Chapter L of the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky
The Encylopedia of Northern Kentucky in partnership with NKY.com. Edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool, The University Press of Kentucky. Republished for the World Wide Web by NKY.com and Enquirer Media. A Project of the Thomas D. Clark Foundation, Inc.
LICKING RIVER. The Licking River, a tributary of the Ohio River, flows for about 320 miles from Magoffin Co. northwest to its confluence witht the Ohio River between Covington and Newport... (cont'd on pg. 547) The Enquirer/Craig Ruttle L Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky in partnership with NKY.com Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z | Index The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky Contents Introduction, Foreword, Acknowledgments and Guide for Readers Chapters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z Index, Bibliography, Illustration Credits Edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool THE UNIVERSITY PRESS OF KENTUCKY Republished for the World Wide Web by NKY.com and Enquirer Media A Project of the Thomas D. Clark Foundation, Inc. Mark A. Neikirk, President Sherry Jelsma, Vice President Dave Adkisson, Treasurer Melanie J. Kilpatrick, Secretary Thomas R. Brumley, Immediate Past President Michael J. Hammons, Past President Board of Directors Michael J. Hammons, Park Hills Sherry Jelsma, Shelbyville Martha C. Johnson, Melbourne Mark A. Neikirk, Highland Heights Alice Stevens Sparks, Crescent Springs Dave Adkisson, Frankfort Jane Beshear, Frankfort Thomas R. Brumley, Lexington John S. Carroll, Lexington Sara W. Combs, Stanton Robert Ted Steinbock, Louisville Mrya Leigh Tobin, New York City James M. Wiseman, Erlanger Editorial Staff Editors in Chief: Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool Associate Editors: David Hatter, John Schlipp, David E. Schroeder, Robert Stevie, Michael R. Sweeney, John W. Thieret (deceased), Thomas S. Ward, Jack Wessling Topical Editors: Agriculture: Lynn David & James Wallace; Art: Rebecca Bilbo; Biography: Michael R. Sweeney; Business & Commerce: John Boh; Counties & Towns: David E. Schroeder; Ethnology: Theodore H. H. Harris; Government, Law, & Politics: John Schlipp; Literature: Danny Miller (Deceased); Medicine: Dennis B. Worthen; Military: James A. Ramage; Music, Media, & Entertainment: John Schlipp; Religion: Thomas S. Ward & Alex Hyrcza; Sports & Recreation: James C. Claypool; Transportation Joseph F. Gastright (Deceased); Women: Karen Mcdaniel. Maps: Jeff Levy at the Gyula Pauer Center for Cartography & GIS, University of Kentucky. Copyright � 2009 by The University Press of Kentucky, 663 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40508-4008 www.kentuckypress.com. Print editions: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Encyclopedia of northern Kentucky / edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-8131-2565-7 (hardcover : acid-free paper) ISBN 978-0-8131-2585-5 (limited leather edition) 1. Kentucky, Northern-- Encyclopedias. 2. Kentucky-- Encyclopedias. I. Tenkotte, Paul A. II. Claypool, James C. F451.E55 2009 976.9'3003--dc22 2009027969 L&N BRIDGE (PURPLE PEOPLE BRIDGE). The Louisville and Nashville Railroad Bridge spans the Ohio River, between the Daniel Carter Beard Bridge (I-471) upstream to the east and the Taylor-Southgate Bridge, downstream to the west, linking the cities of Newport and Cincinnati. Following the Civil War, Cincinnati emerged as a strategic shipment center between the Kentucky and West Virginia coalfields and the industrial heartland of the nation. Recognizing the potential for commercial expansion, business and political leaders in both Ohio and Kentucky organized the Newport and Cincinnati Bridge Company to improve railroad facilities and promote a southern railroad connection. Newport eventually won out over Covington in a bidding war for the proposed bridge, which was to carry the Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington Railroad (the Short Line) into Cincinnati. Newport's winning proposal included an agreement to grant the railroad the right-of-way to operate trains along the entire length of Saratoga St., an arrangement that, at times over the years, divided the city for hours while a train passed or changed cars. The new bridge's cornerstone was laid at the foot of Saratoga St. on June 3, 1868. Jacob H. Linville, the nation's foremost railroad bridge engineer, designed the original bridge to carry railroad freight and passengers, with a walkway to accommodate wagons and pedestrians. The Keystone Bridge Company of Pittsburgh, Pa., built the steel superstructure. The Newport approach to the structure consists of a series of small brick arches that were later turned into automobile entrances to the current Newport-on-the-Levee parking lot. When the bridge formally opened on March 20, 1872, it was called the Newport and Cincinnati Railroad and Wagon Bridge. It was the second bridge built to Cincinnati but the first to combine both railway and roadway features; the railroad track was in the center of the bridge, with roadways on both sides. In about 1881, the bridge was widened to accommodate streetcar tracks for horsecars. After the acquisition of the Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington Railroad by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N) in the 1880s, the bridge became commonly known as the L&N Bridge. Although the railroad tracks along Saratoga St. later caused many a traffic jam and a small chorus of citizens' complaints, the acquisition of the railroad represented a major coup for Newport. Railroads were supplanting river commerce as the primary means of moving products and people, so besides adding jobs, the new bridge gave easier access to national and even international markets for the city's manufacturers. Local business leaders used the availability of a railroad depot (at modernday Fift h and Saratoga Sts.) to promote Newport as a highly attractive place to do business. The bridge introduced a new phase into the city's economic history: commuter-based suburban expansion. Before the bridge was built, there were only two ways to get from Newport to Cincinnati: via ferry and by going over Newport's Fourth St. Bridge into Covington and then over the John A. Roebling Bridge. Once it was completed, the L&N Bridge gave direct access to Cincinnati and its jobs. Employees could conveniently live in Newport and work in Cincinnati. The bridge also attracted many businessmen and families who exploited the new access to Cincinnati. It was then possible to own a business in Cincinnati but live in Newport. By the late 1880s, Newport had become well integrated within the Greater Cincinnati economy as workers and businessmen enjoyed greater access to markets and employment. The building of the bridge also had an immediate impact on residential development in Newport. Between 1880 and 1900, Newport witnessed a 52 percent increase in the construction of housing, and the city's population swelled 35.4 percent during the same period, with large additions in the eastern part of the city. By 1880 Newport ranked as the 98th-most-populous city in the nation. Because of this population growth in Newport proper, suburban growth also began to occur throughout Campbell Co. By the 1890s, it had become clear that the existing bridge could no longer accommodate the increased weight of locomotives and railcars, nor that of the heavier electric streetcars. Max Joseph Becker designed a new $700,000 bridge, which was constructed by the Keystone Bridge Company. In September 1896 the channel span of 510 feet was floated on barges to the site and hoisted into place by cables. Approaches on each side of the new bridge were improved; in Newport the rail tracks were elevated over Taylor St. (modern-day Third St.), no longer crossing the streetcar track at grade; they reached ground level just north of modernday Fourth St. The new L&N Bridge, which included a railroad track on one side and, on the other side, a roadway with two electric streetcar lines and a walkway, opened in May 1897. Streetcars then returned to the L&N Bridge; during the bridge construction, Newport's electric streetcars passed over the Central Bridge downriver. In 1904 the Louisville and Nashville Railroad purchased the bridge. The last rail corporation to own it was the Chessie System, later known as the CSX, until the City of Newport held control of it for a brief period in 2005. Although an impressive achievement for its time, the bridge had some serious drawbacks. The rail yards on the Cincinnati side could not be expanded because of their location, and the completion of the railroad Union Terminal in western Cincinnati in 1933 put an end to the need for any passenger drop-offs. As automobiles became more of a factor in commuting patterns to and from the suburbs, the bridge's urban location kept it from be- coming an important part of automobile traffic patterns between Northern Kentucky and Cincinnati. The Kentucky Department of Highways bought the two-lane vehicular section of the bridge in 1935 and began the unpopular practice of collecting a toll, which lasted until November 11, 1941. As trucks became the most popular way of transporting products to market, railroads and railroad bridges became less important to the nation's economy. Those bridges that were not torn down, such as the L&N Bridge, began to show the effects of this loss. CSX, when it was utilizing the bridge, refused to paint its side when the Kentucky Department of Highways painted its side blue; the result was an odd two-tone blue-and-rust combination. The CSX Railroad discontinued its use of the bridge structure in 1984. The tracks on the bridge were removed and the rail approaches at each end were dismantled. The tracks in the city were also removed after railroad traffic ceased; they were replaced in 1987 with a landscaped green space along the middle of Saratoga St. After the Kentucky Department of Highways determined in 1992 that the bridge was no longer functional to carry modern automobile traffic volumes and weights, proposals were made for its demolition. However, rather than spend the $2 million to demolish the bridge, the City of Newport and the Commonwealth of Kentucky began negotiations to save the structure and turn it into a pedestrian-only bridge, like the Walnut St. Bridge over the Tennessee River at Chattanooga, Tenn. With funding provided by both the City of Newport and the state, this plan became a reality. The bridge closed to vehicular traffic on October 21, 2001, and reopened as the Newport Southbank Bridge on April 26, 2003. It was then owned and operated by a private nonprofit organization known as the Newport Southbank Bridge Company (see Southbank Partners). Much discussion and controversy occurred over what color to paint the bridge. Eventually, purple was chosen because it was deemed to be festive, to age slowly, to fade gracefully, and not to show rust. Thus, the bridge has become known most commonly as the Purple People Bridge. The L&N/Purple People Bridge has been placed on the National Register of Historic Places for its engineering and transportation significance. "Bridge Formally Open on March 20, 1872," CJ, March 23, 1872, 3. Condit, Carl W. The Railroad and the City: A Technological and Urbanistic History of Cincinnati. Columbus: Ohio State Univ. Press, 1977. Lehmann, Terry W., and Earl W. Clark Jr., The Green Line: The Cincinnati, Newport and Covington Railway. Chicago: Central Electric Railfans' Association, 2000. Purvis, Thomas L., ed. Newport, Kentucky: A Bicentennial History. Newport, Ky.: Otto Zimmerman, 1996. "Span's Ownership Remains with State--Public-Private Transfer Delayed," KP, September 16, 2005, 2K. Tenkotte, Paul A. "Rival Cities to Suburbs: Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 1790�1890," PhD diss., Univ. of Cincinnati, 1989. Michael Whitehead 528 LACEY, GENE LACEY, GENE (b. March 19, 1888, Covington, Ky.; d. July 5, 1965, Covington, Ky.). Businessman Eugene F. Lacey, the son of Samuel and Emma Lacey, was a lifelong resident of Covington. His early education was at Lincoln- Grant School in Covington, and he graduated from Woodward High School, on Sycamore St. in downtown Cincinnati. In 1918 he opened his first grocery store, at 508 Scott St. in Covington (currently the site of the Kenton Co. Public Library), while residing at nearby 839 Craig St. In 1919 Lacey married Bessie Merritt of Falmouth, and together they opened a second store in Covington at 205 E. Robbins St., calling it the Gene and Bess Store; the building also served as their home. Sometime during those years, Gene Lacey found time to attend the University of Cincinnati and the American Institute of Management. He graduated from the Alexander Hamilton Business School, and later the Laceys formed two companies, the Lacey Sausage Company and the Lacey Paper Company. In 1924 Gene and Bess Lacey faced a major challenge to their business when the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company (A&P) and another major grocery chain moved into the neighborhood less than a block away from their small grocery, then located on Greenup St. The Laceys remained competitive not by charging low prices but by the convenience of their store and by employing local people, thus keeping the money spent at their store in the community. In 1926 Lacey closed his store at 508 Scott St.; in 1933 he opened a grocery store at Court and John Sts. in Cincinnati. Lacey was a 32nd Degree Mason and served on the Southern Jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of Masons, was a member of the Odd Fellow Lodge, and became Exalted Ruler of Ira Lodge No. 37 of the Elks. He was a member of the National Negro Business League, served on the executive committee of the Cincinnati branch of the NAACP, and was active in the Ninth St. Methodist Church, serving as treasurer and a trustee for many years. In 1931 Lacey was a speaker for the new Covington City Manager League, which supported the city manager form of government for Covington. There were 300 new members at the time within the Negro Division. Lacey was also a founding member of Covington's African-American Businessmen's Association. A frequent visitor to the Lacey household during the summer months of the 1940s was their nephew, college football coach John A. Merritt. Gene Lacey died in 1965 and was buried at Mary E. Smith Cemetery in Elsmere. Dabney, Wendell P. Cincinnati's Colored Citizens. Cincinnati: Dabney, 1926. "Enroll 300 New Members in Colored Division," KTS, July 7, 1931, 2. "Eugene Lacey, Businessman," KP, July 6, 1965, 3K. Harris, Theodore H. H. "Reader Recollection," KP, March 2, 1992, 4K. Holle Ladd. The family moved to Bellevue when she was age 22 in 1924. Two of Ladd's poems, "Cry in the Night" and "Bread with Jam," appeared in J. T. Cotton Noe's A Brief Anthology of Kentucky Poetry (1936). Her work has also been published in the poetry magazine Letters. Her father, a printer, died in 1934, and her mother died in 1944. That was the last year Dorothy was found in the local city directories; she was living at 243 Taylor Ave. in Bellevue and was employed as a nurse. Where she lived and what she did after the death of her mother remain to be discovered. Noe, J. T. Cotton, ed. A Brief Anthology of Kentucky Poetry: Selections of Poetry Written by NinetyThree Persons Closely Identified with Kentucky, Most of Them Native Born. Lexington: Univ. of Kentucky Department of Extension, 1936. Jenny Plemen LAFARGE NORTH AMERICA INC. The small Campbell Co. city of Silver Grove was once a bustling railroad town of 1,100 residents. In 1920 the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad built many of the houses in Silver Grove so its employees could be close to their workplace. When the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway closed the 200-acre Stevens rail yard at Silver Grove in 1981, the town suffered greatly. Businesses along the Mary Ingles Highway in town lost many of their customers, and homes, now mostly owned by railway workers, became difficult to sell. Over the next 17 years, several companies considered locating on the site of the former rail yard; however, none showed serious interest until a French company, Lafarge, negotiated to buy the property in 1998. The city, county, and state governments offered tax breaks and other incentives to lure the company to the area. The parent company of Lafarge North America Inc. is headquartered in Paris, France, and has been in continuous operation since 1833. It has locations in 75 countries and a worldwide workforce of 77,000. The company is a world leader in the production of construction materials such as cement, asphalt products, and gypsum wallboard. The corporation's North American subsidiary currently operates several facilities in the United States and employs 15,300 people. The Silver Grove plant, which opened in July 2000, was built at a cost of about $100 million and employs 150. The plant produces 900 million square feet of gypsum wallboard each year, for use in the United States and Canada. Strategically located on the Ohio River, the facility has easy access to transportation by water, rail, and highway. Answers.com. "Lafarge." www.answers.com/lafarge (accessed February 25, 2007). "Campbell Wooing French Manufacturer," KE, December 17, 1998, 2C. "Lafarge Almost Ready," KP, July 21, 2000, 1K. "Lafarge North America," KP, July 27, 2000, 5K. "Lafarge Plant Revitalizes Silver Grove," KE, July 25, 2000, 1B. "Silver Grove Gets Drywall Plant," KE, January 28, 1999, 1K. Utility executive and horse-racing enthusiast Polk Laffoon Jr. was the son of Polk Laffoon Sr. and the former Hattie Parker of Madisonville. His father had been a lawyer and a U.S. congressman and had served under Confederate general John Hunt Morgan during the Civil War. Polk Laffoon Jr. was also a first cousin of Ruby Laffoon, who was a Kentucky governor (1931�1935). Polk Jr. married Emily Woodall in 1914, and they had two children, Polk III and Emily. Polk Jr. was a lifelong horse-racing enthusiast and raised many thoroughbreds on a farm he owned in Kenton Co. on Turkeyfoot Rd. He served as president of the Kentucky Racing Commission and of the Latonia Jockey Club Inc., which operated the (Old) Latonia Racecourse in Covington, and was a vice president of the Churchill Downs Racecourse in Louisville. During his long and illustrious career, he also held executive positions with the Peoples Liberty Bank and Trust Company; the Union Light, Heat and Power Company; the Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company in Ohio; and the Cincinnati, Newport and Covington Railway Company (see Green Line Company). After a long illness, Polk Laffoon Jr. died at age 68 on his farm, which he called Pokeaway. Funeral ser vices were held at the Trinity Episcopal Church in Covington and he was buried in the Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. His wife Emily and their two children survived him. "Colorful Figure Passes with Death of Laffoon," KP, April 21, 1945, 1. "Commodore Laffoon Now," KP, June 15, 1932, 3. "Laffoon Estate Is Left to Widow," KP, May 5, 1945, 1. "Laffoon Rites Set Monday at Trinity Church," KP, April 21, 1945, 1. Leonard, Lewis Alexander. Greater Cincinnati and Its People: A History. New York: Lewis Historical, 1927. Theodore H. H. Harris LADD, DOROTHY (b. 1902, New Orleans, La.; date and place of death unknown). The Poet Dorothy Ladd was the daughter of Alvin and Bertha LAFFOON, POLK, JR. (b. February 6, 1877, Madisonville, Ky.; d. April 20, 1945, Covington, Ky.). LAGOON AMUSEMENT PARK. One of the largest and most popu lar resorts in Northern Kentucky at the beginning of the 20th century was the Lagoon Amusement Park in Ludlow. An 85-acre lake was created for the park by damming Pleasant Run Creek, which empties into the Ohio River nearby; and streetcar lines were extended to the Lagoon entrance at what is today Laurel St. between Park Ave. and Lake St. The park's grand opening was May 18, 1895. Park patrons paid a fee to enter the park, and additional fees were charged for the major activities. A very important attraction at the Lagoon was its large lake; the clear, fresh water provided for excellent fishing, swimming, and boating. A wide, sandy bathing beach was constructed on the north side of the lake. Another early attraction was the grand clubhouse, a large Victorian structure sporting wide verandas that wrapped around the building. The clubhouse was constructed on high ground, which offered sweeping views of the lake and other parts of the park. Activities at the clubhouse included dancing and fi ne dining, for which park managers insisted on the best chefs and waiters. The Lagoon dance pavilion, which drew thousands to the park, provided space for hundreds of dancers LAIDLEY, FREDERICK A. 529 Lagoon Amusement Park, as seen from the Cincinnati Southern Railroad Bridge. and for the large orchestras and bands popu lar at the time. It boasted the largest dance floor in the United States west of New York City. All of the original buildings at the park were designed by a Ludlow architect, John H. Boll. The fi rst general manager of the park was John Noonan, who held the position from 1895 to 1902. J. J. Weaver was his successor. Rides available for the first season included a large toboggan sled, a pony track, a miniature gold mine, and a scenic railroad. Of the early rides, one of the most popu lar was the roller coaster, which was built over the lake and took patrons up and down many times. Riders began on the shore of the lake and were quickly propelled over the water. At the halfway point of the ride, the small cars entered a circular building constructed on piers, where the track spiraled several times inside the building before reemerging into the light for the return trip to the shore. Over the next few decades, many rides were added. In 1896 a chute-the-chutes was constructed on the north shore of the lake. It consisted of small cars that slid down a steep ramp into the lake. Other innovative rides were an Alpine slide, a circular swing, a $10,000 merry-go-round, and a 100-foot Ferris wheel built on one of the lake's many islands. In 1909 the management constructed an elevated automobile ride in the park, featuring full-sized touring cars. The ride carried patrons along a two-mile elevated track, which snaked its way through the woods on the north end of the park. Various entertainers also drew large crowds; the park's 2,500-seat amphitheatre was available for live productions. A large motion picture theater was also very popu lar, as were the performances on the park's vaudev ille stage. Each weekend there were free vaudev ille shows in which local and occasionally visiting performers provided entertainment. Other activities included a large mid- way with assorted games, refreshment stands, picnic grounds, and several miles of walking trails. By 1905 an Edisonia exhibit was in operation: the large exhibit hall displayed more than 100 recent inventions from across the country. Current events gave the park managers inspiration for new attractions. In 1898, during the Spanish-American War (see National Guard, Spanish-American War), a Cuban village was constructed on one of the lake's islands. Included were an authentic native hut with thatched roof and a small replica farm growing tobacco and sugar cane. A Cuban family (a father, a mother, and five children) fleeing the war was hired to occupy the exhibit. Park visitors were taken to the Cuban village by boat; they could then disembark and tour the exhibit. This early experiment in living history proved very popu lar. The victory of the Japanese Navy over Russia in 1905 led to the establishment of a Japanese Fair that same year at the park. This attraction featured a large teahouse built in the traditional Japanese architectural style. A Japanese immigrant operated the exhibit with the assistance of five authentic "geisha girls." The Japanese Fair also offered Japanese music, several Japanese games of chance, and a jujitsu instructor who gave regular demonstrations of his art. A large wooden motordrome, or motorcycle racetrack, was planned for the grounds in 1912. The quarter-mile oval track was constructed at a 60-degree angle, allowing drivers to reach great speeds. The observation grandstand could seat up to 8,000 spectators, and many more could sit in the infield. The motordrome was officially opened on June 21, 1913, and was an immediate success. Races were held three times each week with an admission charge of 50 cents. Four events between 1913 and 1920 led to the closing of the park. The costly floods of 1913 damaged many of the Lagoon's attractions. They were quickly repaired, but at considerable cost. In July 1913 a serious wreck at the motordrome brought notoriety to the Lagoon. A driver named Odin Johnson lost control of his motorcycle on the large wooden track and veered off into a grandstand. The cycle hit a gas lamp, causing burning fuel to spread throughout the stand, and panic set in as the 5,000 spectators tried to flee the fire. Seven people were killed and more than 100 were treated for burns on the day of the accident. Initial newspaper accounts listed the dead as Odin Johnson of Salt Lake City, age 34; Charles Davis of Ludlow, 5; Mrs. Ethel Buchtman of Covington, 20; and Cincinnati residents Henry Andrews, James Carter, Mrs. William Michaels, and William Patterson. Several other spectators died in subsequent days from their burns and other injuries. Injured patrons included residents of Bromley, Covington, and Ludlow, Ky., and Cincinnati and Lima, Ohio. Lawsuits and criminal charges were quickly fi led in the local courts. Despite the tragedy, the motordrome was repaired and reopened later in the 1913 season. Two years later, on July 7, 1915, at the height of the summer season, a large tornado ripped through Ludlow and caused more than $20,000 in damage to the buildings in the park, including the dance hall and the clubhouse. Costly repairs were made and the park was reopened. The final event that spelled doom for the park was World War I. For many years, the Lagoon had served the locally brewed Bavarian beer at various locations. But now grain was needed for the war effort; federal officials halted the manufacturing of liquor and beer for the duration of the war. The loss of alcohol sales resulted in a drastic loss in profits, and the Lagoon Amusement Park closed after the 1918 season. Part of the Lagoon property was developed as a residential neighborhood. Portions of Deverill, Lake, Laurel, Ludford, Park, and Stokesay Sts. were built on the site. Only two buildings from the original park have survived. The clubhouse was converted into an apartment building, and the women's washroom, at the northwest corner of Deverill and Lake Sts., was transformed into a single-family home. In 1967 the Ludlow Realty Company sold the remaining Lagoon property to Ludlow Development Enterprises Inc. (Carlisle Construction, King Wrecking Company, and other firms) for $28,000. The low-lying areas were later fi lled and the lake was eliminated. Centennial Celebration, Ludlow, Kentucky: Commemorating 100 Years of Progress, 1864�1964. Ludlow, Ky.: Ludlow Centennial Committee, 1964. John Burns Collected Papers, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. "Ludlow Lagoon Amusement Park," Local History File, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. David E. Schroeder LAIDLEY, FREDERICK A. (b. January 28, 1841, Huntington, W.Va.; d. December 14, 1931, 530 LAIDLEY HOUSE Covington, Ky.). Frederick Alexander Laidley was a prominent businessman in both river and rail transportation and a civic leader in the city of Cincinnati from 1886 until at least 1918. The son of James Madison Laidley, a prominent attorney, and Anna Maria Buhring, he was raised in Charleston, W.Va., and attended public schools there. He started a small store in Charleston and then from 1858 to 1864 manufactured salt in West Virginia on the Kanawha River. In connection with the salt business, he traveled often to Cincinnati. Laidley had become fascinated with steamboats as a boy, and in 1864 he began his career as a river man, getting a job as a clerk on the Ohio River steamer Annie Laurie. By 1866 he was captain of that boat. For most of his life, he was best known as a river man and was variously referred to as Captain Laidley or Commodore Laidley (these titles may have been informal, since official licensing of captains and chief mates did not begin until the U.S. Congress established it by legislation in 1871). Laidley moved to Cincinnati in 1867 as the agent for the Kanawha Salt Company and became a charter member of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce. Even though his business was in Cincinnati, he lived in Covington and raised his family there. Laidley engaged in numerous business ventures and partnering associations over the next almost 50 years. From 1873 to 1896, he was in the pork-packing business (see Meatpacking); in 1886 he became a prime stockholder of the Louisville & Cincinnati Packet Company, and later (by 1891) served as its general manager and treasurer. With this company, he built and operated two of the finest and fastest boats on the Ohio River, the famed City of Louisville and the City of Cincinnati. These two steamboats and five others were called the White Collar Line (WCL) or White Packet Line. He was an original stockholder of the Common Carrier Company and president of the Louisville & Evansville Transportation Company. These companies were in the business of transporting freight or passengers, or both, up and down the Ohio River. He was president of the Licking Coal & Towboat Company, which supplied steamboats with coal and provided harbor-towing ser vices, and in 1881 he began shipping meat by rail with the Cincinnati Southern Railroad to southern cities such as Chattanooga, Tenn.; Atlanta and Macon, Ga.; Mobile and Montgomery, Ala.; and many others. In 1866 Laidley married Julia A. Rook from Malden, W.Va., and they had four children. The family lived in what is now known as the Laidley House, at 404 E. Second St. in Covington, surrounded by other magnificent homes of the pre� Civil War and post�Civil War periods. During the mid-1800s and into the early 1900s, the Laidley home was a center for hospitality known for its glowing lights, grand balls, and lovely parties. Laidley's lifestyle and his role as a prominent businessman came to an abrupt end after the winter of 1917�1918. During that winter the Ohio and Licking rivers froze in many places, and in 1918 an ice gorge destroyed the City of Cincinnati, the City of Louisville, and the Loucinda (also WCL). Much of Laidley's great wealth was gone. He lived out the rest of his life in his Covington home on Second St. and died after a short illness at age 90 in December 1931. He was buried at Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. Bricking, Chuck. Covington's Heritage: A Compilation of the City's Historical Houses and a Short Biography of the Inhabitants. Covington, Ky.: Privately published, 1980. Goss, Charles Frederick, ed. Cincinnati: The Queen City, 1788�1912. 4 vols. Chicago: S. J. Clarke, 1912. Kentucky Death Certificate No. 30006, for the year 1931. "Mourn Laidley--Veteran Riverman Passes in 90th Year," KP, December 15, 1931, 1. place. However, the ice gorge of the winter of 1917�1918 crushed five of Commodore Laidley's boats, changing the family's economic status considerably, and social life at the home became a lower priority. The last Laidley occupant was Elsie Louise Laidley More, who died in 1972. Soon afterward, the house was sold at auction to an interim absentee owner who planned to convert it into small apartments. By that time, the house and grounds had been neglected for many years. In 1975 James and Frances Allen purchased the property and restored it to its former glory. They live there today. Bricking, Chuck. Covington's Heritage: A Compilation of the City's Historical Houses and a Biography of the Inhabitants. Covington, Ky.: Privately published, 1980. Stamm, Michelle. "Riverside Renaissance: Covington's Historic Riverside District from the 18th Century to the Present." NKH 1, no. 1 (Autumn�Winter 1993): 1�22. Fran Allen LAIDLEY HOUSE. The Laidley House faces south at the corner of Second and Kennedy Sts. near the Licking and Ohio Rivers in the protected Licking-Riverside National Historic District of Covington. The house itself is a Kentucky landmark and is surrounded by historically significant homes. The Laidley House was built in 1865, at the end of the Civil War, in the Second Empire style. A visitor to the imposing and beautiful three-story mansion will first be impressed by its setting on the property and its lovely facade. The home is surrounded by a stone wall topped with an iron fence, and the property is entered through a decorative iron gate. The structure itself is orange red brick with a white Kentucky limestone foundation and massive front steps, and the entrance, corners, and windows are trimmed with limestone. Above the approach to the house is an octagonal cupola sitting on top of the colorful slate-faced mansard roof, like the decorative top of an elaborate wedding cake. After walking up the front steps, one comes to the glass-paneled front door inside an intricately carved, walnut-stained wooden entrance, with folding paneled doors and a black and white, checkerboard-patterned marble floor. Just inside the front door is a long rectangular entrance hall with an elaborate parquet floor and a winding staircase, which has unusual parquet stair treads. On the right is a poolroom, thought to have been a gentlemen's smoking parlor; on the left is a large living area originally called "the ballroom." The ballroom has a large bay window on the entrance side and wonderful white plaster decorations of morning glories and leaves all around the edges of the 14-foot ceiling. At the end of the entrance hall are two doors: one opens to the dining room, the other to an exterior L-shaped porch with heavy carved pillars and a balustrade, and a view of the Ohio River. Frederick Alexander Laidley and his family lived in the house from 1880 until 1972. Commodore Laidley, as he was called, owned the White Packet, or White Collar, line of riverboats on the Ohio River. He and his wife, the former Julia Rook, had four children: Frederick Rook, Mary, Marguerite, and Elsie Louise. During the late 1800s and early 1900s, the house was a lively social gathering Fran Allen LAKESIDE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. This Christian church in Lakeside Park began because in the 1960s men of the Independent Christian Church�Church of Christ felt that a new church was needed in Northern Kentucky. A group of ministers and laymen met in October 1966 to discuss establishing the new church. The New Testament Church Evangelism Committee was formed and incorporated in March 1967, and the Lakeside Park� Crescent Springs area was selected for the church's location. The committee chose Jerry Scarborough to be the minister-evangelist. On September 10, 1967, 73 worshippers attended the church's first Sunday ser vices at the Crescent Springs Elementary School, on Buttermilk Pk. Seventeen adults agreed to form the nucleus of the new church, and at a meeting in December 1967 the name Lakeside Christian Church was chosen. By January 1968 the congregation had grown to 55 members; property was purchased and plans were drawn for the construction of a permanent church, for which ground was broken March 10, 1968. One year later the congregation occupied the new building, at 195 Buttermilk Pk., and on October 1, 1970, Bro. John Russell was chosen as minister-evangelist, since Scarborough had departed to start new churches elsewhere. As the congregation grew, new programs were added and staff members were hired to direct the areas of music, youth, adult involvement, education, and a comprehensive children's program of participation and instruction. By 1979 continued growth made it necessary to schedule multiple worship ser vices on Sundays, so construction ensued to increase worship ser vice and educational space. The congregation also began to purchase adjacent land along Buttermilk Pk. In 1996 growth again required increasing the meeting space. The building campaign now included a new sanctuary seating about 1,400, as well as renovation of the existing facilities to include a family life�sports complex, meeting rooms for church and community use, and supplementary space for classes and activities. LAMPRECHT, WILHELM 531 Lakeside Christian Church endeavors to influence the community by actively participating in charitable needs and by offering beneficial programs--musical productions; men's, women's, and family seminars; and special seasonal drama productions--and also through a comprehensive worldwide mission endeavor: 20 percent of its weekly offerings is used to help people outside the local church body. In 2005 weekly attendance was averaging more than 1,750 in worship ser vices as the church continued to prosper and grow. "Churches Celebrate Building," KP, September 18, 1993, 10K. "Lakeside Park--Suburban Wrap Up (Expand Lakeside Christian Church)," KP, February 12, 1992, 9K. "Ushers Pass the Construction Hat," KP, November 20, 1995, 1K. is provided in collaboration with the City of Crestview Hills, while Fort Mitchell supports the fire and life-squad needs of the community. "Birth of a Police Department," KP, June 22, 1998, 4K. "History of Dry Creek Baptist Church, Kenton County, Kentucky," Lakeside Park Local History Files, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. Kleber, John E., ed. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1992. National Register of Historic Places National Register Form, 1986, Lakeside Park Local History Files, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. U.S. Census Bureau. "American Fact Finder. Data Set. Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF1) 100-Percent Data. Custom Table." www.census.gov (accessed June 28, 2006). Blanche Gaynor Mary Ellen Lucas LAKESIDE PARK. Lakeside Park is a largely residential fi ft h-class city in northern Kenton Co. It is surrounded by the cities of Fort Mitchell and Crestview Hills and is bisected by the Dixie Highway (U.S. 25). I-275 passes just to the south. Lakeside Park's origins can be traced to a nearly 1,000-acre farm granted to Col. John Leathers, who settled the area in 1785. It was mainly farmland until landowner and Kenton Co. water commissioner Paul Hesser developed the city's first subdivision on 40 acres that he purchased from R. L. and F. D. Crigler. Th is first neighborhood was placed west of the old Covington and Lexington Turnpike (Dixie Highway). The development, along with the formal incorporation of the City of Lakeside Park on May 12, 1930, also championed by Hesser, was specifically arranged to prevent annexation by South Fort Mitchell. Today, Lakeside Park encompasses 530 acres (parts of which were annexed from Kenton Co.) and includes 16 subdivisions, three businesses, a U.S. post office, and four churches. The city has adopted a set of ordinances that promote the city's beauty and limit the number of businesses to three. The three businesses are a restaurant, an automobile windowtinting business, and a branch office of Cincinnati Bell. City ordinances forbid the businesses to expand outside their current boundaries and restrict their sales activity to entities within their categories: food ser vice, automobile ser vice, and communication. The community is rich with history. The turnpike that runs through town (the Covington and Lexington Turnpike) was a well-traveled route to the South that, during the Civil War, was guarded by earthwork forts. Barleycorn's Five Mile House, located at Dixie Highway and Hudson Ave., dates from the 1860s. Another historical site is the Dry Creek Baptist Church, a 19th-century brick building on Buttermilk Pk. now serving as a private home. Lakeside Park includes a formally registered historical area called the Dixie Highway National Historic District. In 2000 the city of Lakeside Park had a population of 2,869, made up mostly of middle- to upper-income residents. Police protection LAKESIDE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. In 1961 two churches, the Lakeside Presbyterian Church and the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church, were merged to create the present-day Lakeside Presbyterian Church in Lakeside Park. In 1854, 28 members of the First Presbyterian Church in downtown Covington decided to start a new church closer to their homes. They named their new congregation the Second Presbyterian Church, and at first ser vices were held in an old pottery building on Madison Ave., just south of Ninth St., which had also previously been used as a schoolhouse. In 1861 the congregation built their first church building on the north side of Ninth St. just east of Madison. After that structure was destroyed by fire in September 1880, the church's members authorized construction of a new church at 1035 Madison Ave. (today the parking lot of Allison & Rose Funeral Home); the new facility was completed in 1883. The following year, the congregation changed the church name to the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church. In spring 1886 the new edifice, too, was destroyed by fire, but a replacement was soon built on the same site. In 1916 a house at 1048 Scott St. was purchased to be used as the first parsonage. A new Sunday school section was added to the side of the church in 1922. By 1955 church membership had increased to 420, and that year the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church celebrated its centennial. About that time, growth had begun to slow in inner-city churches, causing church leaders to consider building new churches in the suburbs. It soon became apparent that fi nancing a new facility would be difficult, given the small size of the congregation. Therefore, in 1960 it was decided to approach the newly formed Lakeside Presbyterian Church about a merger. The Lakeside Presbyterian Church was organized in 1955, becoming the fi rst new Presbyterian church in Kenton Co. within the past 60 years. From its original 70 charter members, the church grew to 131 members by the end of the fi rst year and to 221 members by 1960. Their initial place of worship was the Dixie Four Star Theater Building in Fort Mitchell (see Movie Theaters). On August 4, 1955, the church purchased the stately old George Hill Estate, at 2690 Dixie Highway in Lakeside Park. The nine-room house, with a large detached garage, was located on three acres of land. A local artist, Caroline Williams, was asked to make a pencil drawing of the house for use in church promotions. Copies of the picture were made available to all church members. The congregation removed several interior walls of the house and made other alterations to make it more suitable for church ser vices. A special offering was taken, which was used to purchase chairs, hymnals, and a Baldwin Orgasonic Organ. In May 1956 the church called Leon Drake to be its fi rst pastor. Shortly after his arrival, he began a church newsletter, the Lakeside Life, which soon became a weekly publication. Monthly church suppers were also begun, encouraging fellowship among members. In 1958 the church held its fi rst Vacation Bible School, which was attended by 62 pupils, and purchased a house at 11 Alpine Dr. in Fort Mitchell, for a parsonage. By the end of the church's fi ft h year, membership had reached 240. Around that time, the Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church approached Lakeside about the merger. Early in 1961 both churches voted to approve the merger, which was formalized on February 16, 1961. The new church retained the name of Lakeside Presbyterian Church, and 455 members were present at the first combined ser vice. Not all members of the former Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church came to Lakeside. With the increased attendance, it became imperative that a new, larger sanctuary be built. A new church building, constructed on the Dixie Highway property, was dedicated on November 24, 1963. Inspired by having a new building, many members donated money, furnishings, and other items in memory of loved ones. The names of those donors were recorded in a Book of Remembrance kept at a place of honor in the church sanctuary. At the dedication of the new building, it was stated that the new church stands as a memorial to those who contributed so generously of their time and money. "Ground Broken for Lakeside Church," KP, March 25, 1963, 1K. Lakeside Presbyterian Church, 1955�1961. Brochure. Lakeside Park, Ky.: Lakeside Presbyterian Church, 1962. "Old Covington Landmark Falls," KP, March 23, 1963, 1. "Presbyterian Church Going Up," KP, March 25, 1963, 2K. Tenkotte, Paul A. A Heritage of Art and Faith: Downtown Covington Churches. Covington, Ky.: Kenton Co. Historical Society, 1986. LAMPRECHT, WILHELM (b. October 31, 1838, Altenschoenbach, near W�rzburg, Germany; d. 1922, Munich, Germany). The establishment of the Covington Altar Stock Building Company in 1862 attracted German-born artists who were skilled in decorating religious edifices, and one of these persons was Wilhelm Lamprecht. There was a great need in the United States for talented painters to add inspirational art to the new churches that had been erected by immigrants during the 19th century. Lamprecht studied at the Munich 532 LAMY, JOHN JEAN BAPTISTE Royal Academy of Art in Bavaria between 1859 and 1867. His first teacher was a history painter, who sparked Lamprecht's interest in large-scale historical tableaux. His second was the famous Munich painter Johann von Schraudolph, a specialist in religious art. Von Schraudolph founded a Society of Christian Art, and his pupil Wilhelm Lamprecht became a member and, for a time, president of the Cincinnati Society of Christian Art in Ohio, 20 years later. In 1867 Lamprecht left Germany for the United States, where during his lengthy career he worked on some 300 churches. That same year, he painted at St. Mary's Abbey Church in Newark, N.J., murals that depict 10 scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary, beginning with her birth and ending with the encounter with her son Jesus after he had risen from the grave. Flanking each scene are paintings of two saints, some of them identifiable as German, for instance St. Cunegund, St. Hermann, and St. Rupert. Lamprecht's murals were painted in oil on dry plaster and placed high in the clerestory. His large canvas painting of St. Benedict greets visitors at the main entrance of the New Jersey church. Some time after he painted in the Newark church, the artist joined the Covington Altar Building Stock Company. Lamprecht created many exquisite altarpieces and murals throughout North America for the company, which had been established by the Benedictine clergyman Archabbot Boniface Wimmer in 1862 and was managed by the Benedictine lay brother Cosmas Wolf. In 1868 Lamprecht traveled to Canada to decorate the church of St.-Romuald d'Etchemin in Quebec with large murals. Two other German painters accompanied him from Covington, Louis Lang and Wenceslaus Thien, to assist. In 2004 this Canadian church was classified as a historic monument by the culture minister of Quebec. In 1869 Lamprecht worked in Indiana and Pennsylvania. Indiana had attracted a large number of German Catholic settlers, especially in its southern counties. The St. Joseph Church in the hamlet of Millhousen in southeastern Indiana displays today two altarpieces by Lamprecht: Death of St. Joseph and Immaculate Conception. In Oldenburg, Ind., Lamprecht decorated the chapel of the Immaculate Conception for the Franciscan sisters. The murals are no longer in place, but a canvas by Lamprecht, which he donated to the prioress, still graces the entrance hall of the sisters' house. The year 1870 brought an important commission for Lamprecht in Vincennes, Ind., to paint three large murals in the Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier, named after the 16th-century Jesuit missionary. The church, built before 1816, was the first Catholic edifice in what became Indiana and was the seat of Bishop Simon Brute, a refugee of the French Revolution. The three Lamprecht paintings are Crucifixion, Madonna of the Chair, and St. Francis Xavier. Madonna of the Chair is based on the Italian Renaissance prototype Sacra Conversazione, which traditionally portrays the Madonna seated on a throne with the Christ child, receiving homage by a group of saints. For the group of saints in his painting, Lamprecht chose the patron saints of the early French bishops of Vincennes: St. Celestine, St. Maurice, St. Simon, and St. Stephen. Lamprecht returned to Northern Kentucky in 1871 to take part in the interior decoration of Covington's Mother of God Catholic Church, where he painted the four Evangelists in the pendentives of the dome. During that same year, he was called to the small town of Quincy in western Illinois on the banks of the Mississippi River. There, for St. Boniface Church, he painted several beautiful murals in the sanctuary: Christ Handing the Keys to St. Peter, Nativity, and images of St. Boniface, St. Lawrence, and St. Stephen. Of the small canvases he painted for the church baptistery, only Blessed Hermann and Joseph and the Fourteen Holy Helpers survive. In 1876 Lamprecht was in western Pennsylvania, where he painted an altarpiece at St. Mary's Church in a small German settlement called Marienstadt. His painting The Immaculate Conception was on display in Philadelphia during the national Centennial Celebration in 1876, where it was widely praised. Lamprecht's fame spread to Wisconsin, where German settlers had built a large number of churches and monasteries. In Milwaukee two Swiss priests had established the Capuchin Order in 1856. In 1877 Lamprecht decorated their church, dedicated to St. Francis, with a huge mural, The Triumph of Christianity. Harking back to his first career as a history painter in Munich, he designed a one-cent stamp for the Trans-Mississippi Exposition in Omaha, Neb., in 1898. It depicts the French explorer Father Jacques Marquette crossing the Mississippi River. Shortly before his return to Germany in 1901, Lamprecht created a 65-foot-wide painting, Immaculate Conception, located in the Immaculate Conception chapel at the Sisters of Charity Mount St. Joseph Motherhouse in Cincinnati. Lamprecht's painting, on a gold-leaf background behind the high altar, is among his most breathtaking works. About the same time, he painted as many as five pieces on the ceiling of old St. Joseph Church at Linn St. and Lincoln Park Dr. (today Ezzard Charles Dr.) in Cincinnati's west end. They represented the Assumption and the four cardinal virtues: prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance. Some of the paintings survived the transition to the new 1960s church building at the same location. After settling again in Munich, Lamprecht became a much-sought-after portrait painter and died there in 1922, at age 84. Buerkle, Boniface, O.S.B. Mary's Legacy, Saint Mary's Church. St. Mary's, Pa.: McKee Press, 1988. Humphreys, Henry. "Found in Doomed West End Church," CTS, December 12, 1956, 3. Kuhn, Charles. "Little Known Facts Told by Parish Member: Written and Oral Lore of Old Cathedral," 1933, Vincennes Old Cathedral Archives, Vincennes, Ind. McPadden, Malachy, O.S.B., ed. St. Mary's Church, Newark, NJ. Newark, N.J.: Newark Abbey Press, 2002. Metz, Jack. "Church Art Salvaged for New Structure," CTS, April 17, 1961, 5. "Wilhelm Lamprecht zum Fest seiner Goldenen Hochzeit, 20. Maerz, 1920," Allgemeine Abendzeitung, Munich, March 26, 1920. Annemarie Springer LAMY, JOHN (JEAN BAPTISTE) (b. October 11, 1814, Lempdes, Auvergne, France; d. February 13, 1888, Santa Fe, N.Mex.). The subject of Willa Cather's popular fictionalized American novel Death Comes for the Archbishop (1927), John Lamy was a Catholic priest of the Archdiocese of Cincinnati, having immigrated in 1839. He was pastor of St. Mary's Church in Covington (later named Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption) from 1848 until 1850. Lamy then became the first bishop (1853�1875), and then archbishop (1875�1885) of Santa Fe, N.Mex. He was buried in St. Francis of Assisi Cathedral in Santa Fe. Horgan, Paul. Lamy of Santa Fe. Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1975. Ryan, Paul E. History of the Diocese of Covington, Kentucky. Covington, Ky.: Diocese of Covington, 1954. Steele, Thomas J., ed. and trans. Archbishop Lamy: In His Own Words. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: LPD Press, 2000. Tenkotte, Paul A., David E. Schroeder, and Thomas S. Ward. To Be Catholic and American in Northern, Central, and Appalachian Kentucky: The Diocese of Covington, 1853�2003. Forthcoming. Paul A. Tenkotte LANDRUM, RALPH (b. August 16, 1957, Covington, Ky.). Professional golfer Ralph L. Landrum, who played on the PGA Tour 1983�1985, is the son of Jesse and Betty Landrum. He began playing at Summit Hills Golf and Country Club, won numerous junior titles while attending St. Henry District High School, and played college golf at the University of Kentucky in Lexington. Landrum, who currently resides in Burlington, qualified for the 1978 Masters Golf Tournament by reaching the semifinals of the 1977 USGA Amateur Tournament. He played in the Masters Golf Tournament in 1984 as a professional and also competed in six U.S. Open Golf Tournaments; he had seven top 10 finishes on tour. The highlight of his U.S. Open Golf Tournament play was an eighthplace finish in 1983 at Oakmont, Pa. A Class A PGA Member, Landrum operates Landrum Golf Management locally and is the head professional at Devou Park Golf Course in Covington. He has always been one of Northern Kentucky's staunchest supporters of junior golf. He and his wife Mary Pat have two children, Kyle and Joe, who also have excelled in amateur golf. Landrum, Ralph. Interview by Denny Van Houten, June 2005, Covington, Ky. Dennis W. Van Houten LANE, WILLIAM LEROY (b. November 27, 1897, New York City; d. December 14, 1968, Fort Worth, Tex.). William Lane, the son of James Robert Lane and Alberteena Martin, became the first African American priest to minister within the LARRY A. RYLE HIGH SCHOOL 533 Roman Catholic Diocese of Covington. Lane served at the Our Savior Catholic Church, located at 242 E. 10th St. in Covington. In 1917, when the United States entered World War I, Lane signed up to become a camp secretary with the Catholic Knights of Columbus organization. After basic training at Camp Zachary Taylor, near Louisville, Ky., he was stationed in France. He was a graduate of Fordham University in New York City and attended St. Mary Seminary in Cleveland, Ohio, and St. Vincent Seminary in Latrobe, Pa. He was ordained in 1933 by Bishop John Swint in Wheeling, W.Va. Before he came to Covington, Lane served in the Diocese of Port of Spain, Trinidad, British West Indies. Bishop Francis W. Howard spearheaded an effort to form an African American church and school as a mission of the Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption, and in 1943 the decision was made to do so. At one time, this new parish, named Our Savior Catholic Church, had both a grade and a high school; most of the students were from Covington and Newport. In 1945 the parish priest at Our Savior was Rev. Henry Haacke, assisted by the newly arrived Rev. William LeRoy Lane. At this time and throughout the 1940s, the parish school at Our Savior had 60 students enrolled in grades one through eight. Lane's primary mission was to work with the people of the surrounding neighborhoods and to attract converts to the church. He was of great help to the African American children, as he received clothing in the form of jackets for the boys at the school from the Eilerman Clothing Store (see Eilerman & Sons, Men's Clothiers). He sought the assistance of another African American priest from Cincinnati to teach diction in the school. However, Lane was very outspoken on the question of racial prejudices. His efforts had attracted many converts, but it was time for him to move on. Lane left Covington in late 1947. Afterward, Lane secured temporary assignments in various cities throughout Wisconsin and Minnesota. In 1951 he arrived in the Diocese of Dallas, Tex., after a two-year tour of duty as an assistant priest at the Holy Cross Church in Austin, Tex. Later, he was named assistant pastor of St. Charles Parish in Gainesville, Tex. In 1961 Lane was appointed assistant pastor of Holy Cross Parish in Dallas and became pastor there in 1964. At that time, he was one of only two African Americans among about 300 priests in the Diocese of Dallas. His appointment as pastor of the Holy Cross Parish made Lane the first African American priest to lead a congregation in the Dallas Diocese. Lane's ministry flourished in the racially mixed Holy Cross Parish, which in 1965 consisted of 400 families. He retired as pastor due to failing health in 1967 and served as the associate chaplain of St. Joseph Hospital in Fort Worth, Tex., until his death in 1968. He was buried at Calvary Hill Cemetery in Dallas. Foley, Albert S. God's Men of Color. New York: Arno Press, 1969. Harris, Ted. "School's Pioneer," KP, October 27, 2005, 6K. The Official Catholic Directory. New York: P. J. Kennedy, 1946�1949. Reis, Jim. "Our Savior Fills Unique Niche," KP, January 17, 1994, 4K. "Rev. William LeRoy Lane," Archives, Diocese of Dallas, Tex. Theodore H. H. Harris LANFERSIEK, WALTER B. (b. February 3, 1873, Cincinnati, Ohio; d. March 1, 1962, Cincinnati, Ohio). Walter B. Lanfersiek, who became a political activist, was the son of William Henry and Elizabeth (Ellerman) Lanfersiek. He graduated from Woodward High School in Cincinnati (1891) and received a Bachelor of Law degree from the University of Cincinnati (1895). Having become enamored with the socialism of Eugene V. Debs, Walter married a kindred spirit, Pearl A. Blanchard, in 1906 in a ceremony performed by noted Cincinnati socialist and future congressman Rev. Herbert Bigelow. After working at various jobs, including that of an actor, Lanfersiek was practicing law in Newport in 1910 and living at 502 Washington Ave (today the Mansion Hill Tavern). He and Pearl crusaded for more city parks, better health care for the poor, and the redistribution of wealth. Lanfersiek ran on the 1910 Socialist ticket for U.S. Congress in the Sixth District of Kentucky; in 1911 he was the unsuccessful Socialist candidate for governor of Kentucky, receiving 8,718 votes. In May 1913 he was elected national executive secretary of the Socialist Party of America and moved to Chicago to fulfi ll his duties. He held that position until 1916. Over time, Lanfersiek had become a confidant of Debs and a participant in his presidential campaigns. During World War I, Lanfersiek became involved in the Socialist Peace movement. In 1917 he changed his name to Walter B. Landell, one of his former stage names, following the practice of assuming an alias that was common with many of his left-leaning contemporaries. He went on to work for the American Red Cross and as a proofreader in several southwestern Ohio cities. He came to believe that communist Russia was the utopia for the future. Lanfersiek died at a nursing home in the Avondale area of Cincinnati, unrecognized locally for what he once had been nationally. He was buried at Evergreen Cemetery, Southgate. Haines, Randall A. "Walter Lanfersiek: Socialist from Cincinnati," BCHS 40, no. 2 (Summer 1982): 124�44. Papers of Eugene V. Debs, Indiana State Univ. Library, Terre Haute, Ind. "Socialist and Wife Running for Office Teach Creed to Baby," KP, November 4, 1910, 3. eral times over the nearly 40 years at the Madison Ave. location. In the 1930s additional space was acquired and decorated to express a Spanish theme, and the business became Lang's Spanish Tavern. The flood of 1937 found part of the restaurant under water. Subsequent renovations included a plaque to mark the spot where the floodwaters had reached. At this time there was a cafeteria downstairs; upstairs was a restaurant and sandwich shop. The walls were of decorative stucco and wood paneling, with iron lighting fi xtures in a Spanish motif. The cafeteria seated about 90 patrons and was open from 6:00 a.m. until 8:00 p.m. The upstairs stayed open until 1:00 a.m. and was a popular spot for a late-night sandwich and drinks. Beer was the only alcoholic beverage served. On July 4, 1944, a kitchen fire caused the closing of the upstairs. Fortunately, the cafeteria suffered only smoke damage and was able to continue serving customers. The upstairs was not reopened until four years later, because of the lack of adequate insurance and also the scarcity of building materials after World War II. The decor upstairs had changed again, by this time, to a more modern theme with indirect lighting and large original oil paintings of Kentucky by George Siegal. Gone were the sandwich and bar areas, and the space was dedicated to table ser vice catering to businessmen and families. The menu also changed from time to time. Frank Lang personally planned all the menus, bought the food, and supervised the cooking. Each morning he drove his large station wagon to "the bottoms" of Cincinnati, where he purchased fresh produce from the warehouses located along the riverfront. Lang was very proud of the quality of his food. The orange juice was fresh squeezed, and pure butter and cream graced the tables. The desserts and rolls were baked fresh daily. By 1967, when the Lang family sold the restaurant to R. B. Cameron and William A. Taylor, it had become Covington's longestoperating restaurant. Two years later, in 1969, the restaurant closed. Colegrove, Albert M. "A Story of Auld Lang Syne," KP, November 20, 1969. "Lang Restaurant Changing Hands," KP, September 4, 1967. Judy Lang Klosterman LARRY A. RYLE HIGH SCHOOL. The Larry A. Ryle High School, a public secondary school in Boone Co., is located in the southern part of the county along U.S. 42, in Union. The namesake of the school, Larry A. Ryle, was a superintendent, a school administrator, a teacher, and a bus driver in Boone Co. When it opened in 1992, Ryle High School housed approximately 1,000 students in grades 7 through 12 on what had served as tobacco farmland for several decades. The campus of several hundred acres is also now home to both the Gray Middle School, opened in 1995, and the Mann Elementary School, opened in 2006. Today, Ryle High School is a comprehensive school with about 1,700 students in grades 9 through 12. The school's goal is to provide the skills for students to excel and to contribute to the leadership, Michael R. Sweeney LANG'S CAFETERIA. Frank T. Lang (1892� 1971), the owner of this Covington restaurant, was the American-born son of German immigrants Theodore and Clara Rauchfuss Lang, who settled in Louisville. As a young adult, Frank traveled to Newport to join his brother Hugo in the baking business. Later he struck out on his own, opening a sandwich shop in 1928 at 623 Madison Ave. in Covington, named simply Lang's. Lang's sandwich shop/Lang's Cafeteria changed and expanded sev- 534 LA SALETTE ACADEMY technology, citizenship, and character of the Ryle High School community. The organization of the school is traditional in purpose and design. Teachers work in content area teams, each of which has a common planning and work room, and the classrooms for each content area are located near each other. A variety of professional activities for teachers are offered. The academic program at Ryle High School includes Advanced Placement courses, recognized by most colleges and universities for credit, in American history, art, biology, calculus, chemistry, computer science, English language, English literature, European history, German language, physics, psychology, and Spanish language. Honors courses in the core academic areas challenge students and prepare them for Advanced Placement courses or other college-level courses. The Career and Technical Education Team offers courses in business, technology, family and consumer science, and agriculture. The Fine Arts Team offers courses in foreign languages (Chinese, French, German, and Spanish), art, choral music, concert band, and marching band. Ryle High School has distinguished itself for academic success since its founding. Newsweek named the school to its listing of the 1,000 best schools in the United States in 2001 and 2006. The school also has met its state-mandated achievement goals in every two-year grading period since 1992. Ryle High School has also been a leader in the awarding of the Commonwealth Diploma for achievement in Advanced Placement classes. The extracurricular and cocurricular programs at Ryle High School have also been popular and successful. The Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) have won many regional, state, and national honors: the group has been the largest chapter in the state, and among its members have been a Mr. FBLA, a Miss FBLA, and a national champion. The music program has earned honors and distinguished ratings in both concert band and marching band, and the marching band has reached the state final competition on several occasions. The athletics offered include baseball, basketball, cross-country, fast-pitch softball, football, golf, soccer, track and field, volleyball, and wrestling. Students have been crowned as individual state champions in swimming, track and field, and wrestling. The fast-pitch softball team earned the school's first team state championship in June 2006. Randall K. Cooper, the founding principal, served Larry A. Ryle High School for 14 years and helped to establish a tradition of excellence. Cooper died in May 2006, and Matthew L. Turner was named as the second principal; he continues in the position. "Boone to Name School for Larry Ryle," KP, September 14, 1990, 5K. "Cooper Chosen as Principal of Boone's New High School," KP, March 31, 1992, 6K. Larry A. Ryle High School. www.ryle.boone.k12.ky.us. Larry A. Ryle High School Records, Larry A. Ryle High School, Union, Ky. LA SALETTE ACADEMY. When the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Ky., arrived in the city of Covington in 1865, they found a handful of parochial schools operating that were staffed primarily by lay teachers. Bishop George Aloysius Carrell, the first bishop of Covington, had invited the sisters to the city to staff the elementary school of the Cathedral parish (see Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption) and to establish a private academy for the young Catholic men and women of the area. The Sisters of Charity found a building for their new academy at the southeast corner of Seventh and Greenup Sts. in Covington. The six rooms and basement of that structure served as both classrooms and convent. Although the building was not large, it was located near the Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption on Eighth St. and near Covington's growing Irish immigrant community. The new school was christened La Salette Academy. La Salette Academy grew slowly but steadily over the next two decades. The school accepted both male and female pupils. Tuition was charged, but many were unable to pay the full amount. Initially, the academy enrolled only elementary aged students. A formal high school program, for girls only, was created, and the academy's first high school diploma was presented in 1884. The small size of the original building that housed the academy hampered the development of the school. In 1886 the construction of a new twostory brick academy was begun on the original site, and the building was completed in the following year. The new academy housed both elementary and secondary programs and provided living quarters for the teaching sisters. In 1903 a third floor was added to the building for exclusive use as a convent for the sisters. La Salette Academy earned Kentucky state accreditation in 1923, and in 1930 the academy was granted membership in the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. The sisters began planning for the construction of a new high school building in the 1920s. These plans, however, had to be put aside owing to the Great Depression. Land was acquired directly south of the academy's building along Greenup St. for this purpose, and a new two-story Georgianstyle brick school with a full basement was eventually constructed. Msgr. Walter A. Freiberg dedicated the new high school building on December 27, 1939. La Salette Academy continued to flourish during the 1940s and 1950s. With the overturning of Kentucky's Day Law, the school enrolled its first African American student in 1955. From that point on, the academy's minority enrollment continued to grow. A majority of the pupils, however, were drawn from the nearby Catholic elementary schools staffed by the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth. These schools included ones operated by the Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption and St. Patrick Catholic Church in Covington, St. James Catholic Church in Ludlow, Immaculate Conception Catholic Church in Newport, St. Anthony Catholic Church in Bellevue, and St. Catherine of Sienna Catholic Church in Fort Thomas. All of these schools, with the exception of the St. Catherine school, were located in the older city parishes in Northern Kentucky, the areas most affected by the post�World War II migration to the suburbs. This demographic change had a major impact on La Salette Academy. In 1966 the elementary school program at La Salette was discontinued. The academy's enrollment reached its peak in 1968 at 340. Beginning in that year, a steady decline took place, and by the mid1970s, the operation of the academy was no longer financially sound. Finally, La Salette Academy conferred its last diplomas in 1977. A private developer eventually acquired the former academy's buildings and transformed them into La Salette Gardens, a residential facility for senior citizens. Crone, Mary Collette, S.C.N. "La Salette Academy," Archives of the Diocese of Covington, Covington, Ky. "La Salette Academy to Celebrate Its Seventy-Fift h Anniversary," KTS, May 22, 1931, 2. Ryan, Paul E. History of the Diocese of Covington, Kentucky. Covington, Ky.: Diocese of Covington, 1954. David E. Schroeder LASSING, JOHN M. (b. 1864, Elm Tree, Boone Co., Ky.; d. October 25, 1936, St. Petersburg, Fla.). John Maurice Lassing, a politician, a lawyer, and a judge, was born in Boone Co., a son of Dr. H. C. and Anna E. Lassing. His early education was in area public schools before he entered Central University (now Eastern Kentucky University) at Richmond, where he graduated in 1886. For the next two years, he taught school and in his spare time apprenticed law under Burlington attorney Fountain Riddell. Lassing entered the Cincinnati Law School in 1889 and graduated two years later. He then set up his legal practice in Burlington. Shortly after locating there, he married Mary Lillard Brady, youngest daughter of Robert A. and Susan Brady, and the couple had three sons. For many years, John Lassing was active in state Democratic politics, successfully running the campaigns of Governor James B. McCreary (1875�1879 and 1911�1915) and state senator Thomas S. Paynter. Lassing was elected Boone Co. attorney in 1891, a position he held until 1898, when he was appointed a circuit court judge. He held that post until 1906, when he was appointed an appellate court judge. Lassing bought a home on Nelson Pl. in Newport and moved there in 1908. Because of ill health, Judge Lassing retired from the bench in 1913. He was named president of the Latonia Bank in 1914. Continuing health problems prompted him to begin wintering in Florida. Lassing died in Florida and was buried in the Richwood Presbyterian Church Cemetery in Boone Co. Boone County Recorder, historical ed., September 4, 1930. "Lassing's Life Ambition Is Granted," KP, June 23, 1906, 2. "Latonia Bank Reopened," KP, June 1, 1914, 3. Reis, Jim. "Judge Also Headed Boone Baseball League," KP, May 6, 2002, 4K. "Resigns from Bench--John M. Lassing," KP, September 15, 1913, 2. U.S. Gen Web Boone County, Ky. Biographies. www .rootsweb.com. Matthew Turner LATINOS/HISPANICS 535 LATINOS/HISPANICS. Many Latinos/Hispanics, the latest in a long history of immigrants to the region, have recently made Northern Kentucky their home. The term Latinos, like Hispanics, generally refers to persons of Latin American origin or Spanish descent living in the United States. It is an ethnic, not a racial, category, since Latinos/ Hispanics may be of any race or any mixture of races. The U.S. government adopted the category Hispanic for the 1970 census. In current usage, the term Hispanic is more common on the East Coast, while Latino is more prevalent on the West Coast. Neither term sufficiently describes the rich variety of races and cultures represented by Latin Americans. However, because Latin America and the Caribbean were colonized by the British, the French, and the Dutch, in addition to the Spanish, some scholars prefer the term Latinos. It seems more inclusive than Hispanics, which implies Spanish linguistic or cultural roots. Pioneer Kentuckians had a vast, long-standing interest in the politics of the North American colonial empire of Spain. By terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the Revolutionary War, Spain regained Florida from Britain (which it had lost at the Treaty of Paris of 1763, ending the French and Indian War) and continued to possess New Orleans, as well as the territory of Louisiana west of the Mississippi. Until Spain ceded the expansive Louisiana possessions to France in a secret treaty in 1800, it essentially controlled navigation of the Mississippi River. In 1784 Spain closed the Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans to American citizens, upsetting Kentuckians interested in trade and commerce. In addition, Spain contended that its boundary with the United States lay just south of the Ohio River, while the United States maintained that the border was the 31st parallel. Claiming sovereignty over the Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek Indians, Spanish authorities promised them an Indian buffer state and armed them, hoping to push settlers in Tennessee and Kentucky east of the Appalachian Mountains. The tense situation was later resolved by the Treaty of San Lorenzo (Pinckney's Treaty) of 1795, whereby both nations recognized the 31st parallel as the boundary between the United States and Spanish Florida and both promised not to incite the American Indians; also, Spain gave the United States a threeyear grant of navigation of the Mississippi River and of deposit of goods at the port of New Orleans. In 1803 President Jefferson's administration arranged the Louisiana Purchase. As a result of the AdamsOn�s Treaty (1819�1821) between the United States and Spain, the United States gained control over all of Florida. That agreement also fixed the southern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase at the Arkansas, Red, and Sabine rivers, and then westward along the 42nd parallel; this provision essentially waived any claims on the part of the United States to Texas. In 1821 Mexico declared its independence from Spain. Spain, however, attempted to reconquer Mexico in 1829 and did not formally recognize Mexico until 1836. Also in 1836, Texas declared its independence from Mexico. In 1845 the U.S. Congress admitted Texas as a state, leading to the Mexican-American War of 1846�1848; soldiers from Kentucky and the Newport Barracks played a major part in this war (see Mexican War). By the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), Mexico ceded more than half of its territory to the United States for $15 million. The loss of these possessions to the United States left a deep and lasting wound in the minds and hearts of many Mexicans. Continuing U.S. intervention in Latin America throughout the 19th and 20th centuries contributed further to lessthan-ideal relations. That Northern Kentuckians maintained an interest in Latin American political affairs is illustrated by newspaper articles of the period and also by the popularity of an 1898 Cuban village exhibit, featuring a real Cuban refugee family, at the Lagoon Amusement Park in Ludlow (see also National Guard, Spanish-American War). Throughout most of the 19th and 20th centuries, Northern Kentucky did not attract a large number of Latino immigrants. Rather, German Americans, Irish Americans, African Americans, Italian Americans, and Appalachians were the major groups to migrate to the region. The number of Hispanics remained negligible until the late 20th century. The musician Joseph Tosso (1802�1887), born in Mexico, lived in Kenton Co. as early as 1860, but in the same year, the U.S. Census reported only three other people of Spanish or Latin American birth in Kenton Co. In the 1980s and after, more Latino immigrants arrived in Northern Kentucky. Some obtained work in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco in the region, while others gravitated to ser vice, industrial, skilled trade, and professional positions. The growth of the Latino population in the area generally followed national trends. For instance, in June 2005, the U.S. Census Bureau released a news bulletin stating that the Hispanic population of the United States had passed the 40 million mark. Currently, Hispanics constitute the nation's largest minority. Likewise, in Northern Kentucky, Hispanics are becoming an increasingly important component of the population. The official census figures listed below are merely an indication of the growth in the Latino community; the actual population of Hispanics in the region is much larger than these numbers, owing to a significant undocumented and uncounted population. In May 2006 the large numbers of undocumented workers in Northern Kentucky made regional and national news. Agents of U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), part of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, after a two-year investigation, arrested 76 illegal aliens, largely from Mexico or Guatemala, who were employed for a subcontractor of Fischer Homes of Crestview Hills. Also arrested were four supervisors for Fischer Homes. Michael Chertoff, Homeland Security secretary, stated in an official ICE news release about the Fischer Homes case, "We will continue to bring criminal actions against employers who are consistently harboring illegal aliens." Throughout the following weeks and months, other arrests in the investigation were made, until nearly 100 had been charged. The in- HISPANIC POPULATION IN NORTHERN KENTUCKY County Boone Bracken Campbell Carroll Gallatin Grant Kenton Mason Owen Pendleton Robertson Total 1990 318 12 319 22 8 36 704 76 14 29 4 1,542 2000 1,702 39 765 330 82 232 1,669 160 105 97 21 5,202 2005 (est.) 2,622 45 941 408 187 308 2,151 188 123 125 23 7,121 vestigation of Fischer Homes appeared in national news media, including the New York Times and Fortune magazine. Numerous institutions and programs have been established to serve the needs of Northern Kentucky's growing Latino population, as well as to educate other ethnic groups about Latinos. These include the Centro de Amistad (2001); the Cristo Rey Parish (2004); HealthPoint Family Care's Promotores (Health Promoters Program, 2003); the Hispanic Resource Center (2001); the Latino and Multicultural Center for Regional Development (2005) at Northern Kentucky University (NKU); NKU's Latino Student Affairs office (2001); the Latino Police Academy (2003) of the City of Florence; and Thomas More College's many Latin American programs. The college offers a Latin American and Caribbean Studies concentration in its International Studies BA degree program, the Mexico/U.S. Border Studies Program (2000), and the Jamaica Ser vice Learning Program (2001). Thomas More College also keeps in touch with a sister university, Universidad del Sagrado Coraz�n in San Juan, Puerto Rico. In addition to the Catholic parish of Cristo Rey, Spanish-language religious ser vices are held at Iglesia Cristiana Renacer, Russell St., Covington; the Immanuel United Methodist Church, at its old First Methodist Church campus in Covington (see First United Methodist Church); the St. John Catholic Church in Carrollton; the St. Patrick Catholic Church, Maysville; and Unidos en Cristo, at the Madison Ave. Baptist Church, Covington. Northern Kentucky's libraries offer many Spanish materials and programs, WCVG in Covington provides Spanish-language radio, and there are television and cable television Spanish-language programs. Latino grocery stores, restaurants, and businesses also abound in Northern Kentucky. Birger, Jon, and Jenny Mero. "Shaking the Foundation." Fortune, June 12, 2006, 30. Collins, Michael. "Fischer Homes Feels Sting of `Get Tough' Approach," KP, June 10, 2006, 1A. 536 LATONIA Glover, Robert Alan. "Celebrate Unity: Methodist Church Launches Hispanic Outreach Ministry," KP, August 28, 2003, 5K. Kentucky State Data Center. http://ksdc.louisville.edu (accessed June 19, 2007). Kreimer, Peggy. "Bienvenidos a Estados Unidos," KP, January 10, 2004, 1K. Long, Paul. "Sentencing Is Delayed in Illegals Case," KP, January 4, 2007, 1A. Long, Paul, and Shelly Whitehead. "Immigrant Raid Hits Homebuilding," KP, May 10, 2006, 1A. Mitchell, Pama. "Living La Vida NKY: Latinos Finding Community Here," Sunday Challenger, August 22, 2004, 1B. Newberry, Jon. "Illegal Workers an Open Secret," KP, May 13, 2006, 1A. Schroeder, Cindy. "Clinicians Fill Need for Hispanics," KE, July 26, 2003, B1. Troutman, Elizabeth. "Morales on a Mission to Help Hispanics," KP, July 14, 2005, 4K. U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement. "Fischer Homes Supervisors Charged with Harboring Illegal Aliens in Worksite Enforcement Investigation." www.ice.gov/pi/news/newsreleases/articles/ 060509washington.htm (accessed June 19, 2007). Whitehead, Shelly. "Latino Police Effort Wins Annual Award," KP, June 12, 2004, 5K. Paul A. Tenkotte LATONIA. Latonia in Kenton Co., originally known as Milldale, developed at the intersection of two toll roads, Decoursey Pk. (the Three-L Highway) and Taylor's Mill Pk. Decoursey Pk. originally led to a ferry that operated across the Licking River, and Taylor's Mill Pk. led to an early gristmill located on the Banklick Creek. The name Milldale probably was a reference either to James Taylor's early mill or to George Mills, a local entrepreneur who owned a large amount of land and operated an early distillery in the area. Although the community was incorporated in 1894 as South Covington, this name was never used. The name Latonia was borrowed from the famous Latonia Racecourse (1883�1939) located in the southern end of the community, now the site of a large shopping center. The name of the racetrack, in turn, originated from a popular 19th-century health springs site located to the south of the city on Madison Pk. (Ky. Rt. 17) at the intersection of Highland Pk. The historic crossroads of Latonia's business district (known as Ritte's Corner) included banks, groceries, saloons, apartments, drugstores, and hardware stores, which developed along with the racetrack. Walter Ritte ran one of the earliest saloons and groceries, dating from 1890, and lived nearby at the northeast corner of Southern and Church Sts. Ritte's Corner, the five-street crossroads of Decoursey Pk. and Taylor Mill Rds., took its name from Ritte's long-lasting establishment. Johnny's Toys (see Toys), perhaps the town's most enduring business, was begun as a small confectionery near Ritte's Corner. In the early and middle 20th century, Nick and Margie Casullo operated Nick's Place, probably Latonia's most popular restaurant of that period. The business continues as Nick's Grove in nearby Independence. Latonia Bakery, now named Bernhard's Bakery, has been a Latonia commercial landmark for more than 80 years. In the early 1900s, Ritte's Corner boasted a fountain erected in the middle of the crossroads, used primarily to water horses. After the advent of the automobile, the fountain began to be a traffic hazard and was removed after occasionally being struck by motorized vehicles. Fift y years later, the Latonia neighborhood association and the city's VFW raised $60,000 to build a new fountain. A small park was constructed at Ritte's Corner in 2002 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the conclusion of the Korean War. Today, water flows from a fountain facing north at Ritte's Corner. Flowers, benches, and a decorative wrought-iron fence surround the fountain. Railroad tracks, built in the 1850s, crisscrossed the center of Latonia; the Kentucky Central (north-south) and the Louisville and Nashville (east-west) were the main railroads involved. These railway lines are now owned by CSX. The rail yard just south of Latonia at DeCoursey Station, the northernmost point of the Louisville and Nashville main line until the 1930s, was the terminus of coal shipped from southeastern Kentucky. Freight cars were sorted here. The local area's early economy was based on railroad development, and many residents of Latonia worked for the railroads. The DeCoursey Yards were phased out during the early 1980s. Even though little remains of the railroad industry in Latonia, one can still experience the era by visiting the Railway Museum of Greater Cincinnati on the western side of Latonia and seeing vintage railroad equipment. In 1883 Milldale's population was a sparse 700 persons, but with the opening of the racetrack, the community grew rapidly. Local businesses profited exceptionally from the Latonia Racecourse; particularly brisk was the boardinghouse activity in town during the spring and fall meets. Many residents added to their incomes by renting spare rooms to visiting gamblers or people working at the track. By the turn of the 20th century, the growing community, which began being called Latonia soon after the racetrack opened there in 1883, reached the status of a third-class city, and streetcar ser vice connected Latonia to downtown Covington and Cincinnati. Soon afterward, however, Latonia incurred a large public debt in attempting to install sidewalks and other infrastructure in the city. After lengthy negotiations, Latonia was annexed to the City of Covington in 1909. Covington agreed to assume Latonia's debt, and Latonia became the most politically influential portion of the City of Covington, continuing so for many years. Latonia also accounted for 25 percent of the total population of Covington. Among Latonia's many churches, some of the largest are the Calvary Baptist Church; the Holy Cross Catholic Church, with its wellestablished elementary school and Holy Cross High School; the Latonia Baptist Church; the Latonia Christian Church; the Runyan Memorial Christian Church; and the Trinity United Methodist Church. Boeckley Drugs, Conley Brothers, and Swindler & Currin Funeral Homes are examples of long-standing commercial enterprises in Latonia of which several generations of the same families have been owners. Many families in Latonia choose to remain in the community and pass on the homes they have lived in to their children. "Change the Name--Milldale to Be Known as Latonia," KP, September 13, 1899, 1. Claypool, James C. The Tradition Continues: The Story of Old Latonia, Latonia, and Turfway Racecourses. Fort Mitchell, Ky.: T. I. Hayes, 1997. "Latonia Is Now a Part of Covington," KP, November 4, 1908, 1. "Latonia Will Soon Erect Its Fountain," KP, August 11, 1914, 1. Karl Lietzenmayer LATONIA BAPTIST CHURCH. The Latonia Baptist Church dates back to 1892, when, under supervision of the Immanuel Baptist Church in Covington, Rev. J. A. Lee began leading the Latonia Mission. Lee's small group first met in the home of O. M. Johnson at the corner of 31st and Rogers Sts. in Milldale (which was annexed to Latonia in 1906). Later, they congregated in other homes, in a hall above Scroggins' Drug Store (later Keller's Hardware Store) on Main St., and in the "old" Methodist Church building. In 1896 a lot was purchased at Main (now Decoursey) and Golden Sts. (or Golding, now 38th St.) in Milldale; a new church building was completed and occupied that same year. On May 14, 1900, an agreement was reached whereby the Latonia Mission congregation would pay $750 and assume the Immanuel Baptist Church's $800 mortgage on the property. A reorganization meeting was held on Sunday, May 20, and on May 27 Rev. C. A. Earl became the reorganized church's pastor. In the fall of 1900, the North Bend Baptist Association granted membership to the congregation as the First Baptist Church of Latonia. The new church in Latonia listed its membership at 39. Although Earl was pastor in 1900 when the church was admitted into the North Bend Baptist Association, W. R. Hutton, a lay preacher and the clerk of Immanuel Baptist Church from 1893 to 1895, led the congregation during 1898�1899 and is regarded as the first pastor of the Latonia Baptist Church. The present sanctuary, located in Latonia at 38th and Church Sts., was completed in February 1917. A new education building was finished in 1941, and membership grew from 992 to 2,101 between 1941 and 1949. On August 1, 1943, the church began radio broadcasts over the 250-watt WCPO in Cincinnati; on Sunday, August 5, 1945, it aired its first weekly program of The Glorious Gospel Hour to 32 states and several foreign countries over Cincinnati's 50,000-watt radio station WCKY. In 1954 a new education building was constructed and existing facilities were remodeled to accommodate 1,250 in Sunday school. On September 4, 1959, a kindergarten was opened, and later a preschool program was added; both served to bring generations of children into the church. August 25, 1983, marked the birth of the SUN (Someone Understanding Needs) Group, which provided spiritual development to shut-in individuals, to the Baptist Convalescent Center in LATONIA RACECOURSE 537 Newport, and to Rosedale Manor in Covington. The LBC Television Ministry was launched in February 1984, when the Sunday morning worship ser vice began being taped for broadcasting on the public access channel. Two additional programs were offered as well. This ministry continues to thrive, having received a number of awards. The church serves as a meeting place for Alcoholics Anonymous, Al-Anon for spouses, and AlA-Teen for children of alcoholics. Participants have become active members of the church. At least since 1934, the Boy Scouts of America have met in the church. The Cub Scouts and the Girl Scouts began meeting there in 1970 and 1997, respectively. In 1998 a minister of family life was appointed, to provide counseling to individuals or groups. In the first two years, about 250 persons, about half of them church members, participated. Women became eligible to serve as deacons when the church bylaws and constitution were revised in 1989. In 1994 the first woman was ordained, and several other women have since become deacons. In 1996 the church purchased the vacant Johnny's Toy Shop property in Latonia in order to provide expanded parking space. In March 1998 a $2.2 million stewardship campaign was initiated with a major church renovation as its objective. On August 17, 2000, Latonia Baptist Church celebrated its 100th anniversary. Latonia Baptist Church's mission efforts have led to the establishment of other churches locally, including the DeCoursey Baptist Church, the Rosedale Baptist Church, and the Ashland Baptist Church. In 1920, as a result of internal friction at Latonia Baptist Church, a member group established a separate fellowship that five years later was admitted by the North Bend Baptist Association as Calvary Baptist Church in Covington Throughout the Latonia Baptist Church's history, it has provided activities such as festivals, picnics, music, parties, and sports for persons of all age groups. Gibson, Smith H., M. F. Stephens, Frank Hacker, Pauline Hacker, and Emma Batson. The Spirit of Antioch: A History of Latonia Baptist Church. Covington, Ky., Latonia Baptist Church, 1969. "Latonia Baptist Celebrates 75th," KP, August 16, 1975, 12K. Garry A. Casson LATONIA CHRISTIAN CHURCH. This church owes its existence to a three-week revival series, held by Rev. George A. Miller, at the First Christian Church of Covington in early 1898. Miller and 25 charter members met on February 27, 1898, to form the Latonia Christian Church. Their early meetings were held in Bird's Hall at Ritte's Corner in Milldale, which was annexed to Latonia in 1906. Initially, Miller and Rev. P. H. Duncan, pastor of the Ludlow Christian Church, served as dual pastors, preaching on alternate Sundays. A church member, Elizabeth Whipps, donated a 50-by-50-foot lot in Latonia on Franklin St. (now 36th St.) for a future church building. A subscription drive was held in February 1900, during which sufficient funds were raised to erect a small building. Construction was begun in March 1900, and the church was completed and dedicated on October 7, 1900. The congregation hired as its first fulltime pastor Rev. Harlan C. Runyan, who was a graduate of Transylvania College in Lexington. He often told of the first ser vice he held at the church in February 1902, when only 23 members attended and he was paid the entire offering collected, 30 cents. In those early years, the church received financial assistance from the Kentucky Christian Missionary Society. Under Runyan's able leadership, membership doubled by 1907, and an addition was made to the church to accommodate the increased attendance. In January 1911 the church declared its financial independence from the Christian Missionary Society. Owing to the rapid growth of the congregation, a new lot was purchased in Latonia at the corner of 39th and Decoursey Ave. for $5,500 in June 1921, and Cincinnati architect David Davis was commissioned to draw plans for a new building. It was erected at a cost of $98,000 and was dedicated on April 8, 1923. At the dedication ser vice, 714 worshippers were in attendance. The church continued its phenomenal growth throughout the tenure of Runyan. Crowds in excess of 1,000 were common at ser vices during the latter years of his ministry. To show their appreciation, his friends and fellow church members sent him and his wife on a tour of the Holy Land in 1926. Church membership had reached about 1,600 by the time Runyan died unexpectedly of heart failure on December 13, 1935. The grieving congregation hired as their next pastor Rev. Charles D. Carter, who stayed for almost three years. At that time, a serious split occurred in the congregation, with Carter and about 250 members leaving to start a new church in Latonia, which they called the Latonia Church of Christ. The Latonia Christian Church attendance had dropped to about 350 by the time the congregation hired their next pastor, Rev. Thomas D. Alderson, who stayed for only about a year. On December 3, 1939, the church voted to call as their next pastor Rev. Joseph D. Hill, who served the congregation faithfully for the next 33 years. During his tenure a parsonage was purchased, a new educational wing was built, a church bus began operating, and all debt was retired. When Hill resigned in 1973, he was followed by Rev. Hondel Adams, who stayed for about three years. On April 19, 1977, Rev. Mike Sweeney was hired as pastor, and he has now served the congregation for more than 30 years. The Latonia Christian Church celebrated its 100th anniversary at special ser vices held in April 1998. Latonia Christian Church, 1898�1948. Anniversary booklet. Latonia, Ky.: Latonia Christian Church, 1948. "New Latonia Church Formed," KP, June 6, 1938, 1. "New Latonia Church Voted by Dissenters," KP, May 23, 1938, 1. The cities of Covington, Independence, and Ryland Heights, as well as small pockets of unincorporated Kenton Co., surrounded the tiny community. When the development opened in 1931, more than 900 cottage sites were quickly sold at $77 each. Within a few months, 40 cottages were completed and dozens more were under construction. Many of the homes were built overlooking the four lakes on the property. Residents suddenly enjoyed such attractions as fishing, boating, and swimming. The original clubhouse was renovated in 2004, and several tennis courts were added the following year. At the colony's peak, nearly 300 cottages were situated across the well-maintained property. The construction of new homes diminished during World War II as the entire development began a slow, steady decline. Many people who had purchased lots left them vacant. The property that was to become a later phase in the development has remained vacant as well. Today, only 124 homes remain. The tennis courts are gone, and there is no boating or swimming in the one remaining lake. Several attempts to annex this former resort, by both Covington and Independence, had been rejected. However, suffering from too few tax dollars to cover necessary repairs to the roads and infrastructure, residents of the city voted 32-29 in November 2006 to dissolve the city. It came to an official end in December of the same year and is now part of unincorporated Kenton Co. Hassert, Dan. "Last Rites for Latonia Lakes Near," KP, January 10, 2007, 1A. Latonia Lakes advertisement. KP, May 27, 1932, 4. "Latonia Lakes Clubhouse," KP, May 29, 1932, 2. "900 Cottage Sites Established at Latonia Lakes," KP, June 14, 1931, 9. Robert D. Webster LATONIA LAKES. The small community of Latonia Lakes, incorporated in 1953, was originally developed as a summer resort and weekend getaway destination. It was located on the east side of Taylor Mill Rd., about five miles south of I-275. LATONIA RACECOURSE. The original Latonia Racecourse (1883�1939), located adjacent to 38th St. and Winston Ave. in what was once Latonia (now Covington), was for several decades one of the leading thoroughbred horse racing facilities in North America. Founded in 1882 by the Latonia Agricultural and Stock Association, Latonia Racecourse's first day of competition, June 9, 1883, drew an estimated 10,000 patrons and featured the Hindoo Stakes, a race that by 1888 was renamed the Latonia Derby. The Latonia racetrack immediately became part of Kentucky's famed "3-L" (Latonia, Lexington, and Louisville) race circuit, and racing there was equal in quality to that at the older facilities, the Association Track in Lexington (1828) and Churchill Downs in Louisville (1875). Black jockeys were prevalent at southern and midwestern racecourses in the post�Civil War era, and the Latonia track was no exception. Isaac Murphy (1861�1896), acclaimed as the greatest black jockey, and several of his peers dominated Latonia's race stakes, winning with such regularity that they were preferred as riders over their white contemporaries. From the outset, the list of owners, trainers, and horses appearing at Latonia's racing facility was impressive. Top national racing stables were represented, such as the Chicago Stable of 538 LATONIA SPRINGS days" at the old Latonia Racecourse. The size of Latonia's race purses dropped, the top jockeys, trainers, and owners departed, and the quality of the horses competing declined dramatically. The 1930s, especially the later part of the decade, were desperate times at the track. An assortment of gimmicks, such as lottery-type betting pools and lower admissions, were introduced in the attempt to survive. When these did not work, post times were set later in the afternoon, to attract fans who had completed their day's work. At best, the Latonia Racecourse was in a holding pattern with no relief in sight. The once-proud track's grounds were being used for political rallies, picnics, auto races, air shows, and even steeplechase racing. Ironically, the Latonia track's fame in racing history for having introduced "the 2 dollar bet" in 1911, for paying a record $1,885.50 win mutual in 1912, and for being where local jockey legend Eddie Arcaro got his start in 1931 was already assured, but the track's survival was not. Ultimately, Matt Winn and his partners, straining to sustain both Churchill Downs and the Latonia Racecourse during hard times, were forced to act. On July 29, 1939, the track in Latonia concluded its last meet. A few days later, the property was sold to the Standard Oil Company of Ohio, and demolition of the facilities began immediately. Fortunately, many of the traditions and legacies of the original Latonia Racecourse have been continued, first at the modern Latonia Racecourse (1959�1986) in Florence, Ky., established and named as a tribute to the old track, and today by Turfway Park, an enterprise begun by Jerry Carroll in 1986 when he bought and renamed the Florence track. Turfway Park, which was sold again in 1999 to a partnership consisting of the Keeneland Association, Harrahs Entertainment, and GTECH Corporation, has also attempted to preserve the original track's legacy by continuing to run several races named for stakes first run at the original Latonia track. Lingering also are treasured recollections of the first Latonia Racecourse's glorious past as locals recall and recount either firsthand or passeddowned memories of the time when the track, affectionately referred to as "Old Latonia," was unquestionably one of the finest racecourses in all of America. Claypool, James C. The Tradition Continues: The Story of Old Latonia, Latonia, and Turfway Racecourses. Fort Mitchell, Ky.: T. I. Hayes, 1997. "The Minute Book of the Latonia Agricultural and Stock Association," archival collection of the Kenton Co. Library, Covington, Ky. Old Latonia Racecourse, ca. 1920. Hankins and Johnson, "Lucky" Baldwin's westcoast stable, and many of the most prominent stables from Kentucky. Horses competing at the Latonia track were among the finest racing nationwide and included, between 1883 and 1929, 27 Kentucky Derby winners as well as many winners of prominent national stakes races. Between 1883 and 1919 the track changed ownership several times; control alternated between locals and owners based in Louisville. In 1919 Latonia was sold to the Kentucky Jockey Club, a newly formed race syndicate led by Matt J. Winn. Winn, the man who had made the Kentucky Derby famous and arguably the most aggressive promoter of horse racing in America, thus entered the Latonia scene. Winn had always viewed the Latonia Derby as a serious rival to his beloved Kentucky Derby (he had been the chief figure at Churchill Downs since 1902), and with good reason, for the Latonia Derby had frequently offered a higher purse to its winner than that offered in Louisville. Winn moved immediately to correct the problem by introducing in 1919 a new featured race at the Latonia track, the $50,000 Fall Championship. This step prepared the way for the Latonia Derby's subsequent decline, because the new race downplayed Latonia's top-stakes race. The new owners, operating first as the Kentucky Jockey Club and later as the Latonia Jockey Club, had purchased a thriving urban racetrack that throughout the second and third decades of the 20th century consistently led the nation in total purse money awarded. A track noted for its beautiful landscaping and a scenic infield lake, Latonia was often portrayed as one of America's finest race facilities. The "roaring 20s" were Latonia Racecourse's heyday. Legendary Kentucky Derby winners such as Black Gold (1924) and Clyde Van Dusen (1929) raced at the Latonia course, as did Upset, who took the Latonia Derby in 1922, two years after having become the only horse ever to defeat the great horse Man o' War. National and international champions such as Harry Sinclair's Zev (1923) and the French Champion Epinard (1924) also competed. Present at the Latonia track were many of the top riders, including Hall of Fame jockey Mack Garner, a Covington resident, as well as the famed Kentucky horseman E. R. Bradley, who for many years was a regular at the track. Exterminator (known to his many faithful fans as "Old Bones") won his maiden victory at the Latonia course in 1917 and while racing there (1917�1922) finished first, second, or third in seven out of eight races. Later inducted into the Racing Hall of Fame, he also placed first, second, or third in 50 of 100 races during his unrivaled eight-year career. Speed always seemed to rule at Latonia, where the track was lightning fast and new national and world speed records were common. Two events marked the pinnacle of racing at the original Latonia track. First, Latonia's 1923 Fall Championship featured a thrilling battle between two-year-old champion and Kentucky Derby winner Zev and In Memorium, owned by local Carl Wiedemann. Zev was beaten, much to the delight of the locals, but weeks later avenged his loss to In Memorium in a still-disputed finish of the match race Winn had arranged for them at Churchill Downs. Second, a star-studded field competed in the third leg of the American International race run at the Latonia track on October 11, 1924. The American International race was won by Mrs. William K. Vanderbilt III's Sarazen, saddled by legendary trainer Max Hirsch, giving the French champion Epinard his third straight defeat and concluding a series meant to match America's best horses against the finest ones from Europe. The fall of the stock market in October 1929 and the ensuing Great Depression ended "the glory James C. Claypool LATONIA SPRINGS. In mid-September 1788, a party of 30 or so settlers was scheduled to leave Lexington to mark out a road to the Mouth of the Licking River. Each settler paid a $1.50 survey fee for a one-half-acre in-lot and a four-acre out-lot in a new town located on the shore opposite the Mouth of the Licking. The deal would become permanent if the settler built a house on the in-lot and if, on the out-lot, two successive one-acre crops were planted. L. B. WILSON RADIO COMPANY 539 The buffalo path (see Buffalo Traces) traveled by these settlers followed the Banklick Creek valley from near modern Walton toward the Mouth of the Licking. The settlers noted the large buffalo lick located five miles south of the mouth. The salty mineral water flowing from the ground looked like a buffalo lick to this generation, but like a medicinal spa to the next. By summer 1829, Ralph Letton, proprietor of the Western Museum in Cincinnati, was building a hotel and spa on the buffalo lick, where today Highland Ave. meets Madison Pk. (Ky. Rt. 17; see Three L Highway). The hotel was located on the northeastern corner, while the springs were across the road under a lake. It was claimed that the Latonia Springs offered four different types of water: the first was strongly sulfured; the second was a solution of Epsom salts with sulfur and carbonic acid gas; the third was similar but more potable; and the fourth, although slightly saline, afforded a cool and pleasurable drink. The waters cured diseases that were variations on an upset stomach (indigestion, biliousness). Daniel Drake was among the visitors to the springs. J. Winston Coleman states that "Kentucky became the social center of the south because of the springs," but also that "trading horses, political opinions, and marriageable daughters [was] the real business at the springs." The name Latonia probably comes from the ancient Greek goddess Leto, called Latona by the Romans. She was the mother of Apollo and Diana. The springs declined after the Civil War, but not before they gave their name to the fairgrounds, the Latonia Racecourse, and the small city containing the springs. Around 1900 the mineral waters stopped flowing at Latonia Springs and at hundreds of other locations in Kentucky. Cist, Charles. Sketches and Statistics of Cincinnati in 1859. Cincinnati: Charles Cist, 1859. Coleman, J. Winston. The Springs of Kentucky. Lexington, Ky.: Winburn Press, 1955. Gastright, Joseph F. "Latonia Springs." Bulletin of the Kenton County Historical Society, May 1997, 2�3. Reis, Jim. "Stories Flow along the Banklick," KP, April 22, 1991, 4K. Findlay established the Buckeye Works on Race St. in Cincinnati. The major accomplishment of Alexander Latta was designing the first practical steam-powered fire engine in the United States. The engine, which was first publicly tested on January 1, 1853, at the corner of Second St. and Broadway in Cincinnati, proved highly successful and profitable. In time, Latta improved on the design and sold many of his engines to fire departments throughout the United States. Latta married Elizabeth A. Pawson of Cincinnati on October 21, 1847, and two of their children survived. The Latta family lived in Ludlow, Ky., for many years. Alexander Latta was a prominent citizen of Ludlow and was elected to the first city council in 1864. He was reelected in 1865 but died in 1865, before his term was completed. He was buried at Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati. The original Latta family home in Ludlow stood on Butler St. near Elm. This was the home Alexander and Elizabeth Latta lived in for many years. Latta's son, G. Taylor Latta, inherited the Ludlow property. In 1900 he had the old family home demolished and began construction of a new residence. This new brick home was designed in the shape of a dodecagon (12 equal sides) and is one of only a few such shaped homes in the United States. G. Taylor Latta was also responsible for subdividing the original Latta property and for constructing the appropriately named Latta Ave., which runs in front of the family home. Alexander B. Latta Local History File, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. "Architectural Freak," KP, July 6, 1931, 4. Malone, Dumas, ed. Dictionary of American Biography. Vol. 6. New York: Charles Scribner's, 1961. Spring Grove Cemetery Records, Cincinnati. they collected. Before 1900, the stockholders of these companies deeded their roads to the county. The Cross Roads (Lawrenceville) School was on the John Mitts farm. The Grant Co. School Census of 1888�1889, District 52, listed G. W. Winters as trustee and H. Z. Alphin as teacher, with 31 children between 6 and 20 years of age enrolled. In the school year ending June 30, 1895, there were 110 pupils. The Lawrenceville School later was consolidated with the Mason School. The Mount Olivet Church cemetery, on the Heekin-Crossroads Pk., remained when the church moved to Heekin. That cemetery is also called the Scroggins-Fortner graveyard. Another well-known local cemetery, the Musselman Children's Cemetery, is located on the Lawrenceville Rd. The post office at Lawrenceville was established in 1876 and closed in 1906. Lawrenceville continues to be a close-knit community of good neighbors. Descendants of early settlers who have stayed on their families' land share their pleasant memories with those who return to visit. Chandler, Virgil, Sr., comp. Grant County Cemeteries. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1988. Conrad, John B., ed. History of Grant County. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992. Grant Co. Board of Education Records. Grant Co. Board of Education, Williamstown, Ky. Pease, Janet, comp. Kentucky Abstracted County Court Records. Vol. 9. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992. Mary Louis Evans L. B. WILSON RADIO COMPANY. L. B. Wilson was born in Covington and spent his early years traveling in a theatrical group. In 1912 he returned to Covington and by 1913 had opened a smoke shop. He eventually became president of the Covington Industrial club, the forerunner of the local Chamber of Commerce (see Northern Kentucky Chamber of Commerce). Along with several other local men and Kentucky senator Fred M. Sackett, Wilson applied for a 5,000-watt radio station license that was granted and became WCKY radio in Covington. Wilson also started a radio manufacturing company that introduced three models of radios just in time for the opening of the radio station in September 1929. Two of the models were named Kenton and Campbell after the two northernmost counties of Kentucky, and the third was named the Kentuckian. They were displayed at the 1929 Radio Show at Music Hall in Cincinnati. The Kentucky Post sponsored a radio show in Covington in October 1929, and the Wilson sets were featured at some of the show's numerous radio display booths. The complete line of Wilson receivers were sold locally by Wilson himself and by the Dixie Sales and Ser vice Company and the Johnson Radio shops. Wilson claimed to be Northern Kentucky's only radio manufacturer, and his company was chosen as the area's exclusive dealer for Howard Radios, which were very well known among radio manufacturers. The three radio models introduced by Wilson were Screen Grid receivers, and Wilson chose Magnavox Dynamic speakers David E. Schroeder Joseph F. Gastright LATTA, ALEXANDER BONNER (b. June 21, 1821, near Chillicothe, Ohio; d. April 28, 1865, Ludlow, Ky.). Alexander Latta, an inventor, was the youngest of six children of John and Rebecca Bonner Latta. Following a few years of elementary education, he worked in various industries, including a cotton factory, woolen mills, shipbuilding, a brass foundry, and a machine shop. At the machine shop, Latta gained important experience and many new skills. In the early 1840s, he moved to Cincinnati and became the superintendent of the Anthony Harkness Shop, one of the largest machine shops in the city. While at this firm, he was primarily responsible for the construction in 1845 of the first railroad locomotive west of the Allegheny Mountains. He also designed an innovative steam locomotive for the Boston and Maine Railroad. In 1846 Latta and his two brothers Edmundson and LAWRENCEVILLE. Lawrenceville in Grant Co. is located southwest of Williamstown, at the junction of Lusby Mill and Heekin Rds. Streams in the area are the Eagle, Musselmans, and Wicked Willow (Grassy Run) Creeks. According to longtime Lawrenceville resident Christine Mitts, the town at one time had a store, a creamery, a blacksmith, and a Baptist church (organized in 1874). Lawrenceville's economy was rural, and the early local farms were largely self-sufficient. Today, the Lawrenceville Baptist Church has a well-kept building and grounds. Its building, which formerly belonged to the St. Joseph Catholic Church, was moved from Blanchet to be used as the Baptist church. Early landowners in Lawrenceville were required to furnish labor for surveying and maintaining the roads to the mills, the churches, and the markets. Among the families responsible for the roads were the Chipmans, the Clarks, the Gaughs, the Hickses, the Jumps, the Simpsons, the Sipples, and the Wilsons. Later, toll-road companies, including the Mason and Lawrenceville Company, the Cincinnati Southern & Lawrenceville Company, and the Williamstown and Owen Line, attempted to maintain gravel roadbeds from usage revenues that 540 LEADERSHIP NORTHERN KENTUCKY as standard equipment. The Kenton and the Kentuckian were standard radio consoles, while the Campbell was a "highboy" version. All three featured various degrees of elaborate inlays and imported veneers, and the Kentuckian was available in two models with different complexities of cabinet design. All of the cabinets had the initials "LBW" carved into the scrollwork. The Robert Mitchell Company manufactured the radios in Cincinnati. At a time when the radio market was intensely competitive and many of the smaller manufacturers had already gone out of business, apparently Wilson radios did not sell well; it appears that they were manufactured and sold for only one year. "Famous Set on Market," KP, September 15, 1929, supplement. "Highboy Console Model of Radio Is Being Shown," CTS, Special Radio Show ed., September 16, 1929. "One Station Is Due to Kentucky," KP, February 6, 1929, 1. Each year, approximately 40 new class members are selected by a panel of judges based on three required reference letters, individual professional accomplishments, community ser vice contributions, and the individual's desire to contribute to the community. A growing alumni network of 800 members also helps to foster participation in community activities such as board memberships and charitable work. "Business People," CE, August 28, 2004, D1. "Formula for Success," KP, December 14, 2004, 4K. Leadership Northern Kentucky Foundation. www .nkyleadership.com (accessed July 3, 2006). "Leadership Program Sparks Change," KP, February 5, 1990, 3K. Dave Hatter LEAD INDUSTRY. Lead was mined along the southwestern fringes of Northern Kentucky, where early settlers found substantial lead deposits in present-day Owen Co. The industry was also active in the adjacent counties of Franklin and Henry. Lead deposits were discovered in the lower Kentucky River valley by 1780. Initially, the lead was utilized for making bullets. Later occupants made shot, white lead, and pipes from the lead. In more modern times, lead has been used in storage batteries, paint, ceramic glazes, gasoline, and alloys. Lead, or galena as it is properly known, is usually found in association with other minerals such as barite, calcite, and sphalerite, which occur in narrow, nearly vertical veins. Galena occurs in the form of small gray cubes that are frequently embedded in barite, a dense white mineral. Once lead was discovered, miners would prospect the area to determine the direction and length of the vein. Veins exposed near the surface could be exploited by following the lead downward in narrow trenches. To reach deeper deposits, vertical shafts were sunk and hoists were used to raise the ore to the surface. Drift shafts were commonly excavated horizontally off the vertical shaft following the vein. The drift shafts were often placed at 100-foot vertical intervals. After the ore was removed from a mine, the galena had to be cleaned and separated from other minerals occurring with it. Wooden troughs, called jigs, were used in conjunction with a stream of water to wash the ore. A concentrating mill separated the galena from the barite. Early furnaces for smelting lead ore were simple stone foundations built into the side of a hill. The lead ore and logs were placed in alternating layers. As the wood burned, the galena melted and settled to the bottom, where it was later collected. More complex and efficient furnaces were developed as time passed. The reverberatory or cupola furnaces, with tall chimneys and with separate fireboxes that kept ashes out of the lead, replaced the old log furnaces. Reverberatory furnaces could operate continuously, unlike the primitive log furnaces, which were burned only once per firing. Lead mining started in Owen Co. about 1812 and continued until around 1940. Four lead veins, named the Barnett, Cantor, Gratz, and Hoosier veins, are known in the county. The Barnett vein, mined to a very limited extent, was narrow and John E. Leming Jr. LEADERSHIP NORTHERN KENTUCKY. Founded in 1979 by the Northern Kentucky Chamber of Commerce, Leadership Northern Kentucky (LNK) is a highly respected, communitybased leadership development program designed to fulfi ll the community's need for informed and engaged leaders. The mission of LNK is "to use the community as a classroom to develop leaders to effectively serve the region." This is accomplished through a curriculum delivered as a series of eight daylong training sessions, one overnight retreat, a community project, and a graduation program. The following topics are included in the curriculum: --arts and literature: covers Northern Kentucky cultural history, the community impact of the arts, and the challenges facing arts organizations; --health and human ser vices: exposes members to the societal ills faced by many local individuals and families and the governmental and community organizations striving to end these problems; --justice: teaches about the justice system and its impact on the community through visits to local jails, courts, and police organizations; --diversity: introduces members to the community's diversity; --government: includes meetings with public officials and observation of public meetings, including a trip to observe the Kentucky General Assembly; --education: discusses all aspects of the K-16 educational system, including its many challenges and the opportunities for members to support and contribute; --economic development: deals with the current economic climate and the importance of economic development on the region's health and well-being; and --media: introduces members to the print, radio, and television media and explains how media can promote community issues. had a 20-foot-deep shaft sunk into it in 1913. The Cantor vein, up to three feet wide, was exploited by the Twin Creek Mining and Smelting Company Inc., incorporated in 1901, which excavated vertical shafts to depths between 80 and 90 feet. Drift shafts were placed horizontally near the bottom of the vertical shafts to follow the veins. The Gratz lead vein, first mined about 1825, was the one most extensively mined in Owen Co. The Ohio Lead Mining Company of Portsmouth, Ohio, operated the mine at Gratz that exploited this vein. At Gratz a vertical shaft was excavated to a depth of 325 feet. Horizontal shafts up to 1,040 feet long were placed at 100- and 200-foot levels in the shaft. The Twin Creek Mining and Smelting Company also mined the Gratz vein. Geologist Charles Norwood visited this mine in 1875 and noted that the shaft was 76 feet deep and the vein was 22 inches wide at 54 feet below the surface. In the early 20th century, it was found that this vein went as deep as 480 feet below the surface. Occasional swells in the vein were reported to be five to six feet wide. The Hoosier vein was mined by the Lead Mining Corporation of America, which excavated a shaft to 130 feet deep to exploit a lead vein ranging up to 14 inches wide. The mine and the concentrating mill appear to have closed by 1905. The deposits removed from these mines were often sent to be assayed by the Hartsfeld Reduction Works along Thornton St. in Newport. Some small lead veins in southern Campbell Co. were discovered around the time of the Civil War. The once important lead industry is all but forgotten. The plants and furnaces have long since been dismantled, and most of the mineshafts and trenches have been fi lled in for safety reasons. "Important Discoveries in Campbell County," CDE, June 7, 1865, 3. Jillson, Willard R. Lead Mines of the Lower Kentucky River Valley. Louisville, Ky.: John P. Morton, 1941. "Lead--A Valuable Owen County Mine," KJ, June 23, 1893, 4. Norwood, Charles J. A Reconnaissance Report on the Lead Region of Henry County, with Some Notes on Owen and Franklin Counties. Frankfort, Ky.: Kentucky Geological Survey, 1877. Charles D. Hockensmith LEATHERS, JOHN W. (b. 1809, Kenton Co., Ky.; d. May 17, 1873, Kenton Co., Ky.). Kentucky legislator John W. Leathers was the third child of John W. and Elizabeth Leathers. A farmer by occupation, he lived on Lexington Pk. (Dixie Highway) about five miles south of Covington. Leathers spent almost his entire life on his family's farm. In his public life, he was described as a lifelong Democrat (see Democratic Party) who was frank and outspoken but always true to his principles. In his private life, he was described as a good husband, father, friend, and neighbor who inspired love, honor, and respect from those around him. Leathers served in the Kentucky Senate (1849�1851) and in the Kentucky House of Representatives (1867� 1869). He also was for many years a director of the Covington and Lexington Turnpike Company LEDOUX, ALBERT REID 541 and a strong advocate for improved roads and other public projects. Leathers suffered a stroke on May 12, 1873, and died five days later at age 64. His funeral ser vice was held at his home and was attended by a large crowd. He was laid to rest in the Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. Collins, Richard H. History of Kentucky. Vol. 1. Covington, Ky.: Collins, 1882. "Death of John W. Leathers," CJ, May 24, 1873, 2. Reis, Jim. "Leathers Family Member Made Mark in State Politics and Real Estate Deals," KP, November 4, 1991, 4K. LEBANON PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The second church organized in the area that later became Grant Co. was the Presbyterian Church at Lebanon, which was started in 1796. The Lebanon community, west of Crittenden, was settled by Virginians William Anderson, Nathaniel Bullock, Andrew Kincaid, William Martin, Andrew McCluir (McClure), and their families. Later, Joseph Canady, Thomas Canady, Alexander McClure, Moses McClure, Nathaniel McClure, Alex McPherson, Joseph Meyers, and Robert Stewart joined them. These pioneers petitioned the Synod of Virginia to organize a Presbyterian Church at Lebanon, and it was established by Elder Samuel Rannells in the home of Andrew Kincaid. William Martin and Robert Stewart soon erected a small log building near Bullock Pen Creek, where worship ser vices were conducted. Men and women sat on opposite sides of the church, and the only hymns sung were the Psalms. An Indian attack against the Andrew Brann family in 1807 or 1808 resulted in a fire that destroyed the log church. With help from his fellow church members, Joseph Meyers constructed a second log church in 1808 on Big Bone Rd., where the Lebanon Cemetery is located. Alexander McClure, Joseph Meyers, and Jonas Stephenson donated the land for the new church. In 1826 on a nearby hill, a noted former Presbyterian minister named Barton Stone held a series of meetings in which he questioned several points of doctrine held by the Presbyterian church. As a result several members of the church decided to form a separate church adhering to Stone's beliefs, the C