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Professional Development

Scaffolding Student Writing Ideas for Designing Mini-Tasks for Initiating and Planning Writing Literacy Design Collaborative

Why Teach Strategies for Planning Research has demonstrated that teaching specific writing strategies (planning, revising, and editing) has a “dramatic effect on the quality of students’ writing.” Writing Next: Carnegie Corporation, 2007

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Where Does This Fit in LDC • These planning for writing strategies align with the writing process skills cluster in the LDC Module • They support the “initiation of task” and “planning” subskills

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Selecting Appropriate Tools The selection or design of advanced organizers and other strategies for supporting student writing should be based on: • The type of writing demanded by the Teaching Task • The Common Core Standards for Literacy imbedded in the selected Teaching Task • The skills identified in the writing skills cluster needed to achieve the standard(s) • Additional skills added to the module

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CCSS Writing Standards for Argumentation • • • • •

Write an argument to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audience

The particular parts of the standards addressed through planning are highlighted in BLUE.

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CCSS Writing Standards for Informational/Explanatory •

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Write informatory/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through effective selection, organization, and analysis of content Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audience

The particular parts of the standards addressed through planning are highlighted in BLUE.

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CCSS Writing Standards for Narrative • • • • •

Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective techniques, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audience

The particular parts of the standards addressed through planning are highlighted in BLUE.

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Types of Writing • Click to edit Master text styles – Second level – Third level • Fourth level – Fifth level

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Beyond the Essay • LDC has identified a variety of writing products, in addition to the essay, that can be imbedded in Teaching Tasks • A list of these products with a narrative discussing them can be found at r-groupspace •

http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/611/writing-types-text-structures-and-writing-product-chart

http ://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/609/writing-products-cues-determine-types-writing-and-text-st

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Types of Writing and Writing Products • An explanation of the connection between types of writing and appropriate writing products can be found at r-groupspace:

– http:// r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/609/writing-products-cues-determ

• Types of Writing = Argumentative, Information/Explanatory, or Narrative • Writing Products = Essay, report, article, etc.

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Reminder! • The LDC Teaching Task Templates are organized by the type of writing they require • The graphic organizers will also be organized by type of writing when appropriate • Some graphic organizers such as the Essay Map will apply to several types of writing

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The Essay • The essay form of writing (or a variation on this) can be used with virtually all of the types of writing identified in LDC • The next slide is a basic essay map that can be used to help students organize their essays • The Supplemental Materials for this PDS module has a list of the variety of Writing Products that can be used instead of an essay

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Graphic Organizer to Support an Essay

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Writing a Claim Statement • Writing a claim statement is especially important for any argumentation LDC tasks • This claim statement would be part of the information that students would include in the “Introduction” box on the Essay Map

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Worksheet for Claim Statement • R-Group Space provides teachers with a worksheet called the Claim Statement Template • For R-GroupSpace members, the worksheet can be located at: – http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/644/claim-statement

• A printable copy of the worksheet is in the Support Materials for the Supporting Student Writing module

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Sample Mini-Task for Essay Map • Prompt: Complete the Essay Map Worksheet, using the notes you have taken. • Product: Completed Essay Map Worksheet • Scoring Guide: • Good to Go: All sections are complete, accurate, and ready to be transitioned into an essay • Need Revision: Some sections need revision but overall provides an adequate foundation for an essay • Not done or Not Sufficient: Needs major revision in most sections; does not provide an adequate foundation for an essay W W W . C O L E G A C Y . O R G

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Sample Mini-Task for Claim Statement • Prompt: Complete the “Claim Statement Template” from RGroupSpace • Product: Completed “Claim Statement Template” • Scoring Guide: – Good to Go: All sections are complete, accurate, and ready to be transitioned into an essay – Need Revision: Some sections need revision but overall provides an adequate foundation for an essay – Not done or Not Sufficient: Needs major revision in most sections; does not provide an adequate foundation for an essay • W W W . C O L E G A C Y . O R G

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How to Teach Writing a Claim/Thesis Statement • R-GroupSpace has two great resources for teachers which are fully-developed lesson plans around the minitask of writing a claim statement – http:// r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/3109/teaching-how-write-claim

– http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/3110/teaching-how-write-the

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Lesson Plan Template • There is also a useful Lesson Plan Template on R-Group Space that supports the instruction of a specific mini-task – http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/595/lesson-plan

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A Procedural/Sequential Writing Tool • The “History Frame” from Reading Quest is designed to help take notes • It could also be used as a tool for organizing notes to support procedural/sequential writing

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More Procedural/Sequential Writing Support • Another way for students to organize and plan a procedural/sequential piece of writing is the timeline organizer. It can be found at:

– http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/2767/graphic-organizer-time

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Additional Tools for Sequential Writing Additional tools to support sequential writing can be found at the following link: – http ://www.writedesignonline.com/organizers/sequence.html#eventschain

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What Would Your Mini-Task Be? If your Teaching Task requires Procedural/Sequential Writing, what would be your mini-task using one of these advanced organizers? • Prompt: • Product: • Scoring Guide:

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Definition and Description Writing Tools • The Cluster Word Web is a useful tool for helping students “chunk” their information into useful groups • These “chunks” can then help them plan their writing

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Tools for Synthesis Writing and Word Webs • A more complex word web can be used to help students plan and organize their writing when the task calls for synthesis • This web just has more layers • A printable copy of this type of Word Web, titled “Internet Research Graphic Organizer” is included in the Support Materials for the Supporting Student Writing module

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Concept Map • A “Concept Map” is another type of web than can be used in Definition/Description (when a concept is involved) and Synthesis writing • A printable copy of a Concept Map is included in the Support Materials

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Writing for Analysis • Two graphic organizers to support analysis in student writing can be found at: – http://www.writedesignonline.com/organizers/analyze.html

This link also includes a good definition of analysis.

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Another Tool for Analysis • Since Analysis involves identifying connections, the Connections Web in the Supporting Materials could be used to help students with this type of writing.

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Tools for Comparison Writing • There are lots of tools to support students in planning their comparison writing. These include: – Venn Diagrams:

– http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/2768/graphic-organizer-venn-diagra

– Compare and Contrast Chart:

– http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/2759/graphic-organizer-compare-an

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Tools for Problem/Solution Writing • Reading Quest has provided teachers with a straightforward advanced organizer for students to use in planning problem/solution writing.

– http ://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/2765/graphic-organizer-problem

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Another Problem/Solution Tool • Write Design has another tool for helping students organize their problem/solution writing: – http:// www.writedesignonline.com/organizers/sequence.html#probsolution

• Note: This website is a good resource for additional graphic organizers.

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Tools for Cause/Effect Writing • As was true for comparison writing, many tools to support cause and effect writing have been developed by teachers

– http ://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/2757/graphic-organizer-cause-a

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Tools for Evaluation Writing No specific tools are included for evaluation writing. Students can use the tools for the other types of writing to answer their evaluative question such as “which is the best,” “which is most likely to succeed,” etc. The Essay Map and the compare/contrast tools could be especially helpful.

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More Tools! • Other useful links for supporting student writing are:

– http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-interactives – http:/www.readingquest.org/strat//

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LDC Outline Template • After students have organized their ideas and text evidence to support their writing task, their next step is to outline their work. – http://r-groupspace.goingon.pro/home/file/649/outline

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Write Tools Outline • There is also an outline structure in Write Tools for those of you who are familiar with that writing program.

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Designing Instruction for the Outline A completed Lesson Plan Template that shows the minitask and instruction for outlining is in the Support Materials for this module. It is titled Sample Lesson Plan for Outline.

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Active and Passive Voice • Academic writing is usually stronger when students use active voice • The following link provides a lesson plan for helping students strengthen their awareness of the difference and identify when it is appropriate to use which voice

– http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/choos

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ReadWriteThink • The ReadWriteThink website may have additional classroom resources you might want to explore. • You can sort through by grade level, type of resource, and general type of learning activity. – www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/

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PDS Module 6 - Supporting Student Writing