, Happiness is the road." -Bob Dylan " While our information technology may be digital in nature, the human beings interacting with it will always be infuriatingly and delightfully analog." " Focus on the task, not the tool." " Graceful degradation." -Adam Greenfield 16 Summertime Thought Phrases Based on my reading, conversations with friends and family, and daydreaming, I wrote in my Evernote journal what my buddy Steve calls, "thought phrases". It helped to quickly get my ideas down without self editing to formulate a foundation for thesis. Brevity and spell check not included. Note: In this section and throughout the book, moments of clarity and breakthroughs are highlighted pink in notes, emails, blogs, and sketches. Evernote Entries / On Systems & Service Design #intro #service_design #system_design #thesis #thought_phrases 7/10/2011 Although I keep coming back to the design of objects, making things with my hands, playing around with an arduino board, the larger impact of my thesis lies in the design of a system or service. When I was in undergrad, I had an urge to redesign signage and way finding systems for airports and public transportation. I think this was rooted in a new discovery of typography and my fascination with Swiss design. I liked the idea of a framework, not just the appeal of designing an icon or typographic system, but rather an environment in which a person moved fro place to place easily. The challenge in designing a service or system is in the research of the problem, namely with my initial topic `consumption'. What type of consumption should I focus on? Why are we driven to over consume? 7/18/2011 The idea of a service being able to know who you are and adjust your experience to your preferences or past behavior for an interaction designed just for you why isn't this done with ATMs? Greenfield talks about hotel rooms in the Mandarin that are preset for you on check in, same with car seats. 7/19/2011 The idea of programmable way finding in a stadium, city (see GAUDI) seem like a promising way of eliminating some clutter, maybe also for a park directing people for different events. 7/21/2011 The idea of designing in a smaller system that represents, microcasim, of a larger system of behavior. Take for instance 9/4/2011 Chris Fahey's design a human assignment. again hinting the analogy of the emergency services button in a train/subway station. Given the facts on what we know in energy consumption, economy, rather than targeting the efficiency of a consumer's lifestyle in information processing and sorting, how we communicate with one another, (this has become the primary role of interaction designers, they have been relegated to this role and am curious of the similarities to semiotics 17 used by graphic designers. to merely create efficiencies in how we communicate or flow through a process regarding information exchange) seek out inefficiencies, etc the daily jobs of gov't workers, janitors, garbage collectors, etc. The idea that a human's job can be mapped into a serious of yes/no statements is disingenuous to the process of human behavior, ie digital versus analog. If the human specifications are followed to the T, that process would be successful in it's function. however, a number of issues, discovered by in the field research, interviews, etc, reveal multiple issues in the ability for the human specification to be successful. In finding those pain points and fallacies in the flow, create a solution that targets that issue. In the case of a grbage collector, the daily decision process is governed by the ease of that decision, the weight of that cognitive load. The creation of change in that work flow can be facilitated by the injection of q service, object, solution that changes the weight of that cognitive load, makes it lighter, tips the scale so to speak, so that the behavior is shifted and the work flow, efficiency, is changed. Perhaps this is what is meant by being intuitive - where the "right" decision has a lighter cognitive load that the "wrong" one, and the path of least resistance presents itself or lends itself to the work flow that makes the systems successful. Thackara talks about the disappearance of computing, 18 the seamlessness of ubiqiotuos computing by Greenfield, and Berg's ice berg analogy of the amount of hidden activity required to provide a service. Over the course of our first year, we have covered the idea of smart objects, "the internet of things". These object carry with them touch point or different interface than that of a digital screen, and some do embody one data point. The interesting and fascinating to notion is the objects ability to surface data, process, functionality that was otherwise lost in the cloud. An object that places more emphasis on a piece of data so much so that other types of data patches or fixes are not required to be layered on top. of the old data to increse it's functionality. it harkens back to the idea of time, the idea of creating efficiency, the layering of design solutions on top of one another that only add to the complexity rather than simplify the problem, or merely offer a different perspective on the solution outside of a digital one. Cloud computing. Taking the metaphor further in how a natural cloud functions and how a computing cloud functions. Water vapor, packets, are combined and the gain more weight so much so that they fall to earth in the form of rain droplets, data. Getting information from the cloud, rain, downpour, lightning. (Also, find the passage of wanting only some simple content, water, but we as consumers are drowned in a sea of info formation ,when all we were asking for is a drink to "wet the whistle". App objects. we have windows into the data or cloud, so that the object itself has lost importance or meaning, that the data we are accessing has more importance than the actual object. Furtehrmore, it is that access to that data that we now place emphasis on, the effcieiny ,intuitiveness, etc. Why not create object that can display this data, the data that is most importance to us in an ambiance, or passive sense. "The hallmark of such services (self-service) is that they take place with little or no human contact; the customer does the work once done by an employee." Thackara, p.219 Evernote Entries / On Natural Design #ideas #intro #system_design #thesis #thought_phrases 7/19/2011 The other day, I was reading `Everywhere' by Adam Greenfeild. In an early thesis, he was talking about ubiquitous computing being invisible to behavior, computing that the user is unaware of - but benefits from - it's ability to do computation, data collection, regulation, information processing, etc. He began to allude to and then talked briefly about the misnomer that ubiquitous means natural, and that technology is in fact separate from nature. (p.28) But I am wondering about how ubiquity, placing sensors into object that basically collect data and information to be fed into a larger database and then be reinterprted by another system, screen that will change our behavior is a hope for computing to be more like an environment. In `In The Bubble', Thackera talks about speed being a tenant for better design, talking how our modern way of life has created burdensome efficiencies, speedy processes that compound exponentially over time, driving us further away from the natural, undulating cycle that the earth provides, especially when it comes to agriculture, p.33 (dolce farniente meaning sweet doing nothing, p.35) Furthermore, he mentions another thought phrase I had about how nature designs things through evolution, ie. a slow, agile, iterative design process. Theory: With the sustainable movement, green, environmental, et al, permeating our marketing, materials, behavior, and design, Design is moving towards a more natural way of prototyping, designing, building, producing, computing. This can also be construed as "humanizing the machine" or "making an experience more natural". The way we communicate through devices is being patched together and fixed by hundreds of smaller startups, most of whom will die before maturation, to find or evolve a better way of design. Sex is one was that nature has come up with a very simple way for variety in it's experiments. Combine two things together with different traits and see what happens, but do this millions of times over thousands sometimes millions of years. The result is a highly evolved animal that can be aware and conscious of nature's process. Perhaps, we wrestle with this consciousness, the ability to recognize nature's bounty in whatever form and manipulate it. Only now, we are beginning to see for the first time in history the consequences of our actions - pollution, extinction, climate change, etc. With this realization, we are beginning to modify our design process to create objects, services, systems that are returning to the natural rhythms of nature. But there are opposing forces albeit man made ones - that are slowing down the shift, namely economic systems, political systems. I wonder what systems can be created that while they are in some ways governed and guided by the aforementioned, that can be strengthened, service. While that service may not be "natural", an obtuse, regimented way of interfacing with a service through a computer is eliminated by creating an experience with that service, not an experience with the form of that service. 8/1/2011 In urban design, "In the Bubble" p.94 talks about how certain areas of a city, namely Belgrade, is unplanned and allows it's citizens to fill in, create, make, design areas of a city that have been vacated. he coined the term "urban genetics" 9/4/2011 "Networks and systems in nature generally start out small and develop during a process of gradual growth. That's also how we should design man-made ones: Act lightly, sense the feedback, act again." Thackara, p.215 Evernote Entry / Time #intro #seamlessness #thesis #thought_phrases #time 8/3/2011 Reading "Everywhere" by Adam Greenfield on the morning commute, he talks about the "discourse of seamlessness" (p.137), and how seamlessness erases the boundaries of interactions from one experience to the next. This, in conjunction with Thackera's writings on Situation, namely airports, can lead to a person's 19 designed more holistically, to trump, out compete, change the larger systems. QUESTION: what are those systems that provide opportunities for a more massive change? Insulating against the (fast approaching?) situation of peak of natural resources, carrying capacity, etc. that would make the more agile, "natural" systems a viable choice, a sound economic choice, and advantageous political choice. In `Web Form Design' by Luke Wroblewski, using "gradual engagement" as a way for people to interface with a form or signup by actually using the disorientation in space and time, giving them no sense of place or what time frame they are in. This type of disconnect/removal from time reference can be not only detrimental to a person's psyche, but also to their connection with other people, places, nature, smaller and larger systems. As a result, this could fortify a state of not knowing, and subsequently not caring about, the consequences of their actions., aka, Eloi. Also to note, thought on how devices are a window to a world of data, and interaction design in about the design of the experience with accesses, filtering, consuming that data/ information. The importance of form of the object takes a backseat to the experience that the user is having with their information. Also, the gravity/ weight of their information, in consumption and covet, is lightened/lessened as it becomes digitized. I no longer have to rescue photos from a burning home as they are stored in the cloud, the impetus is on the experience. Appropriation as ownership of a piece of technology, but only if the user knows to an extent how the technology works, knowing how the system works. If the user is left in the dark or doesn't know how technology works, subsequently doesn't care, and just wants "it" to work, there is an unappreciation for the system at large, or the impacts of their own behavior on the larger system. "I am only concerned with my own task at hand, and b/c my concentration is only on that task at hand, 20 why would i care about the other tasks done by others as long as it doesn't impact my own ability to complete"? These situations where this is apparent is HD television viewing (becomes artifacted), capping bandwidth for internet surfing. What is the experience of television in terms of sense of place? What is the experience of travel? What is the experience of the work day? Matthew Chalmers and Ian MacColl introduce the notion of beautiful seams so the user knows when they are moving from one interaction to the next. space design within an experience - closed vs. emergent - artifacts vs. behaviors - predetermined vs. present * How can you design interactions to be both a positive experience and reduce consumption and/or affect behavior? Or, can you at all? - feedback from liz, april 21, 2010 taking my thesis to a place i have not yet explored yet i have a gutteral reaction to, deep down. Communication frequency is determined by distance and intimacy level of the interpersonal relationship of the two people. Letter, call, email, text, chat. location of call (on the street vs. in the home) new ways of creating, organic, agile. what is the necessity of gesture? Evernote Entries / On Praxis or Sketching in Hardware, Lingua Granca #gestures #intro #object_design #thesis #thought_phrases 8/12/2011 Lingua franca 8/21/2011 "Manifesto for Agile Development Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan" p.111 also, the structure of Classical as being a closed framework and Jazz being an emergent framework. example of espn iphone interface: side-to-side/forward-back button vs. swipe. Evernote Entry / On Cities #cities #ideas #intro #research #thought_phrases 9/2/2011 After watching the 8-part series on New York, my perspective on cities shifted from my ideals of a livable streets, multi-modal transportation, remove cars, mixed use buildings, buildings of old and new, csa's to actually what all those things entail. I knew all these when used meant a better city to live in. I can bike everywhere, not have to maintain a car, close to cultural events, walk places, friends all around, exchange ideas. But over the last month - especially triggered by a throughout phrase when looking at the Grand Army monument - all these separate things began to come together, encouraged by the doc I watched, and now affirmed in reading "In The Bubble" by John Thackara. He states "a sustainable city... has to be a working city, a city of encounter and interaction - not a city for passive participation in entertainment." p.75 The NYC doc talks about our view of cities and what they are. I sometimes wonder about the opinions of urbanites from ancient times, or even just before the industrial devotion. and even at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Did people think a city as home? With neighbors, families, gossip, local stories, jobs, short commutes, conversations with strangers and shop keepers? I think about a statement from a friend of mine, more offhand comments about the safety of a city, and how they were basically very dangerous, more dangerous than a suburb, implied. Could this have stemmed from the economic downturn of cities in the 1970's? The flight from cities to the burbs and exurbs formed a crater of density, a volcanic eruption whereby the population densities oozed out into open, available land. This was enabled, predicated? encouraged by the housing policies in the new deal, GI Bill, loans, economic stimulus through "community" real estate development, pushing manufac- turing away. Point is: we view cities as a destination not of living. Of having conversations with shop keepers, etc. These ideas are romanticized in many people of my generation, where European cities are for more "livable", or just more conducive to being a home. My Grand Army monument realization sparked when I looked at the monument, seeing the fine craftsmanship, intricacies, imaging the grandeur when it was just built, all now contrasted by the swaths of pavement, noisy traffic, spiraling exhaust. It looked more like a memorial to the past rather than a war memorial. The original intent of the memorial was lost/forgotten, and seemed to shift to a memorial to an age. 21 A Three-Month Detour August 2011 � October 2011 Squidfingers Twitter Mention Shelving Unit I wanted to create a shelf for my studio desk that could hold my books, work, and pictures as well as a public extension of my Twitter account. I've always admired Squidfingers' set of patterns for web use, and use pattern #108 for my Twitter account background. For the shelving unit, I extended the pattern to use on a physical display, etching it into the center acrylic panel. Using an Note: I never wired up the shelving unit, the time involved and project became a distraction, but in the end, I had additional storage for supplies and books. Arduino, I plan on lighting up the center panel with LED's every time I get mentioned on Twitter, publicly notifying myself and others. Finished shelving unit at my desk. 24 Process & Details September 17, 2011 � October 8, 2011 Squidfingers pattern #108. Cutting and sizing up the pieces at my parents' home. Samples from the laser etching vendor. Setting up shop in the chat room at school. Spraying fixative on the laser etched pieces. Re-assembling and gluing the shelving unit. Adding the trim and sanding at the SVA sculpture studio. Painting in the chat room. Side panel detail. Back panel pattern details. Routed space under acrylic panel for the LED strip. Back view of the shelving unit. 25 Detour Statement of Purpose "Our windows to the digital world have been confined to flat rectangular screens and pixels � `painted bits'. But while our visual senses are steeped in the sea of digital information, our bodies remain in the physical world. `Tangible bits' give physical form to digital information, making bits directly manipulable and perceptible." 1 � Hiroshi Ishii, Founder, MIT Tangible Media Group Information Appliances & New Nows Dr. Ishii is proposing an exploration in an area of computing foreign to the mainstream use of the personal computer. Through graphical user interfaces (GUI), we access digital information via a desktop or laptop computer as well as mobile device. The narrow framework and office-centered metaphors we are conditioned to reinforce interactions that limit our ability to meaningfully communicate and access information. Currently, however, other methods are being implemented and explored to shift our perspectives from the keyboard and desktop metaphor toward gestural and haptic interfaces. With the recent implementation of touch screen technology in consumer electronics, gestures allow open up new tangible channels for us to communicate with a computer. However, our hands have become nothing more than giant meathooks [sic], arching down onto a device to simply push a digital representation of a physical button. In many touchscreen interactions, we are simply following instructions to "play", "delete", or "reply". Furthermore, gestural futures typically default to lofty user journey videos or science fiction movies, most notably Minority Report. As a seemingly faster way to access information, an established set of gestures require recollection of mean26 ing rather than recognition. This impacts the library of gestures that a designer can assume his/her audience possesses, and is reflected in the limited way we interact with our touchscreen devices. Symbolic, gestural languages such as sign language and semaphore provide a platform for rich communication, but as Jun Rekimoto, Director of the Sony Interaction Laboratory, states, gestures, "should be mimetic rather than symbolic".2 This means our gestures should be learned through imitation, mimicking the behavior of others. In pursuing newer methods of interactions with computers, there are opportunities for reshaping and repurposing established gestures of interaction � especially those with physical objects. In the contemporary consumer electronic landscape, affordances have been limited to instructional buttons rather than physical items and tools whose interactions are inherent and self-evident in form. Gestures involved with using these objects include twisting, turning, pulling, pushing, and lifting. Through the study of past forms and rituals, namely in interpersonal communication mediums, juxtapositions with forms and rituals of contemporary communication may lend new insight into physical interfaces that affect perceived speed, value, and experience of sending and receiving messages. In this pursuit, the possibility of discovering what Fiona Raby and Anthony Dunne call "alternative nows" � "how things could be right now if we had different values"3 � rather than casting some future state. These "alternative nows" can be represented by an object or series of objects that give a user an analog or physical interface, instead than graphical, to interact and access digital information. The end format will be an ecosystem of Jef Raskin's "Information Appliances", computers that are designed for a specific purpose and used only in context.4 By utilizing rapid prototyping techniques, physical prototypes will be produced to pilot form and interaction with users. In this way, a praxis of ideas, based on initial research, can be implemented to test the affects of physical, haptic interfaces on value of filtering data and receiving messages. We access digital content and engage in interpersonal communication through all-in-one electronic devices, e.g. laptop or smart phones, and have little time to ponder the affects this interaction has on information and messages. In pursing a thesis with possible physical artifacts as its outcome, there is an opportunity to shift digital content away from a their current format to new forms of physical mediums. Through a broad study of digital content and methods used to parse received message, the value and meaning of this information can be imbued through social objects in the home. These social objects or physical signifiers can create instances that bridge a communication gap, promoting triangulation � serendipitous moments brought on by a shared interface. 27 Blog Entry : 10/2/2011 Talkin' Thesis Revisions Before I continued to revise my thesis proposal, I wanted to bounce a few ideas around to get the writing wheels turning. I talked with my classmate Allison Shaw about thesis while I was sanding my new studio shelving unit. Two main themes began to emerge as I explained what I wanted to do: + Create physical objects, namely physical displays, that allowed users to get digital information from a single source. + Study past forms of interpersonal communication to discover opportunities for new methods of sending and receiving messages, or accessing data. Allison asked some tough questions, namely on how I was going to innovate both on the sending and receiving, and if my thesis was more about receiving and filtering. She also had some great insight and suggestions about knowing the readiness of a system, inserting bumps or roadblocks into a "seamless" experience to facilitate mindfulness, and referring me to recent graduate Eric St. Onge's thesis project on distraction. Blog Entry : 10/12/2011 Got my touchatag reader today and immediately opened it up. The install was really easy, almost a pure plug-n-play, had to download two drivers from the site, launch the touchatag application, and start using their online platform for building one-task applications. I set up two tests: one to send a tweet and the other send an email. The email test went well, sending an email within seconds of the RFID tag being read, but the Twitter test was a fail, bouncing back "Not Authorized" and "Bad Gateway". seems like the Auth is not working on the touchatag side so I reached out to support for answers. I'm hoping they're responsive, am really excited to build some quick RFID-enabled prototypes. Sketchbook Entry : 10/18/2011 Subsequent Blog Entry : 10/22/2011 When I think of interpersonal communication, I see a gap being bridged between a sender and a receiver. For example, distance is a gap. If you are sitting right in front of me, it is fairly easy, fairly quick to send a message to you (I say "hi"). The gap gets more and more difficult to bridge as the distance increases. I can't just send you my message by yelling if you're a few miles away - I have to figure out a way to get my message from A, where I'm located, to B, where you are located. 28 Back in the day, and I'm talking way back in the day, distance could only be bridged by a person transporting a physical or memorized message. This took more time as distance increased. It could be days, even weeks, before you would receive my message. Ingenuity and technology have of course bridged that gap, "bringing us closer" as the saying goes with any cellphone company. But we have more recently seen development of communication technology that moves away from utility, and move closer to fodder. I believe the way in which we develop communication technology is like spilling a glass of water on a table - filling all cracks and crevices, covering the entire table. In a recent article by Scott Jensen, he is concerned that as we create utility to fill the small cracks and crevices, we only create a greater need for technological solutions to quell cognitive overload and calm user anxiety. Gaps in time and space are being filled without much thinking about the consequences of the bridges being made, or if there is need for them at all. New channels, such as Twitter or Instagram, facilitate an ability to communicate information immediately about experiences as they happen to a mass audience. Arab Spring aside, I question the utility of subdividing my interests, friends, and experiences into more subdivided categories that are filled with apps and bookmarklets. 29 Thesis Presentation to Frank Chimero & Liz Danzico Presentation Slides October 24, 2011 Thesis Devices are not evil + Laptops + Netbooks + Digital music players + E-readers + Tablets + Smart phones What of clocks and coffee tables? Public Space Home Opportunity + Focus on creating digital products that filter, share, and manage digital content. + Fixated on the idea of robust and ubiquitous mobile communication. + Context of the home is forgotten. + How does the digitzation of content and communication effect our expectations, experiences, and sharing of information in the home? 30 Approach + Study at past forms and rituals of communication and household social objects for opportunities. + Alternative Nows � how things could be right now if we had different values rather than casting some future state. + Internet with Things Purpose + Discover new forms of social objects in the home. + Create physical signifiers for digital content and communication. + Use discursive design to explore solutions. Pitch For a household, who need to access digital content and engage in interpersonal communication, these physical information appliances are social objects that facilitate shared experiences. Unlike current mobile computing devices, these products are social signifiers. Thanks Feedback October 24, 2011 " Simply interesting explorations of an interaction design student." - Liz Danzico 31 Sketchbook Entry : 11/1/2011 Subsequent Blog Entry : 11/3/2011 Digital-to-Analog Display A sketch for an analog display of one's online data. Consisting of acrylic and wood layers, the display could be mounted to a wall in a kitchen, living room, or office. Core idea is to communicate data central to the user to other occupants of the room, but with specific quantity ambient referenced. The display would not have any controls, only an `on/off' switch, with controls through a smart phone interface. Blog Entry : 11/11/2011 They are but improved means to an unimproved end. -- Henry David Thoreau 32 33 Back to What Matters Most & Early Explorations November 2011 � January 2012 Sketchbook Entry : 11/7/2011 Why, Who For, What, When, Who By, How exercise in Thesis Workshop with Rachel Abrams. (right) Blog Entry : 11/11/2011 What's the carbon footprint of email? Today, my fellow classmate Catherine Young passed along a link to an article directly relating to my thesis. (did I mention I pivoted? I pivoted). It begins to address the seemingly impossible task of quantifying an individual's carbon dioxide output from using the Internet, most notably email. Apart from a rough estimation, the article mentions an important concept - the rebound effect. The rebound effect is a consequence of our evermore efficient technology; as technology allows faster use of a resource, the more of that resource is used. (This might explain our lament of having no time.) When applied to our increased use of computers, the result is, as the article states, "a low-carbon technology resulting in higher-carbon living simply because we use it more." Blog Entry : 11/13/2011 Headline from the future (ongoing) Online point system created to increase awareness of one's digital consumption habits with environmental impact. Blog Entry : 11/15/2011 Thesis question v.27.1 I'm getting closer to a solid thesis question that encapsulates the "why?" with the "so what?". Here's the latest iteration (oh yea, I pivoted): "Does demonstrating the correlation of cloud-based computing with carbon dioxide emissions lead to a decrease in digital consumption?" 36 37 Sketchbook Entries : 11/19/2011 38 39 40 41 Going Back to the Future, or to July 2011 An Alternate 1985 In the movie Back to the Future Part II, the main character Marty McFly commits the ultimate snafu by leaving a sports almanac in plain sight of an aged version of his arch nemesis, Biff, in the year 2015. Old Biff then hijacks the time-traveling Delorean to travel back to 1955 to give his younger self the sports almanac from the future. Over the next 30 years, Biff uses it to amass a vast sum of money from gambling on sports, always knowing the winner. When Marty arrives back to 1985, he discovers an "alternate 1985" where Biff is his step-dad, mayor of his hometown Hill Valley, and owns just about everything. Way to go, Marty. By comparison, Fiona Raby and Anthony Dunne from the Royal College of Art camp put forward the idea of "alternative nows", offering visions of "how things could be right now if we had different values". Excluding Biff's 1 Plunging into the Shonash Ravine Staying on the Robert Zemeckis' riff, Back to the Future Part III finds Marty stuck in 1885 with only one way to get out: get a locomotive to push his time-traveling Delorean up to 88 miles per hour, thus enabling time-travel (duh) to send him back to 1985. The kicker, apart from getting a locomotive to go that fast, was the Shonash Ravine cutting off extra miles train tracks, leaving little room for acceleration and error. Marty's sidekick, the slapstick genius Doc Brown, calculated a point of no return whereby they must commit to reach 88 mph or plunge into the ravine. Spoiler alert: Marty makes it back to 1985. Among many environmentalists, there is a consensus that a point of no return exists for Earth, where we have done so much damage to the environment that human beings can no longer inhabit the planet. Doc Brown knew the exact point of no return on the train tracks, but unfortunately, we cannot agree when or what that point of no return is for our planet. Bill McKibben, outspoken author of The End of Nature, offers a number of 350 parts per million of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere as the marker, and has founded a non-profit around the concept. As of October 2011, we are currently at 388 PPM.5 So are we going to plunge into a metaphorical ravine? Yes and no. The ability for our air, land, and water to absorb pollution and then provide its bounty is debatable. Moreover, our behavior, particularly around consumption of natural resources, is so far removed from the extraction, production, distribution, and disposal processes that we have difficultly measuring our collective impact, let alone an individual one. Lester R. Brown of the Earth Policy Institute summarizes, "We are crossing natural thresholds that we cannot see and violating deadlines that we do not recognize."6 Back to July 2011 Earlier this year, I drafted a thesis proposal that outlined my exploration for the summer. It stated: "In great excess, we can consume digitally at near iron fist, their work remains in the noir, suggesting, for example, a reality where children grow meat to power their television. Notwithstanding Guy Montag 2 knocking on your door right now, I'd like to imagine a current state where the Knowledge Navigator3 actually caught on and gestural interfaces � rather than a mouse � were our means of interacting with a computer. Coupled with a growing momentum behind the internet with things, these themes formed an area of exploration of my thesis for about four months. The notion of creating new forms of internet-embodied objects as a graduate thesis is very appealing; rants about the need 4 for more tangible interfaces along with explorations by firms such as Berg are evidence that interaction design can extend beyond the screen. Earlier sketches of my thesis included a built shelving unit that glowed when I got mentioned on Twitter (I've got 78 followers so not that often). But as I focused more on the making physical objects, it became apparent that I needed to go beyond, as our chair Liz Danzico put it, "interesting explorations of an interaction design student". I decided to shift my focus from investigations in academia to what I had outlined in July 2011 � consumption. 42 infinite levels which (I postulate) further removes us from the consequences of our actions. The removal of meaning from the actual object offers another opportunity for investigation on how we consume and ultimately experience these virtual forms." To put it plainly, the further removed from the consequences of our actions, the more we will engage in those actions. Pertaining to our digital consumption habits, there are little to no barriers to produce, save, share, and consume digital content. It's even the M.O. of internet-based services to make sure our digital lifestyle is seamless and without barriers. As we shift our content and communication channels to a digital format, we begin to loose sight of exactly how much data we amass. On a personal computer, it's easy to notice how much hard drive space we've filled, but do you know how much data you have in your Gmail account? Facebook? Flickr? What about all of your online content collectively? One New York based startup, Dispatch, is looking to bring all your cloud-based content into once place; a benefit for those who need to manage their content, but not for those who want to know where their content is physically located (Note: this is nearly impossible with cloud-based computing). As John Thackera puts it, "These technologies are supposed to give us a clearer image-but by sanitizing the subject, they prevent us from knowing reality itself."7 This brings me to server farms or data centers or whatever they're called. They make cloud-based computing possible and can be found in the form of a small stack in a work closet or come by the thousands, housed in a massive building in Oregon. What's curious about these (we'll call them data centers) data centers is they consume vast amounts of power. In 2010, global data centers "accounted for between 1.1% and 1.5% of total electricity use."8 The industry recognizes the monetary and environmental costs involved with powering and maintaining such large facilities; With recent advances, companies are making data centers more energy efficient, however, as more extreme "green" measures are taken in the location and design of new facilities, many others, old and new, still run on greenhouse gas-emitting fossil fuels. Now for July 2011, thinking about the consequences of our consumption. How much power does it take to send an email? Consequently, how much carbon dioxide is produced when I do so? Thankfully, research has been conducted around this question, and Mike Berners-Lee, founder of Small World Consulting, even wrote a book on the topic, How Bad Are Bananas? The Carbon Footprint of Everything. But do we keep building more data centers as our data cloud exponentially grows? What happens in 10, 20, 50 years? Are all my pictures and sent emails saved in a virtual shoebox forever? These questions and others help lay the groundwork for my thesis as I move forward with my research, and I can't wait to get started. Again. 43 Sketchbook Entry : 11/20/2011 Understanding the Materials Economy and data centers. (above) Meeting notes with Rachel Abrams in Thesis Workgroup. (opposite) 44 45 Understanding Server Farms, Data Centers, and Cloud Computing A few weeks ago, I headed up to my old stomping grounds in Cambridge to celebrate my buddy's Ryan's birthday and have an early Thanksgiving dinner. Ryan is a Sloanie (MIT) and now works for the big boys at Intel. I had the chance to talk shop with his co-worker, Greg Lord, and his friend, Joe Swanson, a network engineer for the Federal Reserve. Having a fresh perspective on my thesis topic, I wanted to inform my ignorance around server farms, data centers, and cloud computing. Greg and Joe were graciously up to the task. This is what I gleaned. Over the last 15 years or so, the terms "server farms" and "data centers" have become interchangeable. For the most part, the guts of each are similar; there are a collection of computer servers, usually clustered in stacks, forming rows and rows of servers depending on the size of the facility. Minus a monitor and audio jack, an individual server is made of the same components as your computer: central processing unit (CPU), hard drive, processor, memory, fan for cooling, and famously in Google's case, a battery (I'm told the speed of a CPU is not as critical for servers). I say "famously" because until a few years ago, Google was extremely hush hush about their server architecture.9 You can't blame them; servers are a multi-billion dollar industry10 with tiny advances in engineering creating substantial competitive advantage. Unlike other companies, Google designs and builds their own servers (kinda badass if you're a nerd). Google remains secretive; however, they have offered up some larger operational and structural schematics to highlight a few innovations. For example, they moved the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) battery from a separate unit to the server itself. This creates efficiencies in AC/DC conversions from the power grid to a server.11 But I digress. While similar, server farms are intended for serving up data, not necessarily storing it. Data centers on the other hand do both. They have rows and rows of server stacks 46 as well as extensive cooling systems, a control center, telecommunications, security, and tons of redundancy. Redundancies are backups of server components including power supply, network connections, and data storage. If one source fails, no problem. It's backed up. "The more redundancies, the better", says Joe. 12 this very question and responded by renting out their server space, creating Amazon Web Services. They provide the server backbone for Foursquare, Netflix, and Yelp among others, and even host projects for Harvard Medical School and NASA to run complex analysis models. Currently, Amazon Web Services owns one-fifth of the cloud computing market, becoming a major player in providing cloud-based content.13 Epilogue This is my basic understanding of how all this works without delving into the infinite details of information technology. I'd like to thank Greg and Joe for talking about server farms, data centers, and cloud computing. I should let it be known that we did not talk about nerdy topics for the entire time, only most of it. Typically, servers follow a "one to many" or model, where components have at least one backup. Extending this concept beyond power supply and data connection, innovations in optimizing and creating redundancy for data storage, i.e. virtualization, have allowed cloud computing to happen. Depending on who you talk to, virtualization is an over-arching term that allows us to put our data virtually all over the globe and access that data faster by serving it up locally. Imagine for a moment you physically divided you computer's internal components and placed them at multiple locations around your neighborhood. You still have your keyboard, monitor, and audio jack, but the guts are all over the place. However, this all doesn't matter to your computer. The operating system (OS) keeps purring along as if nothing happened, and you can merrily go about your day using your computer, accessing your data as if it were all located in one place. This is basically how netbooks or ultrabooks function. In the world of servers, technology such as storage area networks (SAN) and redundant array of independent disks (RAID) abstracts where information is held and allows data to be replicated. By spreading the data and traffic load across multiple servers in different locations, data centers optimize their physical real estate. Back in the day, companies overbuilt their servers to make room for data expansion and to protect themselves against large spikes in traffic. I like to think of this method as a giant mall parking lot; every mall has built a parking lot that accounts for the maximum amount of visitors on the biggest shopping day of the year. For the other 364 days, there are scores of spaces being unused. But why pay for inactive server space? Amazon asked 47 Sketchbook Entry : 12/11/2011 Initial drawings for the Seed Cloud (below) and Read Cloud (opposite) projects. 48 49 Seed Cloud Project A discursive design approach that makes the act of uploading data to a cloud-based service perceptible to others. The Seed Cloud generates steam relative to the upload size: the larger the upload, the more steam produced. The user connects the Seed Cloud to his/her computer via USB, fills the device with water, and can activate it through the Seed Cloud website. Finished Seed Cloud. 50 Process & Details December 13, 2011 � December 18, 2011 Seed Cloud logo. Mocking up the smokestack in foam core. Measuring the foam core model for smokestack angle and hinge placement. Setting up the files for the laser cutter. Adhering acrylic pieces together to build the base and smokestack. Scouting hardware at various stores. Cutting the screws for the smokestack hinge. Sanding down the smokestack for the proper base angle. In progress at the SVA sculpture studio. My desk mid-fabrication at the IxD studio. Final assembly. Applying the decals. 51 Read Cloud Project A product that measures data stored in your cloud. By installing an a browser extension and plugging in the Read Cloud, a user can measure the mount of data he/she had produced on various social media sites, measured by the day, week, month, and all-time use. If users were given feedback about how much data they produce, would it have an impact on how they produce/consume digital content? Screens from the Read Cloud Demo Video. http://vimeo.com/33872944 52 Process & Details December 13, 2011 � December 18, 2011 Read Cloud logo. Picking up some lumber at Home Depot. Planning out the day for fabricating and video shoot. In progress at the SVA sculpture studio. Painting the exterior. Inserting the device button. My desk mid-fabrication at the IxD studio. Attaching the USB cable. Sketching storyboards. Camera mounted on a mini-boom for the video shoot. Lighting setup for the video shoot. Post-production in AfterEffects. 53 Send or receive Internet content Send 50KB photo Socket Unix ... checks if the data packet has the correct IP address, is in the proper order, and is complete. TCP/IP Stack requests for data to be sent through the... Socket Unix received by My Laptop converts data into 87 IPv4 Data Packets Disruptions Dropped connection Power outage Router Modem ISP Server Network Destination Server A Cybernetic Model of TCP/IP Protocol. 54 Determining the `What' To the left is a cybernetic model14 of TCP/IP protocol in the context of sending or receiving a 50 KB photo. The TCP/ IP protocol functions as a comparator - a component of a closed-loop system that compares information coming from a sensor to the system goal. In the case of TCP/IP , the protocol checks if a data transmission (divided into packets) is complete and assembled in the right order. Anything less, the protocol can request for parts of that data to be transmitted again. This model seeks to determine the `what' of my thesis, the content; it does not necessarily refer to the overall topic, but the actual category and detail of content so as to define the `why', `how', `who for', `who by', `where', and `when'. This exercise is not a linear process where defining `what' first is necessary, rather to grasp exactly what is being studied, however granular. On pursuing a thesis about the environmental effects of cloud-based computing, I need to better understand what I am measuring as well as the infrastructure (so I can determine `where' and `when' is the best point for intervention). The `what' in my case is data - little bits of 0's and 1's that live on your hard drive, and are subsequently stored and transmitted by remote server(s). The more data, the more energy consumed by the server. Data is measured in bits and bytes (8-bits); you've most likely seen the data on your computer in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). When you send any type of data over the Internet such as an email, photo, or gchat message, your data is divided up into packets. On average, the size of these packets are 576 bytes or 4,608 bits,15 and consist of a header and trailer, with the data in between. You may or may not know that your computer has an IP (Internet Protocol) address - a unique numerical identifier for every device on a network. Even websites have IP addresses. The header of each data packet would contain information on the origin or sending IP address, destination or receiving IP address, and total size of the packet. The trailer of each data packet would contain information on how many packets there are and in what order to reassemble them back into the original data. If I were to send a friend a 50 KB photo, the photo would be broken up into approximately 87 IPv4 (Internet 55 Protocol version 4) data packets and then sent out across the Internet. The TCP/IP protocol checks if any packets are missing, request packets from the sending computer, and notify the sender that the transmission is complete. This operation of error checking is called "cyclic redundancy checking" and used by networked devices when sending and receiving transmissions. Direct transmission of data, which can be inefficient and take time (think of a landline phone call), is an obsolete method of transmission for the Internet. However, due to the non-linear nature of the IP protocol, a Google search request for example is not handled by one server, but by several, to give faster, more relevant results. There is actually a carbon footprint estimated by Google for the average search request: about 0.2 grams of CO2.16 Along with the power a laptop consumes, Mike BernersLee estimates a Google search creates 0.7 grams of CO2. Multiply that by the 200 to 500 million search requests per day, and Google searching actually accounts for 1.3 million tons of CO2 emissions per year.17 Visualizing Rob's Tweets Over winter break and into the second semester, I was still wrestling with the idea of visualizing the invisible. Stuck on the idea of signifying tweets (p.24), I experimented with a different technique: dropping all 1,660 of Rob Giampietro's tweets from 3 feet (as of 1/2/12). I quickly set up shop in the studio, counted Rob's tweets, hand punched each one, and captured the result in epoxy. The act of taking something ephemeral and making it permanent in a physical snapshot was an enjoyable exploration, but further pursuit will have to wait until after graduation. Note: Rob is a principal at Project Projects, a design studio in New York. As of 4/30/2012, he has 1,790 tweets. 56 Process & Details January 10, 2011 � January 13, 2011 Setting up the dust shield. Lining up the cone for the tweets. Detail of the cone and the trap door cover. Initial drop test. 3rd drop test. Prep work ready for the final drop. The final drop with Mod Podge coating to help the tweets stick. Attaching the USB cable. The result. 57 Sketchbook Entry : 1/24/2012 #meta Reviewing thesis process book formats from the Class of 2011. (opposite) 58 59 Research January 2012 � March 2012 On Emerging Themes of Digital Production and Consumption Over the past months, I've been reading several books on consumption, culture, design, and the environment. Before I close out the bulk of my secondary research, I want to highlight a few emerging themes regarding our digital production and consumption habits. (I still have to read The Information by James Gleick and Glut by Alex Wright) I. Either Never Satisfied or Always Curious "Our inventions are but improved means to an unimproved end", as Neil Postman paraphrases Henry David Thoreau in Technopoly. A lofty statement, but one that 1 our various communication devices, are we loosing our ability to be satisfied with our current place in life by chasing digital bits of potential affirmation? II. Seamlessness and Time A longtime priority of interaction designers has been to erase the boundaries between experiences with technology, i.e. create a seamless experience. This can range from how easily a user can charge or sync an iPod with his/her computer to the consistency of content design across devices (phone, tablet, computer, television). A fundamental promise of technology: save the user from the drudgery of tasks and make the ones required of them easier. In Everywhere, Adam Greenfield points out that, as does computer scientist Mark Weiser, seamlessness can make experiences, "hard to tell when one thing ends and something else begins".6 Think of it this way: where and when can you check your email? text or call a friend? Practically anywhere. With this ubiquitous power, our divisions of time � work time, family time, play time � are removed. Thackera also warns that even the design of our spaces can make our bodies, "physically desensitized from its sense of time".7 Moreover, Postman laments that the promise of technology is to give us more time by accomplishing tasks faster, "Time, in fact, became an adversary over which technology could triumph."8 Our attempts to create efficiencies with technology and task completion begets more space for other activities; this space however is often filled with more of the same activity � a consequence described as the rebound effect. The concept explains as technology allows easier access and faster use of a resource (time), the more of that resource is used. The effect leaves us wondering where all our time went. III. Information as Metaphor: Water, Garbage, Food Open access to a seemingly infinite amount of information is often framed as metaphor. In The Middle Mind, Curtis White describes the abundance of information as 63 addresses a fundamental question underlying the torrent of technological advancement in the last 20 years - where is all this headed? While some believe the innovations in technology are leading to a singularity as futurist Raymond Kurzweil proposes, other thought leaders question the insatiable demand for new information and our dissatisfaction with the here and now. John Thackara, author of In The Bubble, illustrates our growing dissatisfaction with the analogy of a boy, sitting under a tree, looking out over a landscape. In one case, the boy exists before the invention of the Internet, cellphones, pagers; the other case describes the boy existing now. Which boy is more thoughtful in the moment, satisfied with the solitude of thought? Those not part of 2 the Millennial generation relate to the latter. Some, such as writer Clive Thompson, argues otherwise, saying the boy is actively seeking inspiration to share rather than waiting for some serendipitous apple to drop.3 With his analogy, Thackara references the Italian concept of "dolce far niente", describing one's ability to find pleasure in idleness, literally meaning "sweet doing nothing". Elizabeth Gilbert also writes about the concept in her book, Eat, Pray, Love.4 Both authors question whether we can enjoy a moment to ourselves without being able to communicate that feeling to others. In On Paradise Drive, David Brooks criticizes Americans who have never been satisfied with what they have and who are constantly pursuing the next best thing. Applied to 5 a deluge, leaving us to drown in sea of entertainment and communication when all we wanted was a drink. Postman 9 Seemingly irrational, our digital lifestyle has become a paradox of loss aversion, a decision theory determined by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. Loss aversion states that we can make decisions based on our desire to avoid loss rather than acquire gains; fears of loosing our digital information forever can be alleviated by storing that information in the cloud. In his classic routine, George Carlin jokes that our homes are just places to store all our stuff.14 I would argue that our cloud-based services are not only means to access our content anywhere, but are actually digital attics where we can just store all our stuff. V. Conspicuous Consumption vs. Conspicuous Production Way back in 2001, David Brooks wrote Bobos in Paradise, which described a new upper class of now grey-haired bohemians who express their values with a bourgeois budget. It's not enough to eat "morally neutral sausages"; Bobos must eat sausage made from local, free-range pork using a recipe passed down through the generations, costing far more than any offering from Jimmy Dean. "Shopping, like everything else, has become a means of self-exploration and self-expression", he writes.15 Through conspicuous consumption, we display our values and beliefs. It is now 2012. Our consumption as communicating success has shifted to boasting through production of content. We are all our own PR firm and with the tools of social media, we can broadcast our lives and interests with a simple click or tap. This sentiment is echoed by Kickstarter co-founder Yancy Strickler and entrepreneur Zach Klein in a recent blog post,16 pointing out that conspicuous production is now our means for transmitting values. With every upload and post, we are not only showing the world what we have or what we find interesting, but we are also searching for affirmation. I doubt anyone would continue to post content without feedback from friends, family, or strangers. In another book by David Brooks, The Social Animal, he mentions the ancient Greek concept of thumos,17 the human desire for recognition of one's own existence. With today's social media tools, our ability to fulfill our own personal thumos is for the taking (or clicking); but the question remains � if everyone is seeking recognition, can we all respond to one another despite the cacophony of requests? moves up the pessimism scale, declaring, "Information has become a form of garbage". Beyond subjectivity, his point is reinforced with the advent of content farms � creating content on a mass scale as quickly as possible to seed hundreds of websites for daily use, only to then be forgotten and "thrown away" into a far off database. 10 The most consistent metaphor used is information as food. Douglas Rushkoff quotes Shakespeare in his Frontline report, Digital Nation, saying "we are consumed by that we are nourished". The more quickly we snack 11 on tiny morsels of information [sic], the more our ideas are shaped into bursts of disconnected thought. In his report, Rushkoff points out as undergraduate college students produce and consume information through endless multi-tasking, their ability to defend a thoughtful, consistent argument in an essay is diminished. Gone are the days musing by Walden Pond. Exploring similar themes in his new book, The Information Diet, Clay Johnson states, "information consumption is as active an experience as eating", equating our cravings for salt, fat, and sugar in cheap foods with our desire for affirmation.12 By quickly viewing and sharing information, we fall prey to our desires of affirmation and recognition (as many media companies have learned), resulting in "information obesity". Similarly, this rapid, cyclical behavior leads Microsoft researcher danah boyd to describe social media as being the "psychological equivalent of obesity".13 IV. The Cloud as a Virtual Attic and Digital Hoarding While Postman describes information as garbage, more and more it seems to be something we can stash away in our cloud. Given the amount of storage available for various cloud-based services (generally advertised as being "unlimited"), producing and saving information is effortless. We are no longer limited by available storage on our computers and devices; we can save our digital content on nearly infinite levels. For example, as of today, I'm only using 88 MB of 7,671 MB available to me on my GMail account. Why delete an email when I can just have it on hand? To me, this is a form of hoarding � saving items of little or no utility for the chance of possible use in the future. 64 VI. Starting to Lean Back Apple founder Steve Jobs, in addressing a conference, said, "We think basically you watch television to turn your brain off, and you work on your computer when you want to turn your brain on."18 What Jobs is referring to is the notion of "hot" and "cool" media, a concept first introduced by the late theorist Marshall McLuhan (also recently covered by Paul Ford in our Content Strategy class). "Hot" media are highly defined mediums which engage one sense of the viewer and require very little participation. On the other hand, "cool" media are low definition mediums that demand more viewer participation and require more attention.19 Another closely related classification of media are "lean-forward" and "lean-back" mediums. Television is a "lean-back" medium where viewers want to be entertained and are in a relaxed, passive state. In "lean-forward" mediums, the Internet, for example, viewers are more engaged users of the medium and are in a more active state. But as Eli Pariser points out in The Filter Bubble, the Internet is becoming a "lean-back" medium.20 Increasingly, we are watching more video content online. In fact, nearly a third of all Internet traffic is from watching movies and shows on Netflix.21 Both YouTube and Vimeo have recognized this trend and designed LeanBack and Couch Mode features respectively, so users can watch content on a television or by simply "leaning-back" in a chair. Never mind online video content, our Internet tools and apps allow us to sort through and parse vast amounts of information, easing the burden of search. This does not sound bad at all, but Eli Pariser warns, "as personalized filtering gets better and better, the amount of energy we'll have to devote to choosing what we'd like to see will continue to decrease."22 65 66 INTERVIEW : Deena Rosen, Senior Manager of User Experience, OPower Notes (opposite) 1/24/2012 67 INTERVIEW : Stephan Von Muehlen, Co-Founder, Energy Hub Notes 1/31/2012 68 69 DISCUSSION : Allan Chochinov, Chair, SVA MFA Products of Design; Partner, Core77 Notes (below) 1/31/2012 70 71 INTERVIEW : Don Carli, Founder, Institute for Sustainable Communication Notes 2/10/2012 72 73 INTERVIEW : Steve Berry, User Experience Designer, Efficiency 2.0 Notes (opposite) 2/15/2012 Blog Entry : 2/14/2012 #interviews #summary #findings Interviews n' Making In late January, I spoke with two Deena Rosen, Senior Manager of User Experience at OPower, and Stephan Von Muehlen, co-founder of Energy Hub. Both companies are redesigning our relationship with utility companies by giving customers realtime and historical data of their energy consumption. I first talked with Deena, who described how OPower's product platform is rooted in cognitive psychology, in particular the work of Dr. Robert Cialdini. Researching the motivations behind energy consumption, Dr.Cialdini found that across all financial and environmental reasons that the only true motivator was what he called normative comparison. Normative comparison is a concept where we compare our status and performance to people similar to ourselves, and we want to "normalize" our behavior with others. As individuals, we do not want to do any worse than a larger group in our energy consumption. In discussing this with Stephan, he mentioned that people also don't want to do any better. He described a paradox of normative comparison, pointing out that we tend to take advantage of quantitatively "doing better" than others; if I'm conserving more energy than the majority of people I'm compared with, I will use that lead as an allowance and end up moving 74 closer to the average (using more energy). However, if I'm given a qualitative measure - "Great Job, Dave!" - then I will most likely maintain that lead. Conversely, if I'm falling behind the group, qualitative encouragement will not work. Given quantitative data, I would treat my consumption like a game and try to conserve energy more. In my conversations with Deena and Stephan, we covered many topics around methods for encouraging behavior change. Don Carli, director of the Institute for Sustainable Communication, has a different approach in working towards a sustainable future. Don is a fascinating character. He worked as a production artist for Robert Motherwell and others during the 1970's in the New York art scene, and he helped develop standards for inkjet printer technology in the 1980's. Now, he is advocating for industry standards on sustainable communication. Pursuing large companies with massive advertising budgets such as Proctor & Gamble and Unilever, he hopes to establish a series of measures that: identify the materials used to advertise/market a product, define them in a lifecycle, quantify those materials so as to track them, and then have companies make informed decisions around those agreed upon measures. In doing so, he hopes to prevent "greenwashing" in corporate communication and disclose resources used in advertising and promoting products/services. Moving forward, I plan to incorporate two core concepts uncovered from my interviews: normative comparison and established measures. 75 User Survey Being Online and the Environment I. Intro This survey is conducted by David Bellona, an MFA candidate in the Interaction Deisgn program at the School of Visual Arts. The survey is for academic purposes only. David will be the only person viewing your answers and your privacy will be respected for all responses. The survey will take approximately 15-20 minutes. You will be entered for the chance to win a $25 gift certificate to Amazon.com. Winner will be announced on 2/17. Questions 1-6. For the first section, you will be answering some general questions about who you are and where you live. Cool? Cool. Being Online and the Environment *8. What steps do you take to save electricity? Turn off lights when I leave a room Turn off lights when I leave my home/apt Installed energy efficient lightbulbs Unplug certain appliances or turn off power strips Other (please specify) Installed timers for certain lights Installed motion sensors for certain lights Added insulation around my home/apt (electric heat) Updated my appliances 1. What is your name? (first and last name, optional but needed for the raffle) 2. What is your email address? (optional but needed for the raffle) *9. Which of the following concerns you about your electricity bill? Not important Somewhat Overall Cost Cost per kWh Usage (Power Very important *3. What is your gender? Male Female Consumption) Damage to the environment *10. Do you know where your electricity comes from? Non-renewable energy resources Renewable energy resources Both I have no idea *4. What is your age? *5. Where do you live? (city, state) 6. What do you do for work? *11. How concerned are you about the carbon footprint of your electricity consumption? Not at all Somewhat Very concerned - II. Electricity and the Environment Questions 7-17. The following 10 questions are about your electricity consumption and the environment. consumption? Yes No Maybe *12. Would you pay for a service to offset the carbon footprint of your electricity *7. Do you know what a kilowatt hour (kWh) is? Yes No Kinda 13. Why or why not? Page 1 Page 2 Being Online and the Environment Being Online and the Environment Weekly Daily All the time *22. How frequently do you use the following services? Don't use Not that often Facebook Google + Twitter Foursquare Yelp Flickr Instagram Path Pinterest Tumblr Gimmie Bar Snip.it YouTube Vimeo *26. How do you backup files on your computer? External hard drive Dropbox iCloud I don't back up my data Other (please specify) *27. What cloud-based applications do you use? Google docs Google calendar Gmail Other email service (AOL, Hotmail, Yahoo) iCloud Evernote Dropbox Other (please specify) content? (pictures, videos, comments, etc) Yes No Maybe *23. Would you use a service that helped you keep track of the amounts of your online 28. How would you define 'cloud computing'? 24. Why or why not? IV. Your Files and Cloud Computing Questions 23-32. The following 10 questions are about your files and cloud computing. (You're almost done!) etc) - *29. How concerned are you losing your online files? (uploaded pictures, videos, emails, Not at all Very concerned Flickr photos) Yes No I have no idea *30. Do you know where your online files are physically located? (ex.Facebook content, etc) - *25. How concerned are you losing your files on your computer? (pictures, documents, Not at all Very concerned Page 5 Page 6 76 Being Online and the Environment Being Online and the Environment *14. Have you ever calculated your own 'carbon footprint' using online tools/calculator? Yes No Can't remember *19. What device do you use the most to access the Internet? Desktop Computer Laptop Computer Ultrabook Computer (ex.Macbook Air) iPad Other Tablet (ex. Samsung Galaxy) iPhone Other Smartphone (ex.Android) iPod Touch 15. How would you define 'carbon footprint'? *16. Do you believe in man-made global warming? Yes No Not Sure *20. What device do you use the most to share content? Desktop Computer Laptop Computer 17. Why or why not? Ultrabook Computer (ex.Macbook Air) iPad Other Tablet (ex. Samsung Galaxy) iPhone Other Smartphone (ex.Android) III. Online and On The Go Questions 18-24. The following 7 questions are about your electronic devices and online services you use. iPod Touch *18. How frequently do you use the following devices? Don't own Not that often Desktop Computer Laptop Computer Ultrabook Computer (ex.Macbook Air) iPad Other Tablet (ex. Samsung Galaxy) iPhone Other Smartphone (ex.Android) iPod Touch Weekly Daily Nonstop *21. When visiting a website, how do you share/post the content you are using? Don't use Not that often Weekly Daily 'Like' button 'Tweet' button 'Retweet' button 'LinkedIn' button 'Email a friend' function 'Digg' button Nonstop 'Reddit' button Page 3 Page 4 Being Online and the Environment *31. How concerned are you about the physical location of your online files/content? Not at all - Very concerned *32. Do you know how your online services are powered? Non-renewable energy resources Renewable energy resources Both I have no idea (posting videos, commenting, tweeting, 'liking', etc) Not at all - *33. How concerned are you about the carbon footprint of your online behavior? Very concerned *34. Would you pay for a service to offset the carbon footprint of your online behavior? Yes No Maybe 35. Why or why not? Page 7 77 environmental impact of data centers. A few even noted they would rather change their behavior than pay extra money. + People use Facebook. Not a typical "Eureka!" moment of clarity, but as affirmation, 80% of 21-45 year olds surveyed use Facebook on a frequent basis (weekly, daily or `all the time'). Also, 21-30 year olds use Facebook as their primary means of sharing information on the Internet. Facebook was by far the most used online service, with Twitter a somewhat distant second. Nearly half of 21-30 year olds use Instagram and over 75% of those 45 or older use Google + (yep). + We're just not that into data. A majority of Blog Entry : 2/18/2012 #survey #summary #key_findings After little convincing from my classmates Allison and Cooper ("It's incredible"), I dropped $25 and signed up for SurveyMonkey; it absolutely destroys Google Docs survey. I set up my survey into 4 categories: demographics, electricity and the environment, online behavior, and file management and cloud-based computing. Over the course of two weeks, I had a great response, 102 people, with the majority of respondents in the range of 21-45. A few insights from the survey: + We do care, just not sure what about. The majority of people are concerned with the carbon footprint of their electrical consumption in the home, but are not worried about the carbon footprint of their online habits. It should also be noted that 92% of respondents had no idea how their online services are powered. A key quote , "I don't have a method of easily understanding what my current carbon footprint is and how to reduce/offset it." + Transparency is key. Many people would pay for a service that would offset the carbon dioxide emissions of their electrical consumption. 60% also noted that they would be willing to pay for an offset of their cloud-based data. In both cases, this depended on how and where the money was being spent, as well as information on the 78 Sketchbook Entry : 2/17/2011 Survey summary notes. (opposite) the digerati might be obsessed with the quantified self, but many people surveyed don't think it's that important. Merely tracking the amount of one's online content is not enough to change consumption habits � people need a reason and connection to a benefit or consequence. Many wouldn't know what to do with just straight data; it needs context. 79 Defining an Audience Psychographics Rather Than Demographics For my thesis, I am focusing on the production and distribution of social, fluid, ephemeral content. This includes the reuse of pre-existing content on the Internet as well as the subsequent saving of this content. When I say "saving", I am referring to the automatic storage of short-lived content that is quickly forgotten by the producer � rather digitally disposed � after a few days. In this regard, these behaviors represent a linear process of consumption, recreating tiny, rapid versions of the Materials Economy millions of times per day. The Materials Economy Made digestible through her video, The Story of Stuff, Annie Leonard explains the Materials Economy: the vast, linear system that is the basis for our consumer culture.23 It consists of five general phases: extraction, production, distribution, consumption, disposal (ref.1). For example, the MacBook I am writing this text on contains dozens of materials - precious metals, glass, plastic - that were processed, manufactured, and assembled in factories all over the world. In the case of my laptop, it was shipped from a factory to a distribution center, then loaded onto a truck and delivered to the Apple store in Chelsea. I purchased my laptop there and eventually will hand back over to Apple for "recycling" aka disposal. This linear process has been critiqued again and again, most notably by Ms. Leonard, and William McDonough and Michael Braungart.24 What is fascinating about the Materials Economy are the vast systems involved with creating our everyday objects, from my MacBook or the shirt you're wearing. We do not to think about this massive infrastructure on a day-to-day basis; it simply would not be practical. However, shifting from tangible to virtual products, we are completely unaware of the physical infrastructure that support our digital systems. As consumers, we are setting a dangerous precedent if we are moving forward in the adoption of digital products with, "It just works" While the movement towards everything online (i.e. "the cloud") has the potential to be more environmentally sustainable than current practices, a growing Internet 80 Sketching out model iterations on the blackboard. infrastructure powered by non-renewable energy resources can have a huge impact on the environment. In fact, carbon emissions from powering the world's data centers are about the same as produced by the airline industry, or even a medium-sized country.25 Dividing the Cloud Because the term "the cloud" has become a catch all for everything dealing with data centers, I need to determine specific data center transactions I am targeting as well as user behaviors. Cloud computing is nearly synonymous with the Internet. Amazon Web Services powering the likes of Netflix and Yelp; the ubiquitous access to Gmail; Apple's iCloud service for device syncing; dozens of social media services such as Facebook and Instagram � all fall under the cloud. Aspects of cloud computing I will not address are: streaming media (music, tv shows/movies, live events), work related communications such as emails and file sharing, and services used for backing up digital content. For instance, online services Backupify and Dropbox are for general consumer use, but do not share similar behavior patterns with the consumption of physical products as do Tumblr or Instagram. Consumption vs. Production vs. Distribution Pre-Internet days we expressed ourselves in the real world (IRL) through the products we bought. Clothing, shoes, (ref.1) (ref.2) (ref.3) Model of the Materials & Virtual Economies jewelry, furniture, cars, books, music � these objects served as signifiers that communicated who we thought we were in the eyes of others. Our consumption of physical products, "has become a means of self-exploration and selfexpression", writes David Brooks in Bobos in Paradise. 26 ourselves sharing and distributing massive amounts of content through rapid click or tap cycles, leaving us wondering where the last 20 minutes of our day went. Right or wrong, the online and mobile tools that we are given allow for this behavior. Without limits of cost or material, we can produce/curate/distribute seemingly infinite amounts of information. More often than not, we do just that. For instance, Facebook handles approximately 200 million photo uploads per day.27 Furthermore, we are redistributing existing content through social curation. According to Matt Mullenweg, co-founder of WordPress, for every one piece of content on Tumblr, there are 9 copies of that same content being reposted.28 As a collective, our behaviors require a rapid expansion of the physical infrastructure of the Internet. We still buy physical products, but we also have shifted self-expression and affirmation to the production of online content (ref.2). We broadcast our feelings through comments and `likes'; reblog, repost, or retweet images and ideas we find interesting; upload first-person views of our world through various social media tools (ref.3). Most of our online behavior is reinforced by red circles with white numbers - tiny confirmation alerts that our friends, family, and strangers are paying attention. These mini feedback loops give us hits of dopamine, enabling ephemeral highs that can be terribly addictive. We find 81 Adjacent Entities for Competitive Analysis The competition. I have divided up "the competition" into six categories: Frameworks/APIs, Incoming/Outgoing Data Management, Environmental Visualizations, Backup & Cloud Management, and Electricity Consumption. They are charted along a Physical/Digital spectrum paired with six verticals: Practical vs. Abstract, Social vs. Individual, Real Time vs. Summary, Expert vs. Layman, Stationary vs. Mobile, Commercial vs. Residential. My thesis projects are added on each of the six main charts to illustrate their attributes as well as identify opportunities in different markets. I also performed an audit of consumer labels (e.g. WindMade) and offset programs, but these categories are not mapped as they do not fit the selected cartesian axes. Of the few dozen entities, there are two projects that can be considered "direct competitors", both student projects and in the Environmental Visualizations category: Mark Nystrom's Carbon Emissions Project (2005) and Elwyn Murray's Carbon Bytes (2011). As a public installation at the RISD MFA show, the Carbon Emissions Project 82 sought to bring awareness around CO2 output, using 540 of black balloons to illustrate an individual's carbon output per day (62 pounds). Carbon Bytes is an iPad app exploration of Mr.Murray, tracking personal online habits and consequences, such as hours online, downloads, and CO2 output. It should also be noted this is not a traditional competitive analysis nor fully inclusive of all products/services in any given category. Furthermore, this study is a soft science, and is an exploration of adjacent industries to determine mediums, audiences, techniques, and functionality that may apply to my own thesis projects. Note: I refer to a potential thesis project, Cumulus Alpha in this analysis. This project eventually became Canary, but at the time, was only a placeholder and representative of certain qualities born from this exercise. Also, the At Capacity project was scrapped and became part of the Carry Your Cloud prototype. Process February 28, 2011 � February 29, 2011 Using sticky notes to plot out the competition on one of the studio blackboards. I plotted out four axes at a time, documented each session, then rotated to the next set. After plotting all sets, I brought the photos into Illustrator to cleanup the analysis. 83 Practical vs. Abstract Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Frameworks/APIs Utility Co. Monthly Bill Electricity Meter Incoming/Outgoing Smart Meter Data Management Eco-Eye Monitors Thesis Energy Project Hub Devices Practical Energy Score Cards Utility Co. E ciency 2.0 Website Dashboard OPower Dashboard Utility Co. Email Physical Lucid Design Group OPower/Facebook Dashboard Social Energy App Simple Energy Social Game Energy Hub Dashboard Practical Cumulus Alpha Emission Bits Green Button Read Cloud Practical E ciency 2.0 Reports OPower Paper Report Changers Social Solar Power Digital Neighborhood Score Cards Ambient Devices Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Physic Physical Nest Thermomstat Digital Carry Your Cloud Physical Coal Button REALiTREE Digital Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Gilles Belley Energy Saving Adaptor Seed Cloud Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report At Capacity Natalie Jeremijenko STATIC! Power Aware Cord Abstract Abstract Abstract Practical vs. Abstract Natalie Jeremijenko creates amazing projects that expose Practical the mystery of natural systems and use their process to Cisco illustrate our impact on the environment.Apple While a few are conceptual and abstract, they serve as entry points to discussions around our relationship with nature. The purpose of my abstract projects are also to serve as a gateway around related topics: At Capacity on limitations Physical Tout Email Management Activity Monitor IOS NetFlow External Hard Drive Practical Practical Dispatch.io Dropbox Tumblr Backup Institute for Sustainable Communication Tendril AMEE Backupify Gimmie Bar Green Button Project Brighter Planet TripSquare AMEE Location Footprinter Clean Web Hackathon Digital of storage and bandwidth, Carry Your Cloud on storage as digital attics, Seed Cloud on signifying data creation, and Your Flowing Data Amy Martin the Coal Button on CO2 emissions from digital behavior. Bloom Email Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Tweets Digital Physical Digital Physical Physic Abstract Abstract Backup & Cloud Management Abstract 84 Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Practical Utility Co. Utility Co. Smart Meter Smart Meter Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Energy Monitors Monitors Hub Energy Hub E ciency 2.0 ciency 2.0 E Devices Devices Reports Reports Practical Energy Score Cards Score Cards Energy Practical Practical . Abstract p& nt Management city umption nmental izations l Physical eworks/APIs Utility Co. Utility ciency 2.0 ciency 2.0 E Co. E Website Website Dashboard Dashboard OPower OPower Dashboard Dashboard Utility Co. Utility Co. Email OPower OPower Practical Practical Email Lucid DesignLucid Design Group Group Paper ReportPaper Report OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Dashboard Dashboard Ambient Devices Ambient Devices Social Energy App Energy App Social Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Alpha Cumulus Alpha Social Game Cumulus Energy Hub Energy Hub Emission Bits Emission Bits Dashboard Dashboard Green Button Green Button Physical Nest Nest Thermomstat Thermomstat Read CloudRead Cloud Digital Digital Physical Changers Changers Social Solar Power Solar Power Social Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Practical Practical Elwyn Murray Elwyn Murray Energy Score Carbon Bytes Energy Score Cards Bytes Cards Carbon Utility Co. Utility Co. 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Email Email OPower OPower Lucid Design Group Lucid Design Group Paper Report Paper Report OPower/Facebook OPower/Faceb Dashboard Dashboard Ambient Devices Ambient Devices Social Energy AppEnergy A Social Physical Digital Digital Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Social Game REALiTREE REALiTREE Energy HubEnergy Hub Dashboard Dashboard Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Carbon EmissionsNest Report Nest Thermomstat Thermomstat Physical Natalie Jeremijenko Jeremijenko Natalie Digital Digital STATIC! STATIC! Power Aware Cord Aware Cord Power Coal ButtonCoal Button Gilles Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Belley Energy Energy Saving Adaptor EDF Semaphore Semaphore Saving Adaptor EDF Carry Your Cloud Your Cloud Carry Seed CloudSeed Cloud Abstract At Capacity At Capacity Abstract STATIC! STATIC! Abstract Abstract Power Aware CordAware Cord Power Electricity Consumption Practical Abstract Practical Abstract Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Practical Practical Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Environmental Visualizations Practical Abstract External Hard Drive Hard Drive External Practical Abstract Dispatch.io Dispatch.io Dropbox Dropbox Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup Practical Practical ct Backupify Backupify Gimmie Bar Gimmie Bar Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow NetFlow IOS Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Digital Digital lanet AMEE AMEE Tendril Tendril Institute for Institute for SustainableSustainable Communication Communication Green Button Project Green Button Project Physical Physical Digital Brighter Planet Brighter PlanetDigital Your FlowingYour Flowing Data Data TripSquare TripSquare Tweets Tweets Amy Martin Amy Martin AMEE AMEE Bloom Email Bloom Email Location Footprinter Footprinter Location Clean Web Clean Web Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Hackathon Hackathon Weight of Data Weight of Data Digital Digital Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Digital Digital Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane Paper Plane SMS SMS Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper PlanePaper Plane SMS SMS Your Flowing Data Your Flowing Data Tweets Tweets Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Frameworks/APIs Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 85 Social vs. Individual Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Frameworks/APIs Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Thesis Project Social Social Cumulus Alpha Emission Bits Social OPower/Facebook Social Energy App Simple Energy Seed Social Game Green Button Coal Button Cloud Neighborhood Score Cards Natalie Jeremijenko REALiTREE Changers Digital Social Solar Power Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Lucid Design Group Gilles Belley Dashboard Energy Saving Adaptor Physical OPower Dashboard Physic Physical Energy Hub Devices Ambient Devices Eco-Eye Energy Hub Monitors Dashboard STATIC! Power Aware Cord Nest Thermomstat Smart Meter At Capacity Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report E ciency 2.0 Dashboard Digital Physical Digital OPower Paper Report Carry Your Cloud Energy Score Cards Read Cloud E ciency 2.0 Reports Utility Co. Monthly Bill Electricity Meter Utility Co. Website Utility Co. Email Individual Individual Individual Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Social vs. Individual Social For my main thesis project, Cumulus Alpha [Canary], I Social Social want it to be easy-to-use, mobile, practical, and social; Berlin-based Changers and stateside OPower are doing all four. Changers is an innovative startup that sells portable solar panel units that can power personal electronics. UsChristian Gross ers can Plane SMS Paper broadcast how much energy he/she has created as Silke Hilsing well as CO2 prevented from being released on their social Cisco Physical Weight of Data Institute for Sustainable Communication Clean Web Hackathon networks. Likewise, OPower uses normative comparison Digital whereby we compare our status with people similar to ourselves (friends, family), and want to "normalize" our behavior by comparison. Already implemented on their Your Flowing Data paper reports and online dashboard, OPower will also use normative comparison in their upcoming app, in partnership with Facebook and the Natural Resources Amy Martin Defense Council (NRDC). Bloom Email Individual Apple Activity Monitor Tweets Tout Email Management IOS NetFlow Physical Digital Gimmie Bar Physical TripSquare Digital Dropbox Dispatch.io Physic Backupify Tumblr Backup External Hard Drive AMEE Individual Location Footprinter Backup & Cloud Management Individual 86 Social Social OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Social Energy App Energy App Social Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Social Game Social Social dividual p& nt Management city umption nmental izations Physical eworks/APIs ing/Outgoing g Management t Social Social Lucid Design Lucid Design Group Group Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Dashboard Dashboard Energy Saving Adaptor Energy Saving Adaptor Gilles Belley Gilles Belley OPower OPower Energy Hub Energy Hub EDF Semaphore Semaphore EDF Dashboard Dashboard Devices Devices Ambient Devices Ambient Devices E ciency 2.0E ciency 2.0 Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Energy Hub Energy Hub Dashboard Dashboard Monitors Monitors Dashboard Dashboard Cumulus Alpha Cumulus Alpha STATIC! STATIC! Physical Digital Physical Digital Green Button Green Button Power AwarePower Aware Cord Cord Emission Bits Emission Bits Nest Nest ThermomstatThermomstat OPower OPower Paper ReportPaper Report Smart Meter Smart Meter Seed CloudSeed Cloud Physical E ciency 2.0E ciency 2.0 Reports Reports At Capacity At Capacity Utility Co. Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Coal ButtonCoal Button Digital Digital Energy ScoreEnergy Score Cards Cards Utility Co. Utility Co. Website Website Utility Co. Utility Co. Email Email Physical Neighborhood Neighborhood Score Cards Score Cards Natalie Jeremijenko Jeremijenko Natalie REALiTREE REALiTREE Social Changers Social Changers Social Solar Power Solar Power Social OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebo Social Energy AppEnergy A Social Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Social Game s Project Physical Lucid Design Group Lucid Design Group Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Dashboard Dashboard Carbon Emissions Report Carbon Emissions Report Digital Physical Digital Energy Saving Adaptor Energy Saving Adaptor Gilles Belley Gilles Belley OPower OPower Energy HubEnergy Hub EDF Semaphore Semaphore EDF Dashboard Dashboard Devices Devices Ambient Devices Ambient Devices E ciency 2.0 ciency 2 E Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Energy HubEnergy Hub Dashboard Dashboard Monitors Monitors Dashboard Dashboard STATIC! STATIC! Physical Digital Digital Power Aware CordAware Cord Power Nest Nest Thermomstat Thermomstat OPower OPower Paper Report Paper Report Smart Meter Smart Meter Energy Score Cards Energy Score Cards Elwyn MurrayElwyn Murray Carbon BytesCarbon Bytes Individual Individual Utility Co. Utility Co. Website Website Utility Co. Utility Co. Email Email Carry Your Cloud Your Cloud Individual Carry ReadIndividual Cloud Cloud Read E ciency 2.0 ciency 2.0 E Reports Reports Utility Co. Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Electricity Consumption Social Social Individual Individual Environmental Visualizations Social Social Individual Individual Social Social Social Social Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Plane SMS Paper Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing for Institute for Institute Weight of Data WeightCommunication of Data Sustainable Sustainable Communication Physical Physical Clean Web Clean Web Cisco Cisco Hackathon Hackathon IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Digital Digital Physical Physical Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper PlanePaper Plane SMS SMS Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Physical Physical Digital Digital Gimmie Bar Gimmie Bar Tout Tout Email ManagementManagement Email Your Flowing Your Flowing Data Data TripSquare TripSquare Digital Tweets Tweets Digital Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Cisco DropboxCisco Dropbox IOS NetFlow NetFlow IOS Digital Digital Dispatch.io Dispatch.io Tout Tout EmailBackupify Management Management Email Backupify Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup Physical Physical External Hard Drive Hard Drive External Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Individual AMEE AMEE Location Footprinter Footprinter Location Individual Your Flowing Data Your Flowing Data Tweets Tweets Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Individual Individual Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Individual Individual Individual Individual Frameworks/APIs Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 87 Commercial vs. Residential Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Frameworks/APIs Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Thesis Project Physical Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Eco-Eye Monitors Commercial Commercial Commercial Digital Physic Lucid Design Group Dashboard Energy Score Cards Natalie Jeremijenko Digital Physical Green Button Physical Smart Meter Electricity Meter Digital Simple Energy Social Game Emission Bits At Capacity E ciency 2.0 Dashboard OPower/Facebook Seed Social Energy App Neighborhood Score Cards Coal Button REALiTREE Cumulus Alpha Changers Social Solar Power Energy Hub Devices Ambient Devices E ciency 2.0 Reports OPower Paper Report Utility Co. Monthly Bill Gilles Belley Energy Saving Adaptor STATIC! Power Aware Cord Energy Hub Dashboard Nest Thermomstat Residential Read Cloud Utility Co. Dashboard Email Utility Co. Website Cloud Carry Your Cloud OPower Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Residential Residential Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Commercial vs. Residential The focus of my thesis is an individuals ability � based Commercial on environmental impact � to consciously produce, distribute, and dispose of digital content. In doing so, all of my projects and prototypes are under the Residential category. Features such as normative comparison and real time feedback from physical devices are distinctive Cisco attributes that I will include in Cumulus Alpha [Canary]. Tout Email Management Physical Digital Physical Digital IOS NetFlow Commercial Commercial Institute for Sustainable Communication AMEE Tendril Physical Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Amy Martin Bloom Email Apple Activity Monitor Your Flowing Data Tweets External Hard Drive Brighter Planet Digital Dispatch.io Dropbox Physic Clean Web HackathonTumblr Backup Backupify Gimmie Bar Green Button Project Residential Residential Backup & Cloud Management AMEE Location Footprinter TripSquare 88 Residential Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial ntial vs. Residential Gilles Belley Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Semaphore EDF Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Monitors Monitors Commercial Commercial Commercial Commercial p& Management nt city mption nmental zations l Physical works/APIs Lucid DesignLucid Design Group Group Dashboard Dashboard Energy Score Cards Score Cards Energy Digital Digital Physical Natalie Jeremijenko Jeremijenko Natalie Physical Gilles Belley Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Monitors Monitors Neighborhood Neighborhood Score Cards Score Cards Physical Smart Meter Smart Meter Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Digital Digital Physical Smart Meter Smart Meter Electricity Meter Electricity Meter g ng/Outgoing t anagement Simple Energy Simple Energy Social GameSocial Game Project Physical Digital Digital Physical Energy Hub Energy Hub E ciency 2.0 ciency 2.0 E Devices Devices Dashboard Dashboard Ambient Devices Ambient Devices OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook E ciency 2.0 ciency 2.0 Gilles Belley Gilles Belley E Social Social Green Button Energy App Energy App Green Button Reports Reports Energy Saving Adaptor Energy Saving Adaptor OPower OPower STATIC! STATIC! Utility Co. Utility Co. OPower OPower Power Aware Cord Aware Cord Dashboard Dashboard Power Email Email Paper ReportPaper Report Energy Hub Energy Hub Utility Co. Utility Co. Dashboard Dashboard Website Website Utility Co. Utility Co. Nest Nest Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Thermomstat Thermomstat Coal Button Coal Button Emission Bits Emission Bits Cumulus Alpha Residential Residential Cumulus Alpha At Capacity Capacity At Physical Lucid Design Group Lucid Design Group DashboardDashboard REALiTREE REALiTREE Energy Score Cards Energy Score Cards Digital Digital Changers Changers Social Solar Power Solar Power Social Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Social Game Electricity Consumption Seed Cloud Seed Cloud Carry Your Carry Your Cloud Cloud Read Cloud Read Cloud Commercial Commercial ResidentialResidential Elwyn Murray Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Carbon Bytes Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom Energy Hub Carbon Emissions Report Energy Hub Carbon Emissions Report E ciency 2.0 ciency 2. E Devices Devices DashboardDashboard Ambient Devices Devices Ambient OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebo E ciency 2.0 ciency 2.0 Gilles Belley E Gilles Belley Residential Residential Social Energy App Social Energy A Reports Reports Energy Saving Adaptor Adaptor Energy Saving OPower OPower STATIC! STATIC! Utility Co. Utility Co. OPower OPower DashboardDashboard Power Power Aware Cord Email Email Paper Report Paper Report Environmental Visualizations Aware Cord Energy Hub Energy Hub Utility Co. Utility Co. DashboardDashboard Website Website Utility Co. Utility Co. 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Incoming/Outgoing Power Aware Cord Data Management Smart Meter Eco-Eye Thesis Monitors Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Real Time Real Time Seed Cloud At Capacity Cumulus Alpha Green Button Real Time Coal Button Read Cloud Digital Energy Hub Devices Ambient Devices Electricity Meter Lucid Design Group Dashboard Thermomstat Gilles Belley Energy Saving Adaptor Physical Project Nest Physic Energy Hub Dashboard Emission Bits REALiTREE Physical Digital Simple Energy Social Game OPower/Facebook Carry Your Cloud Social Energy App Energy Score Cards E ciency 2.0 Dashboard E ciency 2.0 Reports OPower Paper Report Utility Co. Monthly Bill Summary OPower Dashboard Utility Co. Website Utility Co. Email Physical Digital Natalie Jeremijenko Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Changers Social Solar Power Neighborhood Score Cards Summary Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Summary Real Time vs. Summary Real Time Unique to online behavior when compared to electri- Real Time External Hard Drive Real Time cal consumption, we have the ability to track usage in Cisco real-time. With cloud-based service providers utilizing virtualization, they can determine if a server is about to Apple crash due to a spike in online traffic and shift that load Activity Monitor IOS NetFlow Clean Web Hackathon Dropbox Dispatch.io to other servers. This capability is a dream for utilities: we all crank our air conditioners during Tout peak-hours on Bloom Email Physical Amy Martin hot summer days, leading to potential blackouts. While Silke Hilsing smart meters hold the promise of real-time electricity Your Flowing Data management, only 13% � 18% of homes in the U.S. have Tweets Weight of Data Digital Email Management Tendril Physical Gimmie Bar Digital Green Button Project AMEE TripSquare Brighter Planet Digital them installed.29 Physical Physic Tumblr Backup Backupify Many of the physical devices such as Giles Belley's EDF Semaphore and Energy Saving Adaptor signify electrical Christian Gross consumption in real time. While they are conceptual pieces, their abstract nature is surpassed by the practicality and function. In developing Cumulus Alpha [Canary], I hope to create an interface that offers real time utility while being aesthetically pleasing. Backup & Cloud Management Summary Paper Plane SMS Institute for Sustainable Communication AMEE Location Footprinter Summary Summary 90 y Summary . & Management ent Real Time Real Time STATIC! STATIC! 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Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Carry Your Cloud Carry Your Cloud Summary Summary Utility Co. Website Utility Co. Email Utility Co. Website Elwyn MurrayElwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Carbon Bytes Digital Digital Changers Changers Social Solar Power Solar Power Social Utility Co. Email Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom E ciency E ciency 2.0 Report 2.0 Carbon Emissions Emissions Report Carbon Reports Reports Summary Simple Energy Energy Simple Social Game Social Game OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebo Social Energy App Social Energy Ap Energy Score Cards Energy Score Cards E ciency E ciency 2.0 2.0 Dashboard Dashboard Summary OPower OPower Dashboard Dashboard Utility Co. Utility Co. Website Website Electricity Consumption Real Time Real Time Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Environmental Visualizations Utility Co. Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Real Time Real Time Utility Co. Utility Co. Email Email Dropbox Dropbox OPower OPower Paper Report Report Paper Web hon Summary Summary External Hard Drive Hard Drive External Summary Summary Dispatch.io Dispatch.io Real TimeReal Time Real TimeReal Time Apple Apple Clean Web Clean Web Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Hackathon Hackathon Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Physical Physical Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Tendril Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow NetFlow IOS ect et al Tout Tout Email ManagementManagement Email Digital Tendril Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Physical Physical Silke Hilsing Hilsing Silke Weight of Weight of Data Data Digital Physical Physical Gimmie Bar Gimmie Bar Apple Apple DigitalActivity Monitor Activity Monitor Digital Green Button ProjectFlowing Data Green Data Project Button Your Flowing Your Tweets Tweets AMEE AMEE Brighter Planet Brighter Planet TripSquare TripSquare Digital Digital Physical Physical Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup Digital Digital Backupify Backupify Your Flowing Data Your Flowing Data Tweets Tweets AMEE AMEE Christian Gross Christian Gross Location Footprinter Location Footprinter Paper Plane SMS Plane SMS Paper Institute for Institute for Sustainable Communication Sustainable Communication Summary Summary Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Paper Plane SMS Summary Summary Summary Summary Summary Summary Frameworks/APIs Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 91 Expert vs. Layman Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Frameworks/APIs Electricity Meter Data Expert Expert Incoming/Outgoing Management Thesis Project Smart Meter Expert At Capacity Seed Cloud Physical Digital Physic Utility Co. Monthly Bill Energy Score Cards Physical Ambient Devices Utility Co. Website Utility Co. Energy Hub Email Lucid Design Group Devices Dashboard Energy Hub Dashboard Nest Thermomstat Digital Physical Digital Natalie Jeremijenko Eco-Eye Monitors Emission Bits Carry Your Cloud E ciency 2.0 Dashboard Cumulus Alpha REALiTREE Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes E ciency 2.0 Reports Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Read Cloud Coal Button Green Button Changers Social Solar Power OPower Paper Report Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore OPower Dashboard Neighborhood Score Cards STATIC! Power Aware Cord Gilles Belley Energy Saving Adaptor Layman Simple Energy Social Game OPower/Facebook Social Energy App Layman Layman Expert vs. Layman The majority of the entities I audited fall into the Layman Expert category, as many are for residential use. Those in the IOS NetFlow Expert category are APIs; enterprise-scale software such Cisco Expert Expert as Cisco's IOS NetFlow; and the Institute for Sustainable Communication, creating a framework of standards for the advertising industry. Meaningful change can occur from the top-down or the bottom-up, and I because prefer Physical Apple Activity Monitor AMEE Tendril Institute for Sustainable Communication Green Button Project Clean Web Hackathon Brighter Planet the latter,30 I Silke Hilsing create awareness and provide tools hope to Weight of Data for individual users to become advocates for sustainably Amy Martin Tout powered cloud-based services and products. Easy-to-use Christian Gross Email Management Bloom Email Digital Dispatch.io Digital Backupify Physical products such as OPower's Social Energy App and Simple Energy's Social Game are accessible with a Facebook Tweets Connect, intended for the majority. My abstract concepts intend to follow the STATIC! 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Social Game Social Game Power Power Aware Cord OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebo Environmental Visualizations Aware Cord Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Social Energy App Social Energy A Gilles Belley Gilles Belley EDF SemaphoreSemaphore Saving AdaptorExpert EDF Energy Expert Saving Adaptor Energy Layman Layman Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Expert Expert Expert Expert ct Web hon Apple Apple AMEE Monitor AMEE Monitor Activity Activity Tendril Physical Physical et Tendril Physical Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow NetFlow IOS l Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing for Institute forInstitute Green Button Project Green Button Project Weight SustainableSustainable Communication of Data WeightCommunication of Data Physical Digital Digital Clean Web Clean Web Hackathon Hackathon Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Tout Tout Brighter Planet Brighter Planet Christian Gross Christian Gross Email Management Email Management Paper Plane Paper Plane SMS SMS Physical Digital Your FlowingYour Flowing Data Data Digital Tweets Tweets Dispatch.io Dispatch.io Digital Digital Backupify Backupify Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup Physical Physical External Hard Drive Hard Drive Hilsing External Silke Hilsing Silke Weight of Data Weight of Data Amy MartinAmy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Plane SMS Paper Digital Dropbox Digital Dropbox Physical Gimmie Bar Gimmie Bar Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Your Flowing Data Your Flowing Data Tweets Tweets Layman AMEE AMEE Location LaymanLocation Footprinter Footprinter TripSquare TripSquare Layman Layman Layman Layman Layman Layman Frameworks/APIs Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 93 Stationary vs. Mobile Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Thesis Project Emission Bits Seed Cloud At Capacity Stationary Read Cloud Physical Green Button Coal Button Digital Phy Carry Your Cloud Cumulus Alpha Mobile Stationary vs. Mobile Many of the traditional forms for electricity and data monitoring and communicating environmental impact are stationary. However, traditional forms such as the electric bill are highly portable, but are a summary of SMS Paper Plane activity. Recently developed applications from OPower, Efficiency 2.0, and Simple Energy can be access through a smart phone, but the content - electricity use - is still in a summarized format. One new product on the market, the Nest thermostat, allows for users to control heating and cooling from a mobile app. While a few of my prototypes and projects fall in the Stationary category, my main project will be mobile allowing for remote access and action. Physical Christian Gross Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Amy Martin Bloom Email Cisco IOS NetFlow Apple Activity Monitor Your Flowing Data Tweets Digital Tout Email Management Stationary Phy 94 Mobile Stationary Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Stationary Stationary Stationary Mobile & Management ty mption mental ations E ciency 2.0 E ciency 2.0 Dashboard Utility Co. Utility Dashboard Co. Project Email Email OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Emission BitsEmission Bits Utility Co. Utility Co. Social Energy App Social Read Cloud Read Cloud Green ButtonGreen Button Energy App Monthly Bill Monthly Bill OPower OPower Coal Button Coal Button E ciency 2.0 E ciency 2.0 Dashboard Dashboard Physical Reports Physical Reports Digital Digital Physical OPower OPower Paper Report Paper Report Physical g/Outgoing anagement Smart Meter Smart Meter STATIC! STATIC! Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Power Aware Cord Aware Cord Power EDF Semaphore Semaphore Stationary Stationary EDF Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Eco-Eye Energy Saving Energy Saving Adaptor Eco-Eye Adaptor Monitors Monitors Energy Hub Energy Hub Seed Cloud Seed Cloud Lucid Design Group Design Group Lucid Devices Devices Dashboard Dashboard Energy Simple Energy Simple Ambient Devices At Capacity At Capacity Ambient Devices Social Game Social Game Energy Hub Energy Hub Utility Co. Utility Co. Dashboard Dashboard Website Website Nest Nest Energy Energy Thermomstat Thermomstat Score Cards Score Cards Physical Digital Digital Neighborhood Neighborhood Score Cards Score Cards Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Carbon Emissions Report Stationary Natalie Jeremijenko Jeremijenko Natalie Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Smart Meter Smart Meter STATIC! STATIC! Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Power AwarePower Aware Cord Cord EDF Semaphore Semaphore EDF Gilles Belley Gilles Belley REALiTREE REALiTREE Eco-Eye Energy Saving Adaptor Eco-Eye Energy Saving Adaptor Monitors Monitors Digital Physical Digital Energy Hub Energy Hub Lucid Group Devices DevicesDesign Lucid Design Group Dashboard Dashboard Energy Simple Simple Energy Ambient Devices Ambient Devices ChangersSocial Game Social Game Changers Energy Hub Energy Hub Social Solar Power Solar Power Social Utility Co. Dashboard Dashboard Utility Co. Website Website Nest Nest Energy ScoreEnergy Score Cards Cards ThermomstatThermomstat Physical Digital Digital Utility Co. Email Stationary Physical Utility Co. Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill E ciency 2.0E ciency 2.0 Reports Reports OPower OPower Paper ReportPaper Report Mobile Mobile E ciency 2.0E cienc Dashboard Dashboa Utility Co. Email OPower/Facebook OPower/Fac Social Energy App Energ Social OPower OPower Dashboard Dashboard Carry Your Cloud Your Cloud Carry Cumulus Alpha Cumulus Alpha Mobile Mobile Elwyn Murray Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Carbon Bytes Electricity Consumption Stationary Mobile External Hard Drive External Hard Drive Stationary Stationary Backupify Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Plane SMS Paper Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Physical Backupify Stationary Mobile Tumblr BackupTumblr Backup Environmental Visualizations Mobile Mobile low Stationary Stationary nitor Dispatch.io Dispatch.io External HardExternal Hard Drive Drive Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup Data Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Digital Digital Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Your Flowing Your Flowing Data Data Gimmie Bar Gimmie Bar Tweets Tweets Backupify Backupify Physical Dispatch.io Dispatch.io ment Physical Physical Digital Digital Physical Physical Digital Digital Tout Tout Email ManagementManagement Email Dropbox Dropbox Gimmie Bar Gimmie Ba Mobile Mobile Dropbox Dropbox Mobile Mobile Mobile Mobile Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Backup & Cloud Management 95 Concept Development February 2012 � April 2012 98 Initial Concepts + Consumption Dashboard or Bookmarklet in browser + Green Like button for earth day, user can From Competitive Analysis Mobile, social, practical, layman, real-time, social, residential choose to click either green or blue to donate a penny (think March of Dimes) + Defining a set of standards to establish carbon credit trading for IT industry + Consumer labeling system for websites or services, similar to `organic' or `energy star' + Green uploader or green-cloud hosting service + Balloon limiter: user only has an alotted amount of uploading capacity per day, in the form of the balloon volume + Carry your cloud: physical component of your cloud, must carry it with you at all times just as you have your a data always available 99 Prototyping for Possible Features EMAIL: 2/10/2012 TO : Adrian Westaway, Vitamins #prototyping #design_research Hey David, Thanks for getting in touch, it sounds like you're back in the thesis zone pretty quick! The energy thing sounds interesting, and I love the idea of IFTTT, it's awesome. Have you seen pachube? and shodan? One's a way of collecting loads of data from things and the other is a way of searching for those things. I don't use them but they could be useful? I'm insanely busy this and next week, but maybe we could try to chat the following week? As for tips I would say - don't be scared of going out and talking to people, try to design a journey to take them on that will inform where you want to go, be happy to chuck the [plan out the window if it doesn't work because at the end of the day it's about you connecting with them and trying to see things from their point of view, and document everything beautifully! Speak soon, and good luck! Oh and please say hi to Liz from clara, duncan and me! Blog Entry : 2/20/2012 #behavior #prototype #design_research #Emission_Bricks I'm designing and building my first prototype, with some inspiration and advice from Adrian Westaway 100 of Vitamins. When designing for design research, Adrian suggested, "try to design a journey to take them (participants) on". Yesterday, I created 6 Gmail accounts, 5 ifttt accounts, 50 ifttt tasks to send emails from 5 of the newly created Gmail accounts to 1 "master" Gmail account (This sentence could've been written in code). their dashboards first thing in the morning. For the remote testing, I set up an opt-in Tumblr blog and Twitter feed so participants can follow their own and others' statistics. The prototype is going really well, but am finding that keeping all the data up-to-date is terribly time intensive. For the second week of testing, I'm trying out a All the repetition set up a prototype that tracks participants' production and distribution of public digital content. Using the collected data, I plan to publicly display behaviors such as amounts of tweets, uploaded photos, and status updates with Legos. Yes, Legos, a physical embodiment of data and my childhood. With insight from my survey, I will also be equating each behavior with a CO2 emission, updating up the totals daily to the physical display as well as an online component. With this prototype, I hope to test a few biases/ assumptions: + The quantified feedback should positively impact participants' production and distribution of online content. + The public display will create a "shaming" effect: first with the sheer amounts of content being produced by each participant and secondly with the subsequent creation of CO2 emissions. + By observing each participants display, nonparticipants will have an increased awareness of their own online habits and CO2 emissions. + Incentive to conserve does not have to involve monetary motivation, and can be based solely on normative comparison to similar groups of people. few different approaches with individual users: + Tash (User 1) will receive an SMS everytime she checks-in at a location on Foursquare, alerting her of the CO2 emissions of that behavior. I chose Foursquare as it is her most active social media account, even though it has one of the lowest totals of CO2 emissions. + Cooper (User 3) will receive an SMS at the end of the day summarizing the total CO2 emissions of all his daily social media activity. + Jess (User 5) will receive an SMS every time she takes a photo with Instagram stating, "The Instagram photo you just took released 17 grams of CO2 into the air. That's the same as driving 1/13th of a mile!" (I'm trying out comparisons to behaviors that we all can relate to). + All participants must subscribe to the Twitter feed, updated once a day with running totals. With Emission Bricks, I'm tracking a running total output of social media behavior and subsequent CO2 emissions. In different approach (if given the time), I should test for limiting behaviors. Right now, there are no ceilings for how much one can use Twitter or Facebook. However, setting a fixed allowance that a participant may use for the week, say, "Only 10 tweets per week", would hypothetically result in different behaviors. Blog Entry : 3/6/2012 #behavior #prototype #design_research #Emission_Bricks #Carry_Your_Cloud After a week of user tracking and documenting, I'm at the halfway mark testing out my Emission Bricks prototype. I've got into the daily routine of logging all the user behaviors and updating Both approaches are very different, but valid, and can inform how I choose to build key interactions later in the design process. 101 Emission Bricks Prototype With Emission Bricks, I wanted to test my main hypothesis (p.11) as well as normative comparison: the concept that states we compare our status and performance to people similar to ourselves, and we "normalize" our behavior with them. Each participant had their Facebook, Flickr, Foursquare, Instagram, Tumblr, Twitter, Vimeo, and YouTube accounts connected to IFTTT.com, which triggered an email sent to a prototype Gmail account for each interaction (Tweet, Check-in, etc). I would then log each email into a spreadsheet for each participant and update a physical Dashboards using legos to visualize the data. Each Dashboard would also be published on Tumblr and Twitter. CO2 Emission Methodology My estimates for CO2 emissions of digital interactions are based on the work of Mike-Berners Lee as well as estimates from Google and Twitter. For example, Google estimates that a search request requires 1,000 joules (1 kj) of energy or 0.0003 kilowatt hours (kWh)1 ; a request that is spread across thousands of servers. The consequence of generating enough energy to power this tiny request is the release of 0.2 grams of CO2 into the atmosphere.2 I based my estimates on the size of the interaction in kilobytes (k-size), equating a larger k-size to a larger amount of energy needed to transmit and serve up digital content. For purposes of this prototype and wanting to avoid over estimating CO2 emissions, I assumed that a Google search was only 1 kilobyte (k) and a tweet was 100 bytes (.1 k). From this assumption, 1 k = 1 kj = .02g / CO2 emissions. Estimates for other interactions are below: �Vimeo Movie 240g / CO2 emissions �Instagram Photo 17g / CO2 emissions �Facebook Photo 17g / CO2 emissions �Tumblr Post .4g / CO2 emissions �Facebook Link .2g / CO2 emissions �Facebook Share .1g / CO2 emissions �Foursquare .1g / CO2 emissions �Twitter .02g / CO2 emissions Emission Bricks Tumblr feed. http://legotracker.tumblr.com Emission Bricks Twitter feed. http://twitter.com/#!/emissionbricks 102 Process & Details February 21, 2012 � March 11, 2012 Calculating Lego size with energy, data, and CO2 equivalents. Sorting the studio Lego collection as well as my own. Figuring out placement for the Dashboard. Setting up triggers in IFTTT.com to send an email to my prototype Gmail account. Spreadsheet of each participant's digital production and CO2 emissions. Jess' Dashboard a few days in; she was the only fully-remote participant. Tash's Dashboard at her studio desk. I ran out of black Legos (CO2) so my Mom had to mail some backup from my collection. Recording the daily tally and counting out Lego amounts for each participant. Documenting each participant's Dashboard for the Tumblr and Twitter feeds. 103 Participant 1 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 � March 4, 2012 Name / Tash Wong Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview "Nobody thinks of tweets as being an actual thing; it's ephemeral." "(The Dashboard) made me feel guilty that I wasn't doing more. There's this push in our class that I need to publish it more, and felt anxiety to produce more." Final Dashboard After Two Weeks March 11, 2012 104 Week 2 March 5, 2012 � March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 20 127 Key 9.1 Most Used Went to SXSW 2 Photos 4 Check-ins 9 Tweets 15 Vimeo Movie 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share .1 g / CO2 Foursquare .1 g / CO2 Twitter .02 g / CO2 3.6 Tweets per Day 1 Movie Upload 10 Foursquare 5 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 700 553.8 17.9 2.4 20 Total CO2 Equivalent to Miles Driven by a Car Total CO2 Could Fill 600 1 Movie Upload Went to SXSW 0.071 Largest CO2 Source Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 500 400 300 Instagram 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 105 Participant 2 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 � March 4, 2012 Name / Tom Harman Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview "I felt it had the opposite effect, made me want to do it more because I got more legos." "I didn't think about other people looking at my dashboard." Final Dashboard After Two Weeks March 11, 2012 106 Week 2 March 5, 2012 � March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 20 71 Key 5.1 Most Used Uploads 2 Movies Over Next 2 days 15 Vimeo Movie 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share .1 g / CO2 Foursquare .1 g / CO2 Twitter .02 g / CO2 3.5 Tweets per Day Participates in 24-Hour Design Competition 10 Twitter 5 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 700 720.4 17.1 3.1 26 Total CO2 Equivalent to Miles Driven by a Car Total CO2 Could Fill Uploads 2 Movies Over Next 2 days 600 0.07 Vimeo Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 500 400 Participates in 24-Hour Design Competition 300 Largest CO2 Source 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 107 Participant 3 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 � March 4, 2012 Name / Cooper Smith Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview "I never really thought about this shit before, at all. I put stuff online so I can save space on my hard drive, but I never think of other people having to store that." Final Dashboard After Two Weeks March 11, 2012 108 Week 2 March 5, 2012 � March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 40 231 Key 15.5 7.8 Most Used Tweets per Day 30 Vimeo Movie 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share .1 g / CO2 Foursquare .1 g / CO2 Twitter .02 g / CO2 "Spring Break" Working at School 2 Photos 2 Photos 1 Post 1 Link 5 Check-ins 22 Tweets 20 Twitter 10 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 700 425.3 26.4 1.8 15 Total CO2 Equivalent to Miles Driven by a Car Total CO2 Could Fill 600 0.56 Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 500 Spring Break Working at School 400 300 Largest CO2 Source 12" Party Balloons Facebook Photos 200 100 Week 1 Week 2 109 Participant 4 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 � March 4, 2012 Name / Erin Rouston Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview "Looked at everybody's (Dashboard) and compared myself to others, gauging my own activity and seeing the emissions of others." "The Dashboard was in my Tumblr to check as well. The emails, not so much, I get a thousand and it'd get lost." Final Dashboard After Two Weeks March 11, 2012 110 Week 2 March 5, 2012 � March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 20 110 Key 7.9 Most Used Returns to New York City 1 Photo 1 Post 1 Check-in 2 Tweets Traveled to Cleveland 1 Photo 3 Check-ins 2 Tweets 15 Vimeo Movie 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share .1 g / CO2 Foursquare .1 g / CO2 Twitter .02 g / CO2 2.7 Tweets per Day 10 Foursquare 5 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 700 538.2 18.1 2.3 19 Total CO2 Equivalent to Miles Driven by a Car Total CO2 Could Fill Returns to New York City 600 0.054 Largest CO2 Source Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 500 Traveled to Cleveland 400 300 Instagram 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 111 Participant 5 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 � March 4, 2012 Name / Jessica Lord Location / San Francisco, CA Occupation / Code for America Fellow Exit Interview "It did make me think about it per Instagram, but I Instagram a lot less than the people I follow." "The text alerts for each Instagram were kinda annoying." Final Dashboard After Two Weeks March 11, 2012 112 Week 2 March 5, 2012 � March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 30 214 Key 17.8 2 Returns to SF from Georgia 2 Links 2 Check-ins 2 Tweets Vimeo Movie 240 g / CO Instagram Photo 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share .1 g / CO2 Foursquare .1 g / CO2 Twitter .02 g / CO 2 6.9 Most Used Tweets per Day 20 Twitter 10 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 700 560.4 35.5 2.4 20 Total CO2 Equivalent to Miles Driven by a Car Total CO2 Could Fill 600 Returns to SF from Georgia 0.14 Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 500 400 300 Largest CO2 Source Instagram 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 113 Emission Bricks Insights & Opportunities Insight #1 Participants were aware of others in the prototype study, but compared themselves to friends and colleagues outside of the study, especially in online services they were most comfortable with and used frequently. They normalized behavior compared to their own groups, not the group dictated by the system. Opportunity #1 Create a product or service that integrates with the online services and social networks of the user, rather than create a separate destination for the user. Insight #4 Frequent messages from the system (SMS) were annoying to the participant. A daily summary was more gentile and effective, but after a few days, participants defaulted to messages from social media services they were most comfortable with. Opportunity #4 Integrate messaging into touch points of an online or mobile service. Default to weekly summaries of use, driving the user to the website for a deeper dive into data as well as surfacing preferences. Insight #2 Participants had a difficult time remembering their own production levels when looking at other dashboards. Opportunity #2 Need side-by-side comparison. Show a summary of other similar users or friends content production/CO2 emissions next to the user's own production. Insight #5 Participants unfamiliar with `grams' as a unit of measure as well as pounds. Opportunity #5 Need to use familiar units of measurement for describing CO2 emissions. Devise a universal measure that is relatable to a variety of users. Insight #3 A few participants noted they use social media for their career, namely Twitter and Vimeo. They did not want to feel guilty for publishing what they saw were necessary communications. Opportunity #3 Allow users to opt-in to specific online services they wish to track. For instance, Facebook could be a strictly social service for all users whereas Twitter could be, in part, for professional use. Insight #6 Some participants are willing to change their behavior, but not necessarily pay money/penalty/'offset' as motivation. Opportunity #6 Set default goals based on users social groups and similar users. Allow users to set own personal goals. 115 Carry Your Cloud Prototype Blog Entry : 2/17/2012 #digital_attic #prototype #design_research On Tuesday, February 14th, I ordered all 1,566 photos on my Flickr to be printed as 4"x6" photos and shipped to the SVA Ixd studio. On Friday (that was fast), they all arrived in a somewhat smaller box than I had expected. This was the first step for a series of prototype experiments dealing with cloud-based services as a digital attic. Apart from myself, I intend on recruiting participants to carry around physical embodiments of their own cloud. Blog Entry : 3/19/2012 #digital_attic #prototype #design_research I'm testing out my assumptions for two potential features in my final product with the Carry Your Cloud prototype. For the last 5 days, I asked a few participants to either: carry around a physical representation of their tweets (I've been carrying around all my my Flickr photos) or carry a "wallet" with tweet coins to cash in each time they tweet. As users of cloud-based services, I want to know how aware we are of amassed data that we now store in our digital attics (aka tweets from 2 years ago, forgotten and in the cloud). I also want to test the concept of placing limits on an unlimited resource and understanding our digital activity as currency. Carry Your Cloud packages, Twiiter container, and journals. 116 Process & Details February 17, 2012 � March 25, 2012 Carry Your Cloud logo. Printing all 1,566 of my Flickr photos. Receiving the all my Flickr photos by mail, about 11 lbs worth. Wrapping up the packages with kraft paper and twine. Adhering acrylic pieces together to build the base and smokestack. Divvying up the Twitter coins for each container. Twitter container and journal. My Flickr package. 117 Carry Your Cloud Invisible as Visible Carrying my cloud for a week around New York. 118 Barbara's Twitter package. Barbara at her studio desk. Participant 1 Name / Barbara Eldredge Location / New York, NY Journal Entry "Brought my cloud to yoga. No one seemed to think it was odd." Josh's Twitter package. Josh opened his Tweets! Need to write better instructions. Participant 2 Name / Josh Silverman Location / Providence, RI Journal Entry "Makes me think differently about the physical aspects of my digital life. Much in the same way when there's a series of threaded replies & responses." 119 Carry Your Cloud Tweets as Currency EMAIL: 3/13/2012 TO : 5 Participants #prototyping #design_research #Carry_Your_Cloud #Tweets_as_Currency dear participant, you have two items: a 6-part container and journal. the container has the days for the prototype testing, wednesday - sunday, filled with 2 legos (tweet coins) per bin as well as an empty one with a twitter logo (depository). please take a picture of the container contents before you start on wednesday and when you're done on sunday for documentation. during the testing time, carry your twitter container where ever you go! think of it as an accessory to your mobile phone. you are limited to 2 tweets per day or the amount of tweet coins you have in each bin. each time you tweet, you spend a tweet coin and place it in the depository. if you've spent all your tweet coins for the day, no more tweets for you! however, if you have any left at the end of the day, you may transfer any remaining tweet coins to the next day. for example, if you tweet once on thursday, you may transfer your coin to friday. you now have 3 tweets for friday! at least once a day, record what you are feeling (musings, thoughts, ideas, complaints, etc) in your journal. one word, a haiku, or a few paragraphs, whatever is comfortable. this prototype is about placing limits on an unlimited resource and understanding our digital activity as currency. when you are done, please mail back your journal next week. i did not enclose prepaid postage (and should have) but i can get you back on paypal (email@example.com) or venmo. just charge me. Michael Yap's Twitter containter and journal at the end of the prototype session. Kezra Cornell's journal at the end of the prototype session. David Brahler's Twitter containter at the end of the prototype session. 120 Participant 1 Name / Jeff Kirsch Location / New York, NY Journal Entry "Oddly, I'd say the prototype made me tweet more than I would have. Which may seem odd, but I tweet very little." Participant 2 Name / David Brahler Location / Cleveland, OH Journal Entry "It affected my content creation but did not affect my content consumption... I just became my own personal Twitter editor or social network strategist." Participant 3 Name / Kezra Cornell Location / Milwaukeem WI Journal Entry "I'm hesitant to tweet, as my tweets seem more valuable now. Limiting the quantity of tweets = increasing the value & content of a tweet." Participant 3 Name / Michael Yap Location / New York, NY Journal Entry "Started prototype late, got an extension. I only have 8 tweets, hard when you have new knowledge you want to share." 121 Carry Your Cloud Insights & Opportunities Insight #1 Increased awareness around the amount of data and data production. Opportunity #1 Prototype was physical and this insight may be a fallacy. Insight #3 Did not affect content consumption, just content production. Opportunity #3 Focus only on digital content production, not on browsing or consumption. Insight #2 For those who typically tweeted below the allowed amount, they felt compelled to use up the remainder of their allowance. For those who tweeted more than the allowed amount, they felt constrained, but also were more careful and selective of the content they published. Opportunity #2 Set default limits based on users social groups and similar users. Allow users to set own limits. Insight #4 A few participants noted they use Twitter for their career. They felt hindered by the limit and had negative feelings about the experience. Opportunity #4 Allow users to opt-in to specific online services they wish to track. For instance, Facebook could be a strictly social service for all users whereas Twitter could be, in part, for professional use. 123 CONSULTATION : Jonathan Berger, Engineering Manager, Pivotal Labs Sketches & Notes (opposite) 2/10/2012 124 125 unapologetic cynic, but also an optimist, and he makes his audience realize that we can be both as well. When he asks, "Why are we doing this?", he wonders why we waste our attention on trivial distractions when the world is filled with awe and wonder. Fuse these guys together. Boom - you get my thesis brand personality. Postscript: My classmate Allison Shaw had a great point about selecting Louis CK: he makes us laugh at the shame we feel for doing stupid, idiosyncratic behaviors. However, I don't want to make people feel ashamed; by internalizing shame, we set ourselves up for freezing discussion around Blog Entry : 2/27/2012 #design_persona Emotional Branding Working from Aaron Walter's design persona template, fellow classmate Cooper Smith and I began to develop the personality, traits, voice, and visual lexicon of our thesis projects. Design personas are similar to user personas in the sense that they are a representation of a personality a mindset - to be used as a guide for designing an experience. Starting off with the quesiton, "If your thesis was a person, who would it be?", Cooper and I began to define the emotional framework for our thesis' brand. When brainstorming for my thesis, two people immediately came to mind: Marty Stouffer and Louis CK. Marty Stouffer produced Wild America for PBS in the 1980's and early 90's. His inviting, honest, informative delivery of content became a standard for nature programs. He had the authenticity of a new anchor, the honesty of Mr.Rogers, and the soft spoken adventurous spirit of John Muir. On the other hand, Louis CK is a selfdeprecating comedian who has the innate ability to rattle off humorous truisms. He is an Brand Traits from whiteboard session. why we feel shame and not doing something about it. laughing and discussing shame: good. feeling ashamed: bad. Sketchbook Entry : 3/7/2012 Initial interface sketches for choosing an offset amount and offset project. Am starting to believe a mobile app is the way to go. (opposite) 126 127 Sketchbook Entry : 3/24/2012 Sketches for displaying and scrolling charts on the iPhone. (opposite) After reviewing my competitive analysis, feedback from my Emission Bits prototype, and discussing with classmates, I decided to design a mobile app for the iPhone. 128 129 Defining Features, User Stories, and a Name Blog Entry : 3/17/2012 #features #user_stories Thursday, 3/15 More process book work. Met with "the band" (Cooper, Chris, and Tina) for two hours to review one another's work. Outlined Cumulus Alpha's [Canary]features and got great feedback. Will be flushing those out more as I review my user story cards and brainstorm around 2-3 key feature with Cooper on Saturday, 3/17. Left the studio late night feeling like a million bucks and couldn't stop smiling. Wrote a post on the subway ride home. First sketches of Venn diagram and logo concept from sketchbook. March 23, 2012 Blog Entry : 4/1/2012 #branding #design_persona #coal_button A Trip to Central (Way Upstate) New York It's currently day 3 of my visit to my parent's home in good ol' Oneida County. I consider the opportunity visit one filled with home cooked meals, sleeping beyond the usual 6 hours per night, and of course, gettin' work done. While I'm developing a narrative to present my thesis, I've been outlining the features I wish to highlight of my recently branded product, Canary. Having multiple meetings with Cooper, Sera, and a few first-years, I came away with a few great ideas to guide my branding process, namely (pun intended): including the word of what is being measured, bytes; using action words; and playing with encouraging words of creation, more specifically around Nike Fuel's efforts eg: Nike Fuel is to Calories what (my product) is to Bytes. Despite our efforts, I was still stuck. Then, I remembered something Cooper wrote down on a whiteboard a few weeks ago, "service as 130 sensor". After an inspired breakfast in the park, out came Canary - the original gas sensor. Some classmates of mine warned me that the name did have some negative implications and was a bit dramatic. But Michael Yap encouraged me to redefine old words with updated definitions for modern times, stating "Words are containers: you can empty existing meanings and fill them with new ones." With a name under my belt and branding sketches drawn on my train ride heading upstate, I sketched out concept maps for both the problem space as well as the Canary product. This laid the groundwork for my current workload: finalizing features and wireframe development. Taking a peek at my schedule of deliverables, I will spend the next 4 days flushing out user flows and wireframes while developing the website shell for my product launch. This development work (which by the way I'm starting to love front-end coding again, HT to Zeldman, Jason Santa Maria, and schoolmates) is also part of another project I'm about to launch, The Coal Button. User stories based on four key features: track and compare, set targets, offset payment, and service contact. Developed late March. (opposite) Feature Set System 0 Actor I want so that Priority User User User User User to connect a service to Canary to invite my friends to signup to customize my avatar to enter my email address to set my notification preferences I can track my use of those services they may also track/offset their data production the world can see me as I see myself I can receive emails from Canary I will only receive notifications when I want them 1 5 5 3 3 Track 1 User User User User User User User User User User to view a summary of all my data production from my data production to view a summary of all my data production based on a time selection to view the data production from a specific service to view the CO2 production from a specific service to view a summary of my CO2 production to view a summary of my CO2 production based on a time selection to compare my data production with people similar to me to compare my data production with my friends to post my data production stats to a service to post my CO2 production stats to a service I can be aware of the total data I have produced I can know how much data I have produced over a specific time range I can be aware of how much data I have produced I can be aware of how much CO2 I have produced I can be aware of the total CO2 I have produced I can know how much CO2 I have produced over a specific time range I can know if my data production is excessive I can know if my data production is excessive I can show how much data I have produced to my followers I can show how much CO2 I have produced to my followers 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 4 Targets 2 System System User System System User User to set the default of data production based on similar people to a user to set the default of data production based on a user's friends to customize a limit for my data production for a select service to notify a user that they are reaching a data threshold for a specific service to notify a user that they are reaching a CO2 threshold for a specific service to be notified of my data production as I approach a limit set by Canary to be notified of my data production as I approach a limit set by my friends I can display a common limit for my user I can display a common limit for my user I can adjust my behavior to a goal I am comfortable with I can let the user make a decision about their data production I can let the user make a decision about their data production I can adjust my data production is too much I can adjust my data production is too much 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 Offsets 3 User User User User User User to select a sustainability project based on Canary's recommendations to set my donation amount for my offsets to connect my PayPal account to select a sustainability project based on my own preferences to recommend a sustainability project to a friend or followers on a service to set my payments to automatic deduction based on consumption amounts I can offset my data production I can pay an amount I am comfortable with I can pay my offsets easily I can offset my data production with a project I am familiar with I can make others aware of a project I care about I do not have worry about paying incrementally 2 3 3 3 4 4 Contact 4 User User User User to contact a service to select a service to contact to select the method to contact a service to choose to remain anonymous I can demand they use ecologically sustainable business practices I can demand they use ecologically sustainable business practices I can use a channel I am most comfortable with I can contact a service in the manner I am most comfortable with 1 1 2 4 131 The Problem Space The concept map below illustrates the problem space of my thesis exploration, namely the lack of feedback to the user from the production of digital content and subsequent CO2 emissions. SERVICE ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. PRODUCERS GENERATE ENABLED THROUGH USERS ARE CONTENT TEXT, IMAGE, VIDEO, ETC. CONSUMERS OBSERVE VIEWED THROUGH COMPUTER OR MOBILE DEVICE SERVICE 132 SOLAR PANELS CAPTURE RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES NON RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES INSTALL USE HOSTED BY DATA CENTERS POWER ENERGY UTILITIES PRODUCE CO2 EMISSIONS POWER 133 Coal Button In late 2011, there were 509,147 data centers worldwide, covering an area equivalent of 5,955 football fields.1 EMAIL : 4/5/2012 To : 101 Recipients #coal_button #project #key_findings #problem_space Hello, Today, I'm introducing the Coal Button http://coalbutton.com As part of my thesis work at SVA, I've been researching the promises, efforts, and missed opportunities of building an environmentally sustainable infrastructure to support and main- Sketches of Coal Button site from sketchbook entry, 3/21/2012. tain our digital lifestyle aka. `the cloud'. The Coal Button site is an entry point, albeit cheeky, into the problem space of my thesis project. Enjoy, and remember - behind every click there's a little lump of coal. Dave Button mockup from the Coal Button website. 134 Illustration of the problem space from the Coal Button website. Huh? Our Facebook profiles, YouTube videos, and Gmail accounts are reliant on a computing phenomenon called "the cloud". Made up of millions of servers, the cloud's infrastructure is a multi-billion dollar industry, quickly 2 W3Schools as well as ShareThis and AddThis, the Coal Button has been featured on numerous sites, including: The New York Times, Fox News, Slate, A List Apart, and Treehugger.8 Comparable to emission estimates for a Google search, every click consumes 0.0003 kilowatt hours (kWh) of energy, or 1 kilojoule, releasing 0.2 grams of CO2 into the atmosphere.9 growing to keep pace with our demand. In fact, Former CEO of Google, Eric Schmidt, estimates every two days we generate as much information as we did from the dawn of civilization up until 2003.3 These millions of servers are housed in data centers: physical embodiments of the cloud. Some cost as much as $1 billion to build, reach upwards of 300,000 square feet, and consume enough energy to power 80,000 average U.S. homes.4 To power these facilities, the majority of IT companies rely on coal for between 50% � 80% of their energy needs. Consuming nearly 2% of all global electricity and growing at a rate of 12% a year, total CO 5 2 The annual C02 emissions of U.S. data centers is 170 million tons, more than Argentina produced in 2010.10 CO2 Counter The IT industry has finally agreed upon a set of standards for measuring its CO2 emissions.11 The CO2 Counter uses these standards to track all CO2 emissions of "one-click" interactions on the Internet - buttons that like, tweet, share, reblog, pin, and yes, exclusively produce CO2. Research has shown that even the tiniest interactions on the web subsequently produce pollution; even a Google search produces 0.2 grams. With an estimated 200 to 500 million search queries per day, 1.3 millions tons of CO2 emissions are generated each year, just from Google searches.12 Even smaller are emissions from a tweet which has been estimated to be 0.02 grams of CO2.13 While this minuscule emission weighs 0.02 grams, by volume, it takes up roughly 10ml of space. 50 tweets and enough CO2 has been released to fill the lungs of an average human breath. Not to fear, the CO2 Counter can track even the smallest button clicks, including tweets. emissions from the IT industry are equal to that of the airline industry. 6 Greater demand due to efficiency is not a new issue. Jevons paradox describes the increase in coal consumption due to efficient steam engines. Today, known as the rebound effect, it explains as technology allows for faster and easier access to a resource, that resource becomes cheaper and used more quickly. For instance, an email has about one-sixteenth the carbon footprint of a letter.7 Over the past year, how many emails do we send versus letters? The Button The Coal Button is a new type of interaction that allows us to simply pollute with every click. It does not like, tweet, share, reblog, or pin; it simply emits CO2. Endorsed by 135 Canary March 2012 � May 2012 Canary Pitch For users of social media, who want to live an environmentally sustainable lifestyle, Canary is a mobile app that tracks and offsets your digital carbon footprint. Unlike TerraPass, Canary tracks CO2 emissions in real-time and enables voluntary, immediate donations to local offset programs. Four Key Features 1 Track and compare a user's data production and CO2 emissions from Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, and Instagram with everyone, similar users, or friends. 2 A user can compare their own data production and CO2 emissions with default targets based on similar users or set his/her own targets. 3 Offset payments can be made voluntarily or paid automatically by month to a choice of three local, environmentally sustainable projects. 100g/CO2 = $0.10. 4 A user can share their targets with specific services via Twitter or email, communicating his/her conservation and demand for more sustainable business practices. More Information http://canaryinthecloud.com Canary profile screen with Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram connected. 138 vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary CANARY CANARY Canary logo development. 139 Concept Map The concept map for Canary is a hybrid of a service blueprint model and traditional concept map, outlining the core interaction and four key features of the mobile app. The following pages are from a booklet that separates the different layers of the map, illustrating the components of the system. The full concept map is on the last page of this section. Note: Features #2 and #4 have been combined into the `Target' section for the final designs, but are still considered separate features. Also, offset projects described in feature #3 are limited to three regional options for the user in the final design. Offset project and payment selection are outlined in the wireframes. (p.162) 140 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 141 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET MAIN ACTORS Main Actors 1 of 9 USER CANARY EXTERNAL USERS CANARY SERVICE ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. PAGE 1/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 142 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET USER ACTIONS 2 of 9 User Actions USER USERS SIGN UP CANARY SERVICE OBSERVE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION COMPARE SET TARGETS FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS FUND SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS MAKE CONTACT TO DEMAND ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. TO USE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES PAGE 2/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 143 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET CANARY KEY Key Actions 3 of 9 Canary ACTIONS CANARY IS TRACKED BY IS TRACKED BY CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS GENERATES DISPLAYED ON VISUALIZE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION SETS BASED ON TARGETS SUGGESTS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS PROVIDES CONTACT PAGE 3/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 144 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET CORE INTERACTION 4 of 9 Core Interaction USER CORE INTERACTION CANARY IS OBSERVED BY EXTERNAL IS TRACKED BY IS TRACKED BY USERS SIGN UP WITH CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS PAGE 4/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 145 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET FEATURE NO 1 / Track andINFORMATION ABOUT USER'S DATA PRODUCTION & CO2 EMISSIONS Feature #1: GENERATE compare user's data production and CO2 emissions with other users 5 of 9 USER CANARY IS OBSERVED BY EXTERNAL USERS CANARY SERVICE ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS FEATURE NO 1 OBSERVE GENERATES DISPLAYED ON VISUALIZE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION COMPARE FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS PAGE 5/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 146 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET FEATURE N#2:/ Set default targets OF DATA PRODUCTION & CO2 EMISSIONS Feature O 2 SET DEFAULT GOALS based on similar users and allow users to set their own targets 6 of 9 USER CANARY IS OBSERVED BY EXTERNAL USERS CANARY SERVICE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION FEATURE NO 2 SET SETS BASED ON BASED ON TARGETS FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS PAGE 6/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 147 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET FEATURE NO 3 /Offset payment for environmentallyBE FUNDED FOR OFFSETTING CO2 EMISSIONS Feature #3: SUGGEST SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS TO sustainable projects 7 of 9 USER CANARY IS OBSERVED BY EXTERNAL USERS CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS TO OFFSET TARGETS FEATURE NO 3 FUND SUGGESTS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS BASED ON FACEBOOK INTERESTS & PERSONAL PREFERENCE ENCOURAGE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES PAGE 7/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 148 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET FEATURE NO 4 /Provide users with channel to contact onlineONLINE SERVICE9 Feature #4: PROVIDE USERS WITH A POINT OF CONTACT WITH service(s) 8 of S USER CANARY IS OBSERVED BY EXTERNAL USERS CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS TO OFFSET FEATURE NO 4 MAKE PROVIDES ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES CONTACT TO DEMAND ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. TO USE PAGE 8/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 149 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET SYSTEM System 9 of 9 Canary USER CORE INTERACTION CANARY IS OBSERVED BY EXTERNAL IS TRACKED BY IS TRACKED BY USERS SIGN UP WITH CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS FEATURE NO 1 OBSERVE GENERATES DISPLAYED ON VISUALIZE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION COMPARE TO OFFSET FEATURE NO 2 SET SETS BASED ON BASED ON TARGETS FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS FEATURE NO 3 FUND SUGGESTS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS BASED ON FACEBOOK INTERESTS & PERSONAL PREFERENCE ENCOURAGE FEATURE NO 4 MAKE PROVIDES ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES CONTACT TO DEMAND ONLINE SERVICES FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC. TO USE PAGE 3/9 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 151 152 Blog Entry : 4/9/2012 Wire Flows Moving from concept map to wireframing, there seemed to gap in process. Cooper, Sera, and I have been discussing various mobile UI patterns for the iPhone (navigation styles, actions, pages, and sorting structures) and different techniques of wireframing/prototyping - figuring out a few approaches to fill this gap. For me, a wire flow exercise seemed to do the trick. Wire flows for the Canary iPhone app: highlevel wireframes outlining overall structure, global functions, key features based on my concept map, and user flows for common tasks. The intention is for these wire flows to inform my wireframes, which I'll be working on and prototyping over the next 3 days. Version 1.0 of wire flows with notes.(shown) 153 Initial Wireframes I went through four rounds of wireframing during a very fast paced week in mid-April. I initially had the four key features � track and compare, set targets, offset payment, and service contact � as the main navigation items at the bottom of the app along with global navigation at the upper left. After meeting with Mari Sheibley, lead designer at Foursquare, and a few breakthrough meetings with my classmate Cooper, I made revisions and got a TAP prototype together (p.164) for some quick feedback. Note: The updates I made for later rounds were not included in the final wireframes (again, moving fast) but were implemented in the final designs. However, I did update my user signup flow and settings in the wireframes. (p.162) Concept sketches of wireframes from a whiteboard session, late March. Version 2 of wireframes with note from meetings with Mari and Cooper. (above, opposite) 154 155 Wireframes Signup & Add Launch AT&T 12:45 PM Signup AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Canary Messages Calendar Photos Camera Hello! Get started by connecting an account to Canary.You can always connect more services later on. Calculator Maps Stocks Weather Connect with Facebook Canary Clock App Store Canary Newstand or Connect with Twitter Loading... Social Notes 5 Contacts Reminders Already Have an Account? Log In Phone Mail Safari Music Add Another Service AT&T 12:45 PM Updated Profile AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 Canary Daily Avg. g/CO2 Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 2,054 32.6 This Week Total CO2 Total g/CO2 Connect more services to your account! 8,435 32.6 O N D J F M g/CO2 Daily Avg. g/CO2 Connected! A O N D J F M A 34.7 54 g is equal to Miles Driven by a Car 32.6 Connect with Twitter This Week Total g/CO2 834.7 g could fill Party Balloons 21 Interactions g/CO2 326 Connect with Foursquare Facebook 54 62 27 Interactions g/CO2 326 g/CO2 Facebook Twitter Instagram Connect with Instagram Add Another Service Add Friends Settings Tweets 10.4 459 g/CO2 Pictures Add Another Service Add Friends Settings 156 Profile AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Canary Canary Name Sera Join Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 2,054 32.6 This Week Total CO 2 Total g/CO2 Daily Avg. g/CO2 Cancel Allow Koo Email Address firstname.lastname@example.org O N D J F M A Canary may post to this service on your behalf. About Canary Canary allows you to track your data production and subsequent CO2 production. It also allows you to offset your carbon footprint and contact this service to demand they build their business in an ecologically sustainable manner. Password 34.7 54 g is equal to Miles Driven by a Car 32.6 ������ Confirm Password Interactions g/CO2 326 Facebook ������ Add Another Service Join Add Friends Settings Add Friends AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 Add Friends Daily Avg. g/CO2 8,435 32.6 O N D J F M g/CO2 Phone Book Facebook A This Week Total g/CO 2 Twitter Instagram 132 friends from Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram Rachel Abrams 834.7 g could fill Party Balloons 21 54 62 27 Interactions g/CO2 326 g/CO2 Facebook Twitter Instagram Tweets 10.4 459 g/CO2 Sarah Adams Allan Chochinov Tony Chu Pictures Add Another Service Add Friends Settings 157 Wireframes Track, Compare, Adjust Target, and Contact Service Select a Service AT&T 12:45 PM Select a Friend AT&T 12:45 PM Data CO2 AT&T 12:45 PM Data CO2 Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 8,435 32.6 O N D J F M g/CO2 Daily Avg. g/CO2 Sera Koo 27 Instagram Pictures Sera Koo 27 Instagram Pictures 9 9 6 3 A 6 3 This Week Total g/CO2 834.7 g could fill Party Balloons 21 M T W T F S S Share M Tom Harman T W T F This Week Tom Harman Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Erin Rouston This Week 29 Pictures S S Share press & drag 54 62 27 Interactions g/CO2 326 g/CO2 Facebook Twitter Instagram Tweets 10.4 459 g/CO2 29 5 31 16 Targets Pictures Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Offsets Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Erin Rouston Stats Targets 5 31 16 Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Offsets Pictures Stats Add Another Service Add Friends Settings Adjust Target AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Share with Service AT&T 12:45 PM Weekly Target Adjust Weekly Target Weekly Target 27 | 14 Pictures Pictures This Week Your Target 27 | 14 Pictures Pictures This Week Your Target 27 | 14 Pictures Pictures This Week Your Target 459 g/CO2 | 408 g/CO2 459 g/CO2 | 408 g/CO2 459 g/CO2 | 408 g/CO2 Adjust Weekly Target Share Target with Instagram + 1 Picture 17 g / CO2 Adjust Weekly Target Share Target with Instagram Stats Targets Offsets Stats Targets Offsets Stats Targets Offsets 158 Compare AT&T 12:45 PM Data CO2 Adjust Time Scale AT&T 12:45 PM Data CO2 AT&T 12:45 PM Data CO2 Sera Koo Tom Harman 9 6 3 +2 Instagram Pictures Sera Koo 27 Instagram Pictures Sera Koo 27 Instagram Pictures Sera Koo 61 15 10 5 Instagram Pictures 9 6 3 9 6 3 M T W T F S S Share M T W T F S S M Share This T W T F S S Share 2 9 16 23 3 This Week Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Erin Rouston Benjamin Gadbaw Stats This Week Tom Harman Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Erin Rouston Stats Week This Month Share 5 31 16 29 Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Pictures Offsets 29 5 31 16 Targets Pictures Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Offsets Tom Harman Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Erin Rouston Stats 29 5 31 16 Targets Pictures Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Offsets Targets Tweet Service AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T Cancel 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Data CO2 Weekly Target Tweet Instagram Tweet Sera Koo 27 | 14 Pictures Pictures This Week Your Target hey @instagram, i'm limiting my use of your service to 14 pictures per week until you use 100% renewable energy resources for your servers. 15 10 5 61 Instagram Pictures 459 g/CO2 | 408 g/CO2 2 9 16 23 30 Share @ # 1 Total Since 10/1/201 3,435 O P I g/CO2 This Month Tom Harman Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Adjust Weekly Tweet Target Share Target with Instagram Email Cancel Stats Targets Offsets 202 Y U Q W E R T Pictures Cost to Offset H J K A S D F G Offset Now L Z X C V B Monthly Autopay - Off N M Stats _123 Targets space $1.47 x Erin Rouston Stats 104 58 247 94 Targets Pictures Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Offsets Offsets return 159 Wireframes Offset Payment Offset/ View Photo Equivalent AT&T 12:45 PM Instagram Offsets You've Offset Remaining Amount 1,962 g/CO2 1,473 g/CO2 Pictures 116 86 Pictures Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 Cost to Offset $1.47 Stats Offset Now Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Targets Offsets 160 Manual Offset AT&T 12:45 PM Pay with iTunes AT&T 12:45 PM iTunes Password AT&T 12:45 PM Instagram Offsets You've Offset Remaining Amount You've Offset Instagram Offsets Remaining Amount You've Offset Instagram Offsets Apple ID Password Remaining email@example.com Amount 1,962 g/CO2 1,473 g/CO2 1,962 g/CO2 1,473 g/CO2 password 1,962 g/CO2 1,473 g/CO2 Cancel Ok Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 Cost to Offset Cost to Offset Pay with iTunes Account Offset Now Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 202 Y U Q W E R T Pictures Total Since 10/1/201 3,435 O P I g/CO2 Cost to Offset $1.47 Stats Offset Now $1.47 Stats Pay with Credit Card Cancel H J K A S D F G Offset Now L Z X C V B Monthly Autopay - Off N M x $1.47 Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Monthly Autopay - Off Targets Offsets Targets Offsets Stats _123 Targets space Offsets return Confirm AT&T Cancel Share 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Updated Offset AT&T 12:45 PM Instagram Offsets Instagram Offsets You will offset Instagram Offsets You've Offset Remaining Amount 0 You are paying $ 1.47 Pay Now 1,473 $1.47 Huzzah! Done Pay Now Share g / CO2 by paying with your iTunes Account 3,435 g/CO2 Your Offset Project Iowa Farms Wind Project You will offset 1,473 g / CO2 by paying with your iTunes Account. 202 You sent $1.47 to the to the Offset Project Wind Project. Iowa Farms Pictures Iowa Farms Wind Project Cost to Offset Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 $0.00 Offsets Offset Now Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Stats Targets Offsets Stats Targets Stats Targets Offsets 161 Wireframes Settings Settings AT&T 12:45 PM Profile AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 Settings Daily Avg. g/CO2 Profile Name 8,435 32.6 O N D J F M g/CO2 Profile Password Sera Koo Email Address firstname.lastname@example.org A This Week Total g/CO2 Notifications Services Offset Program Iowa Farms Wind Project 834.7 g could fill Party Balloons 21 54 62 27 Interactions g/CO2 326 g/CO2 Facebook Payment Twitter Instagram iTunes Account Off Tweets 10.4 459 g/CO2 Monthly Autopay 100 g / CO2 = $0.10 Log Out Pictures Add Another Service Add Friends Settings Password AT&T 12:45 PM Notifications AT&T 12:45 PM Password Change Your Password Current Password Notifications Target Warnings Push to Service Email Mobile ON OFF ON New Password Confirm Password Stats Summary Weekly Email Save OFF 162 Services AT&T 12:45 PM Offset Program AT&T 12:45 PM Payment AT&T 12:45 PM Services Facebook Post Canary Stats my wall: Disconnect Offset Program Iowa Farms Wind Power Select This Project Help build two new wind turbines in a northern Iowa farming community. Carbon Project Type: Wind Energy Location: Northern Iowa, U.S.A. Year: 2011 Volume: 92,000 metric tons Standard: Verified Carbon Standard Capacity: 3.2 MW Project Website Payment Payment Method iTunes Account Credit Card ending 8462 iTunes Account Never Daily Weekly Monthly Twitter Tweet Canary Stats: email@example.com Credit Cards Linked Disconnect ending 8462 Municipal Biogas Generator Select This Project Help build a renewable biogas generator at the Essex Junction Wastewater Treatment Facility in Vermont. Carbon Project Type: Biogas Energy Location: Essex Junction, Vermont, U.S.A. Year: 2011 Volume: 3,123 metric tons Capacity: 60 kW Add a Credit Card Never Daily Weekly Monthly Instagram Disconnect Project Website Autopay Robeson County Landfill Select This Project Help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases (methane) that would otherwise be released from the landfill. Carbon Project Type: Landfill gas capture Location: St. Pauls, North Carolin Year: 2012 Standard: Climate Action Reserve Verifier:RMA Project Website AT&T 12:45 PM Autopay Autopay will automatically pay all your your service offsets every month with your preferred payment method. Autopay OFF 163 TAP Prototype Blog Entry : 4/15/2012 #prototyping #fireworks #TAP #iphone Over this past week, I'm up to three cups o' coffee (sometimes four) and wireframing/prototyping the Canary app. With a little help from my classmates, I quickly learned two awesome rapid prototyping tools for the iPhone: TAP and LiveView. Seriously, these are my new favorite applications. Using these new tools, I created some key screens, killed a few, modified others, and got ready for my a review with Mari Sheibley, lead designer at Foursquare (thanks to Michael Yap for setting it up). The review went awesome and Mari gave me some super valuable feedback. Soon after, I met with Cooper to discuss our wireframes, stripping out features and complexity. After a solid weekend of work and a visit to the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, I shored my wireframes and prepped for final designs. Try out the TAP prototype on your iPhone at: http://folio.davidbellona.com/canary_v4 164 TAP Prototype Development April 12, 2012 � April 16, 2012 Add the prototype to your home sceen. Signup through Facebook or Twitter. Adjust your info and choose a password. Profile with one connected service. Profile, Password, Notifications, Services, Offset Programs, Payment, and Autopay. Choosing an Offset Program. Adjusting Notification Settings. Scrolling in Profile. Viewing Instagram photo production stats in Month view. Weekly Target. Offset Payment. Offset payment complete. 165 Final Design & Use Cases 166 167 Launch, Track, and Compare Launch Profile Select a Friend Compare 168 Select a Service Stats Data Mode Adjust Time Scale CO2 Mode 169 Adjust Target, Contact, and Notifications Target with Photo Count Share with Service Tweet Service 170 Adjust Target Alert Comment Instagram Notification Target with Photo Count 171 CO2 Offset Payment CO2 Offset iTunes Password Confirm 172 View Photo Equivalent Manual Offset Pay with iTunes Share Updated CO2 Offset 173 Landscape Mode Compare by Week Compare by Month 174 Adjust Time Scale CO2 Mode 175 References & Influence Cover 1 Junnie Arreza. Rice, Spoon, and Fork Blog, August 28, 2010. http://www.ricespoonandfork.com/2010/08/28/wel come-clouds-on-a-great-weekend, accessed April 29, 2012. 2 Microsoft Press Centre. "Microsoft Expands Cloud Computing Capabilities & Services in Europe", September 24, 2009. http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/emea/presscentre/pressreleases/DublinDataCentrePR_240909. mspx, accessed April 29, 2012. Starting Out 1 Jonathan G. Koomey, Ph.D. "Growth in Data Center Electricity Use 2005 to 2010," Analytics Press, August 1, 2011. 2 Mike Berners-Lee. How Bad Are Bananas? The Carbon Footprint of Everything. Vancouver: Greystone, 2011. p.000 3 Urs H�lzle. "Powering a Google Search," Google Blog, January 11, 2009. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/ powering-google-search.html, accessed December 3, 2011. 4 Berners-Lee 2011, pp. 18�19 5 Berners-Lee 2011, p.21 6 Eli Pariser. The Filter Bubble. New York: The Penguin Press, 2011. pp.145�146 7 Bill Hicks. Video: "Revelations". HBO. 1993. 8 David Foster Wallace. "This is Water". Commencement Speech, Kenyon College. 2005. A Three-Month Detour 1 Bill Moggridge. Designing Interactions. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006. p. 525 2 Moggridge 2006, p. 637 3 Moggridge 2006, p. 589 4 Moggridge 2006, p. 298 Back to What Matters Most & Early Explorations 1 Moggridge 2006, p. 589 2 Ray Bradbury. Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Books, 1953. 3 Apple Computer. Video: "Knowledge Navigator". 1987. 4 Bret Victor. "A Brief Rant on the Future of Interaction Design" Worry Dream, November 8, 2011. http://worrydream. com/ABriefRantOnTheFutureOfInteractionDesign, accessed November 9, 2011. 5 U.S. Department of Commerce, Earth System Research Laboratory. "Trends in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide" http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends, accessed November 30, 2011. 6 Lester R. Brown. Plan B 3.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization. New York: W.W.Norton, 2008. p.000 7 John Thackera. In the Bubble. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006. p.183 8 Koomey 2011. 9 Stephen Shankland. "Google uncloaks once-secret server," CNET News, April 1, 2009 http://news.cnet.com/8301 1001_3-10209580-92.html, accessed December 2, 2011. 10 IDC. "Worldwide Server Market Revenues Increase 17.9% in Second Quarter as Market Demand Remains Strong," International Data Corporation press release, August 23, 2011 http://www.idc.com/getdoc. jsp?containerId=prUS22998411, accessed December 2, 2011. 11 Google Green. "Overview - Google Data Centers" http://www.google.com/green/efficiency/datacenters, accessed December 3, 2011. 178 12 Joe Swanson. Interview by author. Written notes. Cambridge, MA., November 20, 2011. 13 Steven Levy. "Jeff Bezos Owns the Web in More Ways Than You Think," Wired, November 13, 2011. http://www. wired.com/magazine/2011/11/ff_bezos, accessed December 2, 2011. 14 Hugh Dubberly and Paul Pangaro. "Introduction to Cybernetics and the Design of Systems," January 2010. 15 Greg Ferro. "Average IP Packet Size," Ethereal Mind, March 18, 2010 http://etherealmind.com/average-ip-packetsize, accessed December 18, 2011. 16 Urs H�lzle. "Powering a Google Search," Google Blog, January 11, 2009. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/ powering-google-search.html, accessed December 3, 2011. 17 Berners-Lee 2011, pp. 18�19 Research 1 Neil Postman. Technolopy. New York: Vintage Books, 1992. p.000 2 Thackera 2006, p. 000 3 Clive Thompson. "The Instagram Effect," Wired, January 2012. http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/12/st_ thompson_instagram, accessed January 19, 2012. 4 Elizabeth Gilbert. Eat, Pray, Love. London: Penguin, 2006. 5 David Brooks. On Paradise Drive. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2004. 6 Adam Greenfield. Everywhere. Berkley: New Riders, 2006. p. 000 7 Thackera 2006. p. 163 8 Postman 1992. p. 45 9 Curtis White. The Middle Mind. New York: HarperOne, 2003. 10 Thackera 2006. p. 69 11 Douglas Rushkoff. Video: "Digital Nation," Frontline. Produced by Rachel Dretzin. Boston, MA: WGBH Studios, 2010. 12 Johnson 2012. p. 6 13 danah boyd. "Streams of Content, Limited Attention: The Flow of Information through Social Media". Web 2.0 Expo Talk, New York, NY. 17 November 2009. 14 George Carlin. Video: "Stuff". Comic Relief. 1986. 15 David Brooks. Bobos in Paradise . New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001. p. 101 16 Zach Klein. "Conspicuous Production," Zach Klein's Blog, January 14, 2012. http://blog.zachklein.com/ post/15833998640/conspicuous-production, accessed January 14, 2012. 17 David Brooks. The Social Animal. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2011. p. 96 18 Pariser 2011. p.67 19 Marshall McLuhan. Understanding Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994. 20 Pariser 2011. p.67 21 Peter Svensson, "Netflix's Internet traffic overtakes Web surfing," MSNBC. May 17, 2011. http://www.msnbc.msn. com/id/43059955/ns/technology_and_science-tech_and_gadgets/t/netflixs-internet-traffic-overtakes-websurfing, accessed January 18, 2011. 22 Pariser 2011. p.69 23 Annie Leonard. Video: "The Story of Stuff." Produced by Erica Priggen. Washington, DC: Free Range Studios, 2007. 24 William McDonough and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle. North Point Press. 2002. 25 Dan Ilic. Video: "How Green Is Your Internet?" Produced by Patrick Clair. 2011. 26 Brooks 2001. p.101 179 27 Cameron Camp, "How much photo data does Facebook really have?", ESET Threat Blog, September 30, 2011. http://blog.eset.com/2011/09/29/how-much-photo-data-does-facebook-really-have accessed February 14, 2012. 28 Matt Mullenweg. Lecture by author. Written notes. New York, NY., March 1, 2012. 29 Katie Fehrenbacher. "Smart meters now make up 13 to 18% of meters in U.S.," GigaOM, November 15, 2011. http://gigaom.com/cleantech/smart-meters-now-make-up-13-to-18-of-meters-in-u-s, accessed March 7, 2011. 30 Howard Zinn. A People's History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins, 2003 ed. Concept & Experience Development 1 Urs H�lzle. "Powering a Google Search," Google Blog, January 11, 2009. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/ powering-google-search.html, accessed December 3, 2011. 2 Heimbuch, Jaymi. "Twittering Adds How Much to Your Carbon Footprint?" Treehugger, April 19, 2010. http:// www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/twittering-adds-how-much-to-your-carbon-footprint.html, accessed February 20, 2012. Two Projects 1 Rich Miller. "How Many Data Centers? Emerson Says 500,000." Data Center Knowledge, December 14, 2011. http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2011/12/14/how-many-data-centers-emerson-says-500000, accessed March 15, 2012. 2 IDC. "Worldwide Server Market Revenues Increase 17.9% in Second Quarter as Market Demand Remains Strong," International Data Corporation press release, August 23, 2011 http://www.idc.com/getdoc. jsp?containerId=prUS22998411, accessed December 2, 2011. 3 MG Siegler. "Eric Schmidt: Every 2 Days We Create As Much Information As We Did Up To 2003." Tech Crunch, August 4, 2010. http://techcrunch.com/2010/08/04/schmidt-data, accessed March 22, 2012. 4 Gary Cook. "Apple's growing iCloud: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly." Greenpeace. http://www.greenpeace.org/ international/en/news/Blogs/Cool-IT/apples-growing-icloud-the-good-the-bad-and-th/blog/39202, accessed March 28, 2012. 5 Gary Cook and Jodie Van Horn. "How Dirty Is Your Data?" Greenpeace International, April 2011. 6 Dan Ilic. Video: "How Green Is Your Internet?" Produced by Patrick Clair. 2011. 7 Berners-Lee 2011, p.21 8 Not really, but every button on these sites are coal buttons. 9 Urs H�lzle. "Powering a Google Search," Google Blog, January 11, 2009. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/ powering-google-search.html, accessed December 3, 2011. 10 Lucente, Edward J. "The Coming `C' Change in Datacenters." HPC Wire, June 15, 2010. http://www.hpcwire.com/ hpcwire/2010-06-15/the_coming_c_change_in_datacenters.html, accessed March 28, 2012. 11 Not really, but they should. 12 Berners-Lee 2011, pp.18�19. 13 Heimbuch, Jaymi. "Twittering Adds How Much to Your Carbon Footprint?" Treehugger, April 19, 2010. http:// www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/twittering-adds-how-much-to-your-carbon-footprint.html, accessed February 20, 2012. 180 Thanks Rachel Abrams Mary Banas Jon Bellona Steve & Kris Bellona Jonathan Berger Steve Berry Andrew Bowman David Brahler Don Carli Christopher Cannon Frank Chimero Allan Chochinov Kezra Cornell Liz Danzico Sara Dierck Barbara Eldredge Nathan Felde Erik Guzman Tom Harman Randall Hoyt Ben Jones Steve Kakowski Jeff Kirsch Sera Koo Jessica Lord Roger Mader Sara McBeen Erin Moore Andrew Morse Luis Navarro Steph Opitz Paul Pangaro Mrs. Phillips Daniel Rahl Deena Rosen Erin Routson Michael Scarola Allison Shaw Josh Silverman Cooper Smith Susan Solomon SVA Classes of 2011, 2012, 2013 SVA Faculty Joe Swanson Stephan Von Muehlen Jake Vigneri Adrian Westaway Tash Wong Michael Yap Tina Ye 183