Chapter K of the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky
The Encylopedia of Northern Kentucky in partnership with NKY.com. Edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool, The University Press of Kentucky. Republished for the World Wide Web by NKY.com and Enquirer Media. A Project of the Thomas D. Clark Foundation, Inc.
Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky in partnership with NKY.com Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z | Index The Enquirer/Patrick Reddy KENTUCKY SPEEDWAY. The Kentucky Speedway is a 1.5-mile trioval with a state-of-the-art banking design... (cont'd on pg. 516) K The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky Contents Introduction, Foreword, Acknowledgments and Guide for Readers Chapters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z Index, Bibliography, Illustration Credits Edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool THE UNIVERSITY PRESS OF KENTUCKY Republished for the World Wide Web by NKY.com and Enquirer Media A Project of the Thomas D. Clark Foundation, Inc. Mark A. Neikirk, President Sherry Jelsma, Vice President Dave Adkisson, Treasurer Melanie J. Kilpatrick, Secretary Thomas R. Brumley, Immediate Past President Michael J. Hammons, Past President Board of Directors Michael J. Hammons, Park Hills Sherry Jelsma, Shelbyville Martha C. Johnson, Melbourne Mark A. Neikirk, Highland Heights Alice Stevens Sparks, Crescent Springs Dave Adkisson, Frankfort Jane Beshear, Frankfort Thomas R. Brumley, Lexington John S. Carroll, Lexington Sara W. Combs, Stanton Robert Ted Steinbock, Louisville Mrya Leigh Tobin, New York City James M. Wiseman, Erlanger Editorial Staff Editors in Chief: Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool Associate Editors: David Hatter, John Schlipp, David E. Schroeder, Robert Stevie, Michael R. Sweeney, John W. Thieret (deceased), Thomas S. Ward, Jack Wessling Topical Editors: Agriculture: Lynn David & James Wallace; Art: Rebecca Bilbo; Biography: Michael R. Sweeney; Business & Commerce: John Boh; Counties & Towns: David E. Schroeder; Ethnology: Theodore H. H. Harris; Government, Law, & Politics: John Schlipp; Literature: Danny Miller (Deceased); Medicine: Dennis B. Worthen; Military: James A. Ramage; Music, Media, & Entertainment: John Schlipp; Religion: Thomas S. Ward & Alex Hyrcza; Sports & Recreation: James C. Claypool; Transportation Joseph F. Gastright (Deceased); Women: Karen Mcdaniel. Maps: Jeff Levy at the Gyula Pauer Center for Cartography & GIS, University of Kentucky. Copyright � 2009 by The University Press of Kentucky, 663 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40508-4008 www.kentuckypress.com. Print editions: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Encyclopedia of northern Kentucky / edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-8131-2565-7 (hardcover : acid-free paper) ISBN 978-0-8131-2585-5 (limited leather edition) 1. Kentucky, Northern-- Encyclopedias. 2. Kentucky-- Encyclopedias. I. Tenkotte, Paul A. II. Claypool, James C. F451.E55 2009 976.9'3003--dc22 2009027969 Perrin, W. H., J. H. Battle, and G. C. Kniffi n. Kentucky: A History of the State. Louisville, Ky.: F. A. Battery, 1887. Margaret A. Murphy KARSNER, HARRY CLARK (b. October 29, 1914, Owen Co., Ky.; d. December 21, 1971, Lexington, Ky.). Owen Co. native Harry Clark Karsner, an aviator and a state official, was the eldest child of Johnathan Albert and Lela Brammell Karsner of Monterey. After graduating from the Monterey High School, he pursued training in aviation. He married Sarah Jane Gill on February 13, 1937, and they became the parents of three children. Karsner received his commercial pi lot's license in October 1938. During World War II, he was a flight instructor at Ryan's School of Aeronautics in San Diego, Calif., and was appointed a flight commander on August 25, 1942. After the war, he returned to the Old Cedar community near Monterey, constructed a fourplane hangar on a field near U.S. 127 called Karsner Field, and began teaching military veterans to fly. The hangar is well known for the neon sign that states, "Christ Is the Answer." Influenced by evangelist Louis W. Arnold, Karsner equipped a plane with a public address system. His wife, Sarah Jane, recorded gospel songs, and Arnold recorded a brief sermon. Each afternoon, Karsner flew the "Gospel Plane" within a 100-mile radius of Frankfort, delivering the message to all those within earshot. In 1958 Karsner was elected a director of the Burley Tobacco Growers Cooperative Association of Kentucky. In 1959 he became commissioner of aeronautics under Kentucky governor A. B. Chandler (1935�1939 and 1955�1959). Karsner was also a farmer and a landowner in Owen Co. He was chairman of the Owen Co. Board of Education, a magistrate in Owen Co., and a director of First Farmers Bank in Owenton. At Old Cedar Baptist Church, he was chairman of the board of deacons and taught the men's Sunday school class. He died in 1971 and was buried at the Monterey Cemetery. Murphy, Margaret Alice, and Lela Maude Hawkins. The History of Historic Old Cedar Baptist Church and Community, 1816�2004. Frankfort, Ky.: Lynn, 2004. Trout, Allan M. "Prepare for World's End, Voice from Sky Advises," LCJ, October 18, 1949, 5. KARSNER, CASPER (b. ca. 1750, place of birth unknown; d. ca. 1798, Kentucky). In 1779 pioneer Casper Karsner (Carsner) was a soldier in the militia of Capt. Benjamin Logan's Company at Logan's Station, near the settlement of St. Asaph's, in modern Lincoln Co., Ky. In June 1780, when he resided at Ruddell's (Hinkston's) Station, which was built by Isaac Ruddell, in modern-day Harrison Co., this station was taken and destroyed by American Indian warriors under the command of British captain Henry Byrd. The people living at Ruddell's Station who were not killed in the attack were captured and held by the British and the Indians. Karsner was held by the British until they sent him to Fort Ticonderoga, N.Y., in 1783, where he was released. Lexington, Ky., trustee records dated May 11, 1785, show that signed deeds for in-lots were issued to Percival Butler, Casper Karsner, and others. On May 20, 1785, Karsner's land grant was given Virginia governor Patrick Henry's seal. On December 10, 1785, Karsner was paid 314 pounds, 15 shillings, and 4 pence for militia ser vice as back pay, four years after the Revolutionary War ended. He was 35 at the time and unmarried. In 1786 Karsner married Eveles "Eva" Lail, who had also been captured at Ruddell's Station and had been forced to run the gauntlet to escape the Indians. Four children were born to this couple. In 1789 Casper Karsner was on the Board of Trustees of Transylvania Seminary (1785�1799), the precursor of Transylvania University. Karsner's descendants retained intact the family's original land patents in what is now Owen Co. On February 11, 1789, Casper and Eva's first son, John Karsner, was born. John Karsner fought and was wounded in the War of 1812. He married Sallie Patterson of Jessamine Co. on December 20, 1814, in nearby Fayette Co., and Sallie and John had two children; Sallie died sometime during 1828. John married his second wife, Mary Eaton, on January 8, 1829, and John and Mary became the parents of four children. In 1846 John and his family settled in Owen Co. about three miles from Monterey. John and Mary were buried in the Karsner family's graveyard, just below the Old Cedar Baptist Church on U.S. 127 near Monterey, where several other members of the Karsner family are also buried. Casper Karsner, however, was buried in Jessamine Co. Collins, Richard H. History of Kentucky. Vol. 1. Covington, Ky.: Collins, 1882. Murphy, Margaret A. Karsner. The Karsners of Kentucky: History and Family Album. Frankfort, Ky., Tingle's, 1981. Perrin, W. H., ed. History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky. Chicago: O. L Baskin, 1882. by American Indians. There was also a salt spring, where hunters came for water that they boiled down for salt. The Antioch Church of Christ was founded in Keefer around 1838. It was moved in 1872 to a plot of land donated by J. H. Musselman. The current church building, whose cemetery contains stones dating from 1873, was dedicated in 1957. Tom Marksberry operated a general store across from the church until 1905. Among the businesses in Keefer were blacksmith shops, grocery stores, a gristmill, and huckster routes. Around 1884 a school was established, and the post office followed in 1885. Today the businesses are gone, but the church and several homes remain. Belew, Mildred J., and Otha Steger. "Never on the Busy Highway--That's Keefer." In The Grant County Sesqui-Centennial Bulletin, 1820�1970. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Sesquicentennial Publications Committee, 1970. Chandler, Virgil, Sr. Cemeteries. Vol. 3. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1988. Conrad, John B., ed. History of Grant County. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992. Barbara Loomis Brown Margaret A. Murphy KEEFER. Keefer is a community in southwest Grant Co. along Ky. Rt. 2936 (Keefer Rd.). Keefer (at one time spelled Kiefer) is believed to have been settled before the county was organized in 1820. Early in its history, the community was also called Priceburg, after John Price, who started the first store there. Other early settlers were Jacob Musselman, a surveyor named Payne, and Francis Simon. In the 1980s, archaeologists from the University of Kentucky conducted a dig in the area and uncovered numerous arrowheads, broken pottery, and a rock-lined cooking pit estimated to be at least 1,000 years old and thought to have been used KEFAUVER COMMITTEE. During the early 1950s, most Americans were introduced to the criminal "conspiracy" of organized crime through the U.S. Senate's hearings of the Special Committee to Investigate Crime in Interstate Commerce. Headed by Senator Estes Kefauver (D, Tennessee), it was more commonly known as the Kefauver Committee, and it had a significant effect on Northern Kentucky. From 1950 to 1952, the Kefauver Committee met intermittently around the nation to investigate and expose the supposed conspiracy of a national crime syndicate. Since the rise of mobster Al Capone and other bootleggers as national figures during the 1920s, the public had always suspected that criminals worked in concert. After World War II, this idea gained more currency. As an attempt to stop any sort of criminal conspiracy, the Kefauver hearings were completely unsuccessful. Their ultimate significance was in providing one of the first major telecasts of a U.S. congressional committee, pioneering the sort of political theater that became famous in 1953 with the attempts by Senator Joseph McCarthy (R, Wisconsin) to root out Communists and continued through to the Watergate hearings of the 1970s and the Iran-Contra hearings of the 1980s. Persons living in Northern Kentucky appeared before the Kefauver Committee; for example, in late March 1951, Jimmy Brink, most closely associated with the Lookout House, sat before the committee in Washington, D.C., accompanied by his attorney, Sawyer A. Smith. Millions of Americans sat riveted to their televisions as Kefauver and other committee members interviewed hundreds of criminal figures, attempting to reveal the existence of a shadow government that controlled the nation's criminal enterprises. The Kefauver hearings were arguably the first example of television watching as a mass experience, 500 KEHOE, JAMES A., BRIGADIER GENE RAL as people crowded into neighbors' homes, bars, and restaurants to watch. Although no actual lawenforcement action arose from the hearings, Kefauver parlayed the exposure into a failed 1952 presidential run. The Kefauver Committee hearings were key events in the successful cleanup of Northern Kentucky, even though they preceded it by almost a decade. Northern Kentucky had gained a reputation as the region's haven for gambling and vice. But the committee's hearings in Cleveland in the late winter of 1951 demonstrated how Northern Kentucky was broadly connected to a national criminal network. Connections between the Cleveland Syndicate (the Mayfield Road Gang) and gambling in Northern Kentucky were fully revealed, especially how the syndicate had bought up casinos like the Lookout House and the Beverly Hills Supper Club after its operations in Cleveland were shut down in the 1940s. Testifying before the committee, Northern Kentucky law enforcement officials professed ignorance of the gambling operations taking place right in their own backyard. The Beverly Hills Supper Club and other casinos closed their doors during the hearings but announced that they would reopen as soon as the committee disbanded. After the hearings, activities in Newport and Covington were seen as more insidious and dangerous than before. Organized crime was here in Greater Cincinnati and could not be simply relegated to distant ethnic enclaves like Chicago and New York City. The Kefauver hearings sparked the first in a series of reform groups that culminated with the successful work of the Committee of 500 in 1961 (see Newport Reform Groups). Bell, Jack, and John Chadwick. "Local Night Spots Figure in Probe: Two Face Contempt Charges; Mum on Beverly Hills, Lookout House," KTS, March 29, 1951, 1. during World War II and saw ser vice in India and Burma. At the end of the war, Kehoe retired from the army as a brigadier general. His wife, Alice, died shortly after he returned home in 1945. In retirement he built a frame ranch home in Maysville, overlooking the Ohio River, where he lived for the remainder of his life. In 1983 Kehoe was ill for a short time before his death at age 87. He was buried in Maysville Cemetery. "Brig. Gen. James Kehoe, 87, Helped Build the Burma Road," KP, November 30, 1983, 1B. Robert Gioielli KEHOE, JAMES A., BRIGADIER GENERAL (b. November 11, 1896, Maysville, Ky.; d. November 29, 1983, Maysville, Ky.). James Arthur Kehoe, an adjutant general for two Kentucky governors and a businessman, was the son of James N. and Hannah M. Kane Kehoe. He attended public school in Maysville and in 1914 was appointed to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. Upon graduation in 1918, he was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant. During World War I, he served in China and Siberia and was soon promoted to 1st lieutenant. When Kehoe returned to civilian life in 1920, he became a vice president of the Home Warehouse Company in Maysville. A year later he was appointed secretary-treasurer of the Eastern District Warehouse Corporation, where he served until 1924 (see Maysville Tobacco Warehouses). He also was named the president of the Bank of Maysville in 1921. Kehoe was appointed Kentucky adjutant general for governors Flem Sampson (1927�1931) and Ruby Laffoon (1931�1935). In 1925 Kehoe married Alice Williams of Frankfort, Ky.; they had two children. He reentered the army KEHOE, JAMES N. (b. July 15, 1862, Maysville, Ky.; d. June 16, 1945, Cincinnati, Ohio). Banker, lawyer, and politician James Nicholas Kehoe was the son of James and Nora Conroy Kehoe. He was educated in both public and private schools around Maysville. He took a job with a printing company, and at age 22 became owner of the firm. He later studied law in Louisville under the well-known lawyers Hargis and Easton and was admitted to the Kentucky bar on November 1, 1888. Kehoe set up his practice in Maysville, where he served as city attorney for two terms and as master commissioner of the chancery of the Mason Co. Circuit Court from 1893 to 1900. He also served on the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1889. He held several leadership roles in the Democratic Party and was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, where he served four years, 1901�1905. He was defeated for reelection in 1904. Kehoe married Hannah M. Kane of Maysville on September 24, 1892, and they had five children. His wife Hannah died on October 28, 1910, and he married his second wife, Frances Reed Calvert, on April 20, 1918. His son James A. Kehoe served in the U.S. Army during World War I and World War II and attained the rank of brigadier general. James N. Kehoe served as one of the engineers during construction of the Simon Kenton Memorial Bridge during the early 1930s. He was also president of the 1st Standard Bank & Trust Company (see Bank of Maysville) and president of the Kentucky Bankers Association. He died at age 82 and was buried in the Maysville Cemetery. In 1940 a new bridge in Maysville was named the Kehoe Viaduct in his honor. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. "Kehoe, James Nicholas (1862�1945)." http://bioguide.congress.gov (accessed August 29, 2006). Levin, H., ed. The Lawyers and Lawmakers of Kentucky. Chicago: Lewis, 1897. "Maysville Viaduct Dedication Is Set," KP, October 18, 1940, 6. Southard, Mary Young, and Ernest C. Miller, eds. Who's Who in Kentucky: A Biographical Assembly of Notable Kentuckians. Louisville: Standard, 1936. The Spirit of Greater Maysville and Mason County. Maysville, Ky.: Daily Independent, 1930. KELLEY-KOETT COMPANY. Organizer and promoter J. Robert Kelley (1871�1931), aided by a German-born craftsman, Albert Koett (1863� 1951), developed the Kelley-Koett Company into a prominent manufacturer and distributor of X-ray equipment and accessories. About 1903, eight years after Wilhelm Roentgen announced his discovery of X-rays, Kelley and Koett met in Koett's backyard shop on Bakewell St. in Covington. Together, these men developed an innovative X-ray model unit that produced a 12-inch spark, and afterward they founded a company to produce X-ray equipment. Their invention was introduced at a meeting of the American Roentgen Ray Society in Niagara Falls, N.Y., and was praised in the first issue of the American Quarterly of Roentgenology (October 1906). The National Museum of American History (one of the Smithsonian Institution museums) has displayed Kelley and Koett's prototype under the German title "Grosse Flamme." Incorporated in 1905, the Kelley-Koett Company moved in 1911 into its permanent new factory and office building on the north side of W. Fourth St., between Russell and Johnston Sts. in Covington, and began marketing the latest X-ray diagnostic and therapy procedures and equipment. From about 12 employees in 1905, the company grew to employ 675 in 1944, not counting office workers and the sales force. Kelley said he foresaw a day when Covington might be called X-ray City. The company donated $1,000 worth of X-ray equipment for the new St. Elizabeth Hospital building (see St. Elizabeth Medical Center). According to the Kentucky Post, the Mayo Clinic purchased X-ray equipment only from this company, and in 1916 Kelley hosted a dinner for Dr. R. D. Carman of the Mayo Clinic at the Covington Industrial Club. In 1917 a group of medical and army officials joined with the company's technicians to develop a mobile X-ray table unit for use in treating military casualties. Dr. William David Coolidge, from the General Electric laboratory, developed a compatible portable generator and a compact aircooled tube to be used in coordination with the Kelley-Koett mobile X-ray unit. Kelley-Koett developed special relationships with hospitals, clinics, and doctors' offices. For the Mayo clinic, it tested new ideas, solved problems, and sold its instruments at cost, in return for deriving profits from the innovations developed at the clinic by the use of Kelley-Koett products. In 1928 Kelley-Koett recorded $2.5 million in sales; but in 1929 the General Electric Company was number one in the field of X-ray equipment. General Electric held a patent that forced competitors during the 1930s to purchase its "universal Coolidge tube." Meanwhile, the Kelley-Koett Company, continuing to compete, had developed a laminator sensitive to body size and a scanograph that compensated for the naturally distorted focus of X-rays. The company was known for both its quality products and its innovations, including an improved rheostat, a constant-potential transformer, a model surge-protection device, and a long list of others. One of the secrets of the local company's success was cofounder Kelley's ability to make family-like arrangements with independent dealers, many of whom were former employees of the company or suppliers of its accessories. In 1925 the company claimed to have domestic agents and service branches in 37 major cities. KELLY, MARY ANN 501 Major troubles came to the company when Kelley died (probably of cancer from X-ray exposure) soon after the stock market crash in 1929. Koett, the company's other cofounder, was at this time approaching age 70. Covington native and long-time company employee George Edward Geise (1889�1958) became the interim president. Another Covington native, Wilbur Stanley Werner (1895�1937), took over and served as president for just three years before dying at age 43. As the company foundered, bank officials on the board of directors took control of the company and also became its financial caretakers. In 1938 one of these men, Donald A. Eddy of the First National Bank of Covington, succeeded Werner as the company's president. After surviving the Great Depression, as well as the flood of 1937, Kelley-Koett found itself in the hands of officers detached from the company's core culture. The company still had one great opportunity to turn around and prosper during the 1930s. At the time, cancer rates had been increasing and hospitals worldwide looked for answers. Attempting to capture this market, the Kelley-Koett Company, a deep-therapy innovator, now sold a 250,000-volt unit to the Rockefel ler Foundation for a medical center in China. Other orders followed. Werner supervised custom installation of additional units in the Los Angeles Clinic in California, the Harper Hospital in Detroit, Mich., and the Lincoln Hospital in Lincoln, Neb. At Harper Hospital, the installation, which cost the hospital $50,000, included padding the surrounding walls with 26 tons of lead. At the time of his death in 1937, Werner was installing a 1.2-million-volt deep-therapy behemoth costing $76,000 at the Miller Hospital in St. Paul, Minn. In 1938 the Booth Memorial Hospital of Covington acquired a 200,000-volt KelleyKoett deep-therapy unit. In 1939, thanks in large part to the popularity of its deep-therapy units, the Kelley-Koett Company was recovering financially and 15 percent of its sales were overseas. In 1941 Phillip Meyers, a prominent Cincinnati businessman, purchased the Kelley-Koett Company and appointed an MIT graduate engineer, Adolf Feibel, as president. In the pioneer years for use of X-ray equipment leading up to and through World War II, the Kelley-Koett Company's X-ray equipment was a standard-setter and enjoyed prominence. From January through September 1941, the company sold 18 different items to the government for $650,000. During World War II, the company sold adaptive industrial X-ray units that were used for testing the integrity of cast-metal airplane propellers and for detecting and helping to disable underwater mines. However, the aggressive Picker X-ray Corporation won a contract for supplying the bulk of the military's X-ray tables, and Picker's competitors, including the Kelley Koett Company, were left to sell accessories. The war effort still required Kelley-Koett to expand production, to rent off-site warehouse space, to add a second shift, and to hire women. The company also loaned engineers and factory staff to the military for special assignments and product development. Even without the orders that had been lost to the Picker X-Ray Corporation, production on a grand scale at the Kelley-Koett Company required many workers. Complex X-ray apparatus there was always assembled by hand. In 1943 the army awarded the Covington company's officials "E" awards for excellence. After World War II, the Kelley-Koett Company, through a UN relief agency, sold X-ray equipment for the medical treatment of civilian war casualties in the Soviet Union. In the late 1940s, Kelley-Koett still had its business arrangement with the Mayo Clinic and enjoyed good relations with many loyal customers. But the new managers liked to emphasize sales productivity, and many shortsighted marketing initiatives were tried. They included a cheaper X-ray line, consumer products such as electric blankets, and a cold war radiation-measuring device, manufactured at a company facility in Cincinnati for the Atomic Energy Commission's civilian defense centers. Customers began to sense the company's instability. Nevertheless, at the end, the company professionals in the old factory in Covington still produced a quality line of products, including a new, sleek, 1950s Fleetwood X-ray table. In 1951 Tracerlab of Boston, Mass., purchased the KelleyKoett Company. After Tracerlab, and then another owner, a French company purchased the business. In 1964 the Covington factory was demolished for urban renewal, but the Kelley-Koett Company's trademark survived into the early 1970s. Several patents are still held by the KelleyKoett Company and the engineers who worked there. Boh, John. "An International Edge, the Kelley-Koett Company, 1903�1956." NKH 3, no. 2 (Spring� Summer 1996): 39�51. "Covington Has Reason to Be Called `X-Ray City,' " KP, March 27, 1927, 10. "A Great Man Passes," KP, April 25, 1931, 4. "New Company Incorporated," KP, June 13, 1905, 2. Reis, Jim. "X-Ray Business Put Covington on Map," KP, August 6, 1984, 10K. Elizabeth Medical Center). Dr. Kelly recovered from his wound and continued his medical practice. No one was ever charged with the shooting. Kelly was a trustee of the Ninth St. Methodist Church and an active member of the local Republican Party. He was also involved with various fraternal organizations: Freemasons, the Eastern Star, the Knights of Pythias, and Odd Fellows. He died at age 73 and was buried at Linden Grove Cemetery in Covington. "Colored Medical Men Meeting in Covington," KP, May 10, 1912, 11. Dabney, W. P. Cincinnati's Colored Citizens. Cincinnati: Dabney, 1926. "Death," KTS, March 1, 1934, 2. "Investigation into Slaying of Physician's Son," KTS, July 24, 1919, 24. "Negro Doctor and Son Shot by Intruder," KP, July 23, 1919, 1. "Physician and Son Were Shot as They Slept," KTS, July 23, 1919, 18. Theodore H. H. Harris KELLY, MARY ANN (b. September 15, 1925, Los Angeles, Calif.; d. June 20, 2001, Edgewood, Ky.). Mary Ann Kelly, a television writer and advertiser and an author, was the daughter of John Joseph and Mary "Mayme" Farrell Kelly of Ludlow, Ky. She graduated from the College of Mount St. Joseph in Cincinnati and did graduate work at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wis., and at Xavier University in Cincinnati. Kelly authored three books, traveled the world, and was already employed as a television program writer at WLW in Cincinnati when the television station went on the air in 1948. She wrote screenplays, conducted advertising campaigns for the Ralph H. Jones Company (Crosley Broadcasting's advertising firm in Cincinnati), and never failed to have a perspective on an issue or an outrageous tale to contribute. Kelly's books summarize her style; The Trouble Is Not in Your Set is almost an autobiography of her 40 years in journalism. While at WLW television, she worked with Rod Serling, later the writer of television's The Twilight Zone, and with Earl Hamner, the creator of the television series The Waltons. Kelly was a pioneer woman in the written media, in advertising, and in the broadcast world in the region. In her spare time, Kelly wrote songs and was a professional toy creator (see Toys). She was a member of the Mother of God Catholic Church in Covington. Kelly never married. After her death from heart trouble in 2001 at St. Elizabeth Medical Center South, her body was donated for medical research. Billman, Rebecca. "Mary Ann Kelly," CE, July 3, 2001, 4B. "Her Book Tunes in Early Days on Air of Cincinnati TV," KP, December 15, 1990, 1K. Kelly, Mary Ann. My Old Kentucky Home, GoodNight. Long Island, N.Y.: Exposition Press, 1979. ------. "Rex" and the Single Girl. New York: Exposition Press, 1978. ------. The Trouble Is Not in Your Set. Cincinnati: C. J. Krehbiel, 1990. John Boh KELLY, ADAM DAVID (b. July 19, 1860, Carthage, N.C.; d. February 26, 1934, Covington, Ky.). Physician Adam Kelly attended public schools in North Carolina and then entered Bennett College in Greensboro, N.C., receiving his AB in 1892. He married Mary Wendell in Nashville, Tenn., and in 1896 graduated from Nashville's Meharry Medical School. That same year, he moved to Covington, Ky., and established his practice of general medicine and surgery. Kelly became the second African American medical doctor in the city. He was well known throughout Kenton Co. In May 1912, Kelly was an organizer of the State Medical Society of Colored Physicians, Surgeons, Dentists, and Pharmacists, who had gathered in Covington. Kelly also presented a paper, "Progress of Medicine since the Civil War," at that meeting. On July 23, 1919, tragedy struck Kelly and his family. An intruder shot Kelly and his son in their home at 514 Scott St. while they were sleeping. Kelly's four-year-old son, Garland, died while on the operating table at St. Elizabeth Hospital (see St. 502 KENNEDY, THOMAS "Mary Ann Kelly, Author and World Traveler," KP, June 23, 2001, 13A. "Mary Ann Kelly Wrote Early Television Scripts-- Book Looks at City's Broadcasting," KE, July 3, 2001, B4. Michael R. Sweeney KENNEDY, THOMAS (b. 1741, Chester Co., Pa.; d. August 1821, Covington, Ky.). Covington pioneer Thomas Kennedy was the immigrant son of Scots-Irish Presbyterians from Northern Ireland. In 1767 he married a widow from Philadelphia, Dinah Davis Piersel. In 1789 Francis Kennedy, Thomas Kennedy's brother, arrived in Cincinnati and established a ferry across the river to presentday Covington. Thomas Kennedy followed his brother, and he either rented or made plans to purchase 200 acres at the confluence of the Ohio and Licking rivers from James Welch; he eventually purchased the land in 1801. In the interim, Thomas Kennedy operated the Kentucky side of his brother's ferry and in 1791 obtained a ferry license for himself from Woodford Co., Virginia; in the same year he began construction of a stone house that stood in the rear of what is today Covington's George Rogers Clark Park. In 1814 Thomas Kennedy sold his property to investors in the Covington Company, a group that, in 1815, established the town of Covington. In 1816 the Kennedy family moved to their new home at the northwest corner of Sixth and Greenup Sts. at Covington's southern edge. Both Thomas and Dinah died in 1821 and were buried in the city's pioneer Craig St. burying grounds, located beyond the original town limits at present-day Sixth and Craig Sts.; the couple's remains were later moved to Covington's Linden Grove Cemetery. Considered by some the oldest house in Covington except for the Kennedys' stone homestead, Thomas and Dinah's last residence, at Sixth and Greenup Sts., was razed in 1904. Their stone house was razed in 1909. "Obituary of Thomas Kennedy," Lexington Kentucky Register, August 20, 1821. Smith, Allen Webb. Beginning at "the Point," a Documented History of Northern Kentucky and Environs, the Town of Covington in Particular, 1751� 1834. Park Hills, Ky.: Self-published, 1977. Tenkotte, Paul A. "Rival Cities to Suburbs: Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 1790�1890." Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Cincinnati, 1989. came from Scotland to join them. William and James built a log cabin at Flagg Springs, which they used as a base of operations in surveying most of northern and eastern Campbell Co. At the time, land surveying was a very lucrative occupation, since surveyors typically received one-third of the land surveyed for their ser vices. The Kennedy family soon became one of the largest landowners in the county. William died at Mentor, and it is believed that he is buried nearby in a small family graveyard along Smith Rd. Wessling, Jack. Early History of Campbell County Kentucky. Alexandria, Ky.: Privately published, 1997. summer residence. In 1852 William Kenner sold Somerset Hall to Thomas Kevan. In 1854 Kevan sold the house to balloonist Richard Clayton, who later sold it to the Jenkins family. The A. B. Closson family of Cincinnati were the next purchasers, residing there from 1875 until 1925. In 1926 the Unity Lodge of the Free and Accepted Masons purchased Somerset Hall. The house became a private residence once again in 1997, when Stephen and Paula Chapman bought it and restored it to its original splendor. "How the City of Ludlow Just Missed Being Called Hygeia," KP, September 6, 1925, 8. "Ludlow," KP, February 22, 1995, 1KK�2KK. Marsh, Betsa. "A Legend in Ludlow." Cincinnati Magazine, January 2003, 93�96. "Summer Home, Closson House, now Masonic Lodge," Ludlow News Enterprise, January 25, 1973, 1. Jack Wessling KENNER FAMILY. William Kenner, the father of two prominent Northern Kentucky landowners, and his brother-in-law Philip Minor were the earliest known owners of the land in Louisiana that became the Kenner Plantation. The partners made their fortune in the mercantile business and by producing sugar cane. William and Mary Minor Kenner had four sons, Minor (1808�1862), William Butler (1810�1853), George R. (1812�1852), and Duncan F. (1813�1887). When William Kenner died in 1830, his share of the plantation went to his sons Duncan F. and George R. Kenner. In 1839 Duncan Kenner married Nanine Bringier, daughter of a prominent Creole family. As a wedding present to his wife, Kenner had a mansion built in Louisiana, which he named Ashland, after Henry Clay's estate in Lexington, Ky. The brothers William Butler and George Kenner married sisters, Ruhamah and Charlotte Riske, of Cincinnati. In 1844 George Kenner (died 1852) bought 246 acres that included Elmwood Hall in Ludlow, Ky. He bought the property from his brother-in-law Israel Ludlow, to be used as a summer retreat from the Louisiana heat and diseases. The next year he sold nine acres of the land to his brother William, who probably built Somerset Hall nearby, also as a KENNETT TAVERN. The old Kennett Tavern is at the intersection of Shelby and Main Sts. in Falmouth, on the main east-west corridor linking the town with the old Buffalo Trace area to the north and with Williamstown to the west (see Buffalo Traces). This route was not only a source of stagecoach and wagon travel but also a connection with river commerce at the ports of Maysville in Mason Co. and Foster in Bracken Co. An early stagecoach stop, the Kennett Tavern also housed Union soldiers during the Civil War. After 1854 passenger ser vice on the Kentucky Central Railroad replaced stagecoach travel as the principal means of transportation in the region. People using the Falmouth Railway Depot, a few blocks away, could dine and stay overnight at the Kennett Tavern and later at the Phoenix Hotel and the 3L Building. The Kennett Tavern consists actually of two connected Greek Revival style buildings, built around 1811. The old brick masonry on the building was most likely quarried from nearby clay pits. The lots on which the tavern stands, numbers 34 and 35, are where the first meeting was held to conduct the John Boh KENNEDY, WILLIAM (b. 1728, Cummock, Ayershire, Scotland; d. May 16, 1799, Mentor, Ky.). William Kennedy was a Revolutionary War veteran and surveyor born at Cassiles, his family's estate in Scotland, where he married his first wife. On May 31, 1760, his son James was born to that union. It is believed that his wife died about this time, because in 1765 William arrived in Colonial America alone. He settled in Virginia, where he served with the militia during the Revolutionary War. After the war, he became a surveyor. On September 8, 1778, he married his second wife, Mary C. Lindsey, and they had one child. Kennedy and his family came to Campbell Co., Kentucky, in 1789, and his son James Kennett Tavern. KENTON, SIMON 503 business of the newly founded Pendleton Co. in 1799. In 1814 Tyree Oldham willed this property to his daughter, who married William C. Kennett. Kennett established a tavern in the building. Both the downstairs (the tavern) and the upstairs (hotel rooms and apartments) continued in use into the 1880s. The tavern later gave way to a restaurant, an ice cream parlor, a barbershop, and various other retail businesses. Many of the windows and doorways fronting on Main St. were altered over the years but have been restored to their original configuration. Clark and Zelma Houchen, the last owners of the Kennett Tavern before it was sold to the city for restoration, purchased the building in the 1940s. It is one of 39 buildings on the National Register of Historic Places within the central Falmouth Historic District and is also the oldest commercial building within Falmouth. In 1995 Falmouth received a monetary grant to restore the old tavern. The city clerk now occupies the first floor of the building, while the upper floor remains under restoration. Falmouth Outlook, February 14, 1995, 6. Mildred Belew KENTON, SIMON (b. April 3, 1755, Fauquier Co., Va.; d. April 29, 1836, New Jerusalem, Ohio). Simon Kenton, the namesake of Kenton Co. and Simon Kenton High School in Independence, who first came to Northern Kentucky in 1772, is credited with exploring, scouting, and settling much of Ohio and Northern Kentucky, including the Ohio and Licking River valleys and presentday Maysville. He was the seventh of Mark and Mary Miller Kenton's nine children. A contemporary and friend of Daniel Boone and George Rogers Clark, Kenton fled Fauquier Co., Va., to the frontier in 1771, thinking that while in a jealous rage he had killed a teenage rival. Kenton used the assumed name Simon Butler until 1782, when he learned that the victim of his rage was alive and well. Kenton returned to Virginia and brought much of his family to Kenton Station in Mason Co. He personally welcomed thousands of pioneer families to the area. Kenton's introduction to the frontier began at Fort Pitt (Pittsburgh, Pa.), where he first heard stories of the dense cane fields south of the Ohio River and where he first became acquainted with Simon Girty, a scout and translator known as "the white savage," and with Clark. From Fort Pitt, Kenton and various companions drifted down the uncharted Ohio River more than 500 miles. For two years Kenton traveled up and down the river exploring streams and rivers, until he found the area he was seeking, near present-day Maysville. During these expeditions he became adept at finding and interpreting the signs indicating that American Indian hunting parties were in the area. He was eager to assist the trappers and traders who occasionally drifted by, and he earned a reputation as an outstanding wilderness scout. Kenton learned the land from often being on the run, beginning with an Indian attack in the winter of 1773 as he and two companions were drying their wet clothes around a campfire. One man was killed, but Simon and the other man escaped. Nearly naked, Kenton wandered the Kentucky wilderness barefoot for a week before finding some lone hunters along the banks of the Ohio River. In 1774 the six-foot-one-inch Kenton served as a scout, along with Simon Girty, in Lord Dunmore's War, an attempt by the governor of the royal Virginia colony to quell Indian threats on the frontier. Kenton crisscrossed the Ohio territory as a courier between Dunmore's troops and backwoods volunteers. During these forays, Kenton continued to learn the land and developed a skill for which he became famous--shooting, reloading his flintlock, and shooting again with marked accuracy while running at full speed. This ability saved Daniel Boone's life when Kenton shot a Shawnee warrior who was about to tomahawk Boone as the pair dashed toward the gate of the Boonesborough settlement in Central Kentucky, while the fort was under siege in April 1777. In 1778, during a raid on the Shawnee village near Chillicothe, Ohio, Kenton was captured. He was tied, hands bound, behind an unbroken colt that was then sent galloping through the woods and underbrush. Over the next several weeks, the celebrity scout, a prized captive, was paraded before the Shawnee nation--including the 10-yearold Indian boy Tecumseh--and forced to run the quarter-mile gauntlet five times. During Kenton's last ordeal, his skull was fractured and he was unconscious for two days. The Shawnee called him "Cutta-ho-tha," which he later learned meant "condemned man"; the tribe planned to burn him at the stake. As he poised to run his sixth gauntlet, Kenton leaped over his tormentors in one of his celebrated feats of strength, speed, and agility and ran into the nearby woods but was quickly recaptured. Hours before Kenton was to be killed, Girty, who was working for the British and their Shawnee allies, arrived with a returning war party. He recognized Kenton and made an argument to save his life. In Kenton, the Shawnees saw qualities they admired: skill, cunning, strength, and courage, and for three weeks, Kenton roamed free with Girty and memorized the lay of the land. This proved only to be a stay of execution; Kenton was again bound, tortured, and condemned to die. The execution was to take place at the British trading post at Upper Sandusky in the Ohio Territory. During the march to Sandusky, Kenton's arm and collarbone were broken. British captain Peter Drouillard persuaded the Shawnees to surrender Kenton so that he could be taken to the British fort at Detroit, Mich., for interrogation. Kenton formulated an escape plan and stealthily amassed provisions for the long and hazardous journey back to Kentucky. Rather than flee directly south, as might be expected, he slipped west to the Wabash River in the Indiana Territory and blazed through 400 miles of untracked forest and prairie in 30 days. In 1779, months after his escape, the British and the Indians began an assault on the Kentucky settlements to squash the Revolutionary War and end the European invasion of the Indians' hunting grounds. In response, Clark assembled the Kentucky militia to rout the Indians at their towns along the Little Miami River in Ohio, as well as to harass British forts. With Kenton scouting, Clark led 172 volunteers from Fort Kaskaskia in the Illinois Territory 210 miles eastward in 17 days to capture Vincennes in the Indiana Territory. Kenton was "tall and well proportioned," according to a 1782 description by Joel Collins, who saw him march through Lexington after the Battle of Blue Licks in Kentucky, August 19, 1782. At this time, Kenton had the rank of captain. Kenton married Martha Dowden in 1787; after she died, expecting the couple's fift h child, in a house fire in 1796, he married Elizabeth Jarboe in 1797. In all, Kenton fathered nine children. From 1792 to 1794 Kenton fought along with "Mad" Anthony Wayne in Ohio in the Indian Wars. In April 1792, the middle-aged Kenton first fought Tecumseh, an up-and-coming Shawnee leader. When Tecumseh and 100 Shawnee warriors stole horses from the Kentucky settlements, Kenton and his smaller force tried but failed to stop them. A year later, Kenton led a retaliatory charge against a Shawnee hunting camp in Ohio but failed to catch Tecumseh off guard. While Kenton and his troops plundered the camp, Tecumseh and his warriors rounded up the settler's horses, leaving the Kentuckians without transportation. By 1795, Wayne had soundly defeated a coalition of 1,500 Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers. A new treaty was to be signed at Greenville, Ohio, and each of the affected tribes was to be represented by the principal chief, who had the authority to speak for his people. Kenton was at hand to witness the opening of negotiations, which essentially reaffirmed the area land boundaries established 10 years before. This time around, surveyors wasted no time plotting out new towns where the Indian villages had stood. In 1799 Kenton moved from Kentucky to Ohio, which was still a territory. In March 1806, while riding with a friend near Urbana, Ohio, he stumbled upon an Indian encampment where Tecumseh was holding a war council. Kenton sounded a general alarm among his neighbors and alerted Ohio governor Edward Tiffi n. When Tecumseh was confronted, first by Kenton and a delegation from Springfield, Ohio, then a few days later in a letter from Tiffi n, and once again at a banquet in the new state capital of Chillicothe, where the Shawnee chief was an honored guest, Tecumseh assured the Ohioans that his intentions were peaceful. However, Kenton's instincts to the contrary were correct; Tecumseh was biding his time until his preparations were complete for executing his master war plan. He had been building a coalition of Indians from Ohio, as well as from Indiana and Illinois, and he began hostilities with random attacks in the spring of 1812, supported, in part, by the British. In June the U.S. Congress declared war on Great Britain (see War of 1812). A rumor that Kenton's son Simon Kenton Jr., who was serving under Gen. William Henry Harrison, had been captured by Indians, led Kenton, then age 58, to join Gen. Isaac Shelby's forces on 504 KENTON, WILLIAM G. their march from Kentucky to Canada. Their purpose was to engage the British general Henry Proctor and his Indian allies. Harrison cornered Proctor on the Thames River in southwestern Ontario, Canada, east of Detroit. The battle was over quickly and Tecumseh was killed while leading the charge. Tecumseh's death, which collapsed the Indian resistance in Ohio, ended Kenton's fighting days. Simon Kenton Jr. returned from the war unharmed. Unable to read or write, Kenton struggled to manage his finances and spent much of his later life in poverty. During an 1820 visit to Kentucky, he was imprisoned for more than a year for his debts. He died in 1836 at New Jerusalem, Ohio. In 1863 he was re-interred at the Urbana Cemetery in Urbana, Ohio. Clark, Thomas D. Simon Kenton: Kentucky Scout. Ashland, Ky.: Jesse Stuart Foundation, 1998. Crain, Ray. Simon Kenton: The Great Frontiersman. Urbana, Ohio: Main Graphics, 1992. Eckert, Allan W. The Frontiersmen: A Narrative. Boston: Little, Brown, 1967. Edmunds, R. David, "The Thin Red Line: Tecumseh, The Prophet and Shawnee Resistance." Timeline Magazine 4, no. 6 (December 1987�January 1988): 2�19. Kenton, Edna. Simon Kenton: His Life and Period. Garden City, N.Y.: Country Life Press, 1930. Klink, Carl F. Tecumseh: Fact and Fiction in Early Records. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1961. Simmons, David A. "Simon Kenton." Timeline Magazine 5, no. 2 (April�May 1988): 56� 61. Stephen M. Vest KENTON, WILLIAM G. (b. August 28, 1941, Maysville, Ky.; d. November 5, 1981, Lexington, Ky.). Legislator William Gordon Kenton was the son of William Gordon Kenton Sr. and Martha Roden Kenton. It was reported that he founded the Mason Co. chapter of the Kentucky Young Democrats at age 14. An early mentor of his was Albert B. "Happy" Chandler, whom he met when Chandler visited Maysville High School in 1955, during Kenton's freshman year. After Chandler (1935�1939 and 1955�1959) was elected governor of Kentucky for his second term that same year, he invited Kenton to a ceremony in Frankfort. The school officials made it known that Kenton could attend but would be charged with an unexcused absence for the day, so Chandler moved the ceremony to Maysville. Kenton left his studies at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Va., to work in Chandler's campaign for a third term as governor in 1963; Chandler lost, and Kenton earned his undergraduate degree that year at the University of Kentucky at Lexington (UK). He graduated from the UK Law School in 1966 and began to practice with a firm in downtown Lexington. As an attorney, he represented the cast of a production in Lexington of Oh! Calcutta, a Broadway musical with sexual themes. Kenton won acquittals for his clients, who had been charged with obscenity. He said at the time, "It's not a question of whether it's appealing. My responsibility is to represent clients and protect their rights." He was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives from the 53rd district in Fayette Co., serving 1970�1971, and from the 75th District in Fayette Co. for five consecutive terms (1972�1981), serving as House Speaker from 1976 until 1981. He was the youngest Speaker in the history of Kentucky and, at that time, the youngest in the nation. Kenton's grandfather W. T. Kenton was also a member of the Kentucky House of Representatives and served for several terms, and his great-grandfather Eldrige Kenton served in both the Kentucky House of Representatives and the Kentucky Senate in the 1880s. As House Speaker, Kenton was the principal advocate of his era for greater legislative independence and legislative responsibility. His efforts led to the televising of legislative sessions statewide on Kentucky Educational Television. He believed this was the most important reform in the Kentucky House in his time. He helped to make meetings of legislative committees, where witnesses are heard and key decisions made, open to the press and the public. During his years as House Speaker, Kenton also championed meaningful legislative oversight of the executive branch, a departure from the custom and practice then prevailing. A series of revelations concerning no-bid personal-service contracts led to the formation of the Program Review and Investigation Committee of the House of Representatives, a committee that continues to operate. And Kenton initiated and led to enactment an amendment to the Kentucky Constitution to permit the legislature to override a governor's veto. Even given his ambition for legislative independence, Kenton worked well as House Speaker with three different administrations to produce large increases in funding for education at every level. He also sponsored and led to passage the Homestead Exemption, a tax discount for older homeowners that remains law. Kenton campaigned for reelection on his support for the repeal of the sales tax on food, prescription medicine, and utility bills and for the passing of House Bill 44, which remains a significant restraint on increases in local property taxes. Kenton sponsored legislation to create the Kentucky Cancer Commission and was named its first chairman. He was the principal advocate for the establishment of the Kentucky Horse Park, the tourist attraction located on Ironworks Pk. in Fayette Co. After a brief tussle between Kenton and Governor John Y. Brown Jr. (1979�1983), which Kenton won, the Kentucky Horse Park board was made independent of the Kentucky Parks Department. Without apology, Kenton espoused state government as an agent for social, educational, and economic opportunity for everyday Kentuckians. He thought politics an eminently respectable profession. A master parliamentarian, he is said to have run a "tight ship" as House Speaker. He was a prominent representative of Kentucky in national and regional legislative associations. With his broad body, his resonant, deep bass voice, his ingratiating manner, and his pristine reputation, Kenton became the appealing public face of the state legislature and dominated the Kentucky House of Representatives during three legislative sessions. He brought order to what had been an often-unruly legislative body. In so doing, he shattered several House Speaker's gavels and met all jokes about it with good humor. He became known affectionately as "Boom-Boom." From an early age Kenton had wanted to become governor someday, and he made no effort to hide this ambition. He had begun to appear on lists of potential candidates in an upcoming governor's race when he was stricken in early November 1981 with a pulmonary embolism that quickly led to heart and kidney failure. He died at the University of Kentucky teaching hospital named for Chandler, his mentor. As he struggled for life and while details of his illness were front-page news for several days across Kentucky, he was reelected to the Kentucky House of Representatives by his constituents in Lexington's 75th legislative district. Kenton was 40 years old when he died, leaving his wife and two small children; he was buried at Maysville Cemetery. His widow, Carolyn Kenton, was elected to succeed him as state representative in 1982. In a memorial service in the chamber of the Kentucky House of Representatives when the legislature reconvened in 1982, Governor Brown said, "No one person in our lifetime has had such an impact on this body." A Kentucky Historical Highway Marker at Second and Limestone Sts. in Maysville, in front of the old Maysville High School, honors Kenton. "Assembly Pauses to Honor Kenton," Lexington Herald, January 6, 1982, A5. "The Lost Leader," Lexington Herald, November 6, 1981, A14. Jim Dady KENTON BAPTIST CHURCH. The Kenton Baptist Church was organized on November 7, 1937, at a meeting of the founders and local Baptist ministers at Kenton Station in southern Kenton Co. The original membership consisted of people from the nearby churches of Calvary Baptist, Hickory Grove Baptist, Latonia Baptist, Oak Island Baptist, and Baptist churches in Elsmere, Independence, and Morning View, as well as three candidates for baptism. The first pastor, Harold Lee Davis Jr., was called to serve the following week. By September 1939, the church's membership had grown to 57 and the congregation had applied for admittance to the North Bend Association of Baptists (now Northern Kentucky Baptist Association). Weekly ser vices, held in the Kenton Station Rd. church building, began in 1945 after eight years of biweekly worship. In 1952 the church purchased 1.8 acres on Ky. Rt. 177 (Decoursey Pk.) and broke ground for the current facility on April 11, 1965; only the basement was built at that time. On November 14, 1965, after the final Sunday School at the old building, the members marched up Decoursey Pk. to the new church for the first worship ser vice there. Construction on the sanctuary began in July 1970 and was completed in November of that year. Current ser vices continue to be held in this building. The church has from the earliest days been a supporter of missions and various community projects. KENTON CO. "Kenton Baptist Church History," 1987, Kenton Baptist Church, Kenton Station, Ky. Kenton Baptist Church Minutes, November 7, 1937, Kenton Baptist Church, Kenton Station Ky. 505 Andrea Watkins KENTON BASE BALL ASSOCIATION. The Kenton Base Ball Association was a professional baseball team organized in 1883 and based in Covington. The formation of this team, nicknamed the Kentons, signaled a return of professional baseball to Northern Kentucky after a six-year absence. Though unaffiliated with any league, the Kentons were members of the American Alliance, which was a loose collection of teams linked to the American Association, an early rival of the National League that included the Cincinnati Reds among its members. The American Alliance sought to protect owners and suppress player movement by prohibiting member teams from signing players who broke contracts with other Alliance clubs. The Kentons were owned by a group of Covington civic and business leaders, most notably hatter A. L. Brown, building contractor Charles McDonald, and real estate developer and long-time Covington city assessor John Whitney. The Kentons, sporting white uniforms with maroon caps and red stockings, played at the Kenton Park in Covington. Located at Washington and 17th Sts., near the Kentucky Central Railroad tracks, Kenton Park had a covered wooden grandstand with a seating capacity of approximately 3,500. Some adventurous fans avoided the 25-cent admission price by climbing atop freight cars to view the games. Compared to the Star Base Ball Club of Covington and the Ludlow Base Ball Club that had operated a decade earlier (see Baseball, Early Professional), the Kentons were probably a notch or two lower in the professional baseball pecking order. The Kentons, like the Stars and the Ludlows, played professional and amateur teams throughout the Midwest; however, the Kentons played far fewer games against major league teams. While the Stars and the Ludlows sometimes defeated their more established opponents, the Kentons lost all three games they played against major league teams-- two of these contests were with the Cincinnati Reds, and one was with the National League Detroit Wolverines. The Kentons' lineup featured several former and future major leaguers, including locals Ed Kennedy of Bellevue, Reddy Mack of Newport, and William "Mox" McQuery and John Shoupe from Covington (see Baseball). Moses Fleetwood Walker, a catcher for the Toledo Blue Stockings, was probably the most famous baseball player to play at Kenton Park. Walker is widely considered the last African American to play major league baseball before Jackie Robinson. The Covington Daily Commonwealth urged fans to attend the Kentons-Toledo game to see the "great colored catcher." Changes to the Cincinnati baseball market since the mid-1870s made profitability elusive for the Kentons. Cincinnati had no professional baseball team when the two earlier teams, the Covington Stars and the Ludlows, entered the professional baseball arena in 1875. The Kenton Base Ball Association, however, found itself competing with a thriving Cincinnati Reds club, the defending 1882 American Association champions. For about the same ticket price, the nearby Cincinnati Reds provided fans better-quality baseball entertainment than the Kentons could. Like most early professional baseball teams, the Kentons were underfinanced. Though successful on the field--the team won over 60 percent of its games--the Kentons sank into debt. Even the scheduling of several popu lar Sunday home games could not put the team in the black. Faced with liens against its assets, the Kentons baseball team folded during the 1884 season. "The City," DC, March 27, 1883, 2; April 21, 1883, 2. "Covington," Cincinnati Commercial Gazette, October 22, 1883, 7. Hopkins, G. M. City Atlas of Covington, Kentucky. Philadelphia: G. M. Hopkins, 1877. "Incorporation Notice, Kenton Base Ball Association, of Covington, Ky.," DC, March 30, 1883, 3. "The Kenton Base Ball Club," DC, January 22, 1883, 2. "Local News," DC, April 10, 1884, 4. Greg Perkins KENTON CO. Situated along the Ohio River, Kenton Co. is bordered by Boone Co. on the west, Campbell Co. on the east, and Grant and Pendleton counties on the south. It encompasses 162 square miles. Bridges connect the county to Cincinnati across the Ohio River and to Newport and Campbell Co. across the Licking River. The Kentucky legislature created Kenton Co. in 1840 out of Campbell Co., with the Licking River, the Ohio River, and Dry Creek as the new county's natural boundaries. The town of Independence, at Kenton Co.'s geographic center, was established as a rural county seat. In the 1850s a second courthouse was established in rapidly growing Covington, the site of most of the new county's court proceedings. The population of Kenton Co. was 7,816 in 1840, 17,038 in 1850, more than 129,000 in 1970, 137,000 in 1980, and 142,000 in 1990. After the Civil War, African Americans moved from the South to the North in steady numbers. Before widespread integration began in the United States during the 1960s, many African Americans had settled north of the Ohio River. Nevertheless, Eastside Covington and Elsmere had and continue to have substantial black populations. Many notable people have been associated with Kenton Co. Thomas Sandford (1762�1808) represented Northern Kentucky in 1799 at the second Kentucky Constitutional Convention, in the Kentucky legislature, and in the U.S. Congress from 1803 to 1807. Born in New York City, Richard Southgate (1774�1857) was the patriarch of a prominent Northern Kentucky family; he was also a lawyer and a landholder in both Kenton and Campbell counties. Thomas D. Carneal (1786�1860), a cofounder of the city of Covington and a land developer in Kenton Co., acquired 968 acres and built Elmwood Hall, still standing in present-day Ludlow. John W. Stevenson (1812�1886), a Virginia native and a Covington attorney, became a Kentucky governor (1867�1871) and a U.S. senator. John G. Carlisle (1835�1910), a Democrat who had displayed Southern sympathies, became the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, a U.S. Senator, and the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury. Covington attorney William Goebel (1856�1900) emerged during the late 1880s as the leader of the Progressive wing of the Democratic Party. After a contentious election for Kentucky governor, Goebel was declared elected in January 1900, was shot, was sworn into office, and died soon thereafter, the only sitting governor in the United States ever to be assassinated. Dr. Louise Southgate (1857�1941) was an early female physician and activist. Richard P. Ernst (1858�1934), from a banking family in Kenton Co., helped to finance the establishment of the YMCA in Covington and later, from 1921 to 1927, was a Republican U.S. senator. Kenton Co. resident Brent Spence (1874�1967), from pioneer family stock in Campbell Co., was an influential New Deal congressman from 1931 to 1963; it was Spence who secured for Covington its public housing, its floodwalls, and funding for urban renewal; he is also credited with having Covington chosen as the site of an Internal Revenue Ser vice Center. Historic landmarks abound in Kenton Co. One of the foremost is the Point, at the juncture of the Licking and Ohio rivers, a site visited in 1751 by one of Kentucky's first explorers, Christopher Gist. Mary Ingles is also known to have passed by the Point during her legendary escape from Indians in 1756. On another occasion, in 1771, Simon Kenton (1755�1836) and two companions visited the Point. In 1779 the Kentucky militia departed from the Point to engage in war against the Indians living north of the Ohio River; and in 1780 some 1,000 men under George Rogers Clark gathered for another Indian campaign north of the Ohio River. A decade later, in 1793, Leonard Covington (1766�1813), for whom Kenton Co.'s largest city was named, drilled militia at the Point under U.S. general Mad Anthony Wayne; and later Kennedy's Ferry, operating from the Point in Covington, served Fort Washington, across the river in Ohio, during the War of 1812. In 1832 Simon Kenton, then residing at Urbana, Ohio, because of illness, cut short his return trip to the Point for a promised reunion of veteran militia. Banklick Creek, which runs along the 3-L Highway (Ky. Rt. 17), was also an important landmark and one of the parts of Campbell Co. used to form Kenton Co. James Taylor (1769�1848), who helped found Newport during the 1790s, when Kenton Co. was still part of Campbell Co., acquired a farm and operated a mill on Banklick Creek. His contemporary, Revolutionary War veteran William DeCoursey (1756�1841), for whom Decoursey Pk. (Ky. Rt. 16) in Kenton Co. is named, later also settled at the Licking River near Banklick Creek, where he obtained authorization to operate a ferry. Of the roads in Kenton Co., a lane at the property of Robert Kyle, who lived near present-day KENTON CO. 507 Pike St. and Madison Ave. in Covington, was earlier a buffalo trace. In 1793 the Kentucky legislature ordered the marking of a road from Frankfort to Cincinnati. Later, Campbell Co. justices of the peace ordered a road from DeCoursey's Ferry to the Georgetown Rd. Abner Gaines established a stagecoach line between Covington and Georgetown and later built the Gaines Tavern (still standing) in present-day Walton. In 1839 the Kentucky legislature chartered the Banklick Turnpike Company in Kenton Co. to modernize and macadamize the surface, and then rechartered it in 1845, after a financial panic. From the mid-1820s, the Banklick Rd. was surpassed in local volume by a road to Lexington that led through eastern Boone Co. In 1834 the Kentucky legislature chartered the Covington and Lexington Turnpike Company (bypassing the Banklick Rd.), and the final macadamizing of this turnpike to Lexington in the early 1850s accelerated Covington's development, as did the opening of the Covington and Lexington Railroad in 1854 and the John A. Roebling Bridge in 1867�1868. For many years, Northern Kentucky truck farmers favored sending their produce to Cincinnati markets. Similarly, in some years producers throughout Kentucky provided half the number of hogs slaughtered in Cincinnati. Businesses with ties to Cincinnati often located in Northern Kentucky as Covington grew and became a bedroom suburb of Cincinnati. Covington's population was 743 in 1830, more than 2,000 in 1840, 9,000 in 1850, and greater than 16,000 in 1860. In 1862 Confederate soldiers advanced into Boone Co. toward the line of military fortifications constructed in Kenton Co. from Ludlow into Campbell Co. Besides discouraging the invaders, these forts and fortifications (see Civil War Fortifications) permanently marked the landscape in both counties as places in Civil War history. Union general U. S. Grant's parents resided in Covington, and although consensus favored the Union, proSouthern sentiments in Covington and other parts of Northern Kentucky were also strong. Thereafter, Covington and most of Kenton Co. joined Kentucky in becoming bastions of strength for the Democratic Party, which had joined with emerging Progressive elements to dominate the county's politics. However, in 2006, for the first time, the number of Republicans registered to vote in Kenton Co. exceeded the number of Democrats. Throughout the 19th century, Kenton Co. was a focal point for German and Irish settlement (see German Americans; Irish Americans). After the Civil War, the county African American population steadily grew, as freed black slaves left rural areas for cities such as Covington (see African Americans). The institutions that these ethnic groups established made the county a cosmopolitan center for its day. By 1850, ten years after its creation, Kenton Co. was the second-most-populous county in Kentucky, with 16,117 people, and Covington was the second-largest city in Kentucky, with a population of 9,408, trailing only Louisville. Kenton Co. was a major industrial center throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, known for brewing (see Brewing Industry; Bavarian Brewing Company), brickyards, bronze and brass products (see Michaels Art Bronze Company), candy and ice cream manufacturing, dairies, distilling (see Distilleries; Walsh Distillery; New England Distillery), glassmaking (see Hemingray Glass Company), icehouses, iron and steel manufacturing (see Stewart Iron Works), locomotives (see Covington Locomotive and Manufacturing Works; Houston, Stanwood & Gamble Company), lumber, machine tools, meatpacking (see Goetta), packaging equipment (see R.A. Jones & Company Inc.), paper bags (see Duro Bag Manufacturing Company), safes and locks, textiles and cordage, tobacco products, toys, trucks, wine production (see Gibson Wine Company; Monte Casino), and X-ray equipment (see Kelley-Koett Company). In 1869 the Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington Railroad (LC&L) reached Covington. In 1883 the Latonia Agricultural Association established the Latonia Racecourse adjacent to the LC&L, whose passenger trains conveyed patrons to the famous racetrack. Electric streetcar ser vice was extended to the racetrack in 1893. Racing top thoroughbreds and offering substantial purses, the Latonia Racecourse achieved a status similar to that of Keeneland Race Course in Lexington and Churchill Downs in Louisville. It closed in 1939. In 1877 passenger and freight ser vice began in Kenton Co. on the Cincinnati Southern Railroad's new tracks out of Ludlow. Later, the railroad corporation leasing the tracks established express service between Richwood Station and Cincinnati. With offers of free or discounted commuter service, the railroad enticed homebuyers to populate new subdivision developments in Erlanger and Crescent Springs. West from Covington, along the Ohio River, the Dry Creek Turnpike connected to the Anderson Ferry in Boone Co. In 1912 Kentucky established a state highway commission. At that time, Kenton Co. purchased toll roads and eliminated tollbooths in the county. As a part of the new interstate Dixie Highway (U.S. 25), the Covington and Lexington Turnpike in Kenton Co. was widened to 18 feet and modernized to two lanes of concrete. In 1921 contractors completed paving from Covington into Florence. Thereafter gas stations, a gourmet strip of restaurants, and other businesses thrived along the new Dixie Highway. Today, traveling on the Dixie Highway south from Covington in Kenton Co., one passes through Park Hills, Fort Wright, Fort Mitchell, Lakeside Park, Crestview Hills, Edgewood, Erlanger, and Elsmere, before entering Boone Co. The old Dry Creek Baptist Church in Kenton Co. still stands as a residence at the juncture of Dixie Highway and Buttermilk Pk. in Fort Mitchell, and the old Five Mile House (see Barleycorn's Five Mile House) opposite Turkeyfoot Rd. in Lakeside Park has become a permanent restaurant. I-75, which runs through Kenton Co., was opened in 1962�1963, and in the 1970s the entire I-275 Circle Freeway was completed through Kenton Co. These expressways led to a rapid suburbanization. Villa Hills, a postwar suburb incorpo- rated in 1962, was typical of the population changes occurring in Kenton Co. as citizens fled Covington for the suburbs. Numbering a only few hundred residents when first incorporated, Villa Hills by 1990 had a population of 7,739. Likewise, Delta Air Lines, with its hub at the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport in Boone Co., became a major employer drawing many new suburban residents when it built a $46 million terminal in 1987. In Kenton Co., as in all of the counties of Northern Kentucky historically, tobacco has been an important economic component. In 1845, 22 Covington tobacco businesses manufactured $300,000�$400,000 in products annually. And by 1880 Covington's tobacco companies were producing 2.5 million pounds of plug and fi ne chewing tobacco. The development of white burley tobacco after 1860 led to an increase in the tobacco trade through Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky as more farmers in Northern Kentucky and the Central Bluegrass region of Kentucky began growing this variety. County extension services throughout Kentucky taught boys farming and related skills. Then in 1926, Marie Binder Rich, one of three graduates in 1916 of the Independence High School, helped start an educational extension ser vice for girls by funding home economics training at Kenton Co.'s Piner School. Truck farming has also been important in Kenton Co. Still operating south of Covington near Erlanger in Kenton Co. is the Tewes poultry farm, visible from I-75. The Kruempelmann truck farm on the Dixie Highway in Fort Mitchell operated from about 1865 until 1995. Besides delivering produce to the Pearl St. Produce Market in Cincinnati, Henry Kruempelmann, the farm's owner, supplied the large Castellini produce operation in Cincinnati with fresh farm goods. In 1929 L. B. Wilson, who owned the Liberty Bank and several downtown theaters in Covington, started WCKY radio station, just as Covington's population was peaking. But after World War II, Covington experienced a population decline. The town's population was almost 30,000 in 1880, almost 43,000 in 1900, 65,000 in 1930, 60,000 in 1960, and 52,500 in 1970. At the time, a Northern Kentucky industrial park, drawing industry away from the cities to the suburbs, had opened in Boone Co. In 1976 the Florence Mall in Boone Co. opened with Sears and JCPenney as tenants, both stores having once been successful enterprises in downtown Covington (see Covington, Downtown). Locally owned Covington stores, including Eilerman & Sons, Men's Clothiers and John R. Coppin, went out of business. The new Northern Kentucky Convention Center opened in downtown Covington in 1998, and a year later, a new federal courthouse opened nearby on W. Fifth St. The county, after opening a new high-rise building in Covington that houses its offices and the jail, in 1999 also opened its new courthouse in Covington on Madison Ave., near RiverCenter. Established in 1921 by the Benedictine Sisters of Covington, Villa Madonna College relocated to 508 KENTON CO. PUBLIC LIBRARY Crestview Hills in 1968, and in a dedication ceremony featuring a visit and speech by President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963�1969) became Thomas More College. Covington is home to a number of cultural institutions, including the Baker-Hunt Foundation, the Behringer- Crawford Museum, and the Carnegie Visual and Performing Arts Center. Of the several catastrophes that have occurred in Kenton Co., the Ohio River flood of 1937, which inflicted great damage on all the county's river communities, remains the most memorable. Currently, major employers include Fidelity Investments (Covington), the Internal Revenue Ser vice Center (Covington), and the St. Elizabeth Medical Center (Edgewood and Covington). In 2002 shipments from Kenton Co.'s manufacturers totaled $1.2 billion, and the county's wholesale trade was nearly $2 billion. In 2000 Kenton Co.'s population, at 151,464, was the third-highest among Kentucky counties. Crowley, Patrick. "Study: Airport Driving Growth," KE, B1�B2. Gastright, Joseph F. Gentlemen Farmers to City Folks: A Study of Wallace Woods, Covington, Kentucky. Cincinnati: Cincinnati Historical Society, 1980. "Louisville, Cincinnati, and Lexington Railway Time Card," DC, September 15, 1879, 3. Reis, Jim. "Down with the Toll Gates!" KP, July 13, 1998, 4K. ------. "Drought of '53�54 Showed Need for New Lakes in Region," KP, September 29, 1997, 4K. ------. "Independence' Birth No Accident," KP, February 24, 1992, 4K. ------. "Independence Firemen Note 50 years," KP, September 14, 1987, 4K. ------. "Old Roads Still Major Thoroughfares," KP, July 7, 1986, 4K. ------. "Paving Dixie Highway Quite a Feat Back in 1916," KP, January 6, 1997, 4K. Schroeder, Cindy. "1998 Saw Boom in Construction for Independence," KE, January 7, 1999, B3. Smith, Allen Webb. Beginning at "the Point," a Documented History of Northern Kentucky and Environs, the Town of Covington in Particular, 1751�1834. Park Hills, Ky., Self-published, 1977. Tenkotte, Paul A. "Rival Cities to Suburbs: Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 1790�1890," PhD diss., Univ. of Cincinnati, 1989. John Boh KENTON CO. PUBLIC LIBRARY. The Kenton Co. Public Library was created in 1967, when county voters signed petitions establishing the county library district, to be funded by a tax on property owners. The Covington Public Library, the ErlangerElsmere Library, and the Kenton Co. Bookmobile were merged to create the county library system. The Covington Public Library, opened in 1901, provided ser vices free to city residents, since the library was funded with city funds. Located in a Carnegie building at Robbins and Scott Sts. in Covington beginning in 1902, the library periodically made arrangements to provide ser vices to county residents outside the city, but the lack of funding for basic ser vices prevented establishing permanent arrangements for serving county residents. The Erlanger-Elsmere Library, established by the Erlanger Woman's Club in 1911, provided services for suburban residents. The members of the Erlanger Woman's Club served as a volunteer staff, raised funds for expenses, and received materials for the collection. Limited funding was received from the cities of Erlanger and Elsmere. The library occupied several buildings in Erlanger and Elsmere until 1958, when a house was purchased on Bartlett Ave. in Erlanger. From 1928 until 1942, the ErlangerElsmere Library was operated by the Covington Public Library. Lack of funding from the cities of Erlanger and Elsmere resulted in a return of management to the Erlanger Woman's Club until the county library system was established. In 1953 the Kenton Co. Fiscal Court obtained funding for a bookmobile to serve rural residents of the county. The bookmobile contained more than 3,000 books and made stops throughout the county at schools, firehouses, and other community locations. By 1964 more than 150,000 books had been circulated by the bookmobile. That same year, a small library was established in the Crescent Springs Presbyterian Church. For each of these libraries and the bookmobile, inadequate funding stood in the way of providing quality ser vices. Consultants reported that the Covington Public Library was operating far below the standards set by the American Library Association, while the Erlanger-Elsmere Library and the bookmobile had no professional staff and limited resources for the purchase of new materials. In April 1967, a committee of Kenton Co. residents began a campaign to form a countywide library district with sufficient reliable funding. A county system would be eligible for state and federal aid. Thousands of free books, records, and fi lms from the Kentucky Department of Libraries would be available to a county system. The new public library system would also allow for the construction of a new $1.1 million main library, expansion of the Erlanger-Elsmere Library, and the addition of another bookmobile. The library would be free to everyone in Kenton Co. Clyde Middleton and Laurence Grause were cochairmen of a committee that asked for 1,000 volunteers to obtain signatures from county residents for the petition drive, scheduled during the week of April 23�30, 1967. Businesses placed messages about the campaign on their outdoor signs, and volunteers went from door to door asking for signatures. The petition needed 14,865 signatures, or 51 percent of the number of voters casting ballots in the previous general election. The campaign was successful, obtaining more than 16,000 signatures, so the Kenton Co. Fiscal Court accepted the petition and issued an order that the library tax appear on the county's October tax bills. By October 1967, Covington city commissioners had approved the agreement to transfer the Covington Library operation to the new Kenton Co. Library District. Kenton Co. judge James Dressman appointed a new library board, made up of Mrs. Harry Carl, Mrs. Ruth Eubank, Joseph Gausepohl, Laurence Grause, and George Weidner. By January 1968, Mary Ann Mongan had been ap- pointed the head librarian and the Kenton Co. Public Library had assumed control of the Covington Public Library, the Erlanger-Elsmere Library, and the Kenton Co. Bookmobile. A new $21,000 bookmobile was also purchased and transferred to the country's library system by the state. One of the first duties of the new board was to select a site for a new library to replace the outdated Carnegie library building in Covington. The City of Covington and the library board agreed on a site in town at the corner of Fift h and Scott Sts. The site was declared an urban renewal project and the city subsequently condemned the property to enable acquisition. Robert Ehmet Hayes was chosen as the architect for the new library building. In December 1971 the official groundbreaking ceremony took place, and construction of a new Kenton Co. library was under way. On Monday, January 21, 1974, at 502 Scott St., it opened its doors. The new $1.4 million library won the prestigious Honors Award of the Kentucky Society of Architects for its designer, Robert Ehmet Hayes and Associates. The library board now sought a site for a new Erlanger branch library to replace the two-story converted house on Bartlett Ave. In 1976 a site at the corner of Dixie Highway (U.S. 25) and Montgomery St. was chosen because it had the greatest volume of traffic and offered good visibility. The new Erlanger branch library, a $1 million, 15,800-squarefoot building at 3130 Dixie Highway, with five times the capacity of the former branch, was completed and opened to the public in September 1978. Joining the Kenton Co. Library staff in 1974 was Covington native Michael Averdick, who served on the library's staff for the next 23 years. As associate director, he was responsible for beginning the local history and genealogy collection that preserved many Northern Kentucky records and was later acclaimed as the region's most outstanding collection. With the expansion of the library system, operating moneys became an issue during the late 1970s and 1980s because library funding was limited by the Kentucky legislature and double-digit inflation presented additional challenges. Cutbacks in library ser vices were required: one bookmobile was eliminated, library hours were reduced, and spending for books and materials was decreased. Additional financial and material support was received, however, from the Friends of the Kenton Co. Public Library, an organization that was formed in 1979 under the leadership of Kathy Baker and Ruth Eubank, who had worked on the petition drive that created the library. The organization collected donated books and held book sales to support library programs. Circulation of materials by the library system increased substantially during the 1970s, going from 290,150 in 1969�1970 to 667,412 in 1979�1980. As the suburban population grew and the population in Covington decreased, usage shifted toward the Erlanger branch library. Also, as population in the county moved southward, the bookmobile schedule was adjusted to allow more stops in southern Kenton Co. In the mid-1980s, KENTON CO. SCHOOL DISTRICT 509 the county library board asked library staff to complete