Weighing the Cloud
Thesis work of David Bellona, Ixd Class of 2012, School of Visual Arts.
Weighing the Cloud Thesis work of David Bellona Class of 2012 MFA Interaction Design School of Visual Arts Front Cover: Clouds over Lake Ontario.1 Back Cover : Microsoft Data Centre, Dublin, Ireland.2 “The planet is fine. The people are fucked.” – George Carlin Contents 7 Primer 8 Inspiration 11 Statement of Purpose 13 Starting Out 15 Initial Statement of Purpose 16 Summertime 23 A Three-Month Detour 24 Squidfingers Twitter Mention Shelving Unit 26 Detour Statement of Purpose 30 Thesis Presentation to Frank Chimero & Liz Danzico 35 Back to What Matters Most & Early Explorations 36 Outlining the Issues 42 Going Back to the Future, or to July 2011 46 Understanding Server Farms, Data Centers, and Cloud Computing 50 Seed Cloud and Read Cloud Projects 54 Determining the ‘What’ 61 Research 63 On Emerging Themes of Digital Production and Consumption 66 Interviews 76 User Survey 80 Defining an Audience 82 Adjacent Entities for Competitive Analysis March 2011 – July 2011 August 2011 – October 2012 November 2011 – January 2012 January 2012 – March 2012 97 Concept & Experience Development February 2012 â€“ April 2012 102 Emission Bricks Prototype 116 Carry Your Cloud Prototype 130 Defining Features, User Stories, and a Name 132 The Problem Space 134 Coal Button 137 Canary 140 Concept Map 152 Wire Flows 154 Wireframes 164 TAP Prototype 166 Final Designs & Use Cases 177 References & Influence 183 Thanks March 2012 â€“ May 2012 Primer “Thesis is process”, I’ve been told. In my persistent approach to a consistent idea [sic], I discovered that the cloud (p.46) is an awesome invention that I absolutely love. I assume you do as well. It allows ubiquitous and convenient access to nearly all world knowledge and an ability to communicate with our friends and family at any moment. There is an unsaid promise of the cloud: as we move from physical to digital products and documents, our environmental impact is lighter. However, our production of digital content is exponentially increasing every day. To house this growing data, we are building a vast physical infrastructure that depends on non-renewable energy resources. This infrastructure comes in the form of data centers – the factories of the Information Age. Similar to the massive structures of the Industrial Age, we are again building systems that are out of balance with the amount of energy this planet has provided. We have an opportunity to create our supporting physical infrastructures sustainably and utilize renewable energy resources. Yet we are missing that opportunity. One challenge is the transparency of the IT industry to report fully on energy and CO2 emissions, and establish a set of standards that they and we can build a sustainable system upon. With continued pressure by Greenpeace, recent literature on the physical infrastructure of the Internet and the paradox of efficient consumption, I have hope that we are moving in the right direction. The work contained in this book is only another step. 7 Sunset at Donahue Pass on the John Muir Trail, Yosemite National Park, California. September 18, 2006 8 Inspiration me In 2005, I went for my first solo hike in Haleakala National Park on the Hawaiian Island of Maui. I had hiked a few three-day loops with my Dad in New Hampshire and Vermont, but this was my first time solo. I stayed at the Paliku campsite in the Haleakala crater and from my tent, I could look south over the Kaupo Gap with distant clouds passing by at eye level. Observing the landscape, I was able to see a history of how the earth beneath me formed, slowly eroded, and allowed for plants to take root. As night fell, clouds rolled over the top of the cliffs behind me to cover my tent; when morning came, the clouds dissipated and a daily cycle was renewed. In a simple moment, I saw the macro and micro systems of this planet we inhabit. In the years since, Iâ€™ve sought these simple moments in nature, going on solo hikes in Montana, California, Arizona, Oregon, Washington, and soon on the Long Trail in Vermont. I, along with others Iâ€™ve met along the way, have found inspiration and mused at the most basic of landscapes, wondering how a pile of large rocks, setting sun, or falling water can be so damn beautiful. 9 Statement of Purpose I’m investigating the environmental effects of our overfed As users, we are comfortable with not knowing the sys- data diets, in particular the disconnect that we as produc- tems that house our data, specifically how much data ers and consumers of digital content have with the physi- we actually have amassed, where it is actually physically cal infrastructure of the computing cloud. To frame my located, and that the government can access our data hypothesis, I asked the question. “Does demonstrating the regardless of 4th amendment protections.6 As producers correlation of cloud-based computing with carbon dioxide and consumers of massive amounts of digital content, emissions lead to a decrease in digital consumption?” we are growing more and more distant and dependent, on vast systems that we increasingly do not understand. I’m talking about the environmental impact of our data, specifically, the carbon footprint of bytes (kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes) which requires infrastructure and energy to transmit and store. These bytes exist in large data centers, some powered in part by renewable resources with energy efficient architecture, while many others receive all their energy from non-renewable resources. Globally, data centers accounted for 1.5% of total electric- The goals of my thesis are threefold: • To educate users of cloud-based media about the physical structures supporting online interactions. • To facilitate environmentally conscious behavior in the production and distribution of digital content. ity use and 2.2% of energy use in the US in 2010. These • To pressure the providers of digital services to figures increased 36% (globally) and 56% (US) from 2005; conduct and build their businesses in an environ- research estimated in 2011 that global electricity use of mentally sustainable manner. data centers increased by 19%.1 I’m not the first to look into the environmental ef- fects of cloud-based computing. The work of Greenpeace and Mike Berners-Lee, author of the Carbon Footprint of Everything, has calculated the carbon dioxide emissions (CO2e) of a text message, Google search, email, and the world’s data centers which weigh in at a staggering 130 million tons of CO2e per year.2 Google has also calculated the carbon footprint of a search request at 0.2g CO2e.3 The amount is seemingly small, but with an estimated 200 million to 500 million search queries per day, 1.3 million tons of CO2e are produced per year just from Google searches.4 Notwithstanding any explanation of environmen- tal consequences, this issue may seem to be too small to bother. After all, there is an inherent efficiency and environmental benefit that comes with digitization. But as we exponentially produce more data, we encounter a phenomenon called the rebound effect: as technology allows faster and easier access to a resource, the cheaper that resource becomes and the faster it is used. The consequence is a low-carbon interaction resulting in a high-carbon lifestyle simply because we do it more.5 More notably is the cloud computing phenomenon. 11 Starting Out March 2011 â€“ July 2011 Thesis Preparation class with Liz Danzico Buying a 50 lb bag of sand at Home Depot for our framework assignment. 14 Benjamin bravely volunteering to build a drizzle castle in class. March 22, 2011 Success! Water + sand = framework. Initial Statement of Purpose A few terms immediately come to mind in brainstorming frameworks of individual decision making and as David a thesis: nature, sustainability, green, climate change, Foster Wallace describes, our inability in, “being able truly materials economy, renewable, permaculture. Before to care about other people and to sacrifice for them over placing these terms on a cartesian plot of past/future and over in myriad petty, unsexy ways every day.”8 and environment/moment, there are seven other terms not typically associated with the aforementioned: shock, zeitgeist and recent advent of cloud-based computing, denial, anger, bargaining, depression, testing, and accep- creates a curious relationship. Cherished physical objects tance. These terms are the seven stages of grief, reserved such as photos no longer need to be carefully stored and for breakups or passing of a loved one, but when applied documented. In great excess, we can consume digitally the looming energy and environmental crisis, ring true to at near infinite levels which (I postulate) further removes our emotion and psyche surrounding the subject. us from the consequences of our actions. The removal of Rather than portend the current trends and shifts, let meaning from the actual object offers another opportu- us turn our attention to a term that overshadows much nity for investigation on how we consume and ultimately of the environmental movement and is a pillar of our experience these virtual forms. economy: consumption. Consumption is an interchange- able term describing how we, the consumer, use energy, architecture and frameworks, the second is a study on food, and goods. Strict definitions aside, we are in the the construction of current consumption (energy, food, midst of an enormous shift in economy, world politics, goods) behavior. These two approaches will be informed environment, and energy. It all requires a sea change in by inspiration from previously and soon-to-be read books how we perceive, discuss, and participate in our consump- during the summer, interviews with workers in energy, tion. It’s what Bruce Mau calls “massive change”and is a infrastructure, food production, and product design in- seemingly impossible, all-encapsulating wicked problem. dustries, as well as ethnographic research with individuals and in group settings. Consumption as convenience has been established This concept, coupled with the current consumption While the first approach involves a study of choice and fortified over the last half of the 20th century. Government initiatives to develop the middle class in post World War II America as well as banking innovations such as the credit card expanded purchasing power to the masses. Through the removal of these financial barriers, we are given the freedom of more choice to consume. How we express this freedom – either through consumption or conservation – is an interesting opportunity for investigation. Environmental concerns aside, how individuals Feedback April 21, 2011 “How can you design interactions to be both a positive experience and reduce consumption and/or affect behavior? Or, can you at all?” - Liz Danzico decide to use their purchasing power can be applied to small localities to more macro situations. By focusing on the behavior of an individual, the choices we make everyday allow for more granular opportunities. However, it is not as simple as Bill Hicks suggests as a choice, “between fear and love”,7 but rather understanding the spectrum of choices, whether active or passive, that are presented to us every time we consume. This idea lends itself into a first approach, exploring 15 Summertime Reading The majority of my reading was done on the subway or in from my statement of purpose as well as find inspiration Union Square Park during my lunch break from my intern- in the thoughts of David Foster Wallace and Bob Dylan. ship at Case Commons. I wanted to explore relevant topics (No notes taken) “ Trust (is) time based, not tech based.” “ The opportunities for service innovation are endless if only we shift focus of innovation from work to everyday life.” “ The design task is to make information digestible, not to keep it out.” -John Thackara 16 “ Privacy is something you can sell, but you can’t buy it back.” “ Happiness isn’t a road to anything, Happiness is the road.” -Bob Dylan “ While our information technology may be digital in nature, the human beings interacting with it will always be infuriatingly and delightfully analog.” “ Focus on the task, not the tool.” “ Graceful degradation.” -Adam Greenfield Summertime Thought Phrases Based on my reading, conversations with friends and family, and daydreaming, I wrote in my Evernote journal what my buddy Steve calls, “thought phrases”. It helped to quickly get my ideas down without self editing to formulate a foundation for thesis. Brevity and spell check not included. Note: In this section and throughout the book, moments of clarity and breakthroughs are highlighted pink in notes, emails, blogs, and sketches. Evernote Entries / an environment in which a person way of eliminating some clutter, On Systems & Service Design moved fro place to place easily. maybe also for a park directing #intro The challenge in designing a people for different events. #service_design service or system is in the #system_design research of the problem, namely 7/21/2011 with my initial topic ‘consump- The idea of designing in a tion’. What type of consumption smaller system that represents, should I focus on? Why are we microcasim, of a larger system driven to over consume? of behavior. Take for instance 7/18/2011 9/4/2011 The idea of a service being able Chris Fahey’s design a human to know who you are and adjust assignment. again hinting the your experience to your prefer- analogy of the emergency services ences or past behavior for an button in a train/subway station. interaction designed just for Given the facts on what we know you why isn’t this done with in energy consumption, economy, ATMs? Greenfield talks about rather than targeting the effi- hotel rooms in the Mandarin that ciency of a consumer’s lifestyle are preset for you on check in, in information processing and same with car seats. sorting, how we communicate with #thesis #thought_phrases 7/10/2011 Although I keep coming back to the design of objects, making things with my hands, playing around with an arduino board, the larger impact of my thesis lies in the design of a system or service. When I was in undergrad, I had an urge to redesign signage and way finding systems for airports and public transportation. I think this was rooted in a new discovery of typography and my fascination with Swiss design. I liked the idea of a framework, not just the appeal of designing an icon or typographic system, but rather one another, (this has become 7/19/2011 the primary role of interaction The idea of programmable way designers, they have been rele- finding in a stadium, city (see gated to this role and am curious GAUDI) seem like a promising of the similarities to semiotics 17 18 used by graphic designers. to the seamlessness of ubiqio- “wet the whistle”. merely create efficiencies in how tuos computing by Greenfield, we communicate or flow through and Berg’s ice berg analogy of into the data or cloud, so that a process regarding information the amount of hidden activity the object itself has lost exchange) seek out inefficien- required to provide a service. importance or meaning, that cies, etc the daily jobs of Over the course of our first the data we are accessing has gov’t workers, janitors, garbage year, we have covered the idea more importance than the actual collectors, etc. of smart objects, “the inter- object. Furtehrmore, it is that The idea that a human’s job net of things”. These object access to that data that we now can be mapped into a serious carry with them touch point or place emphasis on, the effcie- of yes/no statements is disin- different interface than that iny ,intuitiveness, etc. Why not genuous to the process of human of a digital screen, and some create object that can display behavior, ie digital versus do embody one data point. The this data, the data that is most analog. If the human specifica- interesting and fascinating to importance to us in an ambiance, tions are followed to the T, that notion is the objects ability to or passive sense. process would be successful in surface data, process, function- “The hallmark of such services it’s function. however, a number ality that was otherwise lost (self-service) is that they take of issues, discovered by in the in the cloud. An object that place with little or no human field research, interviews, etc, places more emphasis on a piece contact; the customer does the reveal multiple issues in the of data so much so that other work once done by an employee.” ability for the human speci- types of data patches or fixes Thackara, p.219 fication to be successful. In are not required to be layered on finding those pain points and top. of the old data to increse fallacies in the flow, create it’s functionality. it harkens Evernote Entries / a solution that targets that back to the idea of time, the On Natural Design issue. In the case of a grbage idea of creating efficiency, the #ideas collector, the daily decision layering of design solutions on process is governed by the ease top of one another that only add #intro of that decision, the weight to the complexity rather than of that cognitive load. The simplify the problem, or merely creation of change in that work offer a different perspective flow can be facilitated by the on the solution outside of a injection of q service, object, digital one. solution that changes the weight of that cognitive load, makes the metaphor further in how it lighter, tips the scale so a natural cloud functions and to speak, so that the behavior how a computing cloud func- is shifted and the work flow, tions. Water vapor, packets, efficiency, is changed. Perhaps are combined and the gain more this is what is meant by being weight so much so that they fall intuitive - where the “right” to earth in the form of rain decision has a lighter cognitive droplets, data. Getting infor- load that the “wrong” one, and mation from the cloud, rain, the path of least resistance downpour, lightning. (Also, find presents itself or lends itself the passage of wanting only some to the work flow that makes the simple content, water, but we as systems successful. consumers are drowned in a sea Thackara talks about the of info formation ,when all we disappearance of computing, were asking for is a drink to Cloud computing. Taking App objects. we have windows #system_design #thesis #thought_phrases 7/19/2011 The other day, I was reading ‘Everywhere’ by Adam Greenfeild. In an early thesis, he was talking about ubiquitous computing being invisible to behavior, computing that the user is unaware of - but benefits from - it’s ability to do computation, data collection, regulation, information processing, etc. He began to allude to and then talked briefly about the misnomer that ubiquitous means natural, and that technology is in fact separate from nature. (p.28) But I am wondering about different traits and see what service. While that service may how ubiquity, placing sensors happens, but do this millions of not be “natural”, an obtuse, into object that basically times over thousands sometimes regimented way of interfacing collect data and information millions of years. The result with a service through a computer to be fed into a larger data- is a highly evolved animal that is eliminated by creating an base and then be reinterprted can be aware and conscious of experience with that service, by another system, screen that nature’s process. not an experience with the form will change our behavior is a of that service. hope for computing to be more this consciousness, the abil- like an environment. ity to recognize nature’s bounty 8/1/2011 In ‘In The Bubble’, Thackera in whatever form and manipulate In urban design, “In the Bubble” talks about speed being a tenant it. Only now, we are beginning p.94 talks about how certain for better design, talking how to see for the first time in areas of a city, namely Belgrade, our modern way of life has history the consequences of our is unplanned and allows it’s created burdensome efficiencies, actions - pollution, extinction, citizens to fill in, create, speedy processes that compound climate change, etc. With this make, design areas of a city that exponentially over time, driv- realization, we are beginning have been vacated. he coined the ing us further away from the to modify our design process term “urban genetics” natural, undulating cycle that to create objects, services, the earth provides, especially systems that are returning to 9/4/2011 when it comes to agriculture, the natural rhythms of nature. “Networks and systems in nature p.33 (dolce farniente mean- But there are opposing forces - generally start out small and ing sweet doing nothing, p.35) albeit man made ones - that are develop during a process of Furthermore, he mentions another slowing down the shift, namely gradual growth. That’s also how thought phrase I had about how economic systems, political we should design man-made ones: nature designs things through systems. I wonder what systems Act lightly, sense the feedback, evolution, ie. a slow, agile, can be created that while they act again.” Thackara, p.215 iterative design process. are in some ways governed and guided by the aforementioned, Theory: With the sustainable Perhaps, we wrestle with movement, green, environmental, that et al, permeating our marketing, designed more holistically, to can be strengthened, materials, behavior, and design, trump, out compete, change the Design is moving towards a more larger systems. QUESTION: what natural way of prototyping, are those systems that provide designing, building, produc- opportunities for a more massive ing, computing. This can also change? be construed as “humanizing the machine” or “making an experi- approaching?) situation of peak ence more natural”. The way we of natural resources, carry- 8/3/2011 communicate through devices is ing capacity, etc. that would Reading “Everywhere” by Adam being patched together and fixed make the more agile, “natural” Greenfield on the morning commute, by hundreds of smaller startups, systems a viable choice, a sound he talks about the “discourse of most of whom will die before economic choice, and advanta- seamlessness” (p.137), and how maturation, to find or evolve geous political choice. seamlessness erases the bound- a better way of design. Sex is In ‘Web Form Design’ by Luke aries of interactions from one one was that nature has come Wroblewski, “gradual experience to the next. This, up with a very simple way for engagement” as a way for people in conjunction with Thackera’s variety in it’s experiments. to interface with a form or writings on Situation, namely Combine two things together with signup by actually using the airports, can lead to a person’s Insulating against the (fast using Evernote Entry / Time #intro #seamlessness #thesis #thought_phrases #time 19 disorientation in space and why would i care about the other - closed vs. emergent time, giving them no sense of tasks done by others as long as - artifacts vs. behaviors place or what time frame they it doesn’t impact my own abil- - predetermined vs. present are in. This type of discon- ity to complete”? These situa- * How can you design interac- nect/removal from time refer- tions where this is apparent is tions to be both a positive ence can be not only detrimental HD television viewing (becomes experience and reduce consump- to a person’s psyche, but also artifacted), capping bandwidth tion and/or affect behavior? Or, to their connection with other for internet surfing. can you at all? - feedback from people, places, nature, smaller liz, april 21, 2010 and larger systems. As a result, television in terms of sense of this could fortify a state of not place? What is the experience of i have not yet explored yet i knowing, and subsequently not travel? What is the experience have a gutteral reaction to, caring about, the consequences of the work day? deep down. of their actions., aka, Eloi. Also to note, thought on MacColl introduce the notion determined by distance and inti- how devices are a window to a of beautiful seams so the user macy level of the interpersonal world of data, and interaction knows when they are moving from relationship of the two people. design in about the design of one interaction to the next. Letter, call, email, text, chat. the experience with accesses, space design within an experi- location of call (on the street filtering, consuming that data/ ence vs. in the home) new ways of What is the experience of Matthew Chalmers and Ian Communication frequency is information. The importance creating, organic, agile. what of form of the object takes a is the necessity of gesture? backseat to the experience that Evernote Entries / the user is having with their On Praxis or Sketching in face: side-to-side/forward-back information. Also, the gravity/ Hardware, Lingua Granca button vs. swipe. weight of their information, #gestures in consumption and covet, is lightened/lessened as it becomes digitized. I no longer have to rescue photos from a burning home as they are stored in the #intro On Cities #thesis #cities #thought_phrases experience. 8/12/2011 Lingua franca Appropriation as ownership example of espn iphone inter- Evernote Entry / #object_design #ideas cloud, the impetus is on the #intro #research #thought_phrases of a piece of technology, but 20 taking my thesis to a place only if the user knows to an 8/21/2011 extent how the technology works, “Manifesto for Agile Development 9/2/2011 knowing how the system works. Individuals and interactions After watching the 8-part series If the user is left in the dark over processes and tools on New York, my perspective on or doesn’t know how technol- Working software over compre- cities shifted from my ideals of ogy works, subsequently doesn’t hensive documentation a livable streets, multi-modal care, and just wants “it” to Customer collaboration over transportation, remove cars, work, there is an unappreciation contract negotiation mixed use buildings, buildings for the system at large, or the Responding impacts of their own behavior on following a plan” p.111 what all those things entail. I the larger system. “I am only also, the structure of Clas- knew all these when used meant concerned with my own task at sical as being a closed frame- a better city to live in. I hand, and b/c my concentration work and Jazz being an emergent can bike everywhere, not have is only on that task at hand, framework. to maintain a car, close to to change over of old and new, csa’s to actually cultural events, walk places, turing away. friends all around, exchange ideas. But over the last month a destination not of living. Of - especially triggered by a having conversations with shop throughout phrase when looking keepers, etc. These ideas are at the Grand Army monument - all romanticized in many people of these separate things began to my generation, where European come together, encouraged by the cities are for more “livable”, doc I watched, and now affirmed in or just more conducive to being reading “In The Bubble” by John a home. My Grand Army monu- Thackara. He states “a sustain- ment realization sparked when I able city... has to be a working looked at the monument, seeing city, a city of encounter and the fine craftsmanship, intri- interaction - not a city for cacies, imaging the grandeur passive participation in enter- when it was just built, all tainment.” p.75 now contrasted by the swaths of The NYC doc talks about our pavement, noisy traffic, spiral- view of cities and what they ing exhaust. It looked more like are. I sometimes wonder about a memorial to the past rather the opinions of urbanites from than a war memorial. The origi- ancient times, or even just nal intent of the memorial was before the industrial devo- lost/forgotten, and seemed to tion. and even at the begin- shift to a memorial to an age. Point is: we view cities as ning of the industrial revolution. Did people think a city as home? With neighbors, families, gossip, local stories, jobs, short commutes, conversations with strangers and shop keepers? I think about a statement from a friend of mine, more offhand comments about the safety of a city, and how they were basically very dangerous, more dangerous than a suburb, implied. Could this have stemmed from the economic downturn of cities in the 1970’s? The flight from cities to the burbs and exurbs formed a crater of density, a volcanic eruption whereby the population densities oozed out into open, available land. This was enabled, predicated? encouraged by the housing policies in the new deal, GI Bill, loans, economic stimulus through “community” real estate development, pushing manufac21 A Three-Month Detour August 2011 â€“ October 2011 Squidfingers Twitter Mention Shelving Unit I wanted to create a shelf for my studio desk that could Arduino, I plan on lighting up the center panel with LED’s hold my books, work, and pictures as well as a public every time I get mentioned on Twitter, publicly notifying extension of my Twitter account. I’ve always admired myself and others. Squidfingers’ set of patterns for web use, and use pattern #108 for my Twitter account background. For the Note: I never wired up the shelving unit, the time involved shelving unit, I extended the pattern to use on a physical and project became a distraction, but in the end, I had display, etching it into the center acrylic panel. Using an additional storage for supplies and books. Finished shelving unit at my desk. 24 Process & Details September 17, 2011 â€“ October 8, 2011 Squidfingers pattern #108. Cutting and sizing up the pieces at my parentsâ€™ home. Samples from the laser etching vendor. Setting up shop in the chat room at school. Spraying fixative on the laser etched pieces. Re-assembling and gluing the shelving unit. Adding the trim and sanding at the SVA sculpture studio. Painting in the chat room. Side panel detail. Back panel pattern details. Routed space under acrylic panel for the LED strip. Back view of the shelving unit. 25 Detour Statement of Purpose “Our windows to the digital world have been confined to flat rectangular screens and pixels – ‘painted bits’. But while our visual senses are steeped in the sea of digital information, our bodies remain in the physical world. ‘Tangible bits’ give physical form to digital information, making bits directly manipulable and perceptible.” 1 – Hiroshi Ishii, Founder, MIT Tangible Media Group Information Appliances & New Nows 26 Dr. Ishii is proposing an exploration in an area of com- ing rather than recognition. This impacts the library of puting foreign to the mainstream use of the personal gestures that a designer can assume his/her audience pos- computer. Through graphical user interfaces (GUI), we sesses, and is reflected in the limited way we interact with access digital information via a desktop or laptop com- our touchscreen devices. Symbolic, gestural languages puter as well as mobile device. The narrow framework such as sign language and semaphore provide a platform and office-centered metaphors we are conditioned to for rich communication, but as Jun Rekimoto, Director of reinforce interactions that limit our ability to meaning- the Sony Interaction Laboratory, states, gestures, “should fully communicate and access information. Currently, be mimetic rather than symbolic”.2 This means our ges- however, other methods are being implemented and tures should be learned through imitation, mimicking explored to shift our perspectives from the keyboard and the behavior of others. In pursuing newer methods of desktop metaphor toward gestural and haptic interfaces. interactions with computers, there are opportunities for reshaping and repurposing established gestures of With the recent implementation of touch screen technology in consumer electronics, gestures allow open interaction – especially those with physical objects. up new tangible channels for us to communicate with a computer. However, our hands have become nothing more affordances have been limited to instructional buttons than giant meathooks [sic], arching down onto a device to rather than physical items and tools whose interactions simply push a digital representation of a physical button. are inherent and self-evident in form. Gestures involved In many touchscreen interactions, we are simply following with using these objects include twisting, turning, pull- instructions to “play”, “delete”, or “reply”. Furthermore, ing, pushing, and lifting. Through the study of past forms gestural futures typically default to lofty user journey and rituals, namely in interpersonal communication videos or science fiction movies, most notably Minority mediums, juxtapositions with forms and rituals of con- Report. temporary communication may lend new insight into As a seemingly faster way to access information, an physical interfaces that affect perceived speed, value, and established set of gestures require recollection of mean- experience of sending and receiving messages. In this In the contemporary consumer electronic landscape, pursuit, the possibility of discovering what Fiona Raby methods used to parse received message, the value and and Anthony Dunne call “alternative nows” – “how things meaning of this information can be imbued through social could be right now if we had different values”3 – rather objects in the home. These social objects or physical sig- than casting some future state. nifiers can create instances that bridge a communication gap, promoting triangulation – serendipitous moments These “alternative nows” can be represented by an object or series of objects that give a user an analog or brought on by a shared interface. physical interface, instead than graphical, to interact and access digital information. The end format will be an ecosystem of Jef Raskin’s “Information Appliances”, computers that are designed for a specific purpose and used only in context.4 By utilizing rapid prototyping techniques, physical prototypes will be produced to pilot form and interaction with users. In this way, a praxis of ideas, based on initial research, can be implemented to test the affects of physical, haptic interfaces on value of filtering data and receiving messages. We access digital content and engage in interpersonal communication through all-in-one electronic devices, e.g. laptop or smart phones, and have little time to ponder the affects this interaction has on information and messages. In pursing a thesis with possible physical artifacts as its outcome, there is an opportunity to shift digital content away from a their current format to new forms of physical mediums. Through a broad study of digital content and 27 Blog Entry : 10/2/2011 Talkin’ Thesis Revisions Before I continued to revise my thesis proposal, I wanted to bounce a few ideas around to get the writing wheels turning. I talked with my classmate Allison Shaw about thesis while I was sanding my new studio shelving unit. Two main themes began to emerge as I explained what I wanted to do: + Create physical objects, namely physical displays, that allowed users to get digital information from a single source. + Study past forms of interpersonal communication to discover opportunities for new methods of send- Blog Entry : 10/12/2011 ing and receiving messages, or accessing data. Got my touchatag reader today and immediately Allison asked some tough questions, namely on almost a pure plug-n-play, had to download two how I was going to innovate both on the sending and receiving, and if my thesis was more about receiving and filtering. She also had some great insight and suggestions about knowing the readiness of a system, inserting bumps or roadblocks into a “seamless” experience to facilitate mindfulness, and referring me to recent graduate Eric St. Onge’s thesis project on distraction. opened it up. The install was really easy, drivers from the site, launch the touchatag application, and start using their online platform for building one-task applications. I set up two tests: one to send a tweet and the other send an email. The email test went well, sending an email within seconds of the RFID tag being read, but the Twitter test was a fail, bouncing back “Not Authorized” and “Bad Gateway”. seems like the Auth is not working on the touchatag side so I reached out to support for answers. I’m hoping they’re responsive, am really excited to build some quick RFID-enabled prototypes. Sketchbook Entry : 10/18/2011 Subsequent Blog Entry : 10/22/2011 When I think of interpersonal communication, I see a gap being bridged between a sender and a receiver. For example, distance is a gap. If you are sitting right in front of me, it is fairly easy, fairly quick to send a message to you (I say “hi”). The gap gets more and more difficult to bridge as the distance increases. I can’t just send you my message by yelling if you’re a few miles away - I have to figure out a way to get my message from A, where I’m located, to B, where you are located. 28 Back in the day, and Iâ€™m talking way back in the day, distance could only be bridged by a person transporting a physical or memorized message. This took more time as distance increased. It could be days, even weeks, before you would receive my message. Ingenuity and technology have of course bridged that gap, â€œbringing us closerâ€? as the saying goes with any cellphone company. But we have more recently seen development of communication technology that moves away from utility, and move closer to fodder. I believe the way in which we develop communication technology is like spilling a glass of water on a table - filling all cracks and crevices, covering the entire table. In a recent article by Scott Jensen, he is concerned that as we create utility to fill the small cracks and crevices, we only create a greater need for technological solutions to quell cognitive overload and calm user anxiety. Gaps in time and space are being filled without much thinking about the consequences of the bridges being made, or if there is need for them at all. New channels, such as Twitter or Instagram, facilitate an ability to communicate information immediately about experiences as they happen to a mass audience. Arab Spring aside, I question the utility of subdividing my interests, friends, and experiences into more subdivided categories that are filled with apps and bookmarklets. 29 Thesis Presentation to Frank Chimero & Liz Danzico Presentation Slides October 24, 2011 Thesis Devices are not evil + Laptops + Netbooks + Digital music players + E-readers + Tablets + Smart phones What of clocks and coffee tables? Public Space Home Opportunity + How does the digitzation of content and communication effect our expectations, experiences, and sharing of information in the home? + Focus on creating digital products that filter, share, and manage digital content. + Fixated on the idea of robust and ubiquitous mobile communication. + Context of the home is forgotten. 30 Approach + Study at past forms and rituals of communication and household social objects for opportunities. + Alternative Nows – how things could be right now if we had different values rather than casting some future state. + Internet with Things Purpose + Discover new forms of social objects in the home. + Create physical signifiers for digital content and communication. + Use discursive design to explore solutions. Pitch For a household, who need to access digital content and engage in interpersonal communication, these physical information appliances are social objects that facilitate shared experiences. Unlike current mobile computing devices, these products are social signifiers. Thanks Feedback October 24, 2011 “ Simply interesting explorations of an interaction design student.” - Liz Danzico 31 Sketchbook Entry : 11/1/2011 Subsequent Blog Entry : 11/3/2011 Digital-to-Analog Display A sketch for an analog display of one’s online data. Consisting of acrylic and wood layers, the display could be mounted to a wall in a kitchen, living room, or office. Core idea is to communicate data central to the user to other occupants of the room, but with specific quantity ambient referenced. The display would not have any controls, only an ‘on/off’ switch, with controls through a smart phone interface. Blog Entry : 11/11/2011 They are but improved means to an unimproved end. — Henry David Thoreau 32 33 Back to What Matters Most & Early Explorations November 2011 â€“ January 2012 Sketchbook Entry : 11/7/2011 Blog Entry : 11/11/2011 Why, Who For, What, When, Who By, How exercise What’s the carbon footprint of email? in Thesis Workshop with Rachel Abrams. (right) Today, my fellow classmate Catherine Young passed along a link to an article directly relating to my thesis. (did I mention I pivoted? I pivoted). It begins to address the seemingly impossible task of quantifying an individual’s carbon dioxide output from using the Internet, most notably email. Apart from a rough estimation, the article mentions an important concept - the rebound effect. The rebound effect is a consequence of our evermore efficient technology; as technology allows faster use of a resource, the more of that resource is used. (This might explain our lament of having no time.) When applied to our increased use of computers, the result is, as the article states, “a low-carbon technology resulting in higher-carbon living simply because we use it more.” Blog Entry : 11/13/2011 Headline from the future (ongoing) Online point system created to increase awareness of one’s digital consumption habits with environmental impact. Blog Entry : 11/15/2011 Thesis question v.27.1 I’m getting closer to a solid thesis question that encapsulates the “why?” with the “so what?”. Here’s the latest iteration (oh yea, I pivoted): “Does demonstrating the correlation of cloud-based computing with carbon dioxide emissions lead to a decrease in digital consumption?” 36 37 Sketchbook Entries : 11/19/2011 38 39 40 41 Going Back to the Future, or to July 2011 An Alternate 1985 In the movie Back to the Future Part II, the main charac- Plunging into the Shonash Ravine ter Marty McFly commits the ultimate snafu by leaving Staying on the Robert Zemeckis’ riff, Back to the Future a sports almanac in plain sight of an aged version of his Part III finds Marty stuck in 1885 with only one way to get arch nemesis, Biff, in the year 2015. Old Biff then hijacks out: get a locomotive to push his time-traveling Delorean the time-traveling Delorean to travel back to 1955 to up to 88 miles per hour, thus enabling time-travel (duh) give his younger self the sports almanac from the future. to send him back to 1985. The kicker, apart from getting a Over the next 30 years, Biff uses it to amass a vast sum locomotive to go that fast, was the Shonash Ravine cutting of money from gambling on sports, always knowing the off extra miles train tracks, leaving little room for accel- winner. When Marty arrives back to 1985, he discovers an eration and error. Marty’s sidekick, the slapstick genius “alternate 1985” where Biff is his step-dad, mayor of his Doc Brown, calculated a point of no return whereby they hometown Hill Valley, and owns just about everything. must commit to reach 88 mph or plunge into the ravine. Way to go, Marty. Spoiler alert: Marty makes it back to 1985. By comparison, Fiona Raby and Anthony Dunne from the Royal College of Art camp put forward the idea of “alternative nows”, offering visions of “how things could done so much damage to the environment that human be right now if we had different values”. Excluding Biff’s beings can no longer inhabit the planet. Doc Brown knew iron fist, their work remains in the noir, suggesting, for the exact point of no return on the train tracks, but unfor- example, a reality where children grow meat to power tunately, we cannot agree when or what that point of no their television. Notwithstanding Guy Montag 2 knock- return is for our planet. Bill McKibben, outspoken author ing on your door right now, I’d like to imagine a current of The End of Nature, offers a number of 350 parts per mil- state where the Knowledge Navigator3 actually caught on lion of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere as the marker, and gestural interfaces – rather than a mouse – were our and has founded a non-profit around the concept. As of means of interacting with a computer. October 2011, we are currently at 388 PPM.5 1 Coupled with a growing momentum behind the So are we going to plunge into a metaphorical ravine? internet with things, these themes formed an area of ex- Yes and no. The ability for our air, land, and water to ab- ploration of my thesis for about four months. The notion sorb pollution and then provide its bounty is debatable. of creating new forms of internet-embodied objects as a Moreover, our behavior, particularly around consumption graduate thesis is very appealing; rants about the need of natural resources, is so far removed from the extrac- for more tangible interfaces along with explorations by tion, production, distribution, and disposal processes firms such as Berg are evidence that interaction design that we have difficultly measuring our collective impact, can extend beyond the screen. Earlier sketches of my let alone an individual one. Lester R. Brown of the Earth thesis included a built shelving unit that glowed when Policy Institute summarizes, “We are crossing natural I got mentioned on Twitter (I’ve got 78 followers so not thresholds that we cannot see and violating deadlines that often). that we do not recognize.”6 4 But as I focused more on the making physical objects, it became apparent that I needed to go beyond, as our chair Liz Danzico put it, “interesting explorations of an interaction design student”. I decided to shift my focus from investigations in academia to what I had outlined in July 2011 – consumption. 42 Among many environmentalists, there is a consensus that a point of no return exists for Earth, where we have Back to July 2011 Earlier this year, I drafted a thesis proposal that outlined my exploration for the summer. It stated: “In great excess, we can consume digitally at near infinite levels which (I postulate) further removes us the location and design of new facilities, many others, old from the consequences of our actions. The removal and new, still run on greenhouse gas-emitting fossil fuels. of meaning from the actual object offers another opportunity for investigation on how we consume of our consumption. How much power does it take to and ultimately experience these virtual forms.” send an email? Consequently, how much carbon dioxide To put it plainly, the further removed from the con- sequences of our actions, the more we will engage in those actions. Pertaining to our digital consumption habits, there are little to no barriers to produce, save, share, and consume digital content. It’s even the M.O. of internet-based services to make sure our digital lifestyle is seamless and without barriers. As we shift our content and communication chan- nels to a digital format, we begin to loose sight of exactly how much data we amass. On a personal computer, it’s Now for July 2011, thinking about the consequences is produced when I do so? Thankfully, research has been conducted around this question, and Mike Berners-Lee, founder of Small World Consulting, even wrote a book on the topic, How Bad Are Bananas? The Carbon Footprint of Everything. But do we keep building more data centers as our data cloud exponentially grows? What happens in 10, 20, 50 years? Are all my pictures and sent emails saved in a virtual shoebox forever? These questions and others help lay the groundwork for my thesis as I move forward with my research, and I can’t wait to get started. Again. easy to notice how much hard drive space we’ve filled, but do you know how much data you have in your Gmail account? Facebook? Flickr? What about all of your online content collectively? One New York based startup, Dispatch, is looking to bring all your cloud-based content into once place; a benefit for those who need to manage their content, but not for those who want to know where their content is physically located (Note: this is nearly impossible with cloud-based computing). As John Thackera puts it, “These technologies are supposed to give us a clearer image-but by sanitizing the subject, they prevent us from knowing reality itself.”7 This brings me to server farms or data centers or whatever they’re called. They make cloud-based computing possible and can be found in the form of a small stack in a work closet or come by the thousands, housed in a massive building in Oregon. What’s curious about these (we’ll call them data centers) data centers is they consume vast amounts of power. In 2010, global data centers “accounted for between 1.1% and 1.5% of total electricity use.”8 The industry recognizes the monetary and environmental costs involved with powering and maintaining such large facilities; With recent advances, companies are making data centers more energy efficient, however, as more extreme “green” measures are taken in 43 Sketchbook Entry : 11/20/2011 Understanding the Materials Economy and data centers. (above) Meeting notes with Rachel Abrams in Thesis Workgroup. (opposite) 44 45 Understanding Server Farms, Data Centers, and Cloud Computing A few weeks ago, I headed up to my old stomping grounds in Cambridge to celebrate my buddy’s Ryan’s birthday and have an early Thanksgiving dinner. Ryan is a Sloanie (MIT) and now works for the big boys at Intel. I had the chance to talk shop with his co-worker, Greg Lord, and his friend, Joe Swanson, a network engineer for the Federal Reserve. Having a fresh perspective on my thesis topic, I wanted to inform my ignorance around server farms, data centers, and cloud computing. Greg and Joe were graciously up to the task. This is what I gleaned. Over the last 15 years or so, the terms “server farms” and “data centers” have become interchangeable. For the most part, the guts of each are similar; there are a collection of computer servers, usually clustered in stacks, forming rows and rows of servers depending on the size of the facility. Minus a monitor and audio jack, an individual server is made of the same components as your computer: central processing unit (CPU), hard drive, processor, memory, fan for cooling, and famously in Google’s case, a battery (I’m told the speed of a CPU is not as critical for servers). I say “famously” because until a few years ago, Google was extremely hush hush about their server architecture.9 You can’t blame them; servers are a multi-billion dollar industry10 with tiny advances in engineering creating substantial competitive advantage. Unlike other companies, Google designs and builds their own servers (kinda badass if you’re a nerd). Google remains secretive; however, they have offered up some larger operational and structural schematics to highlight a few innovations. For example, they moved the uninterruptible power supply (UPS) battery from a separate unit to the server itself. This creates efficiencies in AC/DC conversions from the power grid to a server.11 But I digress. While similar, server farms are intended for serving up data, not necessarily storing it. Data centers on the other hand do both. They have rows and rows of server stacks 46 as well as extensive cooling systems, a control center, this very question and responded by renting out their telecommunications, security, and tons of redundancy. server space, creating Amazon Web Services. They provide Redundancies are backups of server components includ- the server backbone for Foursquare, Netflix, and Yelp ing power supply, network connections, and data storage. among others, and even host projects for Harvard Medi- If one source fails, no problem. It’s backed up. “The more cal School and NASA to run complex analysis models. redundancies, the better”, says Joe. Currently, Amazon Web Services owns one-fifth of the 12 Typically, servers follow a “one to many” or model, where components have at least one backup. Extending cloud computing market, becoming a major player in providing cloud-based content.13 this concept beyond power supply and data connection, innovations in optimizing and creating redundancy Epilogue for data storage, i.e. virtualization, have allowed cloud This is my basic understanding of how all this works computing to happen. Depending on who you talk to, without delving into the infinite details of information virtualization is an over-arching term that allows us to technology. I’d like to thank Greg and Joe for talking about put our data virtually all over the globe and access that server farms, data centers, and cloud computing. I should data faster by serving it up locally. let it be known that we did not talk about nerdy topics for the entire time, only most of it. Imagine for a moment you physically divided you computer’s internal components and placed them at multiple locations around your neighborhood. You still have your keyboard, monitor, and audio jack, but the guts are all over the place. However, this all doesn’t matter to your computer. The operating system (OS) keeps purring along as if nothing happened, and you can merrily go about your day using your computer, accessing your data as if it were all located in one place. This is basically how netbooks or ultrabooks function. In the world of servers, technology such as storage area networks (SAN) and redundant array of independent disks (RAID) abstracts where information is held and allows data to be replicated. By spreading the data and traffic load across multiple servers in different locations, data centers optimize their physical real estate. Back in the day, companies overbuilt their servers to make room for data expansion and to protect themselves against large spikes in traffic. I like to think of this method as a giant mall parking lot; every mall has built a parking lot that accounts for the maximum amount of visitors on the biggest shopping day of the year. For the other 364 days, there are scores of spaces being unused. But why pay for inactive server space? Amazon asked 47 Sketchbook Entry : 12/11/2011 Initial drawings for the Seed Cloud (below) and Read Cloud (opposite) projects. 48 49 Seed Cloud Project A discursive design approach that makes the act of uploading data to a cloud-based service perceptible to others. The Seed Cloud generates steam relative to the upload size: the larger the upload, the more steam produced. The user connects the Seed Cloud to his/her computer via USB, fills the device with water, and can activate it through the Seed Cloud website. Finished Seed Cloud. 50 Process & Details December 13, 2011 â€“ December 18, 2011 Seed Cloud logo. Mocking up the smokestack in foam core. Measuring the foam core model for smokestack angle and hinge placement. Setting up the files for the laser cutter. Adhering acrylic pieces together to build the base and smokestack. Scouting hardware at various stores. Cutting the screws for the smokestack hinge. Sanding down the smokestack for the proper base angle. In progress at the SVA sculpture studio. My desk mid-fabrication at the IxD studio. Final assembly. Applying the decals. 51 Read Cloud Project A product that measures data stored in your cloud. By installing an a browser extension and plugging in the Read Cloud, a user can measure the mount of data he/she had produced on various social media sites, measured by the day, week, month, and all-time use. If users were given feedback about how much data they produce, would it have an impact on how they produce/consume digital content? Screens from the Read Cloud Demo Video. http://vimeo.com/33872944 52 Process & Details December 13, 2011 â€“ December 18, 2011 Read Cloud logo. Picking up some lumber at Home Depot. Planning out the day for fabricating and video shoot. In progress at the SVA sculpture studio. Painting the exterior. Inserting the device button. My desk mid-fabrication at the IxD studio. Attaching the USB cable. Sketching storyboards. Camera mounted on a mini-boom for the video shoot. Lighting setup for the video shoot. Post-production in AfterEffects. 53 Send or receive Internet content Send 50KB photo Socket Unix ... checks if the data packet has the correct IP address, is in the proper order, and is complete. TCP/IP Stack requests for data to be sent through the... received by Socket Unix converts data into My Laptop 87 IPv4 Data Packets Disruptions Dropped connection Power outage Router Modem ISP Server Network A Cybernetic Model of TCP/IP Protocol. 54 Destination Server Determining the ‘What’ To the left is a cybernetic model14 of TCP/IP protocol in the Protocol version 4) data packets and then sent out across context of sending or receiving a 50 KB photo. The TCP/ the Internet. The TCP/IP protocol checks if any packets are IP protocol functions as a comparator - a component of missing, request packets from the sending computer, and a closed-loop system that compares information coming notify the sender that the transmission is complete. This from a sensor to the system goal. In the case of TCP/IP, operation of error checking is called “cyclic redundancy the protocol checks if a data transmission (divided into checking” and used by networked devices when sending packets) is complete and assembled in the right order. and receiving transmissions. Anything less, the protocol can request for parts of that data to be transmitted again. and take time (think of a landline phone call), is an ob- Direct transmission of data, which can be inefficient This model seeks to determine the ‘what’ of my thesis, solete method of transmission for the Internet. However, the content; it does not necessarily refer to the overall due to the non-linear nature of the IP protocol, a Google topic, but the actual category and detail of content so as search request for example is not handled by one server, to define the ‘why’, ‘how’, ‘who for’, ‘who by’, ‘where’, and but by several, to give faster, more relevant results. There ‘when’. This exercise is not a linear process where defin- is actually a carbon footprint estimated by Google for ing ‘what’ first is necessary, rather to grasp exactly what the average search request: about 0.2 grams of CO2.16 is being studied, however granular. Along with the power a laptop consumes, Mike Berners- On pursuing a thesis about the environmental effects Lee estimates a Google search creates 0.7 grams of CO2. of cloud-based computing, I need to better understand Multiply that by the 200 to 500 million search requests what I am measuring as well as the infrastructure (so I per day, and Google searching actually accounts for 1.3 can determine ‘where’ and ‘when’ is the best point for million tons of CO2 emissions per year.17 intervention). The ‘what’ in my case is data - little bits of 0’s and 1’s that live on your hard drive, and are subsequently stored and transmitted by remote server(s). The more data, the more energy consumed by the server. Data is measured in bits and bytes (8-bits); you’ve most likely seen the data on your computer in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB). When you send any type of data over the Internet such as an email, photo, or gchat message, your data is divided up into packets. On average, the size of these packets are 576 bytes or 4,608 bits,15 and consist of a header and trailer, with the data in between. You may or may not know that your computer has an IP (Internet Protocol) address - a unique numerical identifier for every device on a network. Even websites have IP addresses. The header of each data packet would contain information on the origin or sending IP address, destination or receiving IP address, and total size of the packet. The trailer of each data packet would contain information on how many packets there are and in what order to reassemble them back into the original data. If I were to send a friend a 50 KB photo, the photo would be broken up into approximately 87 IPv4 (Internet 55 Visualizing Rob’s Tweets Over winter break and into the second semester, I was still wrestling with the idea of visualizing the invisible. Stuck on the idea of signifying tweets (p.24), I experimented with a different technique: dropping all 1,660 of Rob Giampietro’s tweets from 3 feet (as of 1/2/12). I quickly set up shop in the studio, counted Rob’s tweets, hand punched each one, and captured the result in epoxy. The act of taking something ephemeral and making it permanent in a physical snapshot was an enjoyable exploration, but further pursuit will have to wait until after graduation. Note: Rob is a principal at Project Projects, a design studio in New York. As of 4/30/2012, he has 1,790 tweets. 56 Process & Details January 10, 2011 â€“ January 13, 2011 Setting up the dust shield. Lining up the cone for the tweets. Detail of the cone and the trap door cover. Initial drop test. 3rd drop test. Prep work ready for the final drop. The final drop with Mod Podge coating to help the tweets stick. Attaching the USB cable. The result. 57 Sketchbook Entry : 1/24/2012 #meta Reviewing thesis process book formats from the Class of 2011. (opposite) 58 59 Research January 2012 â€“ March 2012 On Emerging Themes of Digital Production and Consumption Over the past months, I’ve been reading several books on our various communication devices, are we loosing our consumption, culture, design, and the environment. Be- ability to be satisfied with our current place in life by fore I close out the bulk of my secondary research, I want chasing digital bits of potential affirmation? to highlight a few emerging themes regarding our digital production and consumption habits. (I still have to read II. Seamlessness and Time The Information by James Gleick and Glut by Alex Wright) A longtime priority of interaction designers has been to erase the boundaries between experiences with technol- I. Either Never Satisfied or Always Curious ogy, i.e. create a seamless experience. This can range from “Our inventions are but improved means to an unim- how easily a user can charge or sync an iPod with his/her proved end”, as Neil Postman paraphrases Henry David computer to the consistency of content design across de- Thoreau in Technopoly. A lofty statement, but one that vices (phone, tablet, computer, television). A fundamental addresses a fundamental question underlying the torrent promise of technology: save the user from the drudgery of technological advancement in the last 20 years - where of tasks and make the ones required of them easier. is all this headed? While some believe the innovations in In Everywhere, Adam Greenfield points out that, as technology are leading to a singularity as futurist Raymond does computer scientist Mark Weiser, seamlessness can Kurzweil proposes, other thought leaders question the make experiences, “hard to tell when one thing ends and insatiable demand for new information and our dissat- something else begins”.6 Think of it this way: where and isfaction with the here and now. when can you check your email? text or call a friend? 1 John Thackara, author of In The Bubble, illustrates Practically anywhere. With this ubiquitous power, our our growing dissatisfaction with the analogy of a boy, divisions of time – work time, family time, play time – are sitting under a tree, looking out over a landscape. In one removed. Thackera also warns that even the design of our case, the boy exists before the invention of the Internet, spaces can make our bodies, “physically desensitized from cellphones, pagers; the other case describes the boy exist- its sense of time”.7 Moreover, Postman laments that the ing now. Which boy is more thoughtful in the moment, promise of technology is to give us more time by accom- satisfied with the solitude of thought? Those not part of plishing tasks faster, “Time, in fact, became an adversary the Millennial generation relate to the latter. Some, such over which technology could triumph.”8 as writer Clive Thompson, argues otherwise, saying the boy is actively seeking inspiration to share rather than and task completion begets more space for other activi- waiting for some serendipitous apple to drop.3 ties; this space however is often filled with more of the With his analogy, Thackara references the Italian same activity – a consequence described as the rebound concept of “dolce far niente”, describing one’s ability to effect. The concept explains as technology allows easier find pleasure in idleness, literally meaning “sweet doing access and faster use of a resource (time), the more of that nothing”. Elizabeth Gilbert also writes about the con- resource is used. The effect leaves us wondering where cept in her book, Eat, Pray, Love.4 Both authors question all our time went. 2 Our attempts to create efficiencies with technology whether we can enjoy a moment to ourselves without being able to communicate that feeling to others. In On III. Information as Metaphor: Water, Garbage, Food Paradise Drive, David Brooks criticizes Americans who Open access to a seemingly infinite amount of informa- have never been satisfied with what they have and who tion is often framed as metaphor. In The Middle Mind, are constantly pursuing the next best thing. Applied to Curtis White describes the abundance of information as 5 63 a deluge, leaving us to drown in sea of entertainment and Seemingly irrational, our digital lifestyle has become a communication when all we wanted was a drink. Postman paradox of loss aversion, a decision theory determined moves up the pessimism scale, declaring, “Information by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. Loss aversion has become a form of garbage”. Beyond subjectivity, his states that we can make decisions based on our desire to point is reinforced with the advent of content farms – avoid loss rather than acquire gains; fears of loosing our creating content on a mass scale as quickly as possible digital information forever can be alleviated by storing that to seed hundreds of websites for daily use, only to then information in the cloud. In his classic routine, George be forgotten and “thrown away” into a far off database. 10 Carlin jokes that our homes are just places to store all our The most consistent metaphor used is information stuff.14 I would argue that our cloud-based services are as food. Douglas Rushkoff quotes Shakespeare in his not only means to access our content anywhere, but are Frontline report, Digital Nation, saying “we are consumed actually digital attics where we can just store all our stuff. 9 by that we are nourished”. The more quickly we snack 11 on tiny morsels of information [sic], the more our ideas are shaped into bursts of disconnected thought. In his report, Rushkoff points out as undergraduate college students produce and consume information through endless multi-tasking, their ability to defend a thoughtful, consistent argument in an essay is diminished. Gone are the days musing by Walden Pond. Exploring similar themes in his new book, The Infor- mation Diet, Clay Johnson states, “information consumption is as active an experience as eating”, equating our cravings for salt, fat, and sugar in cheap foods with our desire for affirmation.12 By quickly viewing and sharing information, we fall prey to our desires of affirmation and recognition (as many media companies have learned), resulting in “information obesity”. Similarly, this rapid, cyclical behavior leads Microsoft researcher danah boyd to describe social media as being the “psychological equivalent of obesity”.13 Way back in 2001, David Brooks wrote Bobos in Paradise, which described a new upper class of now grey-haired bohemians who express their values with a bourgeois budget. It’s not enough to eat “morally neutral sausages”; Bobos must eat sausage made from local, free-range pork using a recipe passed down through the generations, costing far more than any offering from Jimmy Dean. “Shopping, like everything else, has become a means of self-exploration and self-expression”, he writes.15 Through conspicuous consumption, we display our values and beliefs. It is now 2012. Our consumption as communicating success has shifted to boasting through production of content. We are all our own PR firm and with the tools of social media, we can broadcast our lives and interests with a simple click or tap. This sentiment is echoed by Kickstarter co-founder Yancy Strickler and entrepreneur Zach Klein in a recent blog post,16 pointing out that con- IV. The Cloud as a Virtual Attic and Digital Hoarding spicuous production is now our means for transmitting While Postman describes information as garbage, more values. With every upload and post, we are not only show- and more it seems to be something we can stash away ing the world what we have or what we find interesting, in our cloud. Given the amount of storage available for but we are also searching for affirmation. I doubt anyone various cloud-based services (generally advertised as would continue to post content without feedback from being “unlimited”), producing and saving information is friends, family, or strangers. effortless. We are no longer limited by available storage on our computers and devices; we can save our digital he mentions the ancient Greek concept of thumos,17 the content on nearly infinite levels. For example, as of today, human desire for recognition of one’s own existence. I’m only using 88 MB of 7,671 MB available to me on my With today’s social media tools, our ability to fulfill our GMail account. Why delete an email when I can just have own personal thumos is for the taking (or clicking); but it on hand? the question remains – if everyone is seeking recognition, can we all respond to one another despite the cacophony To me, this is a form of hoarding – saving items of little or no utility for the chance of possible use in the future. 64 V. Conspicuous Consumption vs. Conspicuous Production In another book by David Brooks, The Social Animal, of requests? VI. Starting to Lean Back Apple founder Steve Jobs, in addressing a conference, said, “We think basically you watch television to turn your brain off, and you work on your computer when you want to turn your brain on.”18 What Jobs is referring to is the notion of “hot” and “cool” media, a concept first introduced by the late theorist Marshall McLuhan (also recently covered by Paul Ford in our Content Strategy class). “Hot” media are highly defined mediums which engage one sense of the viewer and require very little participation. On the other hand, “cool” media are low definition mediums that demand more viewer participation and require more attention.19 Another closely related classification of media are “lean-forward” and “lean-back” mediums. Television is a “lean-back” medium where viewers want to be entertained and are in a relaxed, passive state. In “lean-forward” mediums, the Internet, for example, viewers are more engaged users of the medium and are in a more active state. But as Eli Pariser points out in The Filter Bubble, the Internet is becoming a “lean-back” medium.20 Increasingly, we are watching more video content online. In fact, nearly a third of all Internet traffic is from watching movies and shows on Netflix.21 Both YouTube and Vimeo have recognized this trend and designed LeanBack and Couch Mode features respectively, so users can watch content on a television or by simply “leaning-back” in a chair. Never mind online video content, our Internet tools and apps allow us to sort through and parse vast amounts of information, easing the burden of search. This does not sound bad at all, but Eli Pariser warns, “as personalized filtering gets better and better, the amount of energy we’ll have to devote to choosing what we’d like to see will continue to decrease.”22 65 66 INTERVIEW : Deena Rosen, Senior Manager of User Experience, OPower Notes (opposite) 1/24/2012 67 INTERVIEW : Stephan Von Muehlen, Co-Founder, Energy Hub Notes 1/31/2012 68 69 DISCUSSION : Allan Chochinov, Chair, SVA MFA Products of Design; Partner, Core77 Notes (below) 1/31/2012 70 71 INTERVIEW : Don Carli, Founder, Institute for Sustainable Communication Notes 2/10/2012 72 73 INTERVIEW : Steve Berry, User Experience Designer, Efficiency 2.0 Notes (opposite) 2/15/2012 Blog Entry : 2/14/2012 closer to the average (using more energy). However, #interviews if I’m given a qualitative measure - “Great Job, #summary Dave!” - then I will most likely maintain that #findings lead. Conversely, if I’m falling behind the group, qualitative encouragement will not work. Given Interviews n’ Making In late January, I spoke with two Deena Rosen, Senior Manager of User Experience at OPower, and Stephan Von Muehlen, co-founder of Energy Hub. Both companies are redesigning our relationship with utility companies by giving customers realtime and historical data of their energy consumption. I first talked with Deena, who described how OPower’s product platform is rooted in cognitive psychology, in particular the work of Dr. Robert Cialdini. Researching the motivations behind energy consumption, Dr.Cialdini found that across all financial and environmental reasons that the only true motivator was what he called normative comparison. Normative comparison is a concept where we compare our status and performance to people similar to ourselves, and we want to “normalize” our behavior with others. As individuals, we do not want to do any worse than a larger group in our energy consumption. In discussing this with Stephan, he mentioned that people also don’t want to do any better. He described a paradox of normative comparison, pointing out that we tend to take advantage of quantitatively “doing better” than others; if I’m conserving more energy than the majority of people I’m compared with, I will use that lead as an allowance and end up moving 74 quantitative data, I would treat my consumption like a game and try to conserve energy more. In my conversations with Deena and Stephan, we covered many topics around methods for encouraging behavior change. Don Carli, director of the Institute for Sustainable Communication, has a different approach in working towards a sustainable future. Don is a fascinating character. He worked as a production artist for Robert Motherwell and others during the 1970’s in the New York art scene, and he helped develop standards for inkjet printer technology in the 1980’s. Now, he is advocating for industry standards on sustainable communication. Pursuing large companies with massive advertising budgets such as Proctor & Gamble and Unilever, he hopes to establish a series of measures that: identify the materials used to advertise/market a product, define them in a lifecycle, quantify those materials so as to track them, and then have companies make informed decisions around those agreed upon measures. In doing so, he hopes to prevent “greenwashing” in corporate communication and disclose resources used in advertising and promoting products/services. Moving forward, I plan to incorporate two core concepts uncovered from my interviews: normative comparison and established measures. 75 User Survey Being Online and the Environment Being Online and the Environment I. Intro *8. What steps do you take to save electricity? Turn off lights when I leave a room This survey is conducted by David Bellona, an MFA candidate in the Interaction Deisgn program at the School of Visual Arts. The survey is for academic purposes only. David will be the only person viewing your answers and your privacy will be respected for all responses. The survey will take approximately 15-20 minutes. You will be entered for the chance to win a $25 gift certificate to Amazon.com. Winner will be announced on 2/17. Questions 1-6. For the first section, you will be answering some general questions about who you are and where you live. Cool? Cool. Installed energy efficient lightbulbs Other (please specify) Added insulation around my home/apt (electric heat) Updated my appliances Not important Somewhat Very important Overall Cost Cost per kWh Usage (Power Consumption) *3. What is your gender? Damage to the environment *10. Do you know where your electricity comes from? Non-renewable energy resources *4. What is your age? Renewable energy resources Both *5. Where do you live? (city, state) *11. How concerned are you about the carbon footprint of your electricity consumption? II. Electricity and the Environment I have no idea 6. What do you do for work? Not at all Somewhat - Very concerned *12. Would you pay for a service to offset the carbon footprint of your electricity consumption? Questions 7-17. The following 10 questions are about your electricity consumption and the environment. Yes *7. Do you know what a kilowatt hour (kWh) is? No Yes No Installed motion sensors for certain lights Unplug certain appliances or turn off power strips 2. What is your email address? (optional but needed for the raffle) Female Installed timers for certain lights *9. Which of the following concerns you about your electricity bill? 1. What is your name? (first and last name, optional but needed for the raffle) Male Turn off lights when I leave my home/apt Maybe Kinda 13. Why or why not? Page 1 Being Online and the Environment Being Online and the Environment *22. How frequently do you use the following services? Facebook Page 2 Don't use Not that often Weekly Daily All the time *26. How do you backup files on your computer? External hard drive Dropbox Google + Twitter iCloud Foursquare I don't back up my data Yelp Flickr Instagram Path Pinterest Tumblr Gimmie Bar Snip.it YouTube Vimeo *23. Would you use a service that helped you keep track of the amounts of your online content? (pictures, videos, comments, etc) Other (please specify) *27. What cloud-based applications do you use? Google docs Google calendar Gmail Other email service (AOL, Hotmail, Yahoo) iCloud Evernote Dropbox Maybe 28. How would you define 'cloud computing'? 24. Why or why not? *29. How concerned are you losing your online files? (uploaded pictures, videos, emails, IV. Your Files and Cloud Computing etc) Not at all - etc) Not at all Very concerned Yes No I have no idea Page 5 76 Flickr photos) *25. How concerned are you losing your files on your computer? (pictures, documents, Very concerned *30. Do you know where your online files are physically located? (ex.Facebook content, Questions 23-32. The following 10 questions are about your files and cloud computing. (You're almost done!) - Other (please specify) Yes No Page 6 Being Online and the Environment Being Online and the Environment *14. Have you ever calculated your own 'carbon footprint' using online tools/calculator? Yes No Desktop Computer Laptop Computer Can't remember iPad iPhone iPod Touch Yes Other Smartphone (ex.Android) *16. Do you believe in man-made global warming? Other Tablet (ex. Samsung Galaxy) No Ultrabook Computer (ex.Macbook Air) 15. How would you define 'carbon footprint'? *19. What device do you use the most to access the Internet? *20. What device do you use the most to share content? Not Sure Desktop Computer Laptop Computer 17. Why or why not? Ultrabook Computer (ex.Macbook Air) iPad III. Online and On The Go Other Tablet (ex. Samsung Galaxy) iPhone *18. How frequently do you use the following devices? iPod Touch Don't own Not that often Weekly Daily Nonstop Desktop Computer Laptop Computer Ultrabook Computer (ex.Macbook Air) iPad Other Tablet (ex. Samsung Galaxy) iPhone Other Smartphone Other Smartphone (ex.Android) Questions 18-24. The following 7 questions are about your electronic devices and online services you use. *21. When visiting a website, how do you share/post the content you are using? Don't use Not that often Weekly Daily Nonstop 'Like' button 'Tweet' button 'Retweet' button 'LinkedIn' button 'Email a friend' function 'Digg' button 'Reddit' button (ex.Android) iPod Touch Page 3 Page 4 Being Online and the Environment *31. How concerned are you about the physical location of your online files/content? Not at all - Very concerned *32. Do you know how your online services are powered? Non-renewable energy resources Renewable energy resources Both I have no idea *33. How concerned are you about the carbon footprint of your online behavior? (posting videos, commenting, tweeting, 'liking', etc) Not at all - Very concerned *34. Would you pay for a service to offset the carbon footprint of your online behavior? Yes No Maybe 35. Why or why not? Page 7 77 environmental impact of data centers. A few even noted they would rather change their behavior than pay extra money. + People use Facebook. Not a typical “Eureka!” moment of clarity, but as affirmation, 80% of 21-45 year olds surveyed use Facebook on a frequent basis (weekly, daily or ‘all the time’). Also, 21-30 year olds use Facebook as their primary means of sharing information on the Internet. Facebook was by far the most used online service, with Twitter a somewhat distant second. Nearly half of 21-30 year olds use Instagram and over 75% of those 45 or older use Google + (yep). + We’re just not that into data. A majority of Blog Entry : 2/18/2012 the digerati might be obsessed with the quantified #survey self, but many people surveyed don’t think it’s #summary #key_findings After little convincing from my classmates Allison and Cooper (“It’s incredible”), I dropped $25 that important. Merely tracking the amount of one’s online content is not enough to change consumption habits – people need a reason and connection to a benefit or consequence. Many wouldn’t know what to do with just straight data; it needs context. and signed up for SurveyMonkey; it absolutely destroys Google Docs survey. I set up my survey into 4 categories: demographics, electricity and the environment, online behavior, and file management and cloud-based computing. Over the course of two weeks, I had a great response, 102 people, with the majority of respondents in the range of 21-45. A few insights from the survey: + We do care, just not sure what about. The majority of people are concerned with the carbon footprint of their electrical consumption in the home, but are not worried about the carbon footprint of their online habits. It should also be noted that 92% of respondents had no idea how their online services are powered. A key quote , “I don’t have a method of easily understanding what my current carbon footprint is and how to reduce/offset it.” + Transparency is key. Many people would pay for a service that would offset the carbon dioxide emissions of their electrical consumption. 60% also noted that they would be willing to pay for an offset of their cloud-based data. In both cases, this depended on how and where the money was being spent, as well as information on the 78 Sketchbook Entry : 2/17/2011 Survey summary notes. (opposite) 79 Defining an Audience Psychographics Rather Than Demographics For my thesis, I am focusing on the production and distribution of social, fluid, ephemeral content. This includes the reuse of pre-existing content on the Internet as well as the subsequent saving of this content. When I say “saving”, I am referring to the automatic storage of short-lived content that is quickly forgotten by the producer – rather digitally disposed – after a few days. In this regard, these behaviors represent a linear process of consumption, recreating tiny, rapid versions of the Materials Economy millions of times per day. The Materials Economy Made digestible through her video, The Story of Stuff, Annie Leonard explains the Materials Economy: the vast, linear system that is the basis for our consumer culture.23 It consists of five general phases: extraction, production, distribution, consumption, disposal (ref.1). For example, the MacBook I am writing this text on contains dozens of materials - precious metals, glass, plastic - that were Sketching out model iterations on the blackboard. infrastructure powered by non-renewable energy resources can have a huge impact on the environment. In fact, carbon emissions from powering the world’s data centers are about the same as produced by the airline industry, or even a medium-sized country.25 processed, manufactured, and assembled in factories all Dividing the Cloud over the world. In the case of my laptop, it was shipped Because the term “the cloud” has become a catch all for from a factory to a distribution center, then loaded onto everything dealing with data centers, I need to determine a truck and delivered to the Apple store in Chelsea. I specific data center transactions I am targeting as well as purchased my laptop there and eventually will hand back user behaviors. Cloud computing is nearly synonymous over to Apple for “recycling” aka disposal. with the Internet. Amazon Web Services powering the This linear process has been critiqued again and likes of Netflix and Yelp; the ubiquitous access to Gmail; again, most notably by Ms. Leonard, and William Mc- Apple’s iCloud service for device syncing; dozens of social Donough and Michael Braungart.24 What is fascinating media services such as Facebook and Instagram – all fall about the Materials Economy are the vast systems involved under the cloud. with creating our everyday objects, from my MacBook or the shirt you’re wearing. We do not to think about this streaming media (music, tv shows/movies, live events), massive infrastructure on a day-to-day basis; it simply work related communications such as emails and file shar- would not be practical. However, shifting from tangible ing, and services used for backing up digital content. For to virtual products, we are completely unaware of the instance, online services Backupify and Dropbox are for physical infrastructure that support our digital systems. general consumer use, but do not share similar behavior As consumers, we are setting a dangerous precedent if we patterns with the consumption of physical products as are moving forward in the adoption of digital products do Tumblr or Instagram. Aspects of cloud computing I will not address are: with, “It just works” 80 While the movement towards everything online (i.e. Consumption vs. Production vs. Distribution “the cloud”) has the potential to be more environmentally Pre-Internet days we expressed ourselves in the real world sustainable than current practices, a growing Internet (IRL) through the products we bought. Clothing, shoes, (ref.1) (ref.2) (ref.3) Model of the Materials & Virtual Economies jewelry, furniture, cars, books, music – these objects served ourselves sharing and distributing massive amounts of as signifiers that communicated who we thought we were content through rapid click or tap cycles, leaving us won- in the eyes of others. Our consumption of physical prod- dering where the last 20 minutes of our day went. ucts, “has become a means of self-exploration and self- expression”, writes David Brooks in Bobos in Paradise. 26 are given allow for this behavior. Without limits of cost We still buy physical products, but we also have or material, we can produce/curate/distribute seemingly shifted self-expression and affirmation to the production infinite amounts of information. More often than not, we of online content (ref.2). We broadcast our feelings through do just that. For instance, Facebook handles approximately comments and ‘likes’; reblog, repost, or retweet images 200 million photo uploads per day.27 Furthermore, we are and ideas we find interesting; upload first-person views redistributing existing content through social curation. of our world through various social media tools (ref.3). According to Matt Mullenweg, co-founder of WordPress, Most of our online behavior is reinforced by red circles for every one piece of content on Tumblr, there are 9 cop- with white numbers - tiny confirmation alerts that our ies of that same content being reposted.28 As a collective, friends, family, and strangers are paying attention. These our behaviors require a rapid expansion of the physical mini feedback loops give us hits of dopamine, enabling infrastructure of the Internet. Right or wrong, the online and mobile tools that we ephemeral highs that can be terribly addictive. We find 81 Adjacent Entities for Competitive Analysis The competition. I have divided up “the competition” into six categories: sought to bring awareness around CO2 output, using Frameworks/APIs, Incoming/Outgoing Data Manage- 540 of black balloons to illustrate an individual’s carbon ment, Environmental Visualizations, Backup & Cloud output per day (62 pounds). Carbon Bytes is an iPad app Management, and Electricity Consumption. They are exploration of Mr.Murray, tracking personal online habits charted along a Physical/Digital spectrum paired with and consequences, such as hours online, downloads, and six verticals: Practical vs. Abstract, Social vs. Individual, CO2 output. Real Time vs. Summary, Expert vs. Layman, Stationary vs. Mobile, Commercial vs. Residential. My thesis projects petitive analysis nor fully inclusive of all products/services are added on each of the six main charts to illustrate their in any given category. Furthermore, this study is a soft attributes as well as identify opportunities in different science, and is an exploration of adjacent industries to markets. I also performed an audit of consumer labels (e.g. determine mediums, audiences, techniques, and func- WindMade) and offset programs, but these categories are tionality that may apply to my own thesis projects. It should also be noted this is not a traditional com- not mapped as they do not fit the selected cartesian axes. 82 Of the few dozen entities, there are two projects that Note: I refer to a potential thesis project, Cumulus Alpha can be considered “direct competitors”, both student in this analysis. This project eventually became Canary, projects and in the Environmental Visualizations category: but at the time, was only a placeholder and representa- Mark Nystrom’s Carbon Emissions Project (2005) and tive of certain qualities born from this exercise. Also, the Elwyn Murray’s Carbon Bytes (2011). As a public installa- At Capacity project was scrapped and became part of the tion at the RISD MFA show, the Carbon Emissions Project Carry Your Cloud prototype. Process Using sticky notes to plot out the competition on one of the studio blackboards. I plotted out four axes at a time, documented each session, then rotated to the next set. February 28, 2011 â€“ February 29, 2011 After plotting all sets, I brought the photos into Illustrator to cleanup the analysis. 83 Practical vs. Abstract Practical Backup & Cloud Management Cumulus Alpha Electricity Consumption Emission Bits Green Button Environmental Visualizations Read Cloud Frameworks/APIs Practical Electricity Meter Incoming/Outgoing Utility Co. Monthly Bill Efficiency 2.0 Reports OPower Paper Report Smart Meter Data Management Eco-Eye Monitors Thesis Practical Energy Score Cards Utility Co. Efficiency 2.0 Website Dashboard OPower Dashboard Utility Co. Email Physical Lucid Design Group OPower/Facebook Dashboard Social Energy App Simple Energy Social Game Energy Hub Dashboard Energy Hub Project Devices Ambient Devices Nest Thermomstat Physical Digital Carry Your Cloud Gilles Belley Energy Saving Adaptor Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Changers Social Solar Power Digital Neighborhood Score Cards Physical Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Physic Digital Coal Button REALiTREE Seed Cloud Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report At Capacity Natalie Jeremijenko STATIC! Power Aware Cord Abstract Abstract Abstract Practical vs. Abstract Practical Natalie Jeremijenko creates Practical amazing projects that expose Practical the mystery of natural systems and use theirCisco process to Dispatch.io IOS NetFlow Dropbox Tumblr Backup External Hard Drive illustrate our impact on the environment.Apple While a few Activity Monitor are conceptual and abstract, they serve as entry points Tout Email Management to discussions around our relationship with nature. The purpose of my abstract projects are also to serve as a Institute for Sustainable Communication Tendril of storage and bandwidth, Carry Your Cloud on storage as Digital digital attics, Seed Cloud on signifying data creation, Your Flowing Data and Brighter Planet TripSquare AMEE Location Footprinter Clean Web Hackathon Digital Physical Tweets 2 Martin the Coal Button onAmy CO emissions from digital behavior. Bloom Email Physical Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Abstract Abstract Backup & Cloud Management Abstract 84 Backupify Gimmie Bar Green Button Project gateway around related topics: At Capacity on limitations Physical AMEE Digital Physic Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Practical Practical Energy ScoreEnergy Cards Score Cards Practical Practical Utility Co. Utility Co. Smart Meter Smart Meter Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Energy Hub Energy Hub Monitors Monitors Efficiency 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Devices Devices Reports Reports . Abstract p& nt Management city umption nmental izations l Physical eworks/APIs ing/Outgoing g Management t s Project Physical Utility Co. Utility Co. 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency Website Website Dashboard Dashboard OPower OPower Dashboard Dashboard Utility Co. Utility Co. Email OPower OPower Practical Practical Email Lucid DesignLucid Group Design Group Paper ReportPaper Report OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Dashboard Dashboard Ambient Devices Ambient Devices Social EnergySocial App Energy App Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Social Game Cumulus Alpha Cumulus Alpha Energy Hub Energy Hub Emission Bits Emission Bits Dashboard Dashboard Green Button Green Button Nest Nest ThermomstatThermomstat Read CloudRead Cloud Physical Digital Digital Physical Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Energy Saving Energy Adaptor Saving Adaptor EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Physical Digital Digital Physical Changers Changers Social Solar Power Social Solar Power Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Practical Practical Utility Co. Utility Co. Smart MeterSmart Meter Neighborhood MonthlyNeighborhood Bill Monthly Bill Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Score Cards Score Cards Energy HubEnergy Hub Monitors Monitors Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency 2.0 Devices Devices Reports Reports Elwyn MurrayElwyn Murray Energy Score Energy CardsScore Cards Carbon Bytes Carbon Bytes Utility Co. Utility Co. Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency 2 Website Website Dashboard Dashboard OPower OPower Dashboard Dashboard Utility Co. Utility Co. Email Email OPower OPower Lucid Design Lucid Group Design GroupOPower/Facebook Paper Report Paper Report OPower/Faceb Dashboard Dashboard Ambient Devices Ambient Devices Social Social AppEnergy A Physical Digital DigitalEnergy Simple Energy Simple Energy REALiTREE REALiTREESocial GameSocial Game Energy HubEnergy Hub Dashboard Dashboard Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Carbon Report EmissionsNest Report Nest Thermomstat Thermomstat Physical Digital Digital Natalie Jeremijenko Natalie Jeremijenko Gilles BelleyGilles Belley Gilles BelleyGilles Belley Energy Saving Energy Adaptor Saving Adaptor EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore STATIC! STATIC! Power AwarePower Cord Aware Cord Coal ButtonCoal Button Carry Your Cloud Carry Your Cloud Seed CloudSeed Cloud Abstract Abstract Practical Practical STATIC! STATIC! Abstract Abstract Power Aware Power CordAware Cord At Capacity At Capacity Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Abstract Abstract Practical Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Abstract Practical Practical lanet Abstract Practical Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Practical Physical Physical Physical DigitalPlanet Digital Planet Brighter Brighter Your FlowingYour DataFlowing Data TripSquare TripSquare Tweets Tweets Amy Martin Amy Martin AMEE AMEE Bloom Email Bloom Email Location Footprinter Location Footprinter Clean Web Clean Web Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Hackathon Hackathon Weight of Data Weight of Data Digital Digital Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane Paper SMS Plane SMS Backupify Backupify Gimmie Bar Gimmie Bar Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlowIOS NetFlow Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor AMEE AMEE Tendril Tendril Institute for Institute for SustainableSustainable Communication Communication Green Button Green Project Button Project Physical Dispatch.io Dispatch.io Dropbox Dropbox Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup External HardExternal Drive Hard Drive Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor ct Practical Physical Physical Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Digital Digital Physical Physical Digital Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom EmailBloom Email Digital Your Flowing Your Data Flowing Data Tweets Tweets Silke HilsingSilke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Abstract Abstract Frameworks/APIs Abstract Abstract Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper PlanePaper SMS Plane SMS Abstract Abstract Abstract Abstract Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 85 Social vs. Individual Social Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Cumulus Alpha Green Button Emission Bits Frameworks/APIs Social Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Thesis Project Social OPower/Facebook Social Energy App Simple Energy Seed Social Game Coal Button Cloud Neighborhood Score Cards Physical Lucid Design Group Gilles Belley Dashboard Energy Saving Adaptor Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore OPower Paper Report Changers Digital Social Solar Power Natalie Jeremijenko Physic OPower Dashboard Energy Hub Devices Ambient Devices Eco-Eye Energy Hub Monitors Dashboard STATIC! Power Aware Cord Nest Thermomstat Physical REALiTREE At Capacity Efficiency 2.0 Dashboard Digital Smart Meter Physical Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Carry Your Cloud Digital Read Cloud Energy Score Cards Efficiency 2.0 Reports Utility Co. Website Utility Co. Email Utility Co. Monthly Bill Electricity Meter Individual Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Individual Individual Social vs. Individual Social Social For my main thesis project, Cumulus Alpha [Canary], I Social want it to be easy-to-use, mobile, practical, and social; Berlin-based Changers and stateside OPower are doing all four. Changers is an innovative startup that sells portable solar panel units that can power personal electronics. Us- Clean Web Hackathon Institute for Sustainable Communication Christian Gross ers can broadcast how much energy he/she has created as Paper Plane SMS Silke Hilsing well as CO2 prevented from being released onCisco their social Weight of Data Physical IOS NetFlow networks. Likewise, OPower uses normative comparison Digital Physical Digital whereby we compare our status with people similar to Gimmie Bar Tout Email Management ourselves (friends, family), and want to â€œnormalizeâ€? our TripSquare Physical behavior by comparison. Already implemented Your Flowing on Data their Tweets Apple Activity Monitor use normative comparison in their upcoming app, in Backupify Tumblr Backup External Hard Drive Amy Martin Defense Council (NRDC). Bloom Email AMEE Individual Location Footprinter Individual Backup & Cloud Management Individual 86 Dropbox Dispatch.io paper reports and online dashboard, OPower will also partnership with Facebook and the Natural Resources Digital Physic Social Social Social OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Social EnergySocial App Energy App Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Social Game dividual p& nt Management city umption nmental izations Physical eworks/APIs ing/Outgoing g Management t s Project Physical Social Social Lucid Design Lucid GroupDesign Group Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Dashboard Dashboard Energy Saving Energy Adaptor Saving Adaptor Gilles Belley Gilles Belley OPower OPower Energy Hub Energy Hub EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Dashboard Dashboard Devices Devices Ambient Devices Ambient Devices Efficiency 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Energy Hub Energy Hub Dashboard Dashboard Monitors Monitors Dashboard Dashboard Cumulus Alpha Cumulus Alpha STATIC! STATIC! Physical Digital Physical Digital Green Button Green Button Power AwarePower Cord Aware Cord Emission Bits Emission Bits Nest Nest ThermomstatThermomstat OPower OPower Paper ReportPaper Report Smart Meter Smart Meter Seed CloudSeed Cloud Coal ButtonCoal Button Physical Digital Digital Energy ScoreEnergy Cards Score Cards Efficiency 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Reports Reports At Capacity At Capacity Utility Co. Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Physical Neighborhood Neighborhood Score Cards Score Cards Natalie Jeremijenko Natalie Jeremijenko Social REALiTREE REALiTREE Social Changers Social Changers Social Solar Power Social Solar Power OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebo Social Energy Social AppEnergy A Simple Energy Simple Energy Social GameSocial Game Lucid Design Lucid Group Design Group Mark NystromMark Nystrom Gilles BelleyGilles Belley Dashboard Dashboard Carbon Emissions Carbon Report Emissions Report Digital Physical Digital Energy Saving Energy Adaptor Saving Adaptor Gilles BelleyGilles Belley OPower OPower Energy HubEnergy Hub EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Dashboard Dashboard Devices Devices Ambient Devices Ambient Devices Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency 2 Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Energy HubEnergy Hub Dashboard Dashboard Monitors Monitors Dashboard Dashboard STATIC! STATIC! Physical Digital Digital Power Aware Power CordAware Cord Nest Nest Thermomstat Thermomstat OPower OPower Paper Report Paper Report Smart MeterSmart Meter Utility Co. Utility Co. Website Website Utility Co. Utility Co. Email Email Energy Score Energy CardsScore Cards Elwyn MurrayElwyn Murray Carbon BytesCarbon Bytes Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency 2.0 Reports Reports Carry Your Cloud Carry Your Cloud Individual ReadIndividual Cloud Read Cloud Utility Co. Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Electricity Consumption Individual Individual Social Social Environmental Visualizations Social Social Individual Individual Social Utility Co. Utility Co. Website Website Utility Co. Utility Co. Email Email Individual Individual Social Social Social Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Paper Plane SMS Silke Hilsing Silke Institute forHilsing Institute for Weight of Data WeightSustainable of Data Sustainable Communication Communication Physical Clean Web Clean Web Cisco Hackathon Cisco Hackathon IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Digital Physical Digital Physical Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper PlanePaper SMS Plane SMS Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Physical Your Flowing Your DataFlowing Data TripSquare TripSquare Tweets Digital Tweets Digital Physical Digital Physical Silke HilsingSilke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Physical Cisco DropboxCiscoDropbox IOS NetFlowIOS NetFlow Physical Digital Dispatch.io Digital Dispatch.io Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Tout Tout EmailBackupify Management Email Management Backupify Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup External HardExternal Drive Hard Drive Your Flowing Your Data Flowing Data Tweets Tweets Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Individual AMEE AMEE Location Footprinter Location Footprinter Individual Digital Gimmie Bar Gimmie Bar Individual Individual Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom EmailBloom Email Individual Individual Frameworks/APIs Individual Individual Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 87 Commercial vs. Residential Commercial Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Frameworks/APIs Commercial Commercial Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Thesis Project Physical Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Eco-Eye Monitors Digital Green Button Lucid Design Group Dashboard Energy Score Cards Physical Natalie Jeremijenko Digital Physical Electricity Meter Emission Bits At Capacity Energy Hub Devices Ambient Devices Efficiency 2.0 Reports OPower Paper Report Utility Co. Monthly Bill Digital Simple Energy Social Game Smart Meter Gilles Belley Energy Saving Adaptor STATIC! Power Aware Cord Energy Hub Dashboard Nest Thermomstat Physic Efficiency 2.0 Dashboard OPower/Facebook Seed Social Energy App Coal Button Neighborhood Score Cards REALiTREE Cumulus Alpha Changers Social Solar Power Read Cloud Cloud Carry Your Cloud OPower Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Utility Co. Dashboard Email Utility Co. Website Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Residential Residential Residential Commercial vs. Residential Commercial The focus of my thesis is an individuals ability â€“ based Commercial Commercial on environmental impact â€“ to consciously produce, distribute, and dispose of digital content. In doing so, all of my projects and prototypes are under the Residential Institute for Sustainable Communication AMEE category. Features such as normative comparison and real time feedback from physical devices areCisco distinctive IOS NetFlow attributes that I will include in Cumulus Alpha [Canary]. Tout Email Management Physical Digital Physical Digital Tendril Brighter Planet Digital Physical Apple Activity Monitor Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Amy Martin Bloom Email Dropbox Clean Web HackathonTumblr Backup External Hard Drive Backupify Your Flowing Data Tweets Gimmie Bar Green Button Project Residential Residential Backup & Cloud Management AMEE Location Footprinter TripSquare 88 Dispatch.io Residential Physic Commercial Commercial ntial vs. Residential p& Management nt city mption nmental zations l Physical works/APIs g ng/Outgoing tanagement Commercial Commercial CommercialCommercial Gilles Belley Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Monitors Monitors CommercialCommercial Lucid DesignLucid Group Design Group Dashboard Dashboard Energy ScoreEnergy Cards Score Cards Digital Digital Physical Physical Simple Energy Simple Energy Social GameSocial Game Smart Meter Smart Meter Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Project et l Physical Physical Digital Digital Physical Energy Hub Energy Hub Efficiency 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Devices Devices Dashboard Dashboard Ambient Devices Ambient Devices OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Efficiency 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Social Energy Social App Energy App Green Button Green Button Reports Reports Energy Saving Energy Adaptor Saving Adaptor OPower OPower STATIC! STATIC! Utility Co. Utility Co. OPower OPower Power AwarePower Dashboard Dashboard Cord Aware Cord Email Email Paper ReportPaper Report Energy Hub Energy Hub Utility Co. Utility Co. Dashboard Dashboard Website Website Utility Co. Utility Co. Nest Nest Monthly Bill Monthly Bill ThermomstatThermomstat Coal ButtonCoal Button Emission Bits Emission Bits Cumulus Alpha Residential Residential Cumulus Alpha At CapacityAt Capacity Electricity Consumption Seed CloudSeed Cloud Carry Your Carry CloudYour Cloud Natalie Jeremijenko Natalie Jeremijenko Physical Gilles Belley Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Eco-Eye Eco-Eye Monitors Monitors Neighborhood Neighborhood Score Cards Score Cards Digital Lucid Design Lucid Group Design Group Dashboard Dashboard REALiTREE REALiTREE Physical Smart Meter Smart Meter Energy Score Energy Cards Score Cards Digital Digital Changers Changers Social Solar Power Social Solar Power Simple Energy Simple Energy Social Game Social Game Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Elwyn MurrayElwyn Murray Carbon BytesCarbon Bytes Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom Energy HubEnergy Hub Carbon Emissions Carbon Report Emissions Report Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency 2. 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Email Summary Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Summary Summary Real Time vs. Summary Real Time Real Time when compared to electriUnique to online behavior cal consumption, we have the ability to track usage in Cisco Real Time Clean Web Hackathon External Hard Drive IOS NetFlow real-time. With cloud-based service providers utilizing Dropbox Dispatch.io virtualization, they can determine if a server is about to Apple that load crash due to a spike in online traffic and shift Activity Monitor to other servers. This capability is a dream for utilities: Amy Martin we all crank our air conditioners during Tout peak-hours on Bloom Email Tendril Email Management Physical hot summer days, leading to potential blackouts. 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Website Digital Energy Hub Energy Hub DashboardDashboard Electricity Electricity Meter Meter Simple Energy Simple Energy Coal Button Coal Button Social Game Social Game Natalie Jeremijenko Natalie Jeremijenko OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Read Cloud Read Cloud Social EnergySocial App Energy App Energy ScoreEnergy Cards Score Cards EfficiencyDigital 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Physical Physical Physical Physical Digital Dashboard Dashboard Neighborhood Neighborhood Efficiency 2.0Efficiency 2.0 OPower OPower Score Cards Score Cards Reports Reports Emission Bits Dashboard Dashboard Emission Bits OPower OPower Paper ReportPaper Report Real Time Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Physical Physical Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Weight of Weight Data of Data Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup Digital Digital Backupify Backupify Your Flowing YourData Flowing Data Tweets Tweets AMEE AMEE Christian Gross Christian Gross Location Footprinter Location Footprinter Paper Plane SMS Paper Plane SMS Institute for Institute for Sustainable Sustainable Communication Communication Summary Summary Summary Summary Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane Paper SMSPlane SMS Summary Summary Frameworks/APIs Summary Summary Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 91 Expert vs. Layman Expert Backup & Cloud Management Electricity Consumption Environmental Visualizations Frameworks/APIs Expert Expert Incoming/Outgoing Management Electricity Meter Data At Capacity Seed Cloud Thesis Project Smart Meter Physical Energy Score Cards Utility Co. Monthly Bill Ambient Devices Physical Physic Digital Eco-Eye Monitors Utility Co. Energy Hub Email Lucid Design Group Devices Dashboard Energy Hub Dashboard Nest Thermomstat Efficiency 2.0 Reports OPower Paper Report Digital Utility Co. Website Emission Bits Gilles Belley Energy Saving Adaptor Digital Cumulus Alpha Natalie Jeremijenko Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes REALiTREE Carry Your Cloud Coal Button Green Button Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Report Efficiency 2.0 Dashboard Read Cloud OPower Dashboard Changers Social Solar Power Simple Energy Social Game OPower/Facebook Social Energy App STATIC! Power Aware Cord Gilles Belley EDF Semaphore Physical Neighborhood Score Cards Layman Layman Layman Expert vs. Layman Expert The majority of the entities Expert I audited fall into the Layman Expert category, as many are for residential use. 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Social Game Social Game Power Aware Power CordAware Cord OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebo Environmental Visualizations Gilles BelleyGilles Belley Social Energy Social AppEnergy A Gilles BelleyGilles Belley Expert Expert EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Energy Saving Energy Adaptor Saving Adaptor Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow et Digital Dispatch.io Dispatch.io Physical Physical Digital Digital Backupify Backupify Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup Physical External HardExternal DriveSilke Hard Drive Hilsing Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Physical Digital Dropbox Digital Dropbox Amy MartinAmy Martin Bloom EmailBloom Email Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper PlanePaper SMS Plane SMS Gimmie Tout Tout Bar Gimmie Bar Email Management Email Management Your Flowing Your Data Flowing Data Tweets Tweets Layman AMEE AMEE Location Footprinter LaymanLocation Footprinter Layman Layman TripSquare TripSquare Layman Frameworks/APIs Layman Layman Layman Incoming/Outgoing Data Management 93 Stationary vs. Mobile Stationary Backup & Cloud Management Seed Cloud Electricity Consumption At Capacity Environmental Visualizations Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Thesis Project Emission Bits Read Cloud Physical Green Button Coal Button Digital Phy Carry Your Cloud Cumulus Alpha Mobile Stationary vs. Mobile Many of the traditional forms for electricity and data Stationary monitoring and communicating environmental impact are stationary. However, traditional forms such as the Christian Gross electric bill are highly portable, but are a summary of SMS Paper Plane activity. Recently developed applications from OPower, Efficiency 2.0, and Simple Energy can be access through a smart phone, but the content - electricity use - is still in a Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Amy Martin Bloom Email summarized format. One new product on the market, the Nest thermostat, allows for users to control heating and Cisco IOS NetFlow Apple Activity Monitor Your Flowing Data Tweets cooling from a mobile app. While a few of my prototypes and projects fall in the Stationary category, my main projPhysical Digital ect will be mobile allowing for remote access and action. Tout Email Management 94 Mobile Phy Stationary Stationary Stationary Stationary Electricity MeterElectricity Meter Mobile & Management ty mption mental ations Physical g/Outgoing anagement Smart Meter Smart Meter STATIC! STATIC! Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Power Aware Cord Power Aware Cord EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Stationary Stationary Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Eco-Eye Energy Eco-Eye Saving Energy AdaptorSaving Adaptor Monitors Monitors Energy Seed Cloud Seed CloudHub Energy Hub Lucid Design Group Lucid Design Group Devices Devices Dashboard Dashboard Simple Energy Simple Energy Ambient Devices Ambient Devices At Capacity At Capacity Social Game Social Game Energy Hub Energy Hub Utility Co. Utility Co. Dashboard Dashboard Website Website Nest Nest Energy Score Cards Energy Score Cards Thermomstat Thermomstat Physical Digital Digital Neighborhood Neighborhood Score Cards Score Cards Mark Nystrom Mark Nystrom Carbon Emissions Carbon Report Emissions Report Stationary Stationary Natalie Jeremijenko Natalie Jeremijenko Electricity Meter Electricity Meter Physical Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency 2.0 Dashboard Utility Co. Utility Dashboard Co. Project Email Email OPower/Facebook OPower/Facebook Emission BitsEmission Bits Utility Co. Utility Co. SocialGreen Energy App Social Energy App Read Cloud Read Cloud Green Button Button Monthly Bill Monthly Bill OPower CoalOPower Button Coal Button Efficiency 2.0 Efficiency 2.0 Dashboard Dashboard Physical Reports Physical Reports Digital Digital Physical OPower OPower Paper Report Paper Report Smart Meter Smart Meter STATIC! STATIC! Gilles Belley Gilles Belley Power AwarePower Cord Aware Cord EDF Semaphore EDF Semaphore Gilles Belley Gilles Belley REALiTREE REALiTREE Eco-Eye Energy Eco-Eye Saving Energy Adaptor Saving Adaptor Monitors Monitors Digital Physical Digital Energy Hub Energy Hub Lucid Design Lucid GroupDesign Group Devices Devices Dashboard Dashboard Simple Energy Simple Energy Ambient Devices Ambient Devices Game Social Game ChangersSocialChangers Energy Hub Energy Hub Social Solar Power Social Solar UtilityPower Co. Dashboard Dashboard Utility Co. Website Website Nest Nest Energy Score Energy Cards Score Cards ThermomstatThermomstat Physical Digital Digital Utility Co. Email Utility Co. Utility Co. Monthly Bill Monthly Bill Efficiency 2.0Efficiency 2.0 Reports Reports OPower OPower Paper ReportPaper Report Carry Your Cloud Carry Your Cloud Cumulus Alpha Cumulus Alpha Mobile Mobile Elwyn Murray Elwyn Murray Carbon Bytes Carbon Bytes Mobile Electricity Consumption Efficiency 2.0Efficienc Dashboard Dashboa Utility Co. Email OPower/Facebook OPower/Fac Social EnergySocial App Energ OPower OPower Dashboard Dashboard Mobile Environmental Visualizations Stationary Mobile Stationary Mobile Mobile Mobile Stationary Stationary Tumblr BackupTumblr Backup External Hard Drive External Hard Drive Stationary low Stationary Backupify nitor Data Physical Christian Gross Christian Gross Paper Plane SMS Paper Plane SMS Silke Hilsing Silke Hilsing Weight of Data Weight of Data Amy Martin Amy Martin Bloom Email Bloom Email Physical ment Dispatch.io Backupify Dispatch.io Tumblr Backup Tumblr Backup External HardExternal Drive Hard Drive Cisco Cisco IOS NetFlow IOS NetFlow Backupify Digital Digital Apple Apple Activity Monitor Activity Monitor Backupify Dispatch.io Dispatch.io Your Flowing Your Data DataBar Gimmie BarFlowing Gimmie Tweets Tweets Physical Digital Physical Digital Physical Physical Digital Tout Tout Email Management Email Management Dropbox Mobile Gimmie Bar Gimmie Ba Dropbox Mobile Dropbox Mobile Digital Mobile Incoming/Outgoing Data Management Mobile Dropbox Mobile Backup & Cloud Management 95 Concept Development February 2012 â€“ April 2012 98 Initial Concepts + Consumption Dashboard or Bookmarklet in browser + Green Like button for earth day, user can From Competitive Analysis Mobile, social, practical, layman, real-time, social, residential choose to click either green or blue to donate a penny (think March of Dimes) + Defining a set of standards to establish carbon credit trading for IT industry + Consumer labeling system for websites or services, similar to ‘organic’ or ‘energy star’ + Green uploader or green-cloud hosting service + Balloon limiter: user only has an alotted amount of uploading capacity per day, in the form of the balloon volume + Carry your cloud: physical component of your cloud, must carry it with you at all times just as you have your a data always available 99 Prototyping for Possible Features EMAIL: 2/10/2012 TO : Adrian Westaway, Vitamins #prototyping #design_research Hey David, Thanks for getting in touch, it sounds like you’re back in the thesis zone pretty quick! The energy thing sounds interesting, and I love the idea of IFTTT, it’s awesome. Have you seen pachube? and shodan? One’s a way of collecting loads of data from things and the other is a way of searching for those things. I don’t use them but they could be useful? I’m insanely busy this and next week, but maybe we could try to chat the following week? As for tips I would say - don’t be scared of going out and talking to people, try to design a journey to take them on that will inform where you want to go, be happy to chuck the [plan out the window if it doesn’t work because at the end of the day it’s about you connecting with them and trying to see things from their point of view, and document everything beautifully! Speak soon, and good luck! Oh and please say hi to Liz from clara, duncan and me! Blog Entry : 2/20/2012 #behavior #prototype #design_research #Emission_Bricks I’m designing and building my first prototype, with some inspiration and advice from Adrian Westaway 100 of Vitamins. When designing for design research, their dashboards first thing in the morning. For Adrian suggested, “try to design a journey to the remote testing, I set up an opt-in Tumblr take them (participants) on”. Yesterday, I created blog and Twitter feed so participants can follow 6 Gmail accounts, 5 ifttt accounts, 50 ifttt their own and others’ statistics. The prototype is tasks to send emails from 5 of the newly created going really well, but am finding that keeping all Gmail accounts to 1 “master” Gmail account (This the data up-to-date is terribly time intensive. sentence could’ve been written in code). For the second week of testing, I’m trying out a All the repetition set up a prototype that tracks few different approaches with individual users: participants’ production and distribution of public + Tash (User 1) will receive an SMS everytime she digital content. Using the collected data, I plan checks-in at a location on Foursquare, alerting to publicly display behaviors such as amounts of her of the CO2 emissions of that behavior. I chose tweets, uploaded photos, and status updates with Foursquare as it is her most active social media Legos. Yes, Legos, a physical embodiment of data account, even though it has one of the lowest and my childhood. With insight from my survey, I totals of CO2 emissions. will also be equating each behavior with a CO2 + Cooper (User 3) will receive an SMS at the end emission, updating up the totals daily to the of the day summarizing the total CO2 emissions physical display as well as an online component. of all his daily social media activity. + Jess (User 5) will receive an SMS every time With this prototype, I hope to test a few biases/ she takes a photo with Instagram stating, “The assumptions: Instagram photo you just took released 17 grams + The quantified feedback should positively impact of CO2 into the air. That’s the same as driving participants’ production and distribution of 1/13th of a mile!” (I’m trying out comparisons online content. to behaviors that we all can relate to). + The public display will create a “shaming” + All participants must subscribe to the Twitter effect: first with the sheer amounts of content feed, updated once a day with running totals. being produced by each participant and secondly with the subsequent creation of CO2 emissions. With Emission Bricks, I’m tracking a running total + By observing each participants display, non- output of social media behavior and subsequent participants will have an increased awareness of CO2 emissions. In different approach (if given their own online habits and CO2 emissions. the time), I should test for limiting behaviors. + Incentive to conserve does not have to involve Right now, there are no ceilings for how much one monetary motivation, and can be based solely on can use Twitter or Facebook. However, setting a normative comparison to similar groups of people. fixed allowance that a participant may use for the week, say, “Only 10 tweets per week”, would hypothetically result in different behaviors. Blog Entry : 3/6/2012 #behavior Both approaches are very different, but valid, #prototype and can inform how I choose to build key inter- #design_research actions later in the design process. #Emission_Bricks #Carry_Your_Cloud After a week of user tracking and documenting, I’m at the halfway mark testing out my Emission Bricks prototype. I’ve got into the daily routine of logging all the user behaviors and updating 101 Emission Bricks Prototype With Emission Bricks, I wanted to test my main hypothesis amount of energy needed to transmit and serve up digital (p.11) as well as normative comparison: the concept that content. For purposes of this prototype and wanting to states we compare our status and performance to people avoid over estimating CO2 emissions, I assumed that a similar to ourselves, and we “normalize” our behavior Google search was only 1 kilobyte (k) and a tweet was 100 with them. bytes (.1 k). From this assumption, 1 k = 1 kj = .02g / CO2 emissions. Estimates for other interactions are below: Each participant had their Facebook, Flickr, Four- square, Instagram, Tumblr, Twitter, Vimeo, and YouTube accounts connected to IFTTT.com, which triggered an email sent to a prototype Gmail account for each interac- • Vimeo Movie ≈ 240g / CO2 emissions • Instagram Photo ≈ 17g / CO2 emissions tion (Tweet, Check-in, etc). I would then log each email • Facebook Photo ≈ 17g / CO2 emissions into a spreadsheet for each participant and update a • Tumblr Post ≈ .4g / CO2 emissions physical Dashboards using legos to visualize the data. Each Dashboard would also be published on Tumblr and Twitter. CO2 Emission Methodology My estimates for CO2 emissions of digital interactions • Facebook Link ≈ .2g / CO2 emissions • Facebook Share ≈ .1g / CO2 emissions • Foursquare ≈ .1g / CO2 emissions • Twitter ≈ .02g / CO2 emissions are based on the work of Mike-Berners Lee as well as estimates from Google and Twitter. For example, Google estimates that a search request requires 1,000 joules (1 kj) of energy or 0.0003 kilowatt hours (kWh)1 ; a request that is spread across thousands of servers. The consequence of generating enough energy to power this tiny request is the release of 0.2 grams of CO2 into the atmosphere.2 I based my estimates on the size of the interaction in kilobytes (k-size), equating a larger k-size to a larger Emission Bricks Tumblr feed. http://legotracker.tumblr.com 102 Emission Bricks Twitter feed. http://twitter.com/#!/emissionbricks Process & Details February 21, 2012 – March 11, 2012 Calculating Lego size with energy, data, and CO2 equivalents. Sorting the studio Lego collection as well as my own. Figuring out placement for the Dashboard. Setting up triggers in IFTTT.com to send an email to my prototype Gmail account. Spreadsheet of each participant’s digital production and CO2 emissions. Jess’ Dashboard a few days in; she was the only fully-remote participant. Tash’s Dashboard at her studio desk. I ran out of black Legos (CO2) so my Mom had to mail some backup from my collection. Recording the daily tally and counting out Lego amounts for each participant. Documenting each participant’s Dashboard for the Tumblr and Twitter feeds. 103 Participant 1 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 – March 4, 2012 Name / Tash Wong Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview “Nobody thinks of tweets as being an actual thing; it’s ephemeral.” “(The Dashboard) made me feel guilty that I wasn’t doing more. There’s this push in our class that I need to publish it more, and felt anxiety to produce more.” Final Dashboard After Two Weeks 104 March 11, 2012 Week 2 March 5, 2012 – March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 127 9.1 Key Tweets per Day Vimeo Movie ≈ 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post ≈ .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link ≈ .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share ≈ .1 g / CO2 Foursquare ≈ .1 g / CO2 3.6 20 Went to SXSW 2 Photos 4 Check-ins 9 Tweets 15 1 Movie Upload 10 Most Used Foursquare 5 Twitter ≈ .02 g / CO2 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 553.8 17.9 Total CO2 Equivalent to Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 2.4 Miles Driven by a Car 0.071 Total CO2 Could Fill Largest CO2 Source 20 Instagram 700 600 1 Movie Upload Went to SXSW 500 400 300 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 105 Participant 2 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 – March 4, 2012 Name / Tom Harman Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview “I felt it had the opposite effect, made me want to do it more because I got more legos.” “I didn't think about other people looking at my dashboard.” Final Dashboard After Two Weeks 106 March 11, 2012 Week 2 March 5, 2012 – March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 71 5.1 Key Tweets per Day Vimeo Movie ≈ 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post ≈ .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link ≈ .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share ≈ .1 g / CO2 Foursquare ≈ .1 g / CO2 3.5 20 Uploads 2 Movies Over Next 2 days 15 Participates in 24-Hour Design Competition 10 Most Used Twitter 5 Twitter ≈ .02 g / CO2 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 720.4 17.1 Total CO2 Equivalent to Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 3.1 Miles Driven by a Car 0.07 Total CO2 Could Fill Largest CO2 Source 26 Vimeo 700 Uploads 2 Movies Over Next 2 days 600 500 400 Participates in 24-Hour Design Competition 300 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 107 Participant 3 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 – March 4, 2012 Name / Cooper Smith Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview “I never really thought about this shit before, at all. I put stuff online so I can save space on my hard drive, but I never think of other people having to store that.” Final Dashboard After Two Weeks 108 March 11, 2012 Week 2 March 5, 2012 – March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 231 15.5 Key Tweets per Day Vimeo Movie ≈ 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post ≈ .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link ≈ .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share ≈ .1 g / CO2 Foursquare ≈ .1 g / CO2 7.8 40 “Spring Break” Working at School 2 Photos 2 Photos 1 Post 1 Link 5 Check-ins 22 Tweets 30 20 Most Used Twitter 10 Twitter ≈ .02 g / CO2 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 425.3 26.4 Total CO2 Equivalent to Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 1.8 Miles Driven by a Car 0.56 Total CO2 Could Fill Largest CO2 Source 12" Party Balloons Facebook Photos 15 700 600 500 Spring Break Working at School 400 300 200 100 Week 1 Week 2 109 Participant 4 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 – March 4, 2012 Name / Erin Rouston Location / New York, NY Occupation / Graduate Student Exit Interview “Looked at everybody’s (Dashboard) and compared myself to others, gauging my own activity and seeing the emissions of others.” “The Dashboard was in my Tumblr to check as well. The emails, not so much, I get a thousand and it’d get lost.” Final Dashboard After Two Weeks 110 March 11, 2012 Week 2 March 5, 2012 – March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions Interactions per Day 110 7.9 Key Tweets per Day Vimeo Movie ≈ 240 g / CO2 Instagram Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post ≈ .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link ≈ .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share ≈ .1 g / CO2 Foursquare ≈ .1 g / CO2 2.7 Returns to New York City 1 Photo 1 Post 1 Check-in 2 Tweets 20 15 10 Traveled to Cleveland 1 Photo 3 Check-ins 2 Tweets Most Used Foursquare 5 Twitter ≈ .02 g / CO2 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 538.2 18.1 Total CO2 Equivalent to Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 2.3 Miles Driven by a Car 0.054 Total CO2 Could Fill Largest CO2 Source 19 Instagram 700 Returns to New York City 600 500 Traveled to Cleveland 400 300 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 111 Participant 5 Daily Dashboard / Week 1 February 27, 2012 – March 4, 2012 Name / Jessica Lord Location / San Francisco, CA Occupation / Code for America Fellow Exit Interview “It did make me think about it per Instagram, but I Instagram a lot less than the people I follow.” “The text alerts for each Instagram were kinda annoying.” Final Dashboard After Two Weeks 112 March 11, 2012 Week 2 March 5, 2012 – March 11, 2012 Digital Content Production Total Interactions 214 Interactions per Day 30 Tweets per Day 20 17.8 Key Vimeo Movie ≈ 240 g / CO 2 Instagram Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Facebook Photo ≈ 17 g / CO2 Tumblr Post ≈ .4 g / CO2 Facebook Link ≈ .2 g / CO2 Facebook Share ≈ .1 g / CO2 Foursquare ≈ .1 g / CO2 6.9 Most Used Twitter Returns to SF from Georgia 2 Links 2 Check-ins 2 Tweets 10 Twitter ≈ .02 g / CO 2 Week 1 Week 2 Total CO2 Emissions Total CO2 (grams) Daily Median CO2 (grams) 560.4 35.5 Total CO2 Equivalent to Daily CO2 from Twitter (grams) 2.4 Miles Driven by a Car 0.14 Total CO2 Could Fill Largest CO2 Source 20 Instagram 700 600 Returns to SF from Georgia 500 400 300 200 100 12" Party Balloons Week 1 Week 2 113 Emission Bricks Insights & Opportunities Insight #1 Insight #4 Participants were aware of others in the prototype study, Frequent messages from the system (SMS) were annoy- but compared themselves to friends and colleagues out- ing to the participant. A daily summary was more gentile side of the study, especially in online services they were and effective, but after a few days, participants defaulted most comfortable with and used frequently. They nor- to messages from social media services they were most malized behavior compared to their own groups, not the comfortable with. group dictated by the system. Opportunity #4 Opportunity #1 Integrate messaging into touch points of an online or Create a product or service that integrates with the online mobile service. Default to weekly summaries of use, driv- services and social networks of the user, rather than create ing the user to the website for a deeper dive into data as a separate destination for the user. well as surfacing preferences. Insight #2 Insight #5 Participants had a difficult time remembering their own Participants unfamiliar with ‘grams’ as a unit of measure production levels when looking at other dashboards. as well as pounds. Opportunity #2 Opportunity #5 Need side-by-side comparison. Show a summary of other Need to use familiar units of measurement for describing similar users or friends content production/CO2 emissions CO2 emissions. Devise a universal measure that is relat- next to the user’s own production. able to a variety of users. Insight #3 Insight #6 A few participants noted they use social media for their Some participants are willing to change their behavior, but career, namely Twitter and Vimeo. They did not want to not necessarily pay money/penalty/’offset’ as motivation. feel guilty for publishing what they saw were necessary communications. Opportunity #6 Set default goals based on users social groups and similar Opportunity #3 users. Allow users to set own personal goals. Allow users to opt-in to specific online services they wish to track. For instance, Facebook could be a strictly social service for all users whereas Twitter could be, in part, for professional use. 115 Carry Your Cloud Prototype Blog Entry : 3/19/2012 #digital_attic #prototype #design_research Blog Entry : 2/17/2012 #digital_attic I’m testing out my assumptions for two potential #prototype features in my final product with the Carry Your #design_research Cloud prototype. For the last 5 days, I asked a few participants to either: carry around a physi- On Tuesday, February 14th, I ordered all 1,566 cal representation of their tweets (I’ve been photos on my Flickr to be printed as 4”x6” photos carrying around all my my Flickr photos) or carry and shipped to the SVA Ixd studio. On Friday a “wallet” with tweet coins to cash in each time (that was fast), they all arrived in a somewhat they tweet. As users of cloud-based services, I smaller box than I had expected. This was the want to know how aware we are of amassed data that first step for a series of prototype experiments we now store in our digital attics (aka tweets dealing with cloud-based services as a digital from 2 years ago, forgotten and in the cloud). I attic. Apart from myself, I intend on recruiting also want to test the concept of placing limits participants to carry around physical embodiments on an unlimited resource and understanding our of their own cloud. digital activity as currency. Carry Your Cloud packages, Twiiter container, and journals. 116 Process & Details February 17, 2012 â€“ March 25, 2012 Carry Your Cloud logo. Printing all 1,566 of my Flickr photos. Receiving the all my Flickr photos by mail, about 11 lbs worth. Wrapping up the packages with kraft paper and twine. Adhering acrylic pieces together to build the base and smokestack. Divvying up the Twitter coins for each container. Twitter container and journal. My Flickr package. 117 Carry Your Cloud Invisible as Visible Carrying my cloud for a week around New York. 118 Barbara’s Twitter package. Barbara at her studio desk. Participant 1 Name / Barbara Eldredge Location / New York, NY Journal Entry “Brought my cloud to yoga. No one seemed to think it was odd.” Josh’s Twitter package. Josh opened his Tweets! Need to write better instructions. Participant 2 Name / Josh Silverman Location / Providence, RI Journal Entry “Makes me think differently about the physical aspects of my digital life. Much in the same way when there’s a series of threaded replies & responses.” 119 Carry Your Cloud Tweets as Currency EMAIL: 3/13/2012 TO : 5 Participants #prototyping #design_research #Carry_Your_Cloud #Tweets_as_Currency dear participant, you have two items: a 6-part container and journal. the container has the days for the prototype testing, wednesday - sunday, filled with 2 legos David Brahler’s Twitter containter at the end of the prototype session. (tweet coins) per bin as well as an empty one with a twitter logo (depository). please take a picture of the container contents before you start on wednesday and when you’re done on sunday for documentation. during the testing time, carry your twitter container where ever you go! think of it as an accessory to your mobile phone. you are limited to 2 tweets per day or the amount of tweet coins you have in each bin. each time you tweet, you spend a tweet coin and place it in the depository. if you’ve spent all your tweet coins for the day, no more tweets for you! however, if you have any left at the end of the day, you may transfer any remaining tweet coins to the next day. for example, if you tweet once on thursday, you may transfer your coin to friday. Kezra Cornell’s journal at the end of the prototype session. you now have 3 tweets for friday! at least once a day, record what you are feeling (musings, thoughts, ideas, complaints, etc) in your journal. one word, a haiku, or a few paragraphs, whatever is comfortable. this prototype is about placing limits on an unlimited resource and understanding our digital activity as currency. when you are done, please mail back your journal next week. i did not enclose prepaid postage (and should have) but i can get you back on paypal (firstname.lastname@example.org) or venmo. just charge me. Michael Yap’s Twitter containter and journal at the end of the prototype session. 120 Participant 1 Name / Jeff Kirsch Location / New York, NY Journal Entry “Oddly, I’d say the prototype made me tweet more than I would have. Which may seem odd, but I tweet very little.” Participant 2 Name / David Brahler Location / Cleveland, OH Journal Entry “It affected my content creation but did not affect my content consumption… I just became my own personal Twitter editor or social network strategist.” Participant 3 Name / Kezra Cornell Location / Milwaukeem WI Journal Entry “I’m hesitant to tweet, as my tweets seem more valuable now. Limiting the quantity of tweets = increasing the value & content of a tweet.” Participant 3 Name / Michael Yap Location / New York, NY Journal Entry “Started prototype late, got an extension. I only have 8 tweets, hard when you have new knowledge you want to share.” 121 Carry Your Cloud Insights & Opportunities Insight #1 Insight #3 Increased awareness around the amount of data and Did not affect content consumption, just content data production. production. Opportunity #1 Opportunity #3 Prototype was physical and this insight may be a fallacy. Focus only on digital content production, not on browsing or consumption. Insight #2 For those who typically tweeted below the allowed Insight #4 amount, they felt compelled to use up the remainder of A few participants noted they use Twitter for their career. their allowance. For those who tweeted more than the They felt hindered by the limit and had negative feelings allowed amount, they felt constrained, but also were about the experience. more careful and selective of the content they published. Opportunity #4 Opportunity #2 Allow users to opt-in to specific online services they wish Set default limits based on users social groups and similar to track. For instance, Facebook could be a strictly social users. Allow users to set own limits. service for all users whereas Twitter could be, in part, for professional use. 123 CONSULTATION : Jonathan Berger, Engineering Manager, Pivotal Labs Sketches & Notes (opposite) 2/10/2012 124 125 unapologetic cynic, but also an optimist, and he makes his audience realize that we can be both as well. When he asks, “Why are we doing this?”, he wonders why we waste our attention on trivial distractions when the world is filled with awe and wonder. Fuse these guys together. Boom - you get my thesis brand personality. Postscript: My classmate Allison Shaw had a great point about selecting Louis CK: he makes us laugh at the shame we feel for doing stupid, idiosyncratic behaviors. However, I don’t want to make people feel ashamed; by internalizing shame, we set ourselves up for freezing discussion around Blog Entry : 2/27/2012 why we feel #design_persona it. laughing and discussing shame: good. feeling shame and not doing something about ashamed: bad. Emotional Branding Working from Aaron Walter’s design persona template, fellow classmate Cooper Smith and I began to develop the personality, traits, voice, and visual lexicon of our thesis projects. Design personas are similar to user personas in the sense that they are a representation of a personality - a mindset - to be used as a guide for design- ing an experience. Starting off with the quesiton, “If your thesis was a person, who would it be?”, Cooper and I began to define the emotional framework for our thesis’ brand. When brainstorming for my thesis, two people immediately came to mind: Marty Stouffer and Louis CK. Marty Stouffer produced Wild America for PBS in the 1980’s and early 90’s. His inviting, honest, informative delivery of content became a standard for nature programs. He had the authenticity of a new anchor, the honesty of Mr.Rogers, and the soft spoken adventurous spirit of John Muir. On the other hand, Louis CK is a self- deprecating comedian who has the innate ability to rattle off humorous truisms. He is an Brand Traits from whiteboard session. Sketchbook Entry : 3/7/2012 Initial interface sketches for choosing an offset amount and offset project. Am starting to believe a mobile app is the way to go. (opposite) 126 127 Sketchbook Entry : 3/24/2012 Sketches for displaying and scrolling charts on the iPhone. (opposite) After reviewing my competitive analysis, feedback from my Emission Bits prototype, and discussing with classmates, I decided to design a mobile app for the iPhone. 128 129 Defining Features, User Stories, and a Name Blog Entry : 3/17/2012 #features #user_stories Thursday, 3/15 More process book work. Met with “the band” (Cooper, Chris, and Tina) for two hours to review one another’s work. Outlined Cumulus Alpha’s [Canary]features and got great feedback. Will be flushing those out more as I review my user story cards and brainstorm around 2-3 key feature with Cooper on Saturday, 3/17. Left the studio late night feeling like a million bucks and couldn’t stop smiling. Wrote a post on the subway ride home. First sketches of Venn diagram and logo concept from sketchbook. March 23, 2012 Blog Entry : 4/1/2012 sensor”. After an inspired breakfast in the park, #branding out came Canary - the original gas sensor. #design_persona #coal_button the name did have some negative implications and Some classmates of mine warned me that was a bit dramatic. But Michael Yap encouraged A Trip to Central (Way Upstate) New York It’s currently day 3 of my visit to my parent’s home in good ol’ Oneida County. I consider the opportunity visit one filled with home cooked meals, sleeping beyond the usual 6 hours per night, and of course, gettin’ work done. While I’m developing a narrative to pres- ent my thesis, I’ve been outlining the features I wish to highlight of my recently branded product, Canary. Having multiple meetings with Cooper, Sera, and a few first-years, I came away with a few great ideas to guide my branding process, namely (pun intended): including the word of what is being measured, bytes; using action words; and playing with encouraging words of creation, more specifically around Nike Fuel’s efforts eg: Nike Fuel is to Calories what (my product) is to me to redefine old words with updated definitions for modern times, stating “Words are containers: you can empty existing meanings and fill them with new ones.” With a name under my belt and branding sketches drawn on my train ride heading upstate, I sketched out concept maps for both the problem space as well as the Canary product. This laid the groundwork for my current workload: finalizing features and wireframe development. Taking a peek at my schedule of deliverables, I will spend the next 4 days flushing out user flows and wireframes while developing the website shell for my product launch. This development work (which by the way I’m starting to love front-end coding again, HT to Zeldman, Jason Santa Maria, and schoolmates) is also part of another project I’m about to launch, The Coal Button. Bytes. Despite our efforts, I was still stuck. Then, I remembered something Cooper wrote down on a whiteboard a few weeks ago, “service as 130 User stories based on four key features: track and compare, set targets, offset payment, and service contact. Developed late March. (opposite) Feature Set System 0 Track 1 Actor I want so that Priority User User User User User to connect a service to Canary to invite my friends to signup to customize my avatar to enter my email address to set my notification preferences I can track my use of those services they may also track/offset their data production the world can see me as I see myself I can receive emails from Canary I will only receive notifications when I want them 1 5 5 3 3 User I can be aware of the total data I have produced 1 I can know how much data I have produced over a specific time range I can be aware of how much data I have produced I can be aware of how much CO2 I have produced I can be aware of the total CO2 I have produced I can know how much CO2 I have produced over a specific time range I can know if my data production is excessive 1 User User to view a summary of all my data production from my data production to view a summary of all my data production based on a time selection to view the data production from a specific service to view the CO2 production from a specific service to view a summary of my CO2 production to view a summary of my CO2 production based on a time selection to compare my data production with people similar to me to compare my data production with my friends to post my data production stats to a service 1 3 User to post my CO2 production stats to a service I can know if my data production is excessive I can show how much data I have produced to my followers I can show how much CO2 I have produced to my followers System to set the default of data production based on similar people to a user to set the default of data production based on a user's friends to customize a limit for my data production for a select service to notify a user that they are reaching a data threshold for a specific service to notify a user that they are reaching a CO2 threshold for a specific service to be notified of my data production as I approach a limit set by Canary to be notified of my data production as I approach a limit set by my friends I can display a common limit for my user 2 I can display a common limit for my user 2 I can adjust my behavior to a goal I am comfortable with I can let the user make a decision about their data production I can let the user make a decision about their data production I can adjust my data production is too much 3 I can adjust my data production is too much 2 I can offset my data production 2 I can pay an amount I am comfortable with I can pay my offsets easily I can offset my data production with a project I am familiar with I can make others aware of a project I care about 3 3 3 I do not have worry about paying incrementally 4 I can demand they use ecologically sustainable business practices I can demand they use ecologically sustainable business practices I can use a channel I am most comfortable with I can contact a service in the manner I am most comfortable with 1 User User User User User User Targets 2 System User System System User User Offsets 3 User User User User User User Contact 4 to select a sustainability project based on Canaryâ€™s recommendations to set my donation amount for my offsets to connect my PayPal account to select a sustainability project based on my own preferences to recommend a sustainability project to a friend or followers on a service to set my payments to automatic deduction based on consumption amounts User to contact a service User to select a service to contact User User to select the method to contact a service to choose to remain anonymous 1 2 2 2 1 4 2 2 2 4 1 2 4 131 The Problem Space The concept map below illustrates the problem space of my thesis exploration, namely the lack of feedback to the user from the production of digital content and subsequent CO2 emissions. ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) SERVICE PRODUCERS USERS GENERATE CONTENT (TEXT, IMAGE, VIDEO, ETC.) ARE CONSUMERS ENABLED THROUGH OBSERVE VIEWED THROUGH COMPUTER OR MOBILE DEVICE SERVICE 132 SOLAR PANELS CAPTURE INSTALL HOSTED BY DATA CENTERS RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES USE POWER ENERGY UTILITIES PRODUCE CO2 EMISSIONS POWER 133 Coal Button In late 2011, there were 509,147 data centers worldwide, covering an area equivalent of 5,955 football fields.1 EMAIL : 4/5/2012 To : 101 Recipients #coal_button #project #key_findings #problem_space Hello, Today, I’m introducing the Coal Button http://coalbutton.com As part of my thesis work at SVA, I’ve been researching the promises, efforts, and missed opportunities of building an environmentally sustainable infrastructure to support and main- Sketches of Coal Button site from sketchbook entry, 3/21/2012. tain our digital lifestyle aka. ‘the cloud’. The Coal Button site is an entry point, albeit cheeky, into the problem space of my thesis project. Enjoy, and remember - behind every click there’s a little lump of coal. Dave Button mockup from the Coal Button website. 134 Illustration of the problem space from the Coal Button website. Huh? W3Schools as well as ShareThis and AddThis, the Coal Our Facebook profiles, YouTube videos, and Gmail ac- Button has been featured on numerous sites, including: counts are reliant on a computing phenomenon called The New York Times, Fox News, Slate, A List Apart, and “the cloud”. Made up of millions of servers, the cloud’s Treehugger.8 Comparable to emission estimates for a infrastructure is a multi-billion dollar industry, quickly Google search, every click consumes 0.0003 kilowatt hours growing to keep pace with our demand. In fact, Former (kWh) of energy, or 1 kilojoule, releasing 0.2 grams of CO2 CEO of Google, Eric Schmidt, estimates every two days we into the atmosphere.9 2 generate as much information as we did from the dawn of civilization up until 2003.3 These millions of servers are housed in data centers: physical embodiments of the cloud. Some cost as much The annual C02 emissions of U.S. data centers is 170 million tons, more than Argentina produced in 2010.10 as $1 billion to build, reach upwards of 300,000 square feet, and consume enough energy to power 80,000 aver- CO2 Counter age U.S. homes.4 To power these facilities, the majority The IT industry has finally agreed upon a set of standards of IT companies rely on coal for between 50% – 80% of for measuring its CO2 emissions.11 The CO2 Counter uses their energy needs. Consuming nearly 2% of all global these standards to track all CO2 emissions of “one-click” electricity and growing at a rate of 12% a year, total CO interactions on the Internet - buttons that like, tweet, 5 2 emissions from the IT industry are equal to that of the share, reblog, pin, and yes, exclusively produce CO2. airline industry. Greater demand due to efficiency is not a new issue. tions on the web subsequently produce pollution; even Jevons paradox describes the increase in coal consump- a Google search produces 0.2 grams. With an estimated tion due to efficient steam engines. Today, known as the 200 to 500 million search queries per day, 1.3 millions rebound effect, it explains as technology allows for faster tons of CO2 emissions are generated each year, just from and easier access to a resource, that resource becomes Google searches.12 cheaper and used more quickly. For instance, an email has about one-sixteenth the carbon footprint of a letter.7 been estimated to be 0.02 grams of CO2.13 While this mi- Over the past year, how many emails do we send versus nuscule emission weighs 0.02 grams, by volume, it takes letters? up roughly 10ml of space. 50 tweets and enough CO2 has 6 The Button The Coal Button is a new type of interaction that allows us to simply pollute with every click. It does not like, tweet, Research has shown that even the tiniest interac- Even smaller are emissions from a tweet which has been released to fill the lungs of an average human breath. Not to fear, the CO2 Counter can track even the smallest button clicks, including tweets. share, reblog, or pin; it simply emits CO2. Endorsed by 135 Canary March 2012 â€“ May 2012 Canary Pitch For users of social media, who want to live an environmentally sustainable lifestyle, Canary is a mobile app that tracks and offsets your digital carbon footprint. Unlike TerraPass, Canary tracks CO2 emissions in real-time and enables voluntary, immediate donations to local offset programs. Four Key Features 1 Track and compare a userâ€™s data production and CO2 emissions from Facebook, Twitter, Foursquare, and Instagram with everyone, similar users, or friends. 2 A user can compare their own data production and CO2 emissions with default targets based on similar users or set his/her own targets. 3 Offset payments can be made voluntarily or paid automatically by month to a choice of three local, environmentally sustainable projects. 100g/CO2 = $0.10. 4 A user can share their targets with specific services via Twitter or email, communicating his/her conservation and demand for more sustainable business practices. More Information http://canaryinthecloud.com Canary profile screen with Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram connected. 138 vapor vapor vapor vapor vapor canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary canary CANARY CANARY Canary logo development. 139 Concept Map The concept map for Canary is a hybrid of a service blueprint model and traditional concept map, outlining the core interaction and four key features of the mobile app. The following pages are from a booklet that separates the different layers of the map, illustrating the components of the system. The full concept map is on the last page of this section. Note: Features #2 and #4 have been combined into the â€˜Targetâ€™ section for the final designs, but are still considered separate features. Also, offset projects described in feature #3 are limited to three regional options for the user in the final design. Offset project and payment selection are outlined in the wireframes. (p.162) 140 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 141 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET MAINMain ACTORS Actors 1 of 9 USER CANARY USERS PAGE 1/9 142 CANARY SERVICE EXTERNAL ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET USER UserACTIONS Actions 2 of 9 USER USERS SIGN UP CANARY SERVICE OBSERVE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION COMPARE SET FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS TARGETS FUND SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS MAKE CONTACT PAGE 2/9 TO DEMAND ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) TO USE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 143 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET CANARY KEY Key ACTIONS Canary Actions 3 of 9 CANARY IS TRACKED BY CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH GENERATES IS TRACKED BY ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) GENERATE DISPLAYED ON CO2 EMISSIONS VISUALIZE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION SETS BASED ON TARGETS SUGGESTS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS PROVIDES CONTACT PAGE 3/9 144 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET CORE CoreINTERACTION Interaction 4 of 9 USER CANARY CORE INTERACTION IS OBSERVED BY USERS PAGE 4/9 SIGN UP WITH EXTERNAL IS TRACKED BY CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH IS TRACKED BY ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 145 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET O FEATURE 1 / Track GENERATE ABOUT DATA PRODUCTION & CO2 EMISSIONS FeatureN#1: andINFORMATION compare user’s dataUSER’S production and CO2 emissions with other users 5 of 9 USER CANARY EXTERNAL IS OBSERVED BY USERS CANARY SERVICE ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS FEATURE NO 1 OBSERVE GENERATES DISPLAYED ON VISUALIZE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION COMPARE FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS PAGE 5/9 146 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET O 2 FEATURE 2 / Set SET default DEFAULTtargets GOALS OF DATA & CO EMISSIONS FeatureN#2: based onPRODUCTION similar users and allow users to set their own targets 6 of 9 USER CANARY EXTERNAL IS OBSERVED BY USERS CANARY SERVICE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION FEATURE NO 2 SET SETS BASED ON BASED ON TARGETS PAGE 6/9 FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 147 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET O FEATURE 3 /Offset SUGGEST SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS TO BE FUNDED FOR OFFSETTING FeatureN#3: payment for environmentally sustainable projects 7 of 9 CO2 EMISSIONS USER CANARY EXTERNAL IS OBSERVED BY USERS CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS TO OFFSET TARGETS FEATURE NO 3 FUND SUGGESTS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS BASED ON FACEBOOK INTERESTS & PERSONAL PREFERENCE ENCOURAGE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES PAGE 7/9 148 DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET O FEATURE 4 /Provide PROVIDEusers USERSwith WITHchannel A POINT to OF contact CONTACTonline WITH ONLINE SERVICE(S) FeatureN#4: service(s) 8 of 9 USER CANARY EXTERNAL IS OBSERVED BY USERS CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS TO OFFSET FEATURE NO 4 MAKE PROVIDES CONTACT PAGE 8/9 TO DEMAND ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) TO USE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 149 CONCEPT MAP FOR SERVICE / CORE INTERACTION / FEATURE SET SYSTEM Canary System 9 of 9 USER CANARY CORE INTERACTION EXTERNAL IS OBSERVED BY USERS SIGN UP WITH IS TRACKED BY CANARY SERVICE CONNECTS WITH IS TRACKED BY ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) GENERATE CO2 EMISSIONS FEATURE NO 1 OBSERVE GENERATES DISPLAYED ON VISUALIZE NOTIFICATIONS & INFORMATION TO OFFSET COMPARE FEATURE NO 2 SET SETS BASED ON BASED ON TARGETS FRIENDS & SIMILAR USERS FEATURE NO 3 FUND SUGGESTS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY PROJECTS BASED ON FACEBOOK INTERESTS & PERSONAL PREFERENCE ENCOURAGE FEATURE NO 4 MAKE PROVIDES CONTACT PAGE 3/9 TO DEMAND ONLINE SERVICES (FACEBOOK, TWITTER, INSTAGRAM, ETC.) TO USE ECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS PRACTICES DAVID BELLONA / THESIS RESEARCH / SVA MFA INTERACTION DESIGN / APR.5.2012 151 152 Blog Entry : 4/9/2012 Wire Flows Moving from concept map to wireframing, there seemed to gap in process. Cooper, Sera, and I have been discussing various mobile UI patterns for the iPhone (navigation styles, actions, pages, and sorting structures) and different techniques of wireframing/prototyping - figuring out a few approaches to fill this gap. For me, a wire flow exercise seemed to do the trick. Wire flows for the Canary iPhone app: highlevel wireframes outlining overall structure, global functions, key features based on my concept map, and user flows for common tasks. The intention is for these wire flows to inform my wireframes, which Iâ€™ll be working on and prototyping over the next 3 days. Version 1.0 of wire flows with notes.(shown) 153 Initial Wireframes I went through four rounds of wireframing during a very fast paced week in mid-April. I initially had the four key features â€“ track and compare, set targets, offset payment, and service contact â€“ as the main navigation items at the bottom of the app along with global navigation at the upper left. After meeting with Mari Sheibley, lead designer at Foursquare, and a few breakthrough meetings with my classmate Cooper, I made revisions and got a TAP prototype together (p.164) for some quick feedback. Note: The updates I made for later rounds were not included in the final wireframes (again, moving fast) but were implemented in the final designs. However, I did update my user signup flow and settings in the wireframes. (p.162) Concept sketches of wireframes from a whiteboard session, late March. Version 2 of wireframes with note from meetings with Mari and Cooper. (above, opposite) 154 155 Wireframes Signup & Add Launch AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Signup AT&T 12:45 PM Canary Messages Calendar Photos Hello! Camera Get started by connecting an account to Canary.You can always connect more services later on. Calculator Maps Stocks Weather Connect with Facebook Canary Clock App Store Canary or Newstand Connect with Twitter Loading... Social Notes Contacts Already Have an Account? Reminders 5 Log In Phone Mail Safari Music Add Another Service Updated Profile AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Canary Sera Koo Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 Since 10/1/2011 Daily Avg. g/CO2 Total g/CO2 2,054 32.6 This Week O N D Total CO2 34.7 is equal to g 54 J F M 32.6 8,435 32.6 Connected! O A Connect with Twitter J F M could fill 21 326 Facebook Add Another Service 62 10.4 Twitter Add Friends 27 459 Instagram Settings Add Another Service Interactions g/CO2 Connect with Instagram A Party Balloons 54 Facebook Interactions g/CO2 Tweets Pictures g/CO2 g/CO2 Add Friends Settings 156 D Total g/CO2 g Connect with Foursquare N This Week 834.7 Miles Driven by a Car 326 Daily Avg. g/CO2 g/CO2 Connect more services to your account! AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T Profile AT&T 12:45 PM Canary Canary 12:45 PM Sera Koo Join Since 10/1/2011 Name Daily Avg. g/CO2 Total g/CO2 2,054 32.6 Sera Cancel Koo Allow Email Address This Week email@example.com Canary may post to this service on your behalf. 34.7 •••••• Confirm Password N D is equal to g Password About Canary Canary allows you to track your data production and subsequent CO2 production. It also allows you to offset your carbon footprint and contact this service to demand they build their business in an ecologically sustainable manner. Total CO O 2 54 J F M A 32.6 Miles Driven by a Car 326 Facebook Interactions g/CO2 •••••• Add Another Service Join Add Friends Settings Add Friends AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T Sera Koo 12:45 PM Add Friends Since 10/1/2011 Daily Avg. g/CO2 g/CO2 8,435 32.6 Phone Book Facebook O N D J F M A This Week Total g/CO 2 834.7 g could fill 21 326 Facebook 62 10.4 Twitter 27 459 Instagram Interactions g/CO2 Pictures Instagram Party Balloons 54 Tweets Twitter 132 friends from Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram Rachel Abrams g/CO2 Sarah Adams Allan Chochinov g/CO2 Tony Chu Add Another Service Add Friends Settings 157 Wireframes Track, Compare, Adjust Target, and Contact Service Select a Service AT&T Select a Friend 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Sera Koo Data Daily Avg. g/CO2 g/CO2 27 8,435 32.6 O N D J F M A This Week Total g/CO2 834.7 21 could fill g Party Balloons 54 326 Facebook 62 10.4 Twitter 27 459 Instagram 9 6 3 27 Pictures 3 M T W T F S This Week S Share 29 5 31 16 Tom Harman Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Erin Rouston g/CO2 Instagram Sera Koo 6 g/CO2 Pictures CO2 Pictures 9 Interactions g/CO2 Tweets 12:45 PM Data Instagram Sera Koo Since 10/1/2011 AT&T CO2 Stats Targets Tom T Harman W M This Week 29 T F Pictures S S press & drag Share Pictures Pictures Cooper Smith Pictures Jessica Lord Pictures This Week Erin Rouston Offsets 5 31 16 Stats Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Targets Offsets Add Another Service Add Friends Settings Adjust Target AT&T Share with Service AT&T 12:45 PM Your Target 27 | 14 Pictures 459 g/CO2 Pictures | 408 g/CO2 This Week Pictures 158 Pictures 459 g/CO2 | 408 g/CO2 + Share Target with Instagram Targets Your Target 27 | 14 Adjust Weekly Target Stats AT&T 12:45 PM Adjust Weekly Target Weekly Target This Week 12:45 PM Offsets Targets This Week Your Target 27 | 14 Pictures 459 g/CO2 Pictures | 408 g/CO2 Adjust Weekly Target 1 Picture â‰ˆ 17 g / CO2 Stats Weekly Target Offsets Share Target with Instagram Stats Targets Offsets Compare AT&T AT&T 12:45 PM Data 12:45 PM +2 Tom Harman AT&T Data CO2 Sera Koo Instagram Adjust Time Scale 12:45 PM CO2 Data Instagram Sera Koo 27 Pictures CO2 Instagram Sera Koo 27 Pictures 61 9 9 9 15 6 6 6 10 3 3 3 M T W T F S This Week S Share Cooper Smith Jessica Lord Erin Rouston Benjamin Gadbaw Stats 5 31 16 29 Targets M T W T F S This Week Pictures Tom Harman Pictures Cooper Smith Pictures This Week Jessica Lord Pictures Erin Rouston Stats Offsets Targets Pictures 5 S M T Share This 29 5 31 16 Instagram Sera Koo Pictures W T F S Week 2 S Pictures Tom Harman Pictures Cooper Smith Pictures Jessica Lord Pictures This Week Erin Rouston Offsets 9 29 5 31 16 Stats 16 23 This Month Share Targets Pictures Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Offsets Tweet Service AT&T AT&T 12:45 PM Weekly Target This Week Cancel Your Target 27 | 14 Pictures AT&T 12:45 PM Tweet Instagram Tweet | 408 g/CO2 10 5 2 @ # 1 Cost to Offset Stats Targets Offsets _123Stats 9 Tom Harman Jessica Lord Targets space x Offsets return 16 This Month Cooper Smith $1.47 H JNow A S D F G Offset K L Z Autopay X C V- Off Monthly B N M Cancel Pictures 15 Total Since 10/1/201 3,435 g/CO2 I O P Share Target with Instagram Email Instagram 61 202 Pictures Q W E R T Y U Adjust Weekly Tweet Target CO2 Sera Koo hey @instagram, i'm limiting my use of your service to 14 pictures per week until you use 100% renewable energy resources for your servers. Pictures 459 g/CO2 12:45 PM Data Erin Rouston Stats 23 30 Share 104 58 247 94 Targets 3 Share Pictures Pictures Pictures Pictures This Week Offsets 159 Wireframes Offset Payment Offset/ View Photo Equivalent AT&T 12:45 PM Instagram Offsets Youâ€™ve Offset Remaining Amount 1,962 1,473 g/CO2 g/CO2 86 116 Pictures Pictures Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 Cost to Offset $1.47 Offset Now Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Stats 160 Targets Offsets Manual Offset AT&T Pay with iTunes AT&T 12:45 PM Remaining Amount 1,962 12:45 PM Instagram Offsets Instagram Offsets You’ve Offset Remaining Amount 1,962 1,473 g/CO2 AT&T 12:45 PM Instagram Offsets You’ve Offset iTunes Password You’ve Offset 1,473 g/CO2 g/CO2 g/CO2 Ok Cancel Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 Pay with iTunes Account Cost to Offset Cost to Offset $1.47 Offset Now $1.47 Offset Now Pay with Credit Card Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Targets Offsets Confirm AT&T Stats Targets AT&T 12:45 PM Offsets Share 12:45 PM 1,473 1.47 $ $1.47 _123Stats Targets space Iowa Farms Wind Project You will offset 1,473 g / CO2 by paying with your iTunes Account. 12:45 PM Remaining Amount 0 You’ve Offset g / CO2 3,435 $1.47 Huzzah! g/CO2 202 Pictures You sent $1.47 to the to the Offset Project Iowa Farms Wind Project. Iowa Farms Wind Project Total Since 10/1/201 202 Pictures 3,435 g/CO2 Cost to Offset Done Pay Now Pay Now Offsets return Instagram Offsets by paying with your iTunes Account Your Offset Project x Updated Offset AT&T You will offset You are paying Cost to Offset H JNow A S D F G Offset K L Instagram Offsets Instagram Offsets Cancel Total Since 10/1/201 3,435 g/CO2 I O P 202 Pictures Q W E R T Y U Z Autopay X C V- Off Monthly B N M Monthly Autopay - Off Cancel Stats Amount firstname.lastname@example.org password 1,962 1,473 g/CO2 g/CO2 Apple ID Password Remaining $0.00 Offset Now Share Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Stats Targets Offsets Stats Targets Offsets Monthly Autopay is OFF | Set Autopay Stats Targets Offsets 161 Wireframes Settings Settings Profile AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T 12:45 PM Sera Koo AT&T 12:45 PM Profile Settings Since 10/1/2011 Daily Avg. g/CO2 g/CO2 8,435 32.6 Name Profile Sera Password O N D J F M A This Week Total g/CO2 834.7 g could fill 21 326 62 10.4 Twitter 27 459 Instagram Payment Interactions g/CO2 g/CO2 g/CO2 email@example.com Services Iowa Farms Wind Project Offset Program 54 Pictures Email Address Party Balloons Facebook Tweets Koo Notifications iTunes Account Monthly Autopay Off 100 g / CO2 = $0.10 Log Out Add Another Service Add Friends Settings Password Notifications AT&T 12:45 PM AT&T Password Change Your Password Current Password 12:45 PM Notifications Target Warnings Push to Service ON Email New Password Mobile OFF ON Confirm Password Stats Summary Weekly Email Save 162 OFF Services Offset Program AT&T AT&T 12:45 PM Services Facebook 12:45 PM Disconnect Iowa Farms Wind Power Select This Project Never Help build two new wind turbines in a northern Iowa farming community. Daily Carbon Project Type: Wind Energy Location: Northern Iowa, U.S.A. Year: 2011 Volume: 92,000 metric tons Standard: Verified Carbon Standard Capacity: 3.2 MW Weekly Monthly Project Website 12:45 PM Payment Payment Method iTunes Account Credit Card ending 8462 iTunes Account firstname.lastname@example.org Linked Credit Cards ending 8462 Disconnect Municipal Biogas Generator Tweet Canary Stats: Add a Credit Card Select This Project Never Help build a renewable biogas generator at the Essex Junction Wastewater Treatment Facility in Vermont. Daily Weekly Carbon Project Type: Biogas Energy Location: Essex Junction, Vermont, U.S.A. Year: 2011 Volume: 3,123 metric tons Capacity: 60 kW Monthly Instagram AT&T Offset Program Post Canary Stats my wall: Twitter Payment Disconnect Project Website Autopay Robeson County Landfill AT&T Autopay Select This Project Help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases (methane) that would otherwise be released from the landfill. Carbon Project Type: Landfill gas capture Location: St. Pauls, North Carolin Year: 2012 Standard: Climate Action Reserve Verifier:RMA 12:45 PM Autopay will automatically pay all your your service offsets every month with your preferred payment method. Autopay OFF Project Website 163 TAP Prototype Blog Entry : 4/15/2012 #prototyping #fireworks #TAP #iphone Over this past week, Iâ€™m up to three cups oâ€™ coffee (sometimes four) and wireframing/prototyping the Canary app. With a little help from my classmates, I quickly learned two awesome rapid prototyping tools for the iPhone: TAP and LiveView. Seriously, these are my new favorite applications. Using these new tools, I created some key screens, killed a few, modified others, and got ready for my a review with Mari Sheibley, lead designer at Foursquare (thanks to Michael Yap for setting it up). The review went awesome and Mari gave me some super valuable feedback. Soon after, I met with Cooper to discuss our wireframes, stripping out features and complexity. After a solid weekend of work and a visit to the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, I shored my wireframes and prepped for final designs. Try out the TAP prototype on your iPhone at: http://folio.davidbellona.com/canary_v4 164 TAP Prototype Development April 12, 2012 â€“ April 16, 2012 Add the prototype to your home sceen. Signup through Facebook or Twitter. Adjust your info and choose a password. Profile with one connected service. Profile, Password, Notifications, Services, Offset Programs, Payment, and Autopay. Choosing an Offset Program. Adjusting Notification Settings. Scrolling in Profile. Viewing Instagram photo production stats in Month view. Weekly Target. Offset Payment. Offset payment complete. 165 Final Design & Use Cases 166 167 Launch, Track, and Compare Launch Select a Friend 168 Profile Compare Select a Service Stats Adjust Time Scale Data Mode CO2 Mode 169 Adjust Target, Contact, and Notifications Share with Service 170 Target with Photo Count Tweet Service Adjust Target Notification Alert Comment Instagram Target with Photo Count 171 CO2 Offset Payment iTunes Password 172 CO2 Offset Confirm View Photo Equivalent Manual Offset Pay with iTunes Share Updated CO2 Offset 173 Landscape Mode Compare by Week Compare by Month 174 Adjust Time Scale CO2 Mode 175 References & Influence Cover 1 Junnie Arreza. 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Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994. 20 Pariser 2011. p.67 21 Peter Svensson, “Netflix’s Internet traffic overtakes Web surfing,” MSNBC. May 17, 2011. http://www.msnbc.msn. com/id/43059955/ns/technology_and_science-tech_and_gadgets/t/netflixs-internet-traffic-overtakes-web surfing, accessed January 18, 2011. 22 Pariser 2011. p.69 23 Annie Leonard. Video: “The Story of Stuff.” Produced by Erica Priggen. Washington, DC: Free Range Studios, 2007. 24 William McDonough and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle. North Point Press. 2002. 25 Dan Ilic. Video: “How Green Is Your Internet?” Produced by Patrick Clair. 2011. 26 Brooks 2001. p.101 179 27 Cameron Camp, “How much photo data does Facebook really have?”, ESET Threat Blog, September 30, 2011. http://blog.eset.com/2011/09/29/how-much-photo-data-does-facebook-really-have accessed February 14, 2012. 28 Matt Mullenweg. Lecture by author. Written notes. New York, NY., March 1, 2012. 29 Katie Fehrenbacher. “Smart meters now make up 13 to 18% of meters in U.S.,” GigaOM, November 15, 2011. http://gigaom.com/cleantech/smart-meters-now-make-up-13-to-18-of-meters-in-u-s, accessed March 7, 2011. 30 Howard Zinn. A People’s History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins, 2003 ed. Concept & Experience Development 1 Urs Hölzle. “Powering a Google Search,” Google Blog, January 11, 2009. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/ powering-google-search.html, accessed December 3, 2011. 2 Heimbuch, Jaymi. “Twittering Adds How Much to Your Carbon Footprint?” Treehugger, April 19, 2010. http:// www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/twittering-adds-how-much-to-your-carbon-footprint.html, accessed February 20, 2012. Two Projects 1 Rich Miller. “How Many Data Centers? Emerson Says 500,000.” Data Center Knowledge, December 14, 2011. http://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2011/12/14/how-many-data-centers-emerson-says-500000, accessed March 15, 2012. 2 IDC. “Worldwide Server Market Revenues Increase 17.9% in Second Quarter as Market Demand Remains Strong,” International Data Corporation press release, August 23, 2011 http://www.idc.com/getdoc. jsp?containerId=prUS22998411, accessed December 2, 2011. 3 MG Siegler. “Eric Schmidt: Every 2 Days We Create As Much Information As We Did Up To 2003.” Tech Crunch, August 4, 2010. http://techcrunch.com/2010/08/04/schmidt-data, accessed March 22, 2012. 4 Gary Cook. “Apple’s growing iCloud: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.” Greenpeace. http://www.greenpeace.org/ international/en/news/Blogs/Cool-IT/apples-growing-icloud-the-good-the-bad-and-th/blog/39202, accessed March 28, 2012. 5 Gary Cook and Jodie Van Horn. “How Dirty Is Your Data?” Greenpeace International, April 2011. 6 Dan Ilic. Video: “How Green Is Your Internet?” Produced by Patrick Clair. 2011. 7 Berners-Lee 2011, p.21 8 Not really, but every button on these sites are coal buttons. 9 Urs Hölzle. “Powering a Google Search,” Google Blog, January 11, 2009. http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2009/01/ powering-google-search.html, accessed December 3, 2011. 10 Lucente, Edward J. “The Coming ‘C’ Change in Datacenters.” HPC Wire, June 15, 2010. http://www.hpcwire.com/ hpcwire/2010-06-15/the_coming_c_change_in_datacenters.html, accessed March 28, 2012. 11 Not really, but they should. 12 Berners-Lee 2011, pp.18–19. 13 Heimbuch, Jaymi. “Twittering Adds How Much to Your Carbon Footprint?” Treehugger, April 19, 2010. http:// www.treehugger.com/clean-technology/twittering-adds-how-much-to-your-carbon-footprint.html, 180 accessed February 20, 2012. Thanks Rachel Abrams Erik Guzman Deena Rosen Mary Banas Tom Harman Erin Routson Jon Bellona Randall Hoyt Michael Scarola Steve & Kris Bellona Ben Jones Allison Shaw Jonathan Berger Steve Kakowski Josh Silverman Steve Berry Jeff Kirsch Cooper Smith Andrew Bowman Sera Koo Susan Solomon David Brahler Jessica Lord SVA Classes of 2011, 2012, 2013 Don Carli Roger Mader SVA Faculty Christopher Cannon Sara McBeen Joe Swanson Frank Chimero Erin Moore Stephan Von Muehlen Allan Chochinov Andrew Morse Jake Vigneri Kezra Cornell Luis Navarro Adrian Westaway Liz Danzico Steph Opitz Tash Wong Sara Dierck Paul Pangaro Michael Yap Barbara Eldredge Mrs. Phillips Tina Ye Nathan Felde Daniel Rahl 183