Introduction of the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky
The Encylopedia of Northern Kentucky in partnership with NKY.com. Edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool, The University Press of Kentucky. Republished for the World Wide Web by NKY.com and Enquirer Media. A Project of the Thomas D. Clark Foundation, Inc.
The Enquirer/Michael E. Keating INTRODUCTION Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z | Index Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky in partnership with NKY.com CONTENTS FOREWORD ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS GUIDE FOR READERS CINCINNATI/NORTHERN KENTUCKY INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. Located in Hebron, in Boone County... (cont’d on pg. 179) A Project of the Thomas D. Clark Foundation, Inc. Mark A. Neikirk, President Sherry Jelsma, Vice President Dave Adkisson, Treasurer Melanie J. Kilpatrick, Secretary Thomas R. Brumley, Immediate Past President Michael J. Hammons, Past President Board of Directors Dave Adkisson, Frankfort Jane Beshear, Frankfort Thomas R. Brumley, Lexington John S. Carroll, Lexington Sara W. Combs, Stanton Michael J. Hammons, Park Hills Sherry Jelsma, Shelbyville Martha C. Johnson, Melbourne Mark A. Neikirk, Highland Heights Alice Stevens Sparks, Crescent Springs Robert Ted Steinbock, Louisville Mrya Leigh Tobin, New York City James M. Wiseman, Erlanger The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky Edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool THE UNIVERSITY PRESS OF KENTUCKY Copyright © 2009 by The University Press of Kentucky Scholarly publisher for the Commonwealth, serving Bellarmine University, Berea College, Centre College of Kentucky, Eastern Kentucky University, The Filson Historical Society, Georgetown College, Kentucky Historical Society, Kentucky State University, Morehead State University, Murray State University, Northern Kentucky University, Transylvania University, University of Kentucky, University of Louisville, and Western Kentucky University. All rights reserved. Editorial and Sales Offices: The University Press of Kentucky 663 South Limestone Street, Lexington, Kentucky 40508-4008 www.kentuckypress.com 13 12 11 10 09 5 4 3 2 1 Maps by Jeff Levy at the Gyula Pauer Center for Cartography & GIS, University of Kentucky Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The encyclopedia of northern Kentucky / edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8131-2565-7 (hardcover : acid-free paper) ISBN 978-0-8131-2585-5 (limited leather edition) 1. Kentucky, Northern—Encyclopedias. 2. Kentucky—Encyclopedias. I. Tenkotte, Paul A. II. Claypool, James C. F451.E55 2009 976.9'3003—dc22 2009027969 This book is printed on acid-free recycled paper meeting the requirements of the American National Standard for Permanence in Paper for Printed Library Materials. o Manufactured in the United States of America. Member of the Association of American University Presses Editorial Staff Editors in Chief Paul A. Tenkotte James C. Claypool Associate Editors David Hatter John Schlipp David E. Schroeder Robert Stevie Michael R. Sweeney John W. Thieret (deceased) Thomas S. Ward Jack Wessling Topical Editors AGRICULTURE ART BIOGRAPHY BUSINESS AND COMMERCE COUNTIES AND TOWNS ETHNOLOGY GOVERNMENT, LAW, AND POLITICS LITERATURE Lynn David and James Wallace Rebecca Bilbo Michael R. Sweeney John Boh David E. Schroeder Theodore H. H. Harris John Schlipp Danny Miller (deceased) MEDICINE Dennis B. Worthen MILITARY James A. Ramage MUSIC, MEDIA, AND ENTERTAINMENT RELIGION SPORTS AND RECREATION TRANSPORTATION WOMEN John Schlipp Thomas S. Ward and Alex Hyrcza James C. Claypool Joseph F. Gastright (deceased) Karen McDaniel To Michael Hammons, and to the memory of his friend Thomas D. Clark, Kentuckyâ€™s historian laureate, who both felt that Northern Kentucky deserved its own encyclopedia. Also to the memory of John W. Thieret, Danny Miller, and Joseph F. Gastright, members of our editorial staff who did not live to see the finished project. Sponsors Commonwealth of Kentucky, Governorâ€™s Office, Department for Local Government Scripps Howard Foundation/The Kentucky Post The Carol Ann and Ralph V. Haile Jr./U.S. Bank Foundation Thomas More College Gannett Foundation/Enquirer Mark and Rosemary Schlachter Alice Sparks George and Ellen Rieveschl Forward Quest Inc. dba Vision 2015 Fifth Third Bank Northern Kentucky Bank of Kentucky Eva and Oakley Farris Louise Taft Semple Foundation Bavarian Waste Services Fidelity Investments Libertas Technologies LLC Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America Inc. Kenton County Public Library Boone County Public Library City of Florence Great American Financial Resources Inc. Greenebaum Doll and McDonald PLLC J.J.B. Hilliard and W.L. Lyons Inc. Kenton County Fiscal Court Bruce Lunsford National City Bank Citigroup Business Services City of Crestview Hills Ruth M. Doering Ray and Norma Mueller City of Newport PNC Bank R.C. Durr Foundation Inc. Northern Kentucky University Robert E. Rich Northern Kentucky Heritage League Mountjoy and Bressler LLP SSK Communities City of Fort Wright Clarence Lassetter City of Erlanger Michael and Kit Hammons Northern Kentucky Chamber of Commerce Victory Community Bank Harold Brown Weldon Kenneth and Kathleen Williams BlueStar Doug and Kate Hendrickson William Terwort Friends of Steely Library, Northern Kentucky University Nancy J. Tretter Sue Bogardus Elissa May-Plattner Chris Bolling Heritage Bank Dorothy and Harry Warmbier Paul L. Whalen George J. Budig Nicholas J. and Nina Clooney Bruce Ferguson George E. Fern Co. Northern Kentucky Medical Society Col Owens Leon Boothe Ron and Linda Troxell Authors Marie Ackman Al Alfaro Fran Allen Paul Anderson Barbara Arrighi Roger Auge II Michael R. Averdick William Baker Sandy Banta Sarah A. Barlage Sabrina Alcorn Baron Marja Barrett Fred Bassett Matthew E. Becher Mildred Belew Amber L. Benson William H. Bergmann Peggy Bertelsman F. Keith Biddle Rebecca Bilbo Donna M. Bloemer Nancy Due Bloemer Terry Boehmker Charles H. Bogart John Boh Vicki Bolden Verna L. Bond-Broderick William W. Bowdy Jarrett Boyd Perry Bratcher John R. S. Brooking* Barbara Loomis Brown Lucinda Brown Rick Brueggemann Ruth Wade Cox Brunings William S. Bryant Millie Bush Anne S. Butler Vic Canfield Michael Capek Robin Caraway Paul A. Carl Jr. Sarah Caruso Pamela Ciafardini Casebolt Peggy Casey James R. Cassidy Garry A. Casson Robert C. Cetrulo Gail Chastang Arden G. Christen Judith G. Clabes Karen Claiborne Don Clare Donald A. Clark Kara Clark James C. Claypool Sharon Claypool Nina Clooney John B. Conrad* Diane Perrine Coon Kenneth Crawford Deborah Diersen Crocker Evelyn G. Cropper Carol Culbertson Steve Culbertson Edna Marie Cummins Mary Carmen Cupito Jim Dady Betty Maddox Daniels Lynn David Bill Davis Don DeBats Ronald Decker Norbert F. DeJaco Debbie Dennie Eric Deters Tom DiBello D. W. Dills Barbara Droege Glenn Drummond James R. Duvall David J. Ebacher Joyce Edmondson Chuck Eilerman Ron Ellis William E. Ellis Jim Embry Mary Louis Evans James Farrell Rob Farrell Joe Feiertag Jim Feldman Bruce Ferguson Mary Fisher Anne Moser Flannery Patrick M. Flannery* Deloris Foxworthy Pat Frew Anthony W. Frohlich Kelly Fulmer Jannes W. Garbett Joseph F. Gastright* Blanche Gaynor Robert A. Genheimer Robert Gioielli Bill Goller Sue Ellen Grannis Jennifer Gregory Jeanne Greiser Matthew J. Grimes Noelle Higdon Grimes Donald E. Grosenbach Barry Grossheim Peter Grote Heather Gulley Patricia A. Hahn Lori Haller Robert Hans Mary Jo Hardcorn Fred C. Harmeyer Lorna Petty Harrell Theodore H. H. Harris Dave Hatter Brenda Hawkins Raymond G. Hebert Margaret Prentice Hecker Jennifer Hedger Ken Heil Michelle Heil Maggie Heran Tim Herrmann Dennis Hetzel Joe Heving Jr. Ann Hicks Joy Higgins Charles D. Hockensmith Jennifer Holladay Randolph Hollingsworth AUTHORS Steve Huddleston Barbara Huffman Eric R. Hugo Marc F. Hult Laurel Humes Alex Hyrcza Eric R. Jackson Steven D. Jaeger Donald James Sharon Jobert Gary Lynwood Johnston Coralie Runyon Jones Judith Butler Jones Bridget Kaiser Denny Kelley-Warnick Jerome L. Kendall Amanda C. Kerley Susan Claypool Kettles Charles King Peggy L. Kiser John E. Kleber John Klee Larry Klein Judy Lang Klosterman James C. Klotter Douglas Knerr Jessica Knox-Perkins Michael Kraus Jeannine Kreinbrink Deborah Kohl Kremer Gretchen Landrum Rob Langenderfer Karen L. Leek Terry W. Lehmann Suzann Parker Leist John E. Leming Jr. John A. Lenox Janet M. Lester Karl Lietzenmayer Thomas J. Lippert Tony Llamas Chris Lorentz Hardin Lowe Mary Ellen Lucas Andrew O. Lutes Julia Mace Darrell Maines James L. Mallory Donn Manker Kelly Marsh MaryJoy Martin Debian Marty Ken Massey Linda Maus Mac McArthur Mike McCormick Karen McDaniel James L. McDonald Sharon McGee Stephen T. McMurtry Chris Meiman Scott Merriman Katherine Meyer Rick Meyers Caroline R. Miller Danny Miller* Orloff G. Miller Carol Mitchell Dan Moore J. C. Morgan Melinda G. Motley Janice Mueller Maggie Mulshine Margaret A. Murphy Jacquelene P. Mylor Patricia Nagelkirk Deborah R. Neace Judy L. Neff William C. Neuroth Jon Nicholas Betty Lee Nordheim Jim Oâ€™Brien Donna Oehler Deborah Onkst Wayne Onkst Robin Rider Osborne Col Owens George Palmer Connie Pangburn Charles E. Parrish Susan Patterson Steven Pattie Martha Pelfry Greg Perkins Mike Philipps Elissa Plattner Jenny Plemen Bernie Poe Michael J. Poehner Daryl Polley Marv Price Frank X. Prudent Jane D. Purdon James A. Ramage Thomas Rambo Caroline Ransdell Richard Rawe Aprile Conrad Redden Michael D. Redden Johnna Reeder Virginia Reeves Jim Reis Kenneth A. Reis Carol Elsener Rekow Robert M. Rennick Jennifer Adkins Reynolds Robert T. Rhode J. Michael Rhyne Doris Riley Laurie Risch Daniel Edgar Ritchie Alice Kennelly Roberts Stephen Rockenbach Nicole Ropp Michael D. Rouse Richard M. Sacksteder Kathryn Salyers Brad Sayles Laura Schaefer Paul John Schewene Thomas D. Schiffer John Schlipp Neil Schmidt Craig Schneider Robert Schrage David E. Schroeder Lydia Cushman Schurman Melinda Senters Lou Settle Lois Ann Shannon Pam Sheppard Warren J. Shonert* Mary Lou Simons Kareem A. Simpson Patrick Snadon Robert B. Snow David Sorrell Sue Sorrell J. T. Spence Bernie Spencer Sienna Spooner Iris Spoor Annemarie Springer ix x AUTHORS Ann Stanchina Sherry Stanforth Brenda Caldwell Stanley William Michael Stanley Steve Stevens Robert W. Stevie Bridget B. Striker Michael D. Stull Eric Summe Gabrielle Summe Michael R. Sweeney Phil Taliaferro Paul A. Tenkotte William Terwort Mary Texter Bill Thomas Sandra Thomas Dan Tobergte Don Heinrich Tolzmann Nancy J. Tretter Robert Trundle Matthew Turner Michael L. Turney Rebecca Mitchell Turney Dennis W. Van Houten* Jane Van Ryan George Vaughn Robert Michael Venable Stephen M. Vest Dale E. Voelker James Wallace Laurie Walton Thomas S. Ward Margaret Warminski Andrea Watkins Robert D. Webster Lee Shai Weissbach Evelyn Welch Alexandra K. Weldon Rebecca Schaffer Wells Suzanne C. Wendt Jack Wessling John West Paul L. Whalen John H. White Robert White Michael Whitehead Mary Francis Whitson Melissa J. Wickelhaus Donald M. Wiedeman Laurie Wilcox Teresa Wilkins Elizabeth Comer Williams Mike Williams Robert Joseph Williams Brenda L. Wilson Meg Winchell Kathryn Witt Ralph Wolff Teresa Wolking Pat Workman Dennis B. Worthen Carolyn Zink * Deceased. Contents Foreword xiii Acknowledgments Introduction xv xvii Guide for Readers xxi The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky Select Bibliography 987 Illustration Credits 991 Index 993 1 Foreword T he past 25 years have served as a bridge from one century to another. During this time, Northern Kentucky has truly come into its own. Now there is another sign of its maturity and cohesiveness—a regional encyclopedia. I am a lifelong Kentuckian who was fortunate enough to have been given the assignment of a lifetime. In the early 1980s I came to Northern Kentucky as editor of its principal newspaper, the Kentucky Post. Old-timers were still calling it the Post and Times-Star, a sure sign of affection and regard. With this plum assignment, I had a front-row seat for the passing show that was the Renaissance of a region struggling to define and understand itself. Northern Kentucky’s identity crisis was endemic. Beset by a multiplicity of largely ineffective governmental silos, a speckled and colorful history, a collective stepchild mentality (not quite good enough for Cincinnati and not quite part of Kentucky), it was a region that embraced a “circle-the-wagons” mentality. It was a bit of culture shock for me, too, having grown up in the breadbasket region of the state, having spent my college days in the inner Bluegrass region, and having started my professional career in Evansville, across the river from my hometown of Henderson. To me, Northern Kentucky was a vibrant, interesting place, one of the few truly urban areas of Kentucky, full of untapped potential and too much whining. Coming through the “Cut in the Hill” of I-75, what I saw was spectacular beauty that took my breath away; what I heard was a lot of complaining. As I traveled the area, I beheld lush fields and farms and met common-sense, down-to-earth people who belonged to the land. I discovered a region rich in diversity of experiences, lifestyles, and opportunities. Yet I heard little appreciation for the fullness of this largesse. To me Northern Kentucky was the truly “greater” part of Greater Cincinnati, though it called itself the “Southern side.” We took for granted the advantages others envied: rivers, interstates, an airport, railroads, the architectural heritage of our urban cores, the livability of our suburbs and the vastness of our rural lands, and our citizenry, people who stay put. The rest of the state called us the third leg of the Golden Triangle, while we collectively limped along carrying the burden of our insecurities. But the “Perfect Storm” was gathering, and things were about to change. Necessity being the mother of invention, economic good times drove much of the progress. A cohesive, though too short-lived, legislative caucus helped. The exponential growth of our regional university mattered. An effective newspaper that could build a “tribal fire” was crucial. The influx of new industry, well-paying jobs, and new, energetic human resources and perspective made a difference. The real catalyst, however, was a human resource of another kind: Northern Kentucky’s own people. These were the men and women who had lived here all their lives, pulled themselves up by the bootstraps, become self-made successes in their businesses, built homes and roads and office buildings, started banks and created jobs, and generally changed the landscape of our perceptions, starting with our front door at the riverfront. They were ready to give back, and they did so with a vengeance. Superseding lazy political divisions, they mobilized an eager citizenry at its grass roots. Community-wide visioning created a road map for a purposeful journey into a promising future. We began to embrace our regionalness. We started to do less whining and more strategizing. We got to know each other. We followed the road map in a parade to the greater good. We began to celebrate Northern Kentucky in its rich wholeness. We are not finished, of course; there is still the future and much to do. But we embrace challenges as opportunities, and we have built a solid foundation for growth and prosperity, for a good place to live and put down deep roots. We have an abiding sense of place and belonging. This encyclopedia adds bricks to the structure. It is yet another example of what can be done when leadership galvanizes the talent and energy of creative, caring people around an effort that matters. Its editors, writers, staff, volunteers, and funders are to be applauded for creating a remarkable resource that will serve us for decades to come. Judith G. Clabes Acknowledgments T he Editors in Chief wish to express their sincere gratitude to the individuals, institutions, and businesses that made this encyclopedia possible. The following (listed alphabetically) assisted greatly in research or in the loan of pertinent materials such as photographs and documents, or in both ways: American Diversified Development Inc., Archdiocese of Cincinnati Archives, Roger Auge II, Michael R. Averdick, Matthew E. Becher, Behringer-Crawford Museum, Mildred Belew, Sue Bogardus, Charles Bogart, John Boh, Boone Co. Historical Society, Boone Co. Historic Preservation Review Board, Boone Co. Public Library, Bracken Co. Historical Society, Thomas B. Brackman, Cindy Brown, Ruth Brunings, Sharon Cahill, Campbell Co. Historical Society, Campbell Co. Public Library, Gene Carinci, Carroll Co. Public Library, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, City of Crestview Hills, Sharon Claypool, Nick and Nina Clooney, College Football Hall of Fame, Elizabeth Comer, Diane Perrine Coon, Dinsmore Homestead, Diocese of Dallas, Archives, M. Keith Dykes, Bob and Martha Hoppenjans Edwards, Ron and Christine Einhaus, C. Dale Elifrits, Ron Ellis, Evergreen Cemetery, Bill Finke, Flushing (NY) Cemetery, Gallatin Co. Historical Society, Gallatin Co. Public Library, Grant Co. Historical Society, Grant Co. Public Library, Jeanne Greiser, Don Grossenbach, Ray Hadorn Jr., Lori Haller, Larry Hanneken, Robert Hans, H. Edward Harber, Mary Jo Hardcorn, Theodore H. H. Harris, Hebrew Union College, Ken Heil, Maggie Heran, Dennis Hetzel, James Hill, Jill Hoefker, Dave Horn, Sharon Jobert, Bridget Kaiser, Kansas City (Mo.) Public Library, Kenton Co. Historical Society, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Kentucky Department of Transportation, Kentucky Gateway Museum, Kentucky Historical Society, Charles King, John Kleber, John Klee, Larry Klein, Jeannine Kreinbrink, Fred Krome, Nichole Lainhart, Lakeview Cemetery, Cleveland, Walter E. Langsam, Lexington Public Library, Library of Congress, Karl Lietzenmayer, Lloyd Library, Andrew Lon- neman Family, Los Angeles Public Library, Maysville Cemetery, Jim McHale, Randy McNutt, Paul Meier, Caroline Miller, Minnesota Historical Society, Roy J. Moser, Mountain View Cemetery, Oakland, Margaret Murphy, Newberry Library, Northern Kentucky University, Steely Library, Bonnie Lou and Milt Okum, Wayne Onkst, Owen Co. Historical Society, Owen Co. Public Library, Chris A. Papas & Son Company, Chuck Parrish, Greg Perkins, Eunice Rechtin, Jim Reis, Ken Reis, Carol Rekow, James C. Resing, Pete Rightmore, Doris Riley, Robertson Co. Historical Society, Robin Imaging, Joseph Ruh, John Schlipp, David Schroeder, Brandon Seiter, Marty Sheehan, Sisters of Divine Providence, Sisters of St. Benedict, Robert Snow, Dave Sorrell, Bernie Spencer, Spring Grove Cemetery, Jan Stanley, Steubenville Public Library, Robert W. Stevie, Ken Stone, Bridget Striker, Kelly Sutkamp, Michael R. Sweeney, Harry V. and Mary M. Tenkotte, Tennessee State University Library, Charles R. Tharp, Thomas More College Library and Archives, Don Tolzmann, Nancy Tretter, Thomas Ward, Margo Warminski, Jack Wessling, John White, Michael Whitehead, Laurie Wilcox, Kenneth & Kathleen Williams , Emmett Witham, Ralph Wolff, and Robert Yoder. The following provided in-kind and/or academic support: Brad Bielski, Thomas More College; Raymond G. Hebert, Thomas More College; Peg Hancock, Thomas More College; Jon Draud; Katie Stein; and Jack Westwood. The following (listed alphabetically) provided assistance with public relations: Cincinnati Business Courier, Grant Co. News, Kentucky Enquirer, Kentucky Monthly Magazine, Kentucky Post, LedgerIndependent (Maysville), Mike Philipps, WNKR, and WNKU. David Cobb, Lois Crum, and Steve Wrinn provided assistance with editing. We offer special thanks also to our Web site designer and host, Dave Hatter. Finally, we offer our deepest appreciation to Alice Sparks for her tireless fundraising efforts and generosity to this project. Without her, it would not have been possible. Introduction N orthern Kentucky is well represented by “Gateway” slogans and names—“Covington: Gateway to the South,” “Maysville: Gateway to the Southland,” “Williamstown: Gateway to the Bluegrass,” Kentucky Gateway Museum, and Gateway Community and Technical College, to name but a sampling.1 The popularity of the gateway terminology reflects Northern Kentucky’s border status, lying across the Ohio River from the states of Ohio and Indiana. The 11 counties of Northern Kentucky—Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Carroll, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, Mason, Owen, Pendleton, and Robertson—share a common history, bound together by links of transportation, commerce, and social patterns. The Ohio River, roads, and railroads have created a region featuring a heavily urbanized area and its surrounding suburbs and rural towns. The term gateway evokes many images and helps to illustrate seven themes related to the border area of Northern Kentucky. First, Covington, “Dixie’s Gateway.” a gateway is an opening, a passageway between two distinct places. Located along the Mason-Dixon line, Northern Kentucky (and Kentucky itself) began as part of the slaveholding Commonwealth of Virginia, while the Northwest Territory across the river prohibited slavery. Kentucky developed along the Virginia pattern, with large tracts of land granted to soldiers who served in the Colonial and Revolutionary wars. A haphazard, “shingled-over” pattern of conflicting land claims resulted. Counties and towns became the norm, connected by winding roads that followed the sometimes-difficult topography. Meanwhile, north of the Ohio River, the Northwest Territory was divided into tidy townships of 36 square miles each, with 1 square mile set aside for later resale to benefit the establishment of common schools. Roads were fairly straight, land claims more firmly established, and the terrain gentler, largely a result of prehistoric glaciers that stopped in the region. Even geologically, therefore, Northern Kentucky was at a border. Meteorologically, Northern Kentucky is a transition zone between two major climates, Humid Continental to its north and Humid Subtropical to its south. The old aphorism “If you don’t like the weather here, wait five minutes” has a firm basis in science regionally. Second, while North and South were seen as truly distinct, border areas were regarded as special places where a blend of cultures resulted. Hence, Northern Kentucky could “pick and choose” from the best of both worlds. In terms of 20th-century tourism, it chose southern hospitality, a theme echoed and reechoed from the 1930s through the 1960s in Northern Kentucky promotional brochures. In a 1950s Maysville brochure, entertainer Rosemary Clooney was featured bedecked in a southern belle dress, arms flung invitingly to her sides, in front of opening wrought-iron gates. Above her was the message “Maysville welcomes you to Kentucky, Gateway to the Southland.” It reinforced the idea that Northern Kentucky was southern, hospitable, and a pleasant place to visit for tourists passing through the region. The southernness of Northern Kentucky, however, has been exaggerated. For example, the presidential election of 1860 evidenced the divisions of Northern Kentucky as a border area that nevertheless overwhelmingly supported the preservation of the Union. Overall, the counties of Northern Kentucky cast 8,041 votes for Constitutional Unionist John Bell of Tennessee, 7,620 for Southern Democrat and Kentucky native John C. Breckinridge, 3,413 for Northern Democrat Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, and 614 for native son and Republican Abraham Lincoln. Although Lincoln’s vote seems low in relation to that of the North, his Northern Kentucky support was actually the highest in the state, with Campbell and Kenton ranking first and second among Kentucky counties xviii INTRODUCTION Maysville’s Gateway to the Southland brochure, featuring Rosemary Clooney. supporting Lincoln. Lincoln’s Northern Kentucky votes accounted for 45 percent of his Kentucky total.2 While the gateway depiction of Northern Kentucky appealed to 20th-century tourists, it has also attracted investors and residents. The 1950s Maysville brochure, for instance, was sponsored by the Maysville–Mason County Development Association. In addition to points of interest and information about restaurants and “tourist facilities,” the brochure included facts about banks, health, industry, and organizations. This third theme—the openness, innovation, and diversity of border areas like Northern Kentucky—proved enticing to settlers and investors alike. Beginning in the late 18th century, they included Daniel Boone, Simon Kenton, David Leitch, and James Taylor Jr. From earliest times, people have migrated back and forth between Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. Ferries crossed the Ohio River from the late 18th century onward, and bridges have graced its shores since the mid-to-late 19th century. Northerners and southerners; immigrants and natives; whites and blacks; Protestants, Catholics, and Jews all settled in Northern Kentucky. This mix produced an open and relatively peaceful culture that especially attracted Germans. The region became one of the three points (Milwaukee, St. Louis, and Cincinnati-Covington-Newport) of the “German Triangle,” nationally recognized as a prime destination of German immigrants. Such an ethnic flowering of cultures produced artists Thomas P. Anshutz, James Beard, Frank Duveneck, Henry Farny, Johann Schmitt, and Dixie Selden. Innovations, for example the John A. Roebling Bridge, and inventors, such as Frederick McKinley Jones, abounded. Conservative and liberal ideas stood side-by-side. Social reformers Daniel Carter Beard, Lina and Adelia Beard, and Kate Trimble Woolsey championed causes ranging from boys’ and girls’ scouting to women’s rights. Even socialism had a relative stronghold in places in Northern Kentucky in the early 20th century. Long before diversity became a politically correct term, Northern Kentucky was tolerant, and prosperity was its reward. Fourth, the residents of Northern Kentucky sometimes experienced difficulties of self-identity. Were they the gateway to the south or to the north? Or were they merely Midwesterners? Were they citizens of Kentucky or suburbanites of Cincinnati? The pendulum has swung widely over the course of history. Before the mid-19th century, for instance, the residents of Covington and Newport regarded themselves as “rivals” to their counterparts in Cincinnati. By 1850, however, the citizens of Northern Kentucky realized that they would never catch up with Cincinnati in terms of population, commerce, or industry, so they settled into roles as suburban cities, that is, suburbs of Cincinnati, yet still important Kentucky cities. By 1850 Covington was the second-largest city in Kentucky, and by 1860 Newport ranked third-most-populous.3 Fifth, outsiders’ viewpoints of border areas like Northern Kentucky often proved just as ambiguous as the residents’ self-identity. Louisville, always a rival to Cincinnati, denigrated Covington as a mere tool of Cincinnati in an 1837 Louisville Public Advertiser editorial, calling the Northern Kentucky city a “fly perched on” the “coach wheel” of Cincinnati, exclaiming as it rolled down the road, “Gods! what a dust I make!”4 Cincinnatians worried that the building of the John A. Roebling Bridge in the mid-19th century would serve to enrich Covington at the expense of Cincinnati. Once again, the pendulum swung back and forth, dependent upon the issue at hand and the goals of those who supported or opposed it. Sixth, a gateway also triggers images of fences and walls. As implied, however, whereas rivers, roads, and railroads make excellent transportation routes, they make poor fences. Accordingly, the fences around and even within Northern Kentucky have been INTRODUCTION mental, not physical, constructs. They have been erected, torn down, and rebuilt throughout the years in service to whatever self-identity predominated at the time. It is said that we become what we espouse, and if the result is less than satisfactory or somewhat ambivalent, we can lapse into a tendency to blame others. Or we can build fences designed to protect ourselves from interaction with others. Perhaps the most profound example of this tactic in Northern Kentucky’s history occurred during Prohibition (1919–1933). With a long tradition of an immigrant culture, which included the brewing of beer and the distilling of spirits, it was difficult for residents of Covington, Newport, and environs to embrace temperance. The end result was a culture of blatant lawlessness. First speakeasies, and then gambling, prostitution, and other vices led to an urban “Sin City” reputation. Before Prohibition, Northern Kentucky was respected regionally, statewide, and even nationally. It had produced four Kentucky governors—Joseph Desha (1824–1828), John White Stevenson (1867–1871), William Goebel (1900), and Augustus E .Willson (1907–1911)—and one additional Kentucky governor, James T. Morehead (1834–1836), moved to Covington after his tenure as governor. Northern Kentucky also claimed four lieutenant governors of Kentucky—John White Stevenson (1867), John G. Carlisle (1871–1875), James W. Bryan (1887–1891), and William H. Cox (1907–1911)—as well as numerous other state officials. National leaders from the region included William Orlando Butler, an 1848 presidential candidate; John G. Carlisle, who was Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives three times and later U.S. secretary of the treasury; Horace Lurton, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court; and Green Clay Smith, an 1876 presidential candidate. During and after Prohibition, though, Northern Kentucky’s reputation and its concomitant political influence suffered as the region distanced itself from others, sending a clear message to “stay out of our affairs.” It was a double-edged sword. Vice was prosperous, but its costs were heavy. Northern Kentucky’s “stepchild” image dated from this period, a symptom of the supposed “victim” who builds walls of blame to evade his own sense of responsibility. By the 1960s the cleanup of Northern Kentucky had proceeded to a point that permitted the region to turn its attention to reestablishing its reputation. Seventh, border areas like Northern Kentucky sometimes tend to be fragmented in terms of local governance, perhaps because border residents hold ties to so many different affiliations and constituencies. By the end of the 20th century, the urbanized counties of Boone, Campbell, and Kenton evidenced this trend of fragmentation, as the landlocked cities of Covington and Newport lost population to the burgeoning suburbs. Metropolitan government, as pursued in Lexington and later in Louisville, never gained headway in Northern Kentucky. Instead, a “virtual metropolitan template” of special districts arose to deal with planning, zoning, water, sanitation, fire, police, education, economic development, mental health, and senior services. Home to 454,000 residents,5 Northern Kentucky is today one of the points of the “Golden Triangle” of Kentucky—the other two points are Lexington and Louisville—an economically prosperous area with high employment, investment, and job-creation rates. Attracted largely by the presence of the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky xix International Airport in Boone Co., major corporations such as Ashland, Fidelity Investments, Omnicare, Toyota North America, and United States Playing Card dot its landscape. Northern Kentucky University, Thomas More College, and three community and technical colleges (Gateway, Maysville, and Jefferson) educate its citizens. The historic cities of Covington, Newport, Ludlow, Bellevue, and Dayton have experienced a renaissance and host office and condominium skyscrapers that line the southern shore of the Ohio River. And organizations like Forward Quest and its successor, Vision 2015, have led the way in planning the region’s future and its quality of life. In the 21st century, Northern Kentucky has also witnessed a renewed interest in its history. Kentucky Educational Television’s three-hour documentary Where the River Bends: A History of Northern Kentucky premiered statewide in 2007, multi-milliondollar additions to the Behringer-Crawford Museum in Covington and to the Kentucky Gateway Museum in Maysville opened in 2007, and the last segment of the Roebling Murals at the Covington Riverfront debuted in 2008. As part of this enthusiasm to record the region’s history, Michael Hammons, director of Forward Quest, approached this encyclopedia’s coeditors in fall 2002 with the idea of compiling a comprehensive encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky. Made possible by hundreds of generous benefactors and dedicated volunteers, whose names are given elsewhere in this volume, The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky celebrates the people, places, and events of the border region’s rich heritage. The editors grappled with defining the region as accurately as possible, basing their final inclusion of 11 counties upon both historical ties and contemporary commuting patterns. Eight of the counties lie along the Ohio River, and seven of them are included within the U.S. government’s “Cincinnati-Middletown, OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area.” The definition of Northern Kentucky, of course, may change in the future. With that disclaimer, another should be added: The inclusion or absence of any entries is not intended, whatsoever, as a reflection of either approval or disapproval of particular topics. Rather, the editors have attempted to include, as objectively as possible, those people, places, and events that have fashioned Northern Kentucky. Their hopes are that this encyclopedia will help readers to appreciate the march of history and that it will promote an understanding of Northern Kentucky’s role within the history of the Commonwealth of Kentucky and of the nation. Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool Notes 1. Sesqui- Centennial Souvenir Program: 150th Anniversary, 1815–1965, City of Covington, Kentucky (Covington, Ky.: T.&W., 1965). “Gateway to the Bluegrass” is painted on the Williamstown water tower, which is visible from I-75. 2. Jasper B. Shannon and Ruth McQuown, Presidential Politics in Kentucky, 1824–1948 (Lexington, Ky.: Bureau of Government Research, Univ. of Kentucky, 1950). See also Paul A. Tenkotte, “A Note on Regional Allegiances during the Civil War: Kenton County, Kentucky, as a Test Case,” Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 79, no. 3 (Summer 1981): 211–18. 3. See Paul A. Tenkotte, “Rival Cities to Suburbs: Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 1790–1890” (PhD diss., University of Cincinnati, 1989). 4. “Covington,” Louisville Public Advertiser, February 3, 1837, 2. 5. Based upon population estimates of July 1, 2007, available at www.census.gov. (accessed July 29, 2008). Guide for Readers The following explanations are offered to assist the reader in using The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky. Northern Kentucky Northern Kentucky is defined as the 11 counties of Boone, Bracken, Campbell, Carroll, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, Mason, Owen, Pendleton, and Robertson. These 11 were chosen based upon several criteria, including historical ties, past and present transportation links, and current commuting patterns. The editors have chosen to capitalize Northern Kentucky throughout, since it is a specific region of the state and its title is reflected in many area institutions, businesses, landmarks, and maps. Types of Entries The encyclopedia includes people, places, and events from earliest times to the present. The fifteen general entry categories include agriculture; art; biography; business and commerce; counties and towns; ethnology; government, law, and politics; literature; medicine; military persons and events; music, media, and entertainment; religion; sports and recreation; transportation; and women. Careful attempts have been made to include most high schools and towns (and their variant names in some cases) in the 11 counties. Individuals have been included based upon adherence to the criteria listed below. The inclusion or absence of any entries does not reflect approval or disapproval of particular topics. Rather, the editors have attempted to include, as objectively as possible, those people, places, and events that have fashioned Northern Kentucky. As much as possible, based on information available to the editors, the entries are up to date as of September 2008. Abbreviations have been used in order to save space. For example, County regularly appears as Co., and many names of institutions are abbreviated after their first mention within individual entries. The Index and Cross-Referencing Within entries, names of people, places, and events that are also separate entries in this encyclopedia often appear in boldface type. (References to rivers, counties, and towns are too numerous to crossreference.) The index should be checked for topics not readily found otherwise. For example, “Bridges” in the index will help the reader find the entry on the Covington and Cincinnati Suspension Bridge, also known as the Roebling Bridge, which appears under “John A. Roebling Bridge,” in the “J” section. Entries on Individuals Entries on deceased individuals were included if one of the following facts was true of them: They were born in Northern Kentucky or lived here in youth or adulthood, and made significant contributions to the region, the state, the nation, or the world. If they were born elsewhere, they spent their most productive years in Northern Kentucky or launched their careers here; and they made significant contributions to the region, the nation, or the world. If they never lived in Northern Kentucky, they had an important impact on the region by significantly representing Northern Kentucky and its interests in the U.S Congress or some other nationally or internationally important body. For living individuals the same criteria were applied, except that regional contributions alone were deemed insufficient; these persons’ contributions had to be at the state, national, or international level in order to merit an entry in the encyclopedia. In all cases, for both deceased and living persons, consideration was carefully given to “pioneers,” those who broke barriers such as those of race, gender, or ethnicity in making their contributions. For individuals featured in an encyclopedia entry, military titles, if any (and if discovered in our research), are indicated. The names of U.S. presidents and Kentucky governors are accompanied by their terms in office. Many individuals, although they did not warrant separate entries according to our criteria, were members of Northern Kentucky families, businesses, or organizations that had or continue to have a significant impact on the region. Those persons may be mentioned within an entry dedicated to the family, the business, or the organization. Important visitors to the area are grouped in one general entry entitled “Visitors to Northern Kentucky.” Bibliographic Citations An effort was made to include at least one bibliographic citation per entry, in order to entice readers to further their knowledge of the subject. The Select Bibliography serves the same purpose, listing all the major sources. Many of the resources are available at local libraries and museums, in particular the large Kentucky and Genealogy section of the Kenton Co. Public Library in Covington. The following abbreviations of frequently cited periodicals have been used in the entry source lists: BCHS Bulletin of the Cincinnati Historical Society CC Cincinnati Commercial CDC Cincinnati Daily Commercial CDE Cincinnati Daily Enquirer xxii GUIDE FOR READERS CDG CE CJ CP CTS DC FCHQ JKS KE KJ KP KSJ KTS LCJ LVR NKH NYT QCH RKHS SC Cincinnati Daily Gazette Cincinnati Enquirer Covington Journal Cincinnati Post Cincinnati Times-Star Daily Commonwealth Filson Club History Quarterly Journal of Kentucky Studies Kentucky Enquirer Kentucky Journal Kentucky Post Kentucky State Journal Kentucky Times-Star Louisville Courier Journal Licking Valley Register Northern Kentucky Heritage New York Times Queen City Heritage Register of the Kentucky Historical Society Sunday Challenger