Disaster Relief: A Psychological Approach to Temporary Housing
There are many aid organizations in the world providing post-disaster care. There are even more opinions about how the care should be administered. Food and clean water are non-negotiable, but the issue of shelter is often a great source of controversy. A portion of the debate is rooted in what type of shelter is preferable after a natural disaster. Typically, people live in temporary housing for a period of time longer than initially intended. The current opinion of many non-government organizations (NGOs) is to skip the temporary housing phase of recovery and move straight into building permanent public infrastructure. This proposition seems ideal, but becomes problematic in execution for those in inadequate situations while politicians debate infrastructure improvements. Temporary housing after a disaster is something that is going to develop whether or not NGOs authorize it. A type of temporary housing that can adapt to its inhabitants is needed.
Disaster Relief: A Psychological Approach to Temporary Housing Colleen McDonough ABSTRACT Many would maintain our Earth is not perfect. Between floods, mudslides, landslides, earthquakes, droughts, hurricanes, tornadoes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, etc., there is a bevy of “natural disaster” humans find ourselves combating. In the twenty-first century alone, according to The United States Disaster Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, natural disasters have killed over 600,000 people, and they have left even more homeless. The true threat of a natural disaster, though, is not nature, but the vulnerability of inhabitants in the affected area. The areas most prone to natural disasters are some of the places with the fastest growing and poorest populations. Populations such as these often do not have the means to plan and construct ii cities and homes that will be resilient through nature’s trials, and often times, the solutions in place only exacerbate the situation. “The etiology and consequences of natural disasters often are affected by human beings. For example, the damage and loss of life caused by an earthquake can be magnified by poor construction practices and high-density occupation. Similarly, humans may cause or contribute to natural disasters through poor land-management practices that increase the probability of floods.”1 According to a 1999 New York Times article by Kofi Annan, “ninety percent of disaster victims worldwide live in developing countries, where poverty and population pressures force 1 Carol S. Fullerton and Robert J. Ursano, “Psychological and Psychopathological Consequences of Disasters,” in Disasters and Mental Health, ed. Juan Jose Lopez-Ibor et al. (Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2005), 17. growing numbers of people to live in harm’s way—on flood plains, in earthquake-prone zones and on unstable hillsides. Unsafe buildings compound the risks. The vulnerability of those living in risk-prone areas is perhaps the single most important cause of disaster casualties and damage.”2 Points like these become painfully evident when cleaning up after a disaster, especially in times when resources are not available to completely rebuild an infrastructure that was unstable to begin with. “Often, post-disaster settlement and shelter processes address only disaster-related change, and do not consider pre-existing vulnerabilities. The reasons for this are principally funding, capacity issues for organizations and mandates... Yet 2 Annan, Kofi. “An Increasing Vulnerability to Natural Disasters.” Editorial. The New York Times [New York City] 10 Sept. 1999: n. pag. The New York Times, 10 Sept. 1999. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <www.nytimes.com>. disasters, even those involving a sudden-onset hazard, inevitably have multiple root causes, including poverty and conflict, which increase vulnerability to the hazard. If those root causes are not considered after the disaster, there is a danger that the same vulnerable state will be rebuilt, or that new vulnerabilities will be created... Transitional settlement and shelter can assist in eliminating factors which cause disaster and necessitate relief operations.”3 3 Jim Kennedy et al., “Post-tsunami transitional settlement and shelter: field experience from Aceh and Sri Lanka,” Humanitarian Exchange Magazine, (March 2007), http://www.odihpn.org/ iii report.asp?id=2879. TABLE OF CONTENTS ii. iv. 1. 3. 4. 6. 7. 8. 10. 11. 12. 13. 17. 21. 22. 25. 32. iv Abstract Table of Contents Thesis Statement Research Area of Focus Summary Discussion of Findings from Literature Review Psychological Phases Architectural Phases Architectural Precedent Analysis Site Context Aerial Photos or Maps of Site Site Disaster Documentation Cultural Site Analysis Program Prefabrication Description and Timeline Prefabrication Material Maps Shipping Methods 38. 39. 40. 44. 45. 46. 47. 49. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 65. 67. 68. 69. Final Design Project parameters Sun Study Analyses Studies or Devices Revealing Architectonic Ideas Interior Lighting Analysis Interior Color Analysis Plumbing Analysis Building Plans Building Sections Wall Sections Elevations and Faรงade Studies Site Site Plans Service Modules Conclusions Reflections Bibliography v THESIS STATEMENT There are many aid organizations in the world providing post-disaster care. There are even more opinions about how the care should be administered. Food, clean water, and clothing are all non-negotiable, but the issue of shelter is often a great source of controversy. A portion of the debate is rooted in what type of shelter is preferable after a natural disaster. Typically, people live in temporary housing: tents, trailers, etc., for a period of time longer than initially intended. The current opinion of many non-government organizations (NGOs) and architects is to skip the temporary housing phase of recovery and move straight into building permanent public infrastructure instead. In theory, this proposition seems ideal, but becomes problematic in execution 1 for those stuck in less than adequate situations while politicians debate over infrastructure improvements. Temporary housing after a disaster is something that is going to develop whether or not NGOs authorize it. A type of temporary housing that can adapt to its inhabitants is needed. A house that is able to arrive at the site of the disaster quickly. A house that isnâ€™t made with toxic agents. A house that will also utilize the principles of light, air, and quality materials to facilitate a healthier living experience. The incredibly vulnerable psychological state of victims throughout their post-disaster habitation characterizes their experiences. They are in the most difficult phase of recovery: depression and realizations of the magnitude of the disaster are hitting them the hardest. They need a steadying experience to ground their daily routines as the chaos of recovery and clean-up take over the rest of their lives. A comfortable temporary home could be the base that is needed. The home should only be usable for up to five years after the disaster, but it should be a home that the inhabitants have control over. Through studying the juxtaposition between the stages of psychological disaster management and architectural disaster management, I have been trying to support my thesis. Unfortunately, there are two very prominent schools of thought that cannot be easily compromised when it comes to temporary disaster relief in architecture. The first idea is that disaster relief needs to be placed in the situation as soon as possible. The longer victims live without some kind of place to call â€œhome,â€? the longer it may take to psychologically recover. The second idea is that disaster relief needs to be a community process. The community needs to be rebuilt in the best way possible to give residents a sense of closure and accomplishment. The reason these two ideas havenâ€™t worked well together in the past is because the solution to the first problem is often prefabricated housing, which is exactly the problem that the second solution is trying to solve. I, however, believe that a compromise can be forged between the two by a functioning system that incorporates both. The community certainly needs immediate disaster relief, but they also need to be able to take a hand in their own rebuilding. 2 RESEARCH 3.1. Area of Focus Summary 3.2. Discussion of Findings from Literature Review 3.3. Psychological Phases 3.4. Architectural Phases 3.5. Architectural Precedent Analysis 3 3.1 AREA OF FOCUS SUMMARY The parts of the world experiencing devastating natural disasters are quickly escalating. The most susceptible areas are those located between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. These are also the parts of the world that have the poorest and fastest growing populations. When disaster strikes in these countries, there is often little chance to rebuild before a new disaster, much less chance for everyone to receive relief. I have chosen to study three different cities: 1.) Padang, Indonesia, 2.) Van, Turkey, and 3.) Antofagasta, Chile. All are prone to different kinds of disaster in three very distinct parts of the world, culturally, economically, and climactically. This study has guided my understanding towards the solution of a comprehensive design for a disaster relief unit that could be adapted for different people and provide near immediate relief with the possibility of adaptation to fit the needs of the individual and the community. 4 Areas of the World Most Affected By Natural Disaster Van, Turkey Padang, Indonesia Antofagasta, Chile 5 OVER 100,000 PEOPLE AFFECTED 10,001 TO 100,000 PEOPLE AFFECTED 1,001 TO 10,000 PEOPLE AFFECTED 1 TO 1,000 PEOPLE AFFECTED NO PERSONS REPORTED AFFECTED Statistics cited from 2010 United States Disaster Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters. 3.2 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS FROM LITERATURE REVIEW The following passage from Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity outlines certain difficulties that are regularly encountered with temporary housing if the needs of the community are not properly taken into consideration or integrated into recovery: â€œTogether with the provisional community center, Uplink installed temporary shelters, made out of recycled materials, to replace the tents. These served as reliable protection and helped survivors move quickly from emergency aid to recovery. Their form and placement were chosen with community participation. â€œMany of the larger international organizations, such as the International Organization for Migration, provided prefabricated shelter units made outside the country. These were not only expensive, but prevented aid from being rooted in local investment. The prefabricated designs were ad hoc, and the units were time-consuming to assemble. It took the International Red Cross and Red Crescent societies six months to start distributing shelters. These prefabs were of two types: one, made from imported light steel frames and wood panel, cost $4,500 each. The other, prefabricated concrete modules, were too brittle to be earthquake-safe. And, neither model included instructions for post-emergency use or disposal. As a result, abandoned temporary shelters all over Banda Aceh, Indonesia became common, sad reminders of how easy it is to waste money and resources.â€?1 1 Aquilino, Marie Jeannine. Beyond Shelter: Architecture and 6 Human Dignity. New York, NY: Metropolis, 2010. pg. 31. Print. 3.3 PSYCHOLOGICAL PHASES AFTER A DISASTER “NORMAL RESPONSE TO ABNORMAL EVENTS” PSYCHOLOGICAL RESPONSES INCLUDE: COOPERATION AND HEROIC DEEDS, FAMILY AND NEIGHBORS USED AS SUPPORT SYSTEMS, RELIANCE ON COMMUNITY DISBELIEF, NUMBNESS, FEAR, AND CONFUSION OVER EVENTS BEGIN TO SET IN FIR ST PH A S E FIRST FEW DAYS AFTER DISASTER EVENT TO FIRST WEEK S ECOND P HA S E ONE WEEK AFTER DISASTER EVENT TO THREE WEEKS EXTERNAL ASSISTANCE ARRIVES, BRINGING HELP, STRANGERS, AND THE MEDIA THE COMMUNITY BANDS TOGETHER AS CLEAN UP BEGINS VICTIMS BEGIN TO SEARCH FOR PRIVACY AS THEY FOCUS IN ON THEIR NUCLEAR FAMILY INTRUSIVE SYMPTOMS OF PTSD BEGIN: HYPERVIGILANCE, INSOMNIA, NIGHTMARES, DENIAL BEGINS AND BECOME MORE PROMINENT DISAPPOINTMENT AND RESENTMENT AT SHORTCOMINGS OF PROMISED AID HEIGHTENED SENSE OF DENIAL, ANGER, IRRITABILITY, APATHY, SOCIAL WITHDRAWALS STRONG SENSE OF COMMUNITY BEGINS TO BREAK DOWN: THERE NEEDS TO BE A DEFINED SENSE OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE EFFORTS NEED TO BE TAKE TO COPE WITH PTSD: SOFT INTERIOR COLORING, INDIRECT LIGHTING, AND ADAPTABILITY VICTIMS FOCUS ON PERSONAL PROBLEMS AND REBUILDING: ADAPTABILITY IN COMMUNITY ALLOWING VICTIMS TO FEEL IN CONTROL AND COMFORTABLE IN THEIR TEMPORARY HOMES PERMANENT RECONSTRUCTION BEGINS BASED ON GOVERNMENT AND COMMUNITY PREFERENCES MAY LAST FOR YEARS OR INDEFINITELY AS WILL PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS REBUILD HOMES, LIVES, AND JOBS DEALING WITH INSURANCE ADJUSTMENT T HIR D PHA S E BEGINS THREE WEEKS AFTER DISASTER EVENT, AND CAN LAST UP TO FIVE YEARS AFTER THE INITIAL DISASTER FOURT H P HA S E SEVERAL YEARS AFTER DISASTER TO AN INDEFINITE AMOUNT OF TIME 7 3.4 ARCHITECTURAL PHASES AFTER A DISASTER It became important to analyze the psychological needs of the disaster victims across their recovery time to determine just how much time should be allowed to pass before temporary housing should be implemented. In 1982, Henry Quarantelli “suggested that [a sequential, four-phase, taxonomic model of the types of post-disaster housing] is necessary to properly reflect the heterogeneous nature of post disaster shelter arrangements.”1 Quarantelli has identified these four phases to be: emergency shelter, temporary shelter, temporary housing, and permanent housing. The time frame for each phase of Quarantelli’s psychological analysis sync up 1 Robert Bolin, “Post disaster Sheltering and Housing: Social Processes in Response and Recovery,” in Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization, ed. Russell R. Dynes et al. (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1994), 116. almost exactly with the architectural phases that many disaster victims experience. It seems that the stages of refugee recovery and psychological behavior directly correlate to each other, and it is most likely that one affects the other, although the same psychological symptoms have been recorded in disaster victims who had families to move in with, along with victims of terrorist attacks and other manmade disasters. The following graph expands on this idea: architectural phases of disaster recovery are analyzed alongside emotional and community events that may be unfolding simultaneously. 8 The Four Phases of Disaster Relief Shelter E M ERG ENCY S HE LT E R VICTIMS WILL TOLERATE PRIMITIVE CONDITIONS IN THOSE SHELTERING ARRANGEMENTS BECAUSE OF THE ASSUMED SHORT TERM NATURE OF THEIR STAY. – Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization UNPLANNED AND SPONTANEOUSLY SOUGHT PROVISIONAL SHELTER: CHURCHES, RED CROSS, LARGE PUBLIC GATHERING PLACES AS EVERYONE BANDS TOGETHER IN TIMES OF NEED, LIVING TOGETHER HELPS TO FOSTER A SENSE OF COMMUNITY T E M POR ARY S HE LT E R SEEKING SHELTER AWAY FROM PRE-DISASTER RESIDENCE FOR A PERIOD EXTENDING BEYOND THE HEIGHT OF THE EMERGENCY PHASE. – Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization STAYS LONG ENOUGH TO REQUIRE THE PROVISION OF SUSTAINED FOOD AND SLEEPING FACILITIES PEOPLE SEARCH FOR A SEMBLANCE OF PRIVACY, BUT THE CONFIGURATIONS STILL FOSTER A SENSE OF THE COMMUNITY THAT DEVELOPED IMMEDIATELY POST DISASTER T E M POR ARY HO US I N G THE REESTABLISHMENT OF HOUSEHOLD ROUTINES BUT WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT MORE PERMANENT QUARTERS WILL BE OBTAINED EVENTUALLY. – Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization TEMPORARY SHELTER RESPONDS TO THE LONG TERM NEEDS OF DISASTER VICTIMS ABILITY TO CONTROL PRIVATE VS PUBLIC FUNCTION AS PEOPLE SEARCH TO REBUILD THEIR PRIVATE LIVES WHILE STILL BEFITTING FROM THE SENSE OF COMMUNITY THE HOUSE ITSELF NEEDS TO HELP RECOVERY WITH ADEQUATE LIGHTING, COLORING, AND MATERIALS TO PREVENT FURTHER RELAPSE WITH PTSD OR SICKNESS FROM TOXIC MATERIALS PERMANENT RECONSTRUCTION SHOULD TAKE LOCAL VERNACULAR INTO ACCOUNT TO PROVIDE FOR CLIMATE CONCERNS CONSULTATION BETWEEN COMMUNITY AND GOVERNMENT THESE BUILDINGS SHOULD LOOK TO THE FUTURE FOR PREVENTION AGAINST DISASTER EVENS: I.E. EARTHQUAKE AND FLOOD PROOFING P ER M A NE N T HOUS I N G THE RIGHTS OF THE INDIVIDUAL ARE OFTEN DWARFED BY THE SCALE OF THE EVENT AND OF THE COMMUNITY BUILDING MACHINE. – Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization 9 3.5 ARCHITECTURAL PRECEDENT ANALYSIS SECTION: Exterior/Interior porch area allows for natural light to filter in and be controlled. SECTION: Living portion is raised up to provide for future storm events. PLAN: Public space is provided for in the front, but transitions to more private spaces away from the street. This ability to have both is important in recovery: coping on one’s own and with the community. AXO: Safe materials are used to construct the home. FEMA trailers use several toxic materials that have caused their inhabitants respiratory problems. AXO: The dimensions allow the unit to be easily transported. STRUCTURE: The prefabricated steel structure aids itself well to being repaired quickly with easily found materials, allowing relief to reach people as quickly as possible. SECTION: Self contained unit makes it easy to set up on site, and private spaces is accounted for, but little spaces is allotted for community areas. AXO: No room for family expansion. It is a one size fits some house with no local materials used. Good plan for community redevelopment. KAT RIN A R EB U IL D MARLON BLACKWELL, ARCHITECT, FAYETTEVILLE, ARKANSAS DISASTER RELIEF FOR NEW ORLEANS AIA YAF T E MPORA RY PERMA N EN T RELIE F HO U S IN G “THE COMMUNITY UNIT” DISASTER RELIEF FOR NEW ORLEANS 10 SITE CONTEXT 4.1. Aerial Photos or Maps of Site 4.2. Site Disaster Documentation 4.3. Cultural Site Analysis 11 4.1 PA DA N G , I N D O N E S I A AERIAL PHOTOS OR MAPS OF SITE VAN , TURKEY A N T O FAG A S TA , C H I L E 12 4.2 SITE DISASTER DOCUMENTATION Padang, Indonesia: Houses affected 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami These maps represent Southern Padang buildings before and after resulting inundation from the Indian Ocean Tsunami. “Kerry Sieh, a professor of geology in Singapore, says that the [Indonesian] earthquake [on September 30th of 2009] is part of a cycle that began in 2007 along a 700 km [portion] of the coast of Sumatra, [one of the western islands that make up Indonesia] called the ‘Mentawai Trail.’ “In this cycle, over the next ten years, there could be up to 8.8 magnitude earthquakes, which could generate tsunamis with waves up to five to six meters high.”1 1 “Jakarta Seeks International Aid for the More than 1000 Dead in Sumatra Earthquake.” AsiaNews.it. PIME, 10 Feb. 2009. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <http://www.asianews.it/news-en/ Jakarta-seeks-international-aid-for-the-more-than-1000-deadin-Sumatra-earthquake-16479.html>. 13 Padang, Indonesia Population Density Studies Risk for Building Damage After Tsunami Highest Higher Lower Lowest Residential v. Commercial Residential Commercial Population Density: Inhabitants per ha at daytime 0 > 0 - 50 > 50 - 75 > 75 - 100 Information based on Center for Satellite Based Crisis Information -Emergency Mapping & Disaster MonitoringGerman Remote Sensing Data Center German Aerospace Center > 100 - 200 > 200 - 500 > 500 14 Van, Turkey: Seismic affects 2011 Van Earthquake “Due to its great intensity and shallow depth, the [Turkey] earthquake produced significant ground motions across a large area. Violent shaking... occurred in Van, although widespread strong to severe shaking was observed in many smaller and less populated areas around the epicenter.”1 According to The New York Times, the earthquake measured at a magnitude of 7.2 by the Turkish Seismic Institute. “...the death toll in the center of Van was 93... officials said that 970 buildings had collapsed in and around the city of Van.”2 1 “Pager Version 2 – M7.2, Eastern Turkey” (PDF). United States Geological Survey. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 2 Arsu, Sebnem. “Many Die As Turkey Is Jolted By Quake.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 24 Oct. 2011. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/24/world/ europe/strong-earthquake-rocks-eastern-turkey.html?_r=1>. 15 Antofagasta, Chile: Houses affected 1991 Barrage of Antofagasta “A mudslide inundated hillside slums of [the northern Chilean] desert city... sweeping away scores of wooden shacks and killing at least 64 people, officials said... About 750 people were injured in the slide, which was caused by five hours of rare, torrential rains in this port in the Atacama desert region, considered one of the most arid areas of the world.”1 These maps are an approximation of damage done to a selected area of the slum regions. It is hard to say which areas were injured in full because of the lack of documentation. 1 “Mudslide in Chile Inundates Slums In Desert Area, Killing at Least 64.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 19 June 1991. Web. 20 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nytimes. com/1991/06/19/world/mudslide-in-chile-inundates-slums16 in-desert-area-killing-at-least-64.html>. 4.3 CULTURAL SITE ANALYSIS Instead of a traditional single situation site analysis, I chose to analyze three different locations around the world to further my understanding of the impact a disaster can wreak across borders. Each place is unique with respect to its culture, locally obtained materials, economy, resources, water usage, family size, and convictions pertaining to privacy and community. This analysis helped me to determine appropriate design elements, theories on dichotomies between public and private spaces in disparate communities, and the way each set of people deal with natural disasters, depending on amounts of amenities they are accustomed to, and the climactic conditions they would be required to endure during the course of their stay in disaster relief houses. I also began to investigate the amount of people that would possibly be utilizing the disaster relief shelters based on size of past disasters and population density of the given area. 17 Culture Analysis Chart The information for the chart was collected from a number of sources including, The CIA World Factbook, the “National Statistics Institute” of Chile, The Official Website for the West Sumatra Province, Indonesia, The Turkish Economic and Social Studies Foundation, Köppen’s climate classifications, and The Atlas of Vernacular Architecture of the World. Many of the symbols used are international symbols, which can be found on thenounproject. com. 18 Culture Analysis Chart D I SA STERS A FFECTED CLIMATE TEMP ERATU RE = 1 , 000 HOMELESS PADA NG I NDONES I A INDIAN OCEAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI 9.3 MAGNITUDE EARTHQUAKE & ACCOMPANYING TSUNAMI VA N T UR KEY 2011 VAN EARTHQUAKES 7.2 MAGNITUDE INITIAL EARTHQUAKE 2 5 0 , 0 0 0 HO M E L E S S ANTOFAG A STA CHILE BARRAGE OF ANTOFAGASTA 1991 MUDSLIDE 10 0 , 0 0 0 HO M E L E S S 2 0 , 0 0 0 HO M E L E S S P OPUL AT I ON DENSIT Y AVE R AG E FA M I LY S I ZE P REVA LEN T RELI G I O N WATER USE P ER CAP ITA ELECTRICIT Y U SE P ER CAP ITA = 2 5 P EO P LE 3,106 PEOPLE PER M I 2 5 37. 3 M 3 A NNUA LLY 50 9 .3 k W h A NNUA LLY 41 5 PEOPLE PER M I 2 5 4 9 . 3 M 3 A NNUA LLY 1 8 97.6 k W h A NNUA LLY 25 PEOPLE PER M I 2 AV ER AGE H O US E HO L D A L S O I NCLUD ES AT L E A ST ON E G R A N D PA RE N T 71 8 . 6 M 3 A NNUA LLY 3 074.3 k W h A NNUA LLY PROGRAM 5.1. Prefabrication Description and Timeline 5.2. Prefabrication Material Maps 5.3. Shipping Methods 21 5.1 PREFABRICATION DESCRIPTION AND TIMELINE The Prefabrication Timeline deconstructs and presents the process involved in the acquiring of materials needed to build a module, creating the steel frame, placing the floor and roof Structurally Insulated Panels (SIPs), placing the interior and exterior wall SIPs, fitting in doors and windows, packing the unit up, and shipping it to the desired location from start to finish in its entirety. The Prefabrication Timeline also looks into unpacking the module, as well as placing it on the disaster site, and the correlating phases of disaster relief, both architectural and psychological that victims of the disaster are experiencing throughout the process. The entire process covers about three weeks worth of time, and the Prefabrication Timeline helps to delineate the necessary steps that need to be taken at the disaster site in preparation for the relief shelters to be received. These steps include: debris clean up by aid organizations and residents alongside preparedness for transition from emergency and temporary shelters. 22 From Disaster to Recovery in 21 Days be re RS at p ition E e s i v T i u S arr cq ials begins ial a r r e e t DISA t a a M n M uctio d o r p ES K I R T gins icat fabr an tory c a f ion e ec is er d eld nd w ted a r ethe g o t ed l pane P I S ame of fr ap s are plied nis as fi hed flo nd or a roof m l fra e e t S s are l e n n: pa SIP led o b m asse me f fra o r io Inter Exploded view of interior wall before and after panels are snapped together Individual Structurally Insulated Panel (SIP) Interior “pull out” portion of the module Outer portion of module Panels “snap together to form ceiling and floor in gate : Red e r g rs on ms c y Shelte ent i t c i c c V rgen ed Cres , e m E s R s or rche Cros ies, chu etc. it facil asiums, n gym s band s cleany t i mun or debri m o f C ther toge the site n up o ted loca ters: e r e l ls ar ary She are of a c o r c L mpo nts, the e T to e ps, t . cam ves, etc i t rela ity mun e m o fC rat se o deterio k n e S see m ns to begi ividuals away fro d as in e space lters t e a priv orary sh temp 23 Exte rio fra r of me Fire, d r, an wate verm pe in re llen ap t are door plied W d s an w o ind ins s are d erte ed in k c a p ips s are Unit cargo sh onto to sh gc ippin ar onta in loa ers, ded rang ed s Unit cked a p n eu ar and Corrugated roofing can be applied to existing roof in cases of extreme weather Interior module has been pulled in for transport SIP Panels provide for materials to be easily customized and interchanged SIP Panelling allows windows and doors to be efficiently inserted and customized re ks a in c o l b ity ation ommun ent d n in Fou y the c f imm b o d i n o la ipati antic f relie s unit g n i rry t, ip ca est por h s r o Carg s at nea then e e arriv iners ar loaded t r a d cont cked an transpo r a unp rucks fo t into s land s acro ofs d ro n a to hes Porc dded on te at i a are les on s of u mod iscretion d the itants b inha 24 5.2 PREFABRICATION MATERIAL MAPS According to The New Market Research Report on Prefabricated Housing, “The United States represents the largest regional market for prefabricated housing worldwide. Japan remains the second largest market for prefabricated housing worldwide. However, the future growth in the market is expected to emanate from emerging markets such as Asia, The Pacific, and Latin America. Segment-wise, manufactured homes represent the largest segment, while panelized homes constitute the fastest growing segment.”1 The following set of maps were created and assembled based on the expanse and international breadth of prefabrication manufacturers. The maps focus specifically on those manufacturers in the Pacific to demonstrate a proposed method of recovery. 1 “Global Prefabricated Housing Market to Reach 757 Thousand Units by 2015, According to a New Report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc.” Global Prefabricated Housing Market to Reach 757 Thousand Units by 2015, According to a New Report by Global Industry Analysts, Inc. Global Industry Analysts, Inc., 18 Jan. 2011. Web. 30 Nov. 2011. <http://www.prweb.com/releases/prefabricated_homes/manufactured_modular_home/prweb8070265. htm>. 25 Location of Prefabrication Factories Around the World Red Dots Indicate Prefabrication Plant Data based on a compilation of information and maps from GoogleMaps. 26 Prefabrication Factories and Manufacturers in the Pacific 27 Location of Steel Factories and Manufacturers in the Pacific 28 Location of Timber Factories and Manufacturers in the Pacific 29 Location of Glass Factories and Manufacturers in the Pacific 30 Bamboo and Teak Factories and Manufacturers in the Pacific 31 5.3 SHIPPING METHODS The average container ship can carry up to 7,500 40-foot long containers. With three modules per container, that is approximately 22,500 modules arriving at the site from a single ship. The size of the housing module is eight feet by twelve feet, which is based on the dimension used for shipping containers, cargo ships, semitrucks, trains, and cargo planes. Following this measure, the houses can be packed up and shipped or transported over a variety of different landscapes by most common means of transportations, enabling the containers to reach their destination through an alternate route if one means of conveyance has been immobilized by disaster. I have developed a scheme of shipping based in the Pacific, using the Padang, Indonesia earthquake and tsunami as an example. The scheme demonstrates how materials will reach a singular prefabrication factory for assembly of the shelter, and then, using the most common shipping patterns, the modules will be transported to the site. 32 Possible Shipping Routes From Prefabrication Factories to Padang The 20 most central ports: Hong Kong, China Bangalore, India Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam 1. Panama Canal 2. Suez Canal 3. Shanghai 4. Singapore 5. Antwerp 6. Piraeus 7. T e r n e u z e n 8. Plaquemines 9. Houston 10. Ijmuiden 11. Santos 12. Tianjin 1 3 . N e w Yo r k & New Jersey 14. Europoort 15. Hamburg 16. Le Havre 1 7. S t . Petersburg 18. Bremerhaven 19. Las Palmas 20. Barcelona Perth, Australia 33 Data based LLoydâ€™s Register Fairplay and the Automatic Identification System logging a yearâ€™s worth travel itineraries from 16,693 cargo ships. Shipping Method: 40’ Shipping Container - 3 Units 40’ 34 Shipping Method: Cargo Ship - 7,500 Containers, 22,500 Units 35 Shipping Method: Semi Truck - 3 Units 40â€™ 36 Shipping Method: Boeing Cargo Freight - 16 Units 37 FINAL DESIGN 6.1. Project parameters 6.1.1. Sun Study Analyses 6.2. Studies or Devices Revealing Architectonic Ideas 6.2.1. Interior Color Analysis 6.2.2. Interior Lighting Analysis 6.2.3. Plumbing Analysis 6.3. Building Plans 6.4. Building Sections 6.5. Wall Sections 6.6. Elevations and Faรงade Studies 6.7. Site 6.7.1. Site Plans 6.7.2. Service Modules 38 6.1 PROJECT PARAMETERS Since there are few parameters set in place for size, fire regulation, or land use for disaster relief houses, it became necessary to define a set of parameters and guidelines to design by that were important to disaster relief housing. The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights specifies the right to adequate housing in Article 11: The right to adequate housing gives everyone a right to live somewhere in security, peace and dignity. The right includes legal security of tenure – i.e. legal protection from forced evictions, harassment and other threats, • Availability of services and infrastructure – safe drinking water, sanitation, energy for cooking, etc. • Habitability – adequate space, protection from elements, etc. • Accessibility for all, both physical and economic. These stipulations were highly influential in establishing an interior design code that allowed everyone the space they needed. 39 6.1.1 SUN STUDY ANALYSES Illuminance Levels with Shading Factor for Padang, Indonesia The shading devices pictured show what happens when the shades are all fully closed on sides receiving the most direct sunlight, as directed from the solar ray studies. The shading devices have been varieted, demonstrating illuminance changes based on different shade configurations. For solar reflector studies, one module or unit was rotated to each possible side to demonstrate sunlight penetration. Even with these shading devices, there are very high illuminance levels in the space. Although, during the rainy season in Padang, using the shades to keep the water out would also serve a beneficial purpose. 40 Padang, Indonesia Winter Solstice Summer Solstice 41 Van, Turkey Summer Solstice Winter Solstice 42 Antofagasta, Chile Winter Solstice Summer Solstice 43 6.2 ARCHITECTONIC IDEAS The architectonic thesis involved assembling a series of modules that can be placed together to create a temporary home, and then expanded in years to come with more modules to create an enduring and permanent structure. This approach is used as a local building technique in Peru to withstand the frequent earthquake damage to towns. The idea of growth over time is a Peruvian tradition of home building and disaster recovery: â€œstarting out with semi-permanent materials, which allows families to construct more formal homes over time. [In Peru], the 20-by-10-foot modules were designed to be dismantled and reassembled, enabling families to move or reuse them. Portability was also a means of [allowing] individuals without land tenure to participate in the program. Within two years the shelters had become a reliable source of income for many families, who converted them into rental properties, turned them into small shops, or held onto them as storage space.â€?1 1 Aquilino, Marie Jeannine. Beyond Shelter: Architecture and Human Dignity. New York, NY: Metropolis, 2010. pg. 65. Print. 44 6.2.1 INTERIOR COLOR ANALYSIS Magnolia Rainier White Dusky Moon Crossroads Champagne Misted Eve Sea Glass Watercress The color choices for the interior walls, or the SIP finishings, are based on studies done of family, community, and recovery centers for people who suffer PTSD. Within these spaces in the disaster relief housing, the more open and public module features a bolder color, while the more private pullout module utilizes a softer shade of white or yellow. According to a study conducted by Dunn-Edwards Corporation, “The right hue can connect us to the earth and make us feel more grounded, give us energy, or even help us sleep better.”1 This can be a great comfort to victims burdened by night terrors. 1 Sara McLean, Color Marketing Manager, Dunn-Edwards Corporation. Color: Earth’s Natural Healer. N.p.: Sara McLean, Color Marketing Manager, Dunn-Edwards Corporation, 2010. Print. 45 6.2.2 INTERIOR LIGHTING ANALYSIS In situations involving disaster victims who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their surroundings are very important. The ability to control the natural and artificial lighting environment can greatly affect mood. The lighting cannot be harsh, and it should be indirect; it is very similar to the lighting used in schools for autistic children. The provided lighting would be similar to the Leucos Mira 2 Low Voltage Recessed Lighting with Housing that has the ability to have a variety of differently colored housings. In the sectional diagrams shown, the adaptable lighting can be cool or warm depending on mood and circumstances. 46 Recessed Lighting Plan The possibility of altering spatial experience through changing the color of the lights can be seen below: more public areas or areas where task lighting is required (i.e., kitchen, bathroom, dining room) are illuminated with basic and warm lighting, while private areas utilize a mixture of lighting colors. 47 6.2.3 PLUMBING ANALYSIS Overhead kitchen cabinets Overhead bathroom storage Showerhead extends out of wall over bathroom sink and toilet Toilet can be used as an accessible seat for the shower Water Tank at far corner of bathroom Piping for kitchen and bathroom sinks, as well as shower go directly into the wall Then drain through a pipe that travels into the ground to connect with set-up infrastructure 48 6.3 BUILDING PLANS Garden Plot, provides inhabitants with an important part of recovery as people feel empowered through producing their own food Interior Water Tank, used for kitchen and bathroom needs Self Composting Toilet, Sun-Mar’s waterfree toilet only takes up 19” x 22” All plumbing functions are run through the plumbing module that comes with ready made piping 49 Organic Housing Redistributions 50 6.4 BUILDING SECTIONS 51 6.5 WALL SECTIONS 2” PermaTherm insulated SIP panel w/Mineral Wool insulator SIP grid snaps together 2” is used for Padang, Indonesia for better ventilation, but in Turkey or Chile, issues of keeping in hot or cold can easily be remedied with 3” or higher panels 3/4” Thick Vertically Raising Window Shutter w/ 1/4” Louvers 1/8” Window Glass in Double Hung Window, Double Hung Windows are better for climates requiring more insulation. In the Indonesian Model, only screen is used Industrial Origami fold out flashing Flashing lays flat during transport and can be bent outward when it reaches the site SIP floor rests on top of 2”x2” tube steel Outside corner trim 1/4” - 14 x 7/8” TEK 1 PTI 707 Butyl Caulk Concrete blocks are laid as a temporary foundation that allows the unit to be elevated above debris and possible flooding 52 6.6 ELEVATION AND FACADE STUDIES 53 6.7 SITE As each module is installed, the configuration needs to create a community pattern. The following diagrams are a series of proposed community solutions for each site based on the perceived atmosphere and dynamic of each location using data collected and presented in the cultural chart. Each proposal is only a suggestion, though, because the true community layout could spring organically as modules are distributed, it could follow the old community dynamics, or it could be a collaboration between local government, community leaders, and NGOs to find the best fit for the populace. It has been suggested that a meeting between all involved parties before the arrival of the relief shelters to decide the particulars of distribution and installation would be incredibly beneficial, and it would serve to ameliorate many problems that would arise as a result of the transition from temporary to permanent housing later. 54 6.7.1 SITE PLANS Padang, Indonesia Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia is home to the Minangkabau people. Their culture is matrilineal (their descent is traced through maternal ancestry), and their religion is largely Islamic. Their society holds education in high esteem, and people from this area are often over-represented across Indonesia in academic fields. The society also highly believes in incorporating their Muslim beliefs within contemporary culture. The traditional home is the Rumah Gadang, which stands for big house, and is usually home to several families. This may not be as true, though, in large, modern, organically growing cities, like Padang. At a city scale, the urban design of the modular homes could either become gridded, or be allowed to develop organically as the old city was. I have shown accounts for how both ideas could turn out. At a family scale, a type of modular configuration can be created to represent the traditional Rumah Gadang, giving families the option to live together in their time of need. 55 Padang Gridded Community Layout SE RV IC N ED IO IST UT RIB SE RV IC ED IS TR IB UTI ON 56 Padang Organic Community Evolution SE RV IC ED IST RIB UTI ON 57 Perspective of Possible Padang, Indonesia Exterior 58 Van, Turkey “[This] modern city is located on the plain extending from Lake Van, at a distance of five kilometers from the lake shore. Van has often been called ‘The Pearl of the East’ because of the beauty of its surrounding landscape. “It is the cultural center of the area’s Kurdish majority.”1 The residential portion of the city center is not very dense, which allows for relief housing to be placed at further intervals then it would be in other cities, although many 1 Özoğlu, Hakan (May 1996). “State–Tribe Relations: Kurdish Tribalism in the 16th-and 17th-Century Ottoman Empire”. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (Taylor & Francis) 23 (1): 5–27. of the main residential buildings are mid-level apartment buildings. A prominent area of focus concerning Van housing is separation of men and women’s sleeping quarters at different times of the year. Tents and other one-room disaster relief solutions could pose a potential threat to religious practices. The module system allows for private sleeping quarters and community space. The picture below shows one possible manifestation of this idea. 59 SERV ICE D ISTR IBUT ION Van Community Layout SERV ICE D ISTR IBUT ION SERV ICE D ISTR 60 IBUT ION Perspective of Possible Van, Turkey Exterior 61 Antofagasta, Chile The city of Antofagasta is along South America and Chileâ€™s west coast, on the Pacific Ocean. It also abuts the Atacama Desert, which is the second driest region on the planet, aside from the infrequent, yet severe, torrential downpour. Antofagasta is a very prosperous mining city. The city is organized in a very gridded fashion with most of the slums and poorest sections of housing located at the base of the Andes Mountains . In many Chilean cities, privacy is highly value. Citizens are very formal in public, and consider their homes as a private space where they can be more relaxed. Family sizes are generally smaller, with fewer children, to accommodate for older generations who generally move-in with their children later in life instead of living by themselves or in assisted care facilities. Disaster relief solutions for the Antofagasta region should be attentive to the needs for added privacy, as well as precautions taken for the elderly. 62 Antofagasta Community Layout SE RV I CE DI ST RI BU TIO N 63 Perspective of Possible Antofagasta, Chile Exterior 64 6.7.2 SERVICE MODULES After a disaster, not only are homes destroyed, but also so are businesses and amenities. Along with delivering disaster relief shelters, and organizing their community-based layout, another measure in relief is providing facilities for those that have been debilitated by the disaster event. One solution is a Temporary Community Centers located at intervals between relief shelters. They will help to provide everyday needs and recreation until infrastructure can re-mobilize. In the center of each cluster of disaster relief homes and buildings there will be an aid center. This center will provide the connections for solar and wind turbine energy, solar purified water, food and laundry services, computers with internet connection, bathrooms, bathing facilities, and community medical aid. It will be another step in the community connection: the link between the larger community and the individual. 65 Community Aid Centers Solar Collectors & Back-up Electric Generators provide power mainframe to residents Makeshift Medical Facility for injured residents Self-Service Laundry Area for residents to use while in Temporary Housing Rainwater Collection and Treatment provide clean, recycled water to residents Bathrooms/Locker Rooms with Showers for residents without configured plumbing facilities Cafeteria supplies food services until residents can provide food for themselves Computer Stations provide disaster victims connection to family, friends, and the rest of the world Water Station provides clean water to residents, who can bring water bottles and buckets to store water reserves at home 66 CONCLUSIONS 7.1 Reflections 67 7.1 REFLECTIONS This project began as an exercise in modular and prefabricated living, but it slowly evolved into the analysis of creating and establishing systems of recovery for disasterstricken areas. If I were to attempt a project like this again, and I certainly hope to, I might look into the benefits of flat-pack and assemble-on-site housing. While my views have not changed towards the immediacy and comprehensiveness of relief, they have been broadened toward the benefits of localized disaster relief. I believe that a form of flat-pack housing would enable local people, with the help of aidcontractors to construct new homes, which would provide communities with a better sense of accomplishment for themselves. I also think it could make for more interesting ways to adapt the individual home. In review, it was also suggested that I explore the possibilities of creating an international guidebook for disaster victims about to receive relief. This guidebook would help to explain choices for color, distribution, the possibilities of expansion, plumbing, electricity, etc., but it would all be explained in universal symbols in the style of the cultural chart I had created. 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Accountability Office, 2010. Print. Witkin, Georgia. Stress Relief for Disasters Great and Small. New York: Newmarket, 2003. Print. 70 Disaster Relief: A Psychological Approach to Temporary Housing Colleen McDonough Final Thesis for Bachelor of Architecture (2012) The Pennsylvania State University College of Arts and Architecture School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Department of Architecture