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HORSE RACING. Competitive licensed horse racing in Northern Kentucky has primarily involved thoroughbreds. All thoroughbred horses have unbroken bloodlines drawn from three Arabian stallions... (cont’d on pg. 460)

The Enquirer/Patrick Reddy

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Introduction | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y | Z | Index

Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky in partnership with NKY.com

The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky Contents Introduction, Foreword, Acknowledgments and Guide for Readers Chapters: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, Y, Z Index, Bibliography, Illustration Credits

Edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool THE UNIVERSITY PRESS OF KENTUCKY Republished for the World Wide Web by NKY.com and Enquirer Media

A Project of the Thomas D. Clark Foundation, Inc. Mark A. Neikirk, President Sherry Jelsma, Vice President

Dave Adkisson, Treasurer Melanie J. Kilpatrick, Secretary

Thomas R. Brumley, Immediate Past President Michael J. Hammons, Past President

Dave Adkisson, Frankfort Jane Beshear, Frankfort Thomas R. Brumley, Lexington John S. Carroll, Lexington Sara W. Combs, Stanton

Board of Directors Michael J. Hammons, Park Hills Sherry Jelsma, Shelbyville Martha C. Johnson, Melbourne Mark A. Neikirk, Highland Heights Alice Stevens Sparks, Crescent Springs

Robert Ted Steinbock, Louisville Mrya Leigh Tobin, New York City James M. Wiseman, Erlanger

Editorial Staff Editors in Chief: Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool Associate Editors: David Hatter, John Schlipp, David E. Schroeder, Robert Stevie, Michael R. Sweeney, John W. Thieret (deceased), Thomas S. Ward, Jack Wessling Topical Editors: Agriculture: Lynn David & James Wallace; Art: Rebecca Bilbo; Biography: Michael R. Sweeney; Business & Commerce: John Boh; Counties & Towns: David E. Schroeder; Ethnology: Theodore H. H. Harris; Government, Law, & Politics: John Schlipp; Literature: Danny Miller (Deceased); Medicine: Dennis B. Worthen; Military: James A. Ramage; Music, Media, & Entertainment: John Schlipp; Religion: Thomas S. Ward & Alex Hyrcza; Sports & Recreation: James C. Claypool; Transportation Joseph F. Gastright (Deceased); Women: Karen Mcdaniel. Maps: Jeff Levy at the Gyula Pauer Center for Cartography & GIS, University of Kentucky. Copyright © 2009 by The University Press of Kentucky, 663 South Limestone Street, Lexington, KY 40508-4008 www.kentuckypress.com. Print editions: Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data The Encyclopedia of northern Kentucky / edited by Paul A. Tenkotte and James C. Claypool. p. cm. ISBN 978-0-8131-2565-7 (hardcover : acid-free paper) ISBN 978-0-8131-2585-5 (limited leather edition) 1. Kentucky, Northern— Encyclopedias. 2. Kentucky— Encyclopedias. I. Tenkotte, Paul A. II. Claypool, James C. F451.E55 2009 976.9'3003—dc22 2009027969

HAILE, RALPH (b. May 18, 1922, Cincinnati, Ohio; d. August 4, 2006, Cincinnati, Ohio). Ralph V. Haile, a well-respected and long-time Covington banker, was the son of Ralph B. and Mary Neal Donoho Haile. He grew up in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Cincinnati and graduated from Walnut Hills High School and, in 1946, from the University of Cincinnati School of Engineering. During World War II, he pi loted P-51 Mustang fighters in the European theater for the U.S. Army Air Force. After the war he attended the University of Wisconsin’s School of Banking in Madison. Haile served as chief executive of the Peoples Liberty and Trust Company in Covington for 19 years. He was a strong Covington and Northern Kentucky supporter. Famous for the bow ties he wore and the Camaro convertible he drove, Haile was a history lesson in person; he could be counted on to know what had happened and often what was about to happen. Although he lived on the east side of Cincinnati, he generously supported Northern Kentucky. For example, he and his wife donated $2 million to St. Elizabeth Medical Center for an addition to its hospice unit. Haile was involved in the Covington Community Center (see Center for Great Neighborhoods of Covington), the Covington Business Council, urban renewal, and the development of the Old Town Plaza and the Riverside Condominiums. He contributed to the Behringer- Crawford Museum, Thomas More College, and the University of Cincinnati Foundation. Haile died in 2006 in Cincinnati and was buried in the Haile lot at Spring Grove Cemetery there. His wife, Carol Ann Homan Haile, died in 2004. The plaza by the U.S. Bank along Madison Ave. in Covington has been named the Ralph Haile Square, in honor of him.

fic made the Dixie Highway one of the most heavily traveled roads in the nation. The Halfway House cabins were routinely fi lled and the restaurant was kept busy; busloads of passengers stopped by at all hours to enjoy the food, especially the widely known fried chicken. The completion of I-75 (see Expressways) through the area spelled the beginning of the end for the Halfway House. Travelers on the interstate found that restaurants, fi lling stations, and lodging closer to the interstate highway’s exits were the convenient places to stop. The Halfway House faded into memory, replaced by a sporting-goods store called F&R General Sales. The building was destroyed by a spectacular fire on the evening of November 18, 1976. It was rebuilt as a Red Carpet Inn and restaurant. “Fire Destroys Old Halfway House,” Grant County News, November 25, 1976, 1. Northern Kentucky Views. “Halfway House.” www .nkyviews.com (accessed August 3, 2006).

Chris Meiman

HALLAM. The community of Hallam in central Owen Co. is on the northwest side of Elk Lake Shores, where Ky. Rts. 227 and 330 intersect. It is within East Owenton Precinct, and the 1883 Lake atlas suggests that once there was a school at Hallam. The Beech Grove Baptist Church is just north of town along Ky. Rt. 227. Hallam is the boyhood home of Rear Adm. Arnold Elllsworth True, a naval officer who earned many navy medals for his ship and fleet command in the Pacific during World War II. An Atlas of Owen County, Kentucky. Philadelphia: Lake, 1883. Houchens, Mariam Sidebottom. History of Owen County: “Sweet Owen.” Louisville, Ky.: Standard, 1976.

“In Memoriam,” CC, May 12, 1905, 4. “Lawyer Suspended,” KP, December 31, 1900, 1. “Sketch of Theodore Hallam,” KP, August 10, 1892, 1. “Tarvin Sends Lawyer to Jail,” KP, January 14, 1901, 1.

HALL HALLAM, THEODORE FRELINGHUYSEN (b. March 10, 1844, Owenton, Ky.; d. May 3, 1905, Covington, Ky.). Theodore Hallam was a de-

“Banker Laid Foundation for City Rebirth,” KP, May 24, 1989, 1K. “A Banker with a Heart of Gold,” KP, August 5, 2006, 1A. “Dedication for a Visionary,” KE, September 1, 2006, B1. Spring Grove Cemetery Records, Cincinnati, Ohio. “$2 Million Gift Helps Hospital Add Four Rooms to Hospice,” KP, December 6, 2006, A2.

HALFWAY HOUSE. The Halfway House was a restaurant, gas station, and motor lodge just south of Williamstown in Grant Co. The site was located at the corner of the Dixie Highway (U.S. 25) and Sunset, approximately halfway between Covington, and Lexington. Built in 1928 by John Gilforos, the Halfway House opened on Independence Day in 1929. The heyday of the Halfway House was the 1950s and early 1960s, when tourist and local traf-

scendant of the 15th-century English bishop of Salisbury, Robert Hallam. Theodore’s father, James R. Hallam, an attorney, served for a short time as a circuit court judge. The family moved from Owenton to Williamstown, and then to Newport when Theodore was quite young. He served with the Confederate Army in 1861, fighting at the battles of Shiloh and Hampton Roads. Near the end of the war, he held the rank of captain and was assigned to Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederate States. After leaving the army, Hallam was employed as a correspondent with the Cincinnati Enquirer. In that position he toured famous Civil War battlefields, writing articles under the pseudonym Asperate. Afterward he studied law, became an attorney, and formed the firm of Hallam and Terrill, with offices in Covington and Cincinnati. On May 3, 1875, he married Bettie Stevenson Timberlake. Her father’s family, the Timberlakes, and her mother’s, the Stevensons, owned most of the land where the cities of Erlanger and Elsmere are today. The Timberlake home still stands along Stevenson Rd. In 1875 Hallam entered politics and was elected to the state House of Representatives, representing the First District of Covington. Later he was elected state senator. He rose to the position of Speaker in both bodies. Hallam was a staunch Democrat (see Democratic Party), but in the 1899 governor’s campaign, he refused to back fellow Northern Kentuckian William Goebel, siding instead with the Independent, John Y. Brown. Hallam died in 1905 at age 61, at his home, 1034 Scott St. in Covington. He was buried in the Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell.

Halfway House Restaurant, Williamstown.

FAMILY (COVINGTON). John Wortham Hall Sr. was born January 19, 1802 in Orange Co., N.C. He studied theology with Dr. Gideon Blackburn, a Presbyterian missionary to the Indian

430 HAMILTON tribes of the South, and was licensed to preach in western Tennessee in October 1824. He married Catherine Presley Thornton. After several assignments as a pastor in Tennessee, Ohio, and Huntsville, Ala., during the 1830s and 1840s, he earned a doctorate in divinity from Miami University in 1848 and then became the fift h president of Miami University of Ohio, serving in that role from 1854 to 1866. Hall is often referred to as Miami’s Civil War president, for he dealt with the mixed loyalties existing on campus at the time. In 1868 he was elected superintendent of the Covington schools at an annual salary of $2,500. He brought a new structure and new ideas to the city’s schools. While he was superintendent, he hired his son John Wortham Hall Jr. as the high school principal. The senior Hall’s tenure as superintendent ended in 1878. He continued to preach as a Presbyterian minister until his death. The Hall family lived at 26 E. Fourth St. for many years before moving to 417 Russell St., where John Sr. died on January 4, 1886, at age 83. He was buried at Linden Grove Cemetery in Covington. One month later his wife Catherine was buried next to him. John Wortham Hall Jr., born in 1830 in Tennessee, was trained as a geologist. However, education was his real interest, and he became a high school principal in Dayton, Ohio. He moved to Covington in 1868 and served as principal of the Covington High School, which eventually was located on the northeast corner of 12th and Russell Sts. He was employed by the Covington schools for more than 30 years, including 4 years, 1889 to 1893, as the superintendent of Covington schools. In 1901, with his health failing, he moved to Denver to be with his son Harry, who died shortly after his father’s arrival. John W. Hall Jr. died November 6, 1907 in Colorado, at the home of his daughter-inlaw, Harry’s widow. He was buried at the Denver Cemetery. Mourners came from as far away as Dayton, Ohio, and Covington for his funeral. In 1928 the Covington School Board, in appreciation of John Wortham Hall Jr.’s long ser vice, changed the name of the Fourth District Junior High School to the John W. Hall Junior High School. Mary Thornton Hall was born about 1845 at Murfreesboro, Tenn., the daughter of John W. and Catherine Presley Thornton Hall and the sister of John W. Hall Jr., and was educated early in life at the Nashville Academy, excelling in music. In 1870 she was living with her parents in Covington. She graduated from Miami University of Ohio and became a popular newspaper columnist in the Greater Cincinnati area. Hall worked for the Covington Daily Commonwealth and the Cincinnati Enquirer (the latter for 30 years) as a society columnist. She often wrote about herself in the third person as a writer, singer, social leader, or philanthropist. Mary was active in charitable work. A strong soprano singer, she often sang and played the organ at Trinity Episcopal Church. She died July 15, 1916, at her flat in the Woodford Apartments in Covington, affectionately remembered as “the woman who never said or wrote an unkind word about anyone.” She was buried at Linden Grove Cemetery after a funeral at Trinity Episcopal Church.

Kentucky Death Certificate No. 18531, for the year 1916. Linden Grove Cemetery Records, Covington, Ky., available at www.kenton.lib.ky.us. MacCracken, Henry Mitchell. “The Administration of President John W. Hall, D.D., LL.D.,” archives of Miami Univ., Oxford, Ohio. Mills, Howard H. “A History of Education of Covington, Kentucky,” master’s thesis, Univ. of Kentucky, 1929. “Miss Mary T. Hall, ‘Kindest Woman in Kentucky,’ Is Dead,” KTS, July 15, 1916, 10. Nordheim, Betty Lee. Echoes of the Past: A History of the Covington Public School System. Covington, Ky.: Covington Independent Public Schools, 2002.

HAMILTON. The village of Hamilton was located at Ohio River Mile 466 in far western Boone Co. Although it had been the landing point for many excursions to Big Bone Springs (see Big Bone Lick) for some time, it was first incorporated as the town of Landing by the Kentucky legislature on February 28, 1835. The town’s name was changed to Hamilton in 1846 to honor Joel Hamilton, one of the community’s founders. The town prospered during the 19th century owing to its proximity to Big Bone Spring. In 1883 the community had two tobacco warehouses, a mill, a school, and two doctors. Dr. John E. Stevenson of Covington operated the Valley Hotel, also known as the Big Bone Hotel. The waters of Big Bone Spring were advertised to have healing powers, and people came from great distances to stay in the hotel and gain access to the springwater. During the early 20th century, Hamilton thrived as a port for packet boats on the Ohio River. However, as a result of the decrease in river travel, the improvement of roads, and the burning of the Hamilton High School in June 1953, Hamilton eventually ceased to be a town. An Atlas of Boone, Kenton, and Campbell Counties, Kentucky. Philadelphia: D. J. Lake, 1883. Boone Co. Deed Book L, 436. “Recreations,” DC, June 6, 1882 4. Warner, Jennifer S. Boone County: From Mastodons to the Millennium. Burlington, Ky.: Boone Co. Bicentennial Book Committee, 1998.

Laurie Wilcox

HAMMON, JOHN (b. January 29, 1760, Goochland Co., Va.; d. 1868, Owen Co.). John Hammon, a soldier and an Indian fighter, was the son of James and Mary Hargiss Hammon. While living in Wilkes Co., N.C., at age 16, he became a Revolutionary War soldier and fought at the Battle of King’s Mountain (N.C.). Later, he participated in the siege of Bryants Station in 1782 near Lexington, and he accompanied Benjamin Logan on his forays into Ohio Indian Territory. Hammon was living at Mountain Island in what later became Owen Co. by 1806, and in 1822 he and some of his sons were building wooden superstructures in Cincinnati for Ohio River steamboats. He retired to Owen Co. Hammon, a Baptist, was married twice, and when he died in 1868 at age 108, he had fathered 22 children. He was buried in the cemetery of the Mussel Shoals Baptist Church in Owen Co. Hammon was

an ancestor of Stratton Owen Hammon, the peripatetic Louisville architect, author, and genealogist. Hammon, Stratton Owen. The Saga of John Hammon, Revolutionary War Hero and Owen County Kentucky Pioneer. Louisville, Ky.: Pilgrim Press, 1979.

HANKS. The Grant Co. community of Hanks was located about four miles from Dry Ridge on the Dry Ridge–Warsaw Rd. (Ky. Rt. 467). The residents at Hanks included C. L. Alexander, operator of a general store in 1890; Jimshack Webster, who lived and farmed across the road; and Ezra Webster, who lived on an adjoining farm. A post office was established there in 1898, with C. L. Alexander as postmaster. There was difficulty in finding an acceptable name for this small village, a name not already in use in the state. But finally Hanks became the approved name. The post office was closed in 1906. In 1921 the general store burned down and was not rebuilt. Conrad, John B., ed. History of Grant County. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992.

John B. Conrad

HANNAFORD, SAMUEL, AND SONS (Samuel Hannaford, b. April 10, 1835, Widdecome Parish, Devonshire, England; d. January 7, 1911, Cincinnati, Ohio; Harvey Eldridge Hannaford, b. October 15, 1857, College Hill, Ohio; d. May 23, 1923, Cincinnati, Ohio; Charles E. Hannaford, b. April 7, 1860, Cincinnati, Ohio; d. July 18, 1936, Cincinnati, Ohio). In 1844 nine-year-old Samuel Hannaford, founder of the prominent Cincinnatibased architectural firm Samuel Hannaford and Sons, immigrated to the United States from England with his parents, Roger and Mary Northcott Hannaford; the family eventually settled on a farm in the small village of Cheviot in western Hamilton Co., Ohio, near Cincinnati. Samuel received his early education in Cincinnati public schools, attended Farmer’s College, College Hill, Ohio, in 1853, and in the following year began a period of study and collaborative employment as a draftsman with the architect John R. Hamilton. By 1857, the 22-year-old Hannaford had decided to form his own architectural firm, though he also participated in successful partnerships with two local architects: he practiced with Edwin Anderson from 1858 to 1870 and with Edwin Proctor from 1874 to 1876. Hannaford was married three times and had 11 children. By 1886 Hannaford’s two eldest sons, Harvey Eldridge and Charles Edward, had completed their architectural training; they joined their father’s business, forming Samuel Hannaford and Sons, a firm responsible for the design of structures throughout Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky. After Samuel Hannaford’s death in 1911 and burial at Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati, successive generations operated the firm under the family name until 1964. Hannaford-designed structures covered a broad range of styles that included, among others, Renaissance Revival, Queen Anne, Victorian, Eclectic, Romanesque, and Beaux Arts. The company designed

HARDIN, THOMAS JEFFERSON, AND WILLIAM DAVID HARDIN

hospitals, factories, churches, schools, courthouses, waterworks buildings, hotels, and family homes. One of the most notable contributions of the Hannafords to architecture in Campbell Co. is Newport’s Beaux Arts–style Our Lady of Providence Academy, formerly known as the Academy Notre Dame of Providence. The site at Sixth and Linden Sts. was purchased in 1902 by the Sisters of Divine Providence as the new home for their academy and dedicated in 1903 by Bishop Camillus P. Maes. The Diocese of Covington (see Roman Catholics) sold the building in 1983. Subsequent interior alterations converted the grand old building into apartments and extended-stay suites, and it has recently become a 40-unit upscale condominium complex that bears the name of its celebrated architect. Other Hannaford-designed structures in Newport include the Salem United Methodist Church and parsonage at 810 York St. and two stately mansions constructed for members of local beer baron George Wiedemann’s family. The George Wiedemann Jr. mansion, located at 401 Park Ave. in Newport’s East Row Historic District, was constructed in 1899 for the younger son of the brewery founder. The second structure, an imposing Victorian edifice, was known as the Wiedemann Estate or Mansion. Located at 1102 Park Ave. and constructed in 1895 on a tract in the Cote Brilliante neighborhood, this stately dwelling served as the longtime residence of George Wiedemann’s son Charles. Samuel Hannaford and Sons also designed several other Campbell Co. structures, including the St. Bernard Catholic Church in Dayton and the Newman Samuel residence and the Altamont Hotel, both in Fort Thomas. In 1880 Hannaford designed a Classical Revival structure for the Grant Co. clerk’s office in Williamstown at 107 N. Main St. In Kenton Co., Hannaford and Sons designed both incarnations of the Covington Protestant Children’s Home; the first structure, located at the southwest corner of 14th St. and Madison Ave., was begun in 1881 and housed 50 orphans; a site in Devou Park was later chosen as the location for a larger facility, constructed in the Colonial Revival style, that became known as the Children’s Home of Northern Kentucky in 1990. Hannaford’s firm was also selected by St. Benedict Catholic Church, which had outgrown its original churchschool combination, to design a church building. Located on E. 17th St. in Covington, the new church was dedicated in December 1908 by Bishop Maes. The firm served as architects for the St. Elizabeth Hospital at 21st and Eastern Aves. in Covington, completed in 1914 (see St. Elizabeth Medical Center). After a tornado in 1915 destroyed St. Joseph Catholic Church’s spire in Covington, Hannaford and Sons was chosen to design a new tower surmounted by a cupola. A Hannaford-designed cupola of 1898 replaced the original dome of the Boone Co. Courthouse in Burlington. In the 1920s Covington demolished the former Amos Shinkle Mansion at 323 E. Second St. It had served as the first home of the Booth Memorial Hospital, established by the Salvation Army

in 1914. Hannaford and Sons was selected to design a more modern facility, which served the people of Covington until 1979, when the hospital relocated to Florence, Ky.; the structure, now known as Governor’s Point, houses 49 condominium units. Within Covington’s Emery-Price Historic District, the Hannafords designed the Queen Anne–style Emery Row Building in the 800 block (810–828) of Scott St. In 1906 construction was completed on the Hannaford-designed Mother of God Church School building. Nearly a decade later, the Covington parish commissioned the Hannaford firm to design a replacement for the arched pediment, which had linked the Mother of God Catholic Church’s two distinctive bell towers, because the original had been destroyed when a tornado struck the area on July 7, 1915. Samuel Hannaford and Sons was also responsible for the design of many other Covington buildings, including the German Mutual Fire Insurance Company, the Bell Telephone Company building, and the residence of Rev. Adolph Rupprecht. In Mason Co., the firm designed the Hayswood Hospital in Maysville during the early 1920s. In addition to designing, over the course of about a century, some of Northern Kentucky’s most opulent structures, Samuel Hannaford and Sons also served as a training ground for many local architects and engineers, including Louis E. Dittoe (see Dittoe and Wisenall), Lyman R. Walker, and Louis Gustave Bouscaren. Leonard, Lewis Alexander, ed. Greater Cincinnati and Its People: A History. Vol. 4. New York: Lewis Historical, 1927. Schroeder, David E. “Community History– Covington.” Kenton Co. Public Library, Genealogy and Kentucky History. Kentonlibrary.com. www .kentonlibrary (accessed June 4, 2006). Tenkotte, Paul A. A Heritage of Art and Faith: Downtown Covington Churches. Covington, Ky.: Kenton Co. Historical Society, 1986. Tenkotte, Paul A., David E. Schroeder, and Thomas S. Ward. To Be Catholic and American in Northern, Central, and Appalachian Kentucky: The Diocese of Covington, 1853–2003. Forthcoming.

Janice Mueller

HARDEMAN, FLORENCE (b. October 1886, Covington, Ky.; d. after April 1938). Concert violinist Florence E. Hardeman was the daughter of Capt. Thomas W. Hardeman, a Covington postmaster, and was a 1902 graduate of La Salette Academy in Covington. The family lived at 316 Garrard St. in Covington. Florence Hardeman made her debut as a violin soloist with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra while in her teens, and she earned her graduate degree in music from the Cincinnati College of Music. In 1909 John Philip Sousa engaged her as a violin soloist for his orchestra, and she toured the United States for several years, performing at places like Cincinnati’s Music Hall and San Francisco’s Civic Auditorium. After touring with Sousa, Hardeman traveled to Berlin, Germany, in 1912 to study under violinist Leopold Auer. She returned to the United States in 1914, before World War I erupted, relocated to New

431

York City, and studied with violinist Arrigo Serato. In 1916 she was given a 300-year-old, $10,000 Amati violin that had previously been owned by Ole Bull. The following year she toured the United States with actress Sarah Bernhardt. Florence Hardeman married Frank Hardeman (no relation) of Detroit, Mich., in December 1918, separated from him after eight months in 1919, and was granted a divorce by 1921. As late as April 1938, she was playing at the Plaza Hotel in New York City. “Florence Hardeman to Study in Berlin,” KP, June 8, 1912, 2. “Former Sousa Soloist Given Divorce Decree,” KTS, July 12, 1921, 25. “Miss Hardeman to Play with $10,000 Violin,” KP, March 20, 1917, 3. “Miss Hardeman to Tour with Sarah Bernhardt,” KP, July 21, 1917, 1.

Jenny Plemen

HARDIN, THOMAS JEFFERSON, AND WILLIAM DAVID HARDIN (Thomas Jefferson Hardin, b. October 19, 1834, Owen Co., Ky.; d. July 11, 1906, Monterey, Ky.; William David Hardin, b. November 6, 1842, Owen Co., Ky.; d. 1909, Monterey, Ky.). Brothers Thomas Jefferson Hardin, a lawyer, and William David Hardin, a merchant, were both active in the early life of the city of Monterey in Owen Co. Their parents were Thomas Hardin and Rachel Allen. The brothers grew up in Owen Co. on the Hardin Plantation, referred to as “Hardin’s Landing” during the heyday of Kentucky River boat traffic and during the Civil War. Their ancestors, the Ashbys and the Hardins, were owners of the Hardin Plantation long before Owen Co. was formed in 1819. Thomas Hardin Jr. assisted in establishing the city government of Monterey, which was formerly known as Williamsburg, Ky. He was engaged in the mercantile business there from 1859 to 1876, was a police judge from 1874 to 1878, and studied to be an attorney. At age 28 Thomas served with distinction as captain of the 9th Kentucky Cavalry during the Civil War, in the Union Army. On February 4, 1864, he married Florence E. Seston. In 1867 he became a charter member of Monterey Baptist Church; later, however, he transferred to the Christian Church with his wife and daughter. Thomas was a leading force in getting the town of Monterey enlarged by Kentucky statute in 1874 and again in 1881. He is given credit for organizing the Monterey city government and for writing the acts that established it, which were presented on the first Monday of August 1874. In 1876 Thomas was admitted to the bar at Owenton, where he served 34 years. In 1888 he became the first president of the First State Bank of Monterey. He was twice nominated as the Republican candidate for the U.S. Congress: in 1892 against W. C. P. Breckinridge and in 1898 against Evan E. Settle, and he was once a candidate for lieutenant governor of Kentucky. William David Hardin in 1867 was a charter member of Monterey Baptist Church and served for many years as church clerk. He married Minnie Vories on November 22, 1893, and the couple had five children. A lifetime merchant in Monterey, he

432 HARDING, DUNCAN began in business in 1872 as a member of the firm Hardin and Calvert. Later he bought Calvert’s half of the business and became sole owner. In 1885 William, along with J. M. Abraham and George Lawrence, purchased the steamboat Falls City II, which ran from Louisville to Valley View in Fayette Co. from 1898 to 1908. The Falls City II was an asset to commerce shipped through the warehouses of Monterey and other landing sites along its way. The Kentucky River profoundly influenced the growth of Monterey as a commercial center. The three partners sold the steamboat in 1908. In 1907 the tobacco business was booming in the organized burley district around Monterey. On January 10, 1907, William Hardin and capitalist Lee H. McGraw formed the Monterey Realty and Warehouse to handle and finance the Equity Tobacco Company, which operated as late as 1925. In 1909 William was elected to the Monterey town council. The Hardin family members are buried at the Monterey Cemetery in Owen Co. Coleman, Winston J. Steamboats on the Kentucky River. Lexington, Ky.: Winburn Press, 1960. Johnson, Leland R., and Charles E. Parrish. Kentucky River Development: The Commonwealth’s Waterway. Louisville, Ky.: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1999. Murphy, Margaret A. History of the Monterey Baptist Church and Community. Frankfort, Ky.: Roberts, 1976.

Margaret A. Murphy

HARDING, DUNCAN (b. January 12, 1812, Kentontown, Ky.; d. September 5, 1887, Kentontown, Ky.). Duncan Harding, a Robertson Co. judge and landowner, was born into a family who had arrived in Kentucky before it attained statehood in 1792. Their Virginia land grant of 1,000 acres was situated in the future Robertson Co. Harding became one of the most powerful influences in the formation of Robertson Co., along with Osmer Sage Deming and James Ogdon. A Democrat, Harding had served two terms as a state representative from Harrison Co., of which his hometown, Kentontown, was then a part. He also served as postmaster at Kentontown and ran a dry goods store there during the 1840s. His party affi liation served him well in his push to establish a new county, and he hoped that his hometown would become the new county’s seat of government. He owned considerable land in and around Kentontown and stood to gain financially if the town became the county seat. It did not, however. The more centrally located Mount Olivet became the seat of the newly formed county by a small majority vote. Nevertheless, Harding became the new county’s first judge in 1867 and was among the first attorneys to be accepted to practice law in Robertson Co. Harding also donated the land on which the old Kentontown Christian Church and cemetery were established; he died in 1887 and was buried in the Kentontown Cemetery, next to his wife, Elizabeth Whitehead Harding. Gifford, Anjanette. “The Formation of Robertson County,” NKH 8, no. 2 (Spring–Summer 2001): 65–72.

Nagle, Eric C., and Larry L. Ford. Monument Inscriptions of Robertson County, Kentucky. Dayton, Ohio: Ford and Nagle, 1995.

Karl Lietzenmayer

HARGRAVES, WILLIAM FREDERICK “BILLY,” COLONEL (b. August 18, 1932, Cincinnati, Ohio). William Frederick Hargraves II, an Air Force colonel who was raised in Covington, is the son of William and Annie Leona Thomas Hargraves. Both of Hargraves’s parents were educators at Covington’s Lincoln- Grant School. Hargraves was the first African American from Covington to become both a U.S. Air Force pi lot and a Rhodes scholar candidate. He attended Lincoln-Grant grade school, graduated from William Grant High School, and graduated with honors from Miami University of Ohio with a BS in education. While attending Miami University, he was a member of the Air Force ROTC and was commissioned a second lieutenant upon graduation. He entered the U.S. Air Force in 1955 after receiving his MA in physics. Later that year, Hargraves entered the U.S. Air Force pilot training program. In 1956 he earned his silver wings while at Goodfellow Air Force Base, San Angelo, Tex. While in Texas, Hargraves married Maurine Collins of San Angelo on July 5, 1957. During his varied career in the Air Force, Hargraves served as commander of the 20th Military Airlift Squadron, as an air liaison officer research scientist at the Air Force’s Weapons Research Center, as an instructor pi lot with the 22nd Military Airlift Command, and as an air liaison officer with the 1st ARVN (Army of the Republic of Vietnam) Division. He returned to Miami University to serve as an assistant professor of aerospace science with the Air Force ROTC program from 1971 through 1974. From 1978 into 1982, he was chief of flight deck development in the Research and Development section at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio; he then became deputy divi-

William Hargraves, 1967.

sion chief at the Pentagon. He retired from the Air Force in 1982 after 30 years of distinguished service. Colonel Hargraves has received numerous military medals and commendations, including the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal, an Air Force Commendation Medal with two oak leaf clusters, the Vietnam Ser vice Medal with five bronze stars, and the National Defense Ser vice Medal. After Hargraves retired from the Air Force, he became an assistant professor and assistant dean of arts and sciences at Central State University, Wilberforce, Ohio. In 1992 he was named to the Black Hall of Fame in Covington. While at Central State University, Hargraves received two awards from the students: in 1997 the Teacher of the Year Award and in 2001–2002 and 2002–2003 the Most Inspirational Teaching Award. Colonel Hargraves resides in Oxford, Ohio, with his wife. “Center’s Events Salute Black History,” KP, February 22, 1992, 11K. “Major William Hargraves Earns Air Force Honors,” Oxford Press, November 11, 1971, 3. “Military Notes,” KTS, August 15, 1956, 6A. “Praise God. Viet Hero Returns,” KP, February 17, 1971, 2K. “Silver Wings,” KTS, August 22, 1956, 6A. “Tests of Character,” Dayton Daily News, June 8, 1997, E1.

Theodore H. H. Harris

HARMEYER PAINT COMPANY. One of the many Europeans who came to the United States for business opportunities in the 1850s was John James Joseph Harmeyer (b. 1820) of Hanover, Germany. He and his wife, Mary, settled in Covington, where their son Henry H. Harmeyer (1860–1911) was born. Henry married a woman named Catherine, and their first son, Frederick Joseph “Fred” Harmeyer was born in 1893. The family resided at 402 W. Eighth St. in Covington while Henry commuted to Newport. In 1896 Henry Harmeyer purchased a double storefront at 617– 619 Monmouth St. in Newport. The Newport City Directory for that year says that he was a clerk. He operated a modest paint and wallpaper store at that location. Additional children were born to the Harmeyers, and eventually they purchased the former Barney Kroger home at 624 Monroe St. in Newport. That old brownstone remains standing. On December 29, 1911, Henry died of consumption at age 51, leaving the Harmeyer Paint Company to Fred, his eldest son. Fred was 17 when he took control of the business and the family of nine children. During World War I, he served with the American Expeditionary Force in France, and John Hoover, Harmeyer’s good friend, operated the business until Fred Harmeyer returned. As time passed, the Newport store became too small for the manufacture of paint. Searching for ways to expand the business, Harmeyer met and became a lifelong friend of Ferdinand Derrick. Derrick was in a partnership with Fred Perry at the Perry and Derrick Paint Company. In 1913 Perry and Derrick invested $1,200 each to acquire the John Pfaff Varnish Company at Central and Liv-

HARRIS CREEK BAPTIST CHURCH

ingston in Cincinnati. In 1919 Derrick bought out Perry and joined with Fred Harmeyer of the Henry Harmeyer Paint Company. In 1926 they moved the manufacturing operations to Lindsey St., next to the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in Dayton, Ky. They made paint at this location until September 2, 1957, when the factory suffered the worst fire in Dayton’s history. After this setback, the Perry and Derrick Paint Company moved across the river to Norwood, Ohio, into the former Continental Can Company complex on Highland Ave. A decision to streamline the business in the early 1960s resulted in the corporate absorption of the Harmeyer firm into Perry and Derrick. At its zenith in the 1950s and 1960s, there were 16 Henry Harmeyer paint stores; among them were two stores in Covington and one each in Newport, Lexington, and Winchester, Ky.; Cincinnati, Dayton, and Springfield, Ohio; and Huntington, W.Va. There were many Perry and Derrick–affiliated outlets regionally across four states (Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, and West Virginia). In various annual contracts, roadways in both Ohio and Kentucky were painted with Perry and Derrick products. The original Monmouth St. store, the beginning of it all, sold its last can of paint on November 30, 1999. The Harmeyer Paint Company was one of the largest chains of corporate enterprise to emerge from the Northern Kentucky region. A Harmeyer Paint Store exists in Newport at 502 E. 10th St., operated by a greatgrandson of the founder. “Eight Dayton Homes Damaged as Fire Destroys Warehouse,” KTS, September 3, 1957, 1–2A. Glover, Robert Alan. “Changing Colors—Paint Store Moves Back to Roots in Newport,” CP, May 28, 2002, 6C. “Mrs. Harmeyer Dead,” KTS, August 28, 1915, 3.

Fred C. Harmeyer

HARRIET BEECHER STOWE SLAVERY TO FREEDOM MUSEUM. Th is brick museum town house in Washington, Mason Co., dates from 1807. In 1833 it was owned by Marshall Key, a nephew of Chief Justice John Marshall and a brother of Col. Thomas Marshall, who served as a staff officer under Gen. George Washington. That year, Key’s daughter became a pupil of Harriet Beecher Stowe (1811–1896), author of Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852). After a visit to the house, Stowe received the inspiration for the book’s characters Uncle Tom and Topsy. The real-life name of the person who inspired Topsy was Jane, and she later married Isham Anderson. Behind the museum is a small brick structure, known as the Indian Fort, which was used by settlers to ward off American Indians who sometimes crossed the Ohio River at nearby Maysville. Included in this museum are the original mantels; woodworking; floor; doors; slavery artifacts, including slave leg irons; period furnishings; and Civil War artifacts. The museum is included on Underground Railroad tours. Admiraal, Karin. “Festival Great Way to Learn History,” KP, September 17, 2005, 6K.

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Harriet Beecher Stowe Museum, Washington, Ky. Safe Passage. www.safepassageohio.org (accessed June 10, 2006). Vaughn, Melinda Myers. “A Stop on Freedom Road,” KP, September 17, 1997, 1KK. Washingtonkentucky.com. “Washington, Ky.” http:// washingtonkentucky.com (accessed June 10, 2006).

Kareem A. Simpson

HARRISBURGH ACADEMY/OWEN COLLEGE. These Owen Co. schools were the creations of Edwin Porter Thompson, famed Kentucky Civil War author and educator, at the end of the 1860s. First came the coeducational Harrisburgh Academy (spelled with an h on the end), located at Long Ridge (or Harrisburg), just north of Owenton along the road that is U.S. 127 today. The school was established in 1869. Thompson hired such an esteemed faculty that students came from Owen Co. and elsewhere. The Harrisburgh Academy students made their own boarding arrangements in the neighborhood. In 1876 the Kentucky legislature chartered Owen College; it essentially amounted to a name change for the Harrisburgh Academy. Owen College had three departments: preparatory, collegiate, and business. Military drill was required of male students. Owen College flourished until the late 1880s. Its last remaining buildings were demolished in the late 1920s. Houchens, Mariam Sidebottom. History of Owen County: “Sweet Owen.” Louisville, Ky.: Standard, 1976.

HARRIS CREEK BAPTIST CHURCH. The Harris Creek Baptist Church at Boston Station in northern Pendleton Co. was organized on October 21, 1843. The minutes of the church survive and contain valuable information about the history of the church and of the immediate area. This church

operated for some 41 years, disbanding in July 1884. The Butler Union Baptist Church was organized in November 1884 and was a continuation of the Harris Creek Baptist Church. The Harris Creek Baptist Church began and held ser vices in an old hewed-log schoolhouse that stood along Harris Creek. J. C. Kirby owns that farm today. The school building, dating from 1812 or 1815, was 20 by 30 feet in size, with a large stone fireplace at one end. The Harris Creek Baptist Church minutes dated October 21, 1843, list the persons who formed the new church: colored Jane, Jaily Ducker, Sarah Stewart, Elizabeth Wright, Martha Wright, Matthew Wright, and William Wright. The preacher on that occasion was Brother Morin. The membership of the church consisted of the families of some of the pioneers of that section of Pendleton Co. Many ser vices were held during its 41 years of existence, and for a rural church, it had a large membership. Soon after organization, the church joined the Union Baptist Association, and it remained an affi liate until disbanding. The congregation worshipped in the old log schoolhouse until 1858 or so; a new schoolhouse was built then, near the center of the county’s school district. The new school was located near Boston Station on the Lloyd Kirby farm, a part of the old Ducker farm. The Harris Creek Baptist Church and a group of Methodists shared the new school building on Sundays, holding ser vices on alternating weeks. Some of the names on these church rolls were Barton, Beckett, Bonar, Bradford, Burlew, Byland, Ducker, Ellis, Hendricks, Kirby, Marshall, Mullins, Shoemaker, Williams, and Wright. In 1884 the Baptists disbanded at Boston and 18 members transferred to the Baptist church at Butler. The Boston school building was left to the Methodists, who continued to use it as a place for

434 HARRISON, HENRY THOMAS “HARRY” itinerant Methodist ministers to preach. The Methodist ministers on this area’s preaching circuit served at least three churches and held meetings at Boston on one or two Sundays each month. The little church at Boston was often filled to an overflow capacity of some 40 to 50 worshippers. Belew, Mildred Boden. The First 200 Years of Pendleton County. Falmouth, Ky.: M. B. Belew, n.d. [ca. 1994].

Mildred Belew

HARRISON, HENRY THOMAS “HARRY” (b. April 23, 1831, near Nashville, Tenn.; d. October 28, 1923, Covington, Ky.). This Civil War spy is depicted in Ted Turner’s epic movie classic Gettysburg (1993), an adaptation of Michael Shaara’s The Killer Angels (1974), which opens with a lone man on horseback riding across the rolling hills of southeastern Pennsylvania. Moving behind the Union Army’s lines, the rider is working his way back to Confederate general James Longstreet’s encampment. Recently, that character has come alive in Northern Kentucky’s history. Confederate spy and later Northern Kentucky resident Henry T. Harrison was that rider, and the information delivered by Harrison to Longstreet made the Battle of Gettysburg not an easy rout of the Southern troops but three of the bloodiest days of fighting during the Civil War. Harrison first served with Company One of the 12th Mississippi Infantry. By early 1863 he was a plainclothes scout (spy) in the North for Longstreet. Harrison’s report on June 28, 1863, led Longstreet to send the messenger spy to General Robert E. Lee. Subsequently, Lee ordered his dispersed troops to converge on Gettysburg, precluding any quick and easy Union victory there. After Gettysburg, Harrison married a Virginia lady, Laura Broders, in Washington, D.C., on September 28, 1863, while continuing his work as a spy for the South. He quickly proved not to be much of a family man, although the couple had two children. By 1866 Harrison was in Helena, Mont., prospecting for gold, drinking, and gambling. His

family remained in Virginia, never to be seen again by Harrison, whose whereabouts from 1867 through 1892 are unknown. His life seemed to be one of espionage and deception. In 1900 Harrison made an unsuccessful attempt to visit Laura and the family. From 1893 into 1912, Harrison lived in Cincinnati, at first, reportedly, working as an engineer and later as a detective, from 1901 through 1911. In 1912 he applied for and received a Confederate pension from the State of Kentucky, listing his residence as 35 E. Fourth St. in Covington. Later he lived at 307 Scott St. and, for a time, was a resident of the Kenton Co. Infirmary. At age 87, on February 9, 1920, he married a second time to Lucretia Allison in Covington; she was 61 and caring for him in his old age. In 1923 Henry T. Harrison died of a stroke and was buried at Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. Lucretia Harrison continued to receive his pension until her death in 1936. Harrison’s grave remained unmarked and his death unknown to his first family until a great-grandson, with the help of local historians in Northern Kentucky, found him. On May 18, 2003, a formal dedication of his newly marked grave honored the forgotten Civil War spy whose actions changed the course of one of the war’s major battles. Although the North under General George Meade claimed victory, Gettysburg is often called “the high water mark of the Confederacy.”

Ohio River. The liner text makes the distinction between ethnomusicologists and those who actively study and play traditional “old time” folk music. By this tradition, music is taught aurally, without notation or conductor. The resulting individuality in versions rendered by players in different regions is one of the main features of Harrod’s recordings, in “lessons” from players, and in his own experience in playing the fiddle. Harrod has played with bands such as the Progress Red Hot String Band, the Bill Livers String Ensemble, the Grey Eagle Band, and the Kentucky Wild Horse Band. Most recently, he presented a paper titled “A Keen Cut with the Bow: The Art of Kentucky Fiddling in Berea, Ky.” at Berea College’s Thirty-first Celebration of Traditional Music in October 2005. He received the Folk Heritage Award on February 18, 2005, in Frankfort. From 1998 to 2006, Harrod taught history at the Frankfort High School. Today he lives with his wife, the former Tona Barkley, and their two children in Owen Co. and is working on various projects.

“Apoplexy Kills Vet,” KP, October 29, 1923, 1. Becker, Bernie. “Civil War Spy Discovered in Covington,” NKH 10, no. 2 (Spring–Summer 2003): 44–47. ———. “A Man Called Harrison,” America’s Civil War, November 2004, 46–52. Grayson, Frank Y. “Historic Spots in Greater Cincinnati,” CTS, June 15, 1933, 11. Kentucky Death Certificate No. 26219, for the year 1923. Longstreet, James. From Manassas to Appomattox. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1895. “Newport, Dayton, and Covington Residents Are Given Pensions,” KTS, September 20, 1913, 3. Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels. New York: McKay, 1974.

Rebecca Schaffer Wells

Sharon Jobert

Henry T. Harrison.

HARROD, JOHN (b. February 8, 1946, Shelbyville, Ky.). John Harrod is one of the chief contemporary performers and scholars of Kentucky-style fiddle playing. He is the son of Rufus C. and Nancy Van Arsdale Harrod. After graduating from the Shelbyville (Ky.) High School in 1963, he received a BA in English and political science from Centre College in Danville, Ky., in 1967. He went to Pembrooke College of Oxford University in England as a Rhodes Scholar and earned an MA in English language and literature. With Mark Wilson, Harrod produced the recording Traditional Fiddle Music of Kentucky (1997) for Rounder Records in two compact discs: one volume covers the northeastern portion of the state near the Ohio River, and the other covers a region that can be defined as the Kentucky River watershed from the eastern edge of the Cumberland Plateau through the Bluegrass region to the

Harrod, John. Personal communication, October 2006. Harrod, John, and Mark Wilson, producers. Traditional Fiddle Music of Kentucky. Vol. 2, Along the Kentucky River, liner text, unsigned. Cambridge, Mass.: Rounder Records 0377, 1997. Wolfe, Charles K. Kentucky Country: Folk and Country Music of Kentucky. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1982.

HARSHA, WILLIAM H., BRIDGE. See William H. Harsha Bridge.

HARVARD PIANO COMPANY. In 1859 the John Church Company of Chicago and New York City began selling pianos and sheet music in a store located at Fourth and Elm Sts. in Cincinnati. Frank A. Lee began working for the company in 1883. The following year, the company opened the Harvard Piano Company factory at Fift h and Clay Sts. in Dayton, Ky. In 1894 Lee became president of the piano company, which manufactured upright, grand, and player pianos, described as being distinctively styled, well constructed, and among the most popu lar and salable pianos on the market. The business was so successful that its plant was soon expanded to cover the entire city block on the east side of Clay St. between Fourth and Fift h Sts. The Harvard Piano Company also opened a small branch factory in the former First Baptist Church building, nearby at Fift h and Main Sts in Dayton. During the economic recession of 1907–1908, sales declined significantly and the company suspended operations for several months. However, when market conditions improved, it resumed full production. At the height of its success, the firm had about 400 employees. During World War I, the company also manufactured airplane bodies for the U.S. Army. The Harvard Piano Company and the Wadsworth Watch Case Company, also on Clay St., were Dayton’s largest employers. In later years, Frank A. Lee left the company and moved to Santa Barbara, Calif. Based on piano serial

HAWES, HARRY BARTOW

production numbers, the Harvard Piano Company manufactured about 30,000 pianos from 1885 until the business was discontinued in 1925. For many years after it closed, there was a bowling alley in the piano company’s former building. “Newport Shop to Build Air Ships, Report,” KP, August 18, 1917, 1. “Piano Plant to Resume Operations,” KP, February 4, 1908, 5. Piano World. “Piano Forums.” www.pianoworld.com (accessed December 21, 2005). Renfrow Piano Tuning Home Page. “Cincinnati Piano History.” www.pianocincinnati.com (accessed December 21, 2005). “What Becomes of the Old Churches?” KP, August 27, 1913, 4.

HATFIELD, J. T. (b. February 25, 1865, Lincoln, Ill.; d. July 19, 1938, Cape May, Mass.). James Tobias Hatfield, a coal merchant and a philanthropist, was the son of Henry C. and Amelia Hatfield, who moved with their family to Covington when James was a teenager. In 1882 James opened a small coal yard there on 15th St. and from that location delivered kindling wood and coal to homes in his neighborhood, using a small wagon he pulled by hand. As his business grew, he purchased a mule and a cart for making deliveries. Five years later he purchased the Bond Brothers Coal Company and renamed it the J. T. Hatfield Coal Company. Continued business growth led him to branch out into other aspects of the coal business in subsequent years. He operated a coal mine near Reed, W.Va., and bought steamboats and barges to transport the coal to Cincinnati. As he became more successful, he was asked to become a director of many local companies. He was also named president of the Atlas Coal Company, the Great Kanawha Improvement Association, and, in Kentucky, the Pomeroy Dock in Carrollton. About 1920 the Hatfield Coal Company merged with six other coal companies, and Hatfield was made vice president of the newly formed Hatfield-Reliance Coal Company. When the company’s president, Julius Fleischmann, died in 1925, Hatfield became president. Hatfield became involved in many philanthropic causes and often gave free coal to poor families. He was a member of several clubs, including the Covington Industrial Club, the Fort Mitchell Country Club, and, in Ohio, the Queen City Club and the Cincinnati Club. He was the founder of the Covington Boy Scouts and served as the first council president of that organization. In 1891 Hatfield married Ellen Daisy Methven, and they had eight children. After suffering a stroke in 1933, Hatfield reduced his workload by resigning from many of the positions he held. He died at age 73 at his summer home on Cape May, Mass. Over the years, he and his family lived at several Covington locations. At the time of his death, his home was at 400 Wallace Ave. in Wallace Woods. His wife, Ellen, five daughters, and three sons survived him. He was buried at Highland Cemetery, Fort Mitchell. In 1977 Hatfield’s daughters, Louise and Virginia, had a large stained-glass window

installed in the Covington Trinity Episcopal Church in memory of their father. “Coal Man Succumbs in East,” CE, July 21, 1938, 2. “Eight Northern Kentuckians in 1928 Edition of Who’s Who,” KP, April 4, 1928, 1. “Hatfield Is Recipient of Fine Testimonial,” KP, October 16, 1919, 1. “Patriots Will Dine,” KP, October 10, 1919, 1. Steamboats.org. “Sternwheeler Towboat J. T. Hatfield.” www.steamboats.org.

Jack Wessling

HATHAWAY, HENRY, JR. (b. March 14, 1804, Belfast, Maine; d. July 28, 1877, Eaton, Ohio). Henry Hathaway Jr., a humanitarian and a reputed abolitionist, was the son of Henry and Abigail Chase Hathaway. His father, born in Massachusetts, became an early and prosperous settler of Cincinnati and left an estate of $2 million when he died in 1852. Henry Jr. married Jane Hubbell, a native of Clark Co., Ohio, in March 1827. For a short time, he operated a store and pork-packing facility in West Alexandria in Preble Co., Ohio, where his son Hannibal Chase was born in 1831. That business failed, and by the late 1830s, Henry Jr. and his family moved to Texas and remained there about five years; their daughter Eliza Jane was born in Texas in 1838. By 1843 Henry Jr. had moved back to Cincinnati, and resided on W. 5th St. in Hathaway’s Subdivision in Cincinnati’s West End; by 1849 he operated a store on that street. In the same year, he purchased slightly more than six acres of land at 1210 Highway Ave., in what is now West Covington, for $14,250. This was a high price for the times and generally confirms the belief that the property already contained a stately home. Situated on a hill overlooking the Ohio River, Hathaway Hall, as it came to be known, featured a spectacular view of the river valley and of the West End of Cincinnati. According to oral tradition, Hathaway used his home as a stop along the Underground Railroad. He presumably concealed slaves in a small cellar room, which was entered through a trap door from one of the parlors and was connected to a ser vice tunnel that once led from the house to the river. The probability of Hathaway’s abolitionism is strengthened by a number of facts. First, he was a client and friend of Salmon P. Chase, a noted abolitionist lawyer of Cincinnati and later a member of President Abraham Lincoln’s administration (whether Hathaway’s mother, Abigail Chase, was related to Salmon P. Chase is unknown at this time). Second, Hathaway’s family, as evidenced in legal documents such as wills, were trusted friends of noted Cincinnati abolitionists Samuel Lewis and Nicholas Longworth. Third, Hathaway had familial and property ties to Preble Co., Ohio, a hotbed of the abolitionist movement. Fourth, other family members owned land in areas well known for their abolitionist activity. For instance, his son Hannibal Chase owned 72 acres in Crosby Township of Hamilton Co., west of Cincinnati and along the Underground Railroad routes into Indiana. Finally, Hathaway demonstrated a lifelong commitment to the poor and disenfranchised. He

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originally belonged to the Enon Baptist Church on Sycamore St. in Cincinnati, which later became a Disciples of Christ congregation. By 1859, he was an elder of a mission church of the Disciples of Christ on the west side of Freeman Ave. in Cincinnati’s poor West End neighborhood. The church was within walking distance of Hathaway’s home in West Covington, via the Fifth St. Ferry. That ferryboat crossed the Ohio River near Hathaway Hall into Cincinnati’s West End, terminating close to yet another “Hathaway’s subdivision” with a street named Hannibal (presumably after Henry’s son). In September 1855, Henry and his wife conveyed Hathaway Hall and its six-plus acres to their son Hannibal Chase; however, they continued to reside there for many years. In 1871 Jane Hathaway died at the home, and four years later, in 1875, Hathaway Hall and its acreage were advertised for rent. Henry Hathaway died in 1877 at his residence in Eaton in Preble Co., Ohio. An obituary in the Christian Standard stated that “for the last thirty years and more he devoted his time to the preaching of the word among the poor.” He was buried in the Wesleyan Cemetery in the Cumminsville neighborhood of Cincinnati. Hathaway Hall in West Covington was sold in 1952 to Joe Spratt, a local manual arts teacher at Ludlow High School, who attempted to restore the house to its original beauty. He found the task overwhelming and eventually sold the property to Arnold Ingram, a real estate developer. Ingram had the house torn down in 1969 and, in its place, built a high-rise senior citizens apartment building, which he named Hathaway Court. Deed Book 14, pp. 196–97, Kenton Co. Court house, Independence, Ky. “Hathaway Hall Coming Down,” KP, March 12, 1969, 6K. History of Preble County, Ohio, with Illustrations and Biographical Sketches. Cleveland, Ohio: H. Z. Williams and Bro., 1881. Kenton Co. Public Library. “Hathaway Senior Citizens Apartments.” www.kenton.lib.ky.us/genealogy/ history/covington/article.cfm?ID=218. Niven, John, ed. The Salmon P. Chase Papers. Vol. 1, Journals, 1829–1872. Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1993. Salmon P. Chase Papers, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. Siebert, Wilbur Henry. The Mysteries of Ohio’s Underground Railroads. Columbus, Ohio: Long’s College Book Company, 1951. “This Old House,” CE, November 12, 1961, 4F. Versailles, Elizabeth Starr, ed. Hathaways of America. Northampton, Mass.: Gazette, 1970. “West Covington,” Ludlow Reporter, April 17, 1875, 2.

Paul A. Tenkotte and Jack Wessling

HAWES, HARRY BARTOW (b. November 15, 1869, Covington, Ky.; d. July 31, 1947, Washington, D.C.). Harry B. Hawes, a U.S. senator, was the son of Smith Nicholas Hawes and nephew of Confederate brigadier general James Morrison Hawes. Harry Hawes’s mother was the former Susan Elizabeth Simrall, daughter of well-known Covington attorney Charles Simrall. Harry Hawes moved to St. Louis, Mo., in 1887. He graduated from

436 HAWES, JAMES MORRISON, BRIGADIER GENERAL Washington University Law School in St. Louis and was admitted to the Missouri bar in 1896. He entered politics in 1916 and was elected to the Missouri House of Representatives. During World War I, Hawes served with U.S. Army intelligence and later at the U.S. Embassy in Madrid, Spain. Elected as a Democrat to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1921, he served until 1926, when he resigned his House seat to fi ll a vacancy in the U.S. Senate created by the death of Selden P. Spencer. On the same day, he was also elected to a full Senate term commencing March 4, 1927. After resigning the Senate in 1933, he devoted his time to wildlife conservation and the practice of law until his death at age 77. His body was cremated and his ashes were scattered along the Current River in Missouri. He was one of several individuals born in Northern Kentucky who rose to high positions in the nation’s political circles; Hawes once was considered for the vice presidency. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress, 1774–1989. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1985. “Harry Hawes, Former Covington Resident, May Be Nominated for Vice President,” KP, February 21, 1928, 1. The Political Graveyard. “Hawes, Harry Bartow.” www .politicalgraveyard.com (accessed April 3, 2007). Tenkotte, Paul A. “Rival Cities to Suburbs: Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 1790–1890,” PhD diss., Univ. of Cincinnati, 1989.

HAWES, JAMES MORRISON, BRIGADIER GENERAL (b. January 7, 1824, Lexington, Ky.; d. November 22, 1889, Covington, Ky.). James Morrison Hawes, a Confederate brigadier general, was one of six children born to Richard and Hattie Morrison Nicholas Hawes. His father was a prominent attorney who served three terms in the Kentucky legislature and two terms in the U.S. House of Representatives and was also provincial Confederate governor of Kentucky during the Civil War. James Morrison Hawes grew up in Paris, Ky., where in 1841 he received an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y. Four years later, he graduated 29th in his class and was commissioned a second lieutenant. After leaving school, he fought in the Mexican War, taking part in the sieges of Vera Cruz and San Juan de los Llanos. He was cited for bravery and gallantry at San Juan de los Llanos and was rewarded by promotion to first lieutenant. In 1848 he returned to West Point to teach infantry tactics and mathematics. Two years later he was sent to Saumur, France, to study advanced military tactics. He returned to the United States in 1852 and was stationed in Texas, where he served in the Utah military expedition of 1857–1858. On February 3, 1857, he married Marie Jane Southgate, the great-great-granddaughter of Richard Southgate and the great-granddaughter of William Wright Southgate, a well-known Covington attorney and politician. James and Maria Hawes became the parents of 10 children. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Hawes resigned from the U.S. Army and joined the Confed-

erate Army as a captain. In less than a year, largely on the sponsorship of Gen. Albert Sidney Johnston, Hawes received several promotions and was made a brigadier general on March 5, 1862. He later saw ser vice in Arkansas, Texas, and Louisiana and was severely wounded at the Battle of Shiloh. At the end of the war, Hawes and his family moved back to Northern Kentucky and lived at 71 E. 15th St. in Covington. James’s brother Smith Nicholas Hawes also lived in Covington. Shortly after returning, James Hawes entered into a partnership with Herman Wente to operate the Hawes and Wente Hardware store in Covington at 3 Pike St. Hawes and his family found life quite difficult in Covington, mostly owing to discrimination against anyone who had served in the military for the South. Some former Union sympathizers hated Hawes so intensely that they set fire to his store three times. Hawes spent much of the latter part of his life decorating and maintaining the graves of Confederate soldiers buried in Linden Grove Cemetery. He was reported to have personally paid to have seven soldiers’ graves moved from a cemetery on the Dixie Highway (U.S. 25) to Linden Grove Cemetery. Hawes died in his Covington home at age 65 and was buried in Highland Cemetery, Fort Mitchell. A local well-known descendant of James was Cincinnati Post radio and television writer Mary Wood, and he was an uncle of U.S. senator Harry Bartow Hawes of Missouri.

nounced that thousands of dollars were missing from the city’s treasury. Several investigating committees discovered an appalling level of corruption in that city’s government. In January 1877, Covington city marshal P. J. Bolan arrested Hawes in London, Ontario, Canada. Three prominent Covington attorneys, John G. Carlisle, Theodore Hallam, and Smith’s brother-in-law Charles Simrall, traveled to Canada to advise and defend the suspect in an extradition hearing. Hawes was returned to Covington on February 27, 1877. His trial was held in June 1877, but due to technicalities regarding his extradition, Hawes was discharged and returned to Canada. In 1880 his fellow Democrat Kentucky governor Luke Blackburn (1879– 1883), an ex-Confederate, granted him a pardon. Hawes and his family returned to the United States, but they settled in St. Louis, Mo., not Covington. Hawes died in St. Louis at age 47, and his body was returned to Northern Kentucky for burial in Covington at Linden Grove Cemetery. Longtime Cincinnati Post newspaper columnist Mary Wood was a descendant of the Hawes family.

Kleber, John E., ed. The Kentucky Encyclopedia. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1992. Reis, Jim. “Confederate General Called Covington Home,” KP, April 29, 2002, 4K. ———. “Fame Came to Both Hawes Brothers,” KP, May 11, 1987, 4K. TSHA Online. “Hawes, James Morrison.” www.tsha .utexas.edu (accessed October 30, 2006).

HAYES STATION. Hayes Station, a mid-

HAWES, SMITH NICHOLAS (b. ca. 1843, Paris, Ky.; d. April 9, 1890, St. Louis, Mo.). Smith Hawes, a political boss of Kenton Co. and a corrupt politician, was one of the six children of Richard and Hattie Morrison Nicholas Hawes. Richard Hawes was a Bourbon Co. judge, who also served three terms in the Kentucky legislature and two terms in the U.S. House of Representatives and was the second and last provincial Confederate governor of Kentucky. One of Smith Hawes’s brothers was Confederate brigadier general James Morrison Hawes. Smith Hawes married Susan Elizabeth Simrall in November 1868, and the couple had two children, Harry Bartow Hawes and Richard Simrall Hawes. The family’s home was on Russell St. between 10th and 11th Sts. in Covington. Their son Harry Bartow Hawes became a lawyer and then served in the Missouri House of Representatives for four years and in the U.S. Senate for a term of four years. As the political boss of the Democratic party in Kenton Co., Smith Hawes controlled local patronage and at one time himself simultaneously held five political offices in the county. In 1876, at the pinnacle of his success, Hawes vanished. After examining their books, Covington city officials an-

Linden Grove Cemetery Burial Records, Covington, Ky. “Mrs. Hawes Dead,” KP, September 10, 1900, 5. Reis, Jim. “Fame Came to Both Hawes Brothers,” KP, May 11, 1987, 4K. Tenkotte, Paul A. “Rival Cities to Suburbs: Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 1790–1890,” PhD diss., Univ. of Cincinnati, 1989.

nineteenth-century station in northern Pendleton Co. along the Covington and Lexington Railroad, was originally called Livingood (it was also called Levingood, after an early settler). In 1866 a post office opened there. In 1906, when the post office was moved a half mile north, it was renamed Hayes Station, for Timothy Hayes, a millionaire Cincinnati distiller and the inventor of an improved distiller’s yeast. Hayes bought bottomland between the Covington and Lexington Railroad and the South Licking River and built the largest distillery in Pendleton Co.’s history. Belew, Mildred Boden. The First 200 Years of Pendleton County. Falmouth, Ky.: M. B. Belew, n.d. [ca. 1994]. Eighth Annual Report to the Stockholders of the Covington and Lexington Rail Road. November 2, 1857. Cincinnati: Daily Commercial Steam Job Press, 1858. Rennick, Robert M. The Post Offices of Northern Kentucky. Lake Grove, Ore.: Depot, 2004.

Mildred Belew

HAYSWOOD HOSPITAL. In 1907 Maysville resident Mary V. Wilson bought the W. Fourth St., Maysville, property of the former Hayswood Seminary, a private school for girls, and gave it to the city for use as a hospital. As long as Wilson lived there, it was called the Wilson Hospital, but in 1908, after she moved, it became the Hayswood Hospital. A new Samuel Hannaford–designed hospital building was constructed in 1925. Its market area included parts of southern Ohio, particularly after

HEARNE, JONATHAN

the Simon Kenton Memorial Bridge at Maysville opened in late 1931. Many babies were born in the hospital over the years, and it earned care awards presented by national accreditation groups. After Pearl Harbor the U.S. Navy used part of the hospital for the rehabilitation of mentally harmed survivors of that attack. The changing world of modern health care caught up with many small city hospitals, and Hayswood was no exception. For reasons of mere survival, it relinquished its nonprofit status in 1981, as it was sold to the Nashville-based Hospital Corporation of America (HCA). The time had come for a new facility, which the well-capitalized new owner could provide. In the early 1980s, an earthquake centered near Maysville damaged the hospital structurally. Around the same time, its name was changed to the Maysville Hospital, and in 1983 HCA moved the business to a new facility along the AA Highway (Ky. Rt. 9) just west of the intersection with U.S. 68, south of town. The Hayswood Hospital closed on February 9, 1983. Reflecting the broader market area it seeks, the 101bed successor to Hayswood was named the Meadowview Regional Medical Center. Meanwhile, the building that had housed the Hayswood Hospital was purchased by Covington developer Esther Johnson in 1994. She had plans to convert it to apartments. Previously senior housing organizations had considered it for a nursing home or retirement apartments, or both. None of the plans have been put into action yet. Calvert, Jean, and John Klee. Maysville, Kentucky: From Past to Present in Pictures. Maysville, Ky.: Maysville and Mason Co. Library Historical and Scientific Association, 1983. “5 Local Hospitals Win Accreditation,” KTS, March 10, 1958, 2A. “Hayswood Hospital to Close Wednesday,” KE, February 6, 1983, B2. “New Hospital Opens Feb. 9,” CP, January 21, 1983, 1C.

They became engaged and were planning their future together when the United States entered World War I. Scharringhaus joined the armed forces and was sent to a military training camp. While he was off duty for a weekend in 1917, he persuaded Hazen to consummate their love physically. After Scharringhaus returned from the military, he continued to demand physical relations with Hazen, while putting off their wedding. In 1932 he finally broke their 15-year-long engagement and fled to relatives in Erlanger, Ky., hoping to prevent Hazen from retaliating against him. His plan failed. She tracked him down and fi led her landmark lawsuit accusing him of breach of promise to marry, aggravated by seduction. The case went to trial in February 1934 and generated news coverage throughout the country. After three weeks of emotional testimony, the jury of 12 men awarded Hazen $80,000—a huge fortune in the middle of the Great Depression. Hazen’s suit set the standard for breach-of-promiseto-marry suits in 20th-century America. As the century drew to a close, several states eliminated breach of promise to marry as a cause of action. The Kentucky Supreme Court struck it down in 1997, ruling that it had become antiquated and unnecessary. Hazen’s legal triumph was a hollow victory. She apparently never received the money, and she never married. After her death, her family’s mansion in Knoxville, Tenn., was turned into the MabryHazen House Museum in accord with her last wishes. The Italianate home is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Hazen was buried in the Old Gray Cemetery in Knoxville, Tenn. Ryan, Jane Van. The Seduction of Miss Evelyn Hazen. Glen Echo, Md.: Glen Echo, 2006. “Teacher Wins $80,000 Love Verdict,” KP, February 24, 1934, 1.

Jane Van Ryan

HEALTHPOINT FAMILY CARE. HealthPoint HAZEN, EVELYN M. (b. November 8, 1899, Knoxville, Tenn.; d. June 16, 1987, Knoxville, Tenn.). Evelyn Montgomery Hazen, the daughter of Alice Evelyn Mabry and Rush Strong Hazen, gained notoriety for a 1934 suit in Kenton Co. against her former fiancé. A member of Knoxville, Tenn. society, Hazen was descended from prominent and wealthy entrepreneurs. Her father owned a successful wholesale business, served as a bank chairman, and was a member of Knoxville’s city council. Her great-grandfather Joseph Alexander Mabry was a prosperous landowner, publisher, and railroad president. He and his son Joseph Mabry Jr. were killed in a shootout on Knoxville’s Gay St. in a dispute over a business deal. The incident was memorialized in Mark Twain’s Life on the Mississippi. Hazen was reared in her family’s antebellum mansion. Sheltered and protected, she attended a private grammar school for young girls. When the school closed, Hazen, at the age of 14, enrolled at the University of Tennessee in Knoxville. Her intelligence, beauty, and youth attracted the attention of Ralph Scharringhaus, the son of prosperous Knoxville businessman Edward Scharringhaus.

Family Care of Northern Kentucky is a private, nonprofit primary health care organization that provides medical and dental ser vices to all patients but especially to those who lack health insurance or sufficient income to pay for care. HealthPoint was established in 1971 in Covington as a volunteer effort. The organization was then known as the Covington Family Health Care Center. Robert Longshore, MD, was the first medical director, and Howard Hall, DDS, was the first dental director. The Covington Family Health Care Center was incorporated in 1972. In 1978 the Covington Family Health Care Center won its first federal grant from the Bureau of Primary Health Care, a unit of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Ser vices. This funding, which continues today, enables the organization to provide health care ser vices to patients with no ability to pay. In 1988 the organization changed its name to Northern Kentucky Family Health Centers Inc. and opened a second health care center in Newport. The next year, a walk-in clinic was established in Covington to provide medical care to homeless patients. In 1990 Northern Kentucky Family

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Health acquired its largest facility, a three-story building at 1132 Greenup St. in Covington, which it purchased for $1 from the City of Covington. That center continues to operate. Later, other centers were opened in Dayton, Ky., in the City Heights neighborhood of Covington, and at 1100 Pike St. in Covington. Northern Kentucky Family Health expanded into rural Bracken Co. in 1999. Reflecting the expanded ser vice area, the organization changed its name to HealthPoint Family Care in 2002. That year was a major building period for HealthPoint, as a new health care center was constructed in Bracken Co. at the intersection of the AA Highway (Ky. Rt. 9) and Ky. Rt. 19, and the organization’s leased space in the Bellevue Medical Arts Building was remodeled. HealthPoint then consolidated outdated facilities in Newport and Dayton into the new Bellevue center. As of 2006, HealthPoint Family Care operated three health care centers and the Pike Street Clinic for the Homeless in Covington, one center in Bellevue, one in Bracken Co., and one in Robertson Co. A medical staff of 33 physicians, dentists, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants provide care for 28,000 patients. HealthPoint’s chief executive officer, Christopher M. Goddard, joined the organization in 1999. Medical director Elmer Martin, MD, has been with HealthPoint since 2004. HealthPoint Family Care’s mission is “to be the best provider of health ser vices in Northern Kentucky through compassion, innovation, and excellence for all patients and the communities where they live.” Of HealthPoint’s 28,000 patients, Medicaid, the government insurance program for lowincome people, covers 37 percent. Some 28 percent of patients have no health insurance and are charged fees on a sliding scale based on income and family size. Another 26 percent have private insurance, and 9 percent have insurance through Medicare. HealthPoint’s major sources of funding are reimbursement from Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance companies for patient ser vices. A $1.4 million federal grant from the Bureau of Primary Health Care helps pay for ser vices to lowincome, uninsured patients. HealthPoint also raises money for special programs and capital needs through appeals for foundation grants, contributions from corporations and individuals, and other fundraising activities. “Care Center Updates, Merge,” KE, July 28, 2002, B1–B1B. “Health Agency to Build $1 Million Care Center (between Brooksville and Augusta),” KE, February 22, 2002, B2. “Healthpoint Expands Covington Ser vices,” KP, August 20, 2005, 5K.

Laurel Humes

HEARNE, JONATHAN (b. 1829, Harrison Co., Ky.; d. June 15, 1905, Covington, Ky.). Banker Jonathan David Hearne was the son of Cannon and Sallie Hearne. Orphaned early in life, he grew up to be a successful businessman in Central Kentucky. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he was living in

438 HEBRON Paris, Ky. Pledging his loyalty and support to the Union cause, Hearne relocated to Covington, where the majority of the residents were Union supporters. He became a shoe jobber in Covington and later a shoe manufacturer. In 1870 Hearne and his partners operated a shoe business in Cincinnati, at 65 W. Pearl St., near the waterfront. In 1866 Amos Shinkle, Jonathan Hearne, and some others purchased the H. J. Groesbeck property in Covington for a land development called Park Place. The next year, Hearne personally purchased a portion of this land and built the stately Hearne House, which was completed in 1874 and still stands. After the Civil War, Hearne’s career paralleled that of other wealthy businessmen and bankers of the era. Following passage of the national banking act of 1864, Hearne became involved with more than one of the new “national” banks established in Covington and Cincinnati. In league with Shinkle, Covington’s most prominent banker, Hearne tried to upgrade the Covington Branch of the Farmers Bank of Kentucky, where Hearne was president, into the “national system.” Failing to accomplish that, in 1871 he organized the City National Bank of Covington and became its president. He also was president of the Cincinnati and Newport Iron and Pipe Company. Then in 1882 Hearne became president of Third National Bank in Cincinnati, while also continuing as a director at City National Bank of Covington. In 1852 Hearne married Emily Duke Meyers, who was from Garrard Co., Ky. Hearne and his wife belonged to the Union Methodist Church, where he served as president of the board of trustees. In 1872 Hearne was elected to the Covington city council. He also helped organize the YMCA, was president of an organization for the “suppression of vice,” and was the first president of the Covington Park Association. He ended his career in banking in 1904 because of poor health. At the time, his worth was estimated to be at least $500,000. Among the recipients of bequests from his will were the Methodist Church, the Covington Protestant Children’s Home (see Children’s Home of Northern Kentucky), the Home for Indigent Women (see Covington Ladies Home), and the YMCA. He was buried in Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. Around 1980 a proposed new Licking River bridge and traffic corridor threatened the Hearne House (located in Covington at the end of E. Fifth St.), but thanks to a neighborhood effort, it remains. Now on the National Register of Historic Places, the Hearne House retains its singular prominence. Bricking, Chuck. Covington’s Heritage: A Compilation of the City’s Historical Houses and a Short Biography of the Inhabitants. Covington, Ky.: Privately published, 1980. City of Covington Death Certificate No. 486, for the year 1905. “Death Ends Career of John D. Hearne,” KP, June 15, 1905, 1. Greve, Charles Theodore. Centennial History of Cincinnati and Representative Citizens. 2 vols. Chicago: Biographical Publishing, 1904.

“J. D. Hearne as a History Maker,” KP, June 15, 1905, 1. Kenton Co. Deed Book 15, April 1, 1867, pp. 12, 13, 14; Deed Book 18, May 15, 1868, pp. 40–51; Will Book 9, November, 3, 1904, pp. 527–37, Kenton Co. Court house, Covington, Ky. “Large Real Estate Transaction—Sale of the Groesbeck Property,” CDE, June 20, 1866, 2.

John Boh

HEBRON. The village of Hebron, located in the southernmost part of the Bullittsville Magisterial District, which constitutes the northernmost part of Boone Co., calls itself the “Top of Kentucky,” a phrase coined by Boone Co. historian William Conrad. The town is centered at the junction of Ky. Rts. 20 and 237. Hebron received its name from the Hebron Lutheran Church, which was established in this area in 1854 as an offshoot of the Hopeful Lutheran Church of Florence, Ky. On February 23, 1858, the U.S. Post Office recognized Hebron as the official name of the town when it granted the town its first post office. There was never any doubt that the community would assume the name of its church as the name for the town. A community based on yeoman agriculture, Hebron soon became recognized as one of the fastest-growing and most prolific crop-producing portions of Boone Co. An array of businesses, mercantile establishments, tradesmen, and providers of goods and ser vices naturally followed, and a lineal neighborhood took form along the Petersburg Rd., now known as Ky. Rt. 20. Long-established family names from the original German immigrants remain today in the Hebron area. They include Clore, Connor, Crigler, Crisler, Rouse, and Tanner. The German family name Zimmermann was anglicized to Carpenter. Then followed the Dolwicks, the Hempflings, and the McGlassons— all common names in the Hebron environs and still connected to agricultural pursuits in one way or another. The 1940s introduced a new, identity-altering use for the flat farmland in the area. Boone Co. became home to the Cincinnati airport, winning out over an area in Blue Ash, Ohio, and the Lunken Airport in Cincinnati. The airport was later expanded to become the Greater Cincinnati Airport and then the Cincinnati/ Northern Kentucky International Airport. The growth and development that followed at the airport itself and in the surrounding area, in the form of business and residential expansion, soon absorbed most of Hebron’s prime crop-producing farmland and eventually much of the town itself. What the airport did not take, the construction of I-75 and I-275, along with the widening and rebuilding of the local North Bend Rd., did. Further airport runway expansions in the 1990s and in the 2000s have claimed even more of what was once the community of Hebron. The main businesses and ser vices are now along the North Bend Rd., both north and south of the expressway interchanges. Hebron is no longer incorporated as a town. Boone Co. Historic Preservation Review Board. Historic Structures of Boone County, Kentucky. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Cushing-Malloy, 2002.

Rennick, Robert M. Kentucky Place Names. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1984. Warner, Jennifer S. Boone County: From Mastodons to the Millennium. Burlington, Ky.: Boone Co. Bicentennial Book Committee, 1998.

Don Clare

HEBRON HIGH SCHOOL. The Hebron Consolidated School, which included the high school, was near the intersection of North Bend and Elijah Creek Rds. in Boone Co. It opened in 1923 and closed in 1954. The high school had fine basketball teams, known as the Cardinals. The school produced John Crigler, who was a starter on the 1958 NCAA championship basketball team at the University of Kentucky (UK). By guarding Elgin Baylor, an All-American at Seattle University and later a great professional player, Crigler enabled the UK team to advance. High school athletes also played six-man football; Irv Goode, who played some 13 years with the St. Louis Cardinals in professional football, came out of a six-man programs The building was sold and a few years later was destroyed by fire. Boone Co. judge Carrol L. Cropper named Glenrose Williams, a Hebron High graduate of the late 1930s, the county’s first woman sheriff in 1945; she succeeded her father, J. T. “Jake” Williams, upon his death. Secondary education returned to the Hebron area in 1970 with the opening of the Conner High School. Meiman, Karen. “Friends for Life—Class of ’30 Meets,” KP, May 23, 2000, 8K. Warner, Jennifer S. Boone County: From Mastodons to the Millennium. Burlington, Ky.: Boone Co. Bicentennial Book Committee, 1998.

Gail Chastang

HEBRON LUTHERAN CHURCH. Wars occurring in Europe more than 300 years ago led indirectly to the establishment of this church. When French armies invaded the Alsace region of southwestern Germany in 1674, many citizens fled from their German homeland and came to the New World. After a brief stay in Pennsylvania, some of them moved to the area around the Rappahannock River in Virginia, where they established a community called Germanna and a church, the Hopeful Lutheran Church, which is the oldest continuously used Lutheran church in the United States. They chose the name because they hoped to have a happy and prosperous life in their adopted country. In 1727, under the leadership of Rev. John Casper Stover Sr., a second church, called Hebron Lutheran Church, was begun a short distance from Germanna. Rev. William Carpenter and some of the members from Hopeful Church in Virginia moved to Northern Kentucky in 1805. Those hardy settlers formed the Hopeful Lutheran Church in Boone Co., in modern Florence, on January 6, 1806. In 1854, 16 members from Hopeful Lutheran Church, whose parents and grandparents had previously belonged to the Hebron Lutheran Church in Virginia, met in the home of John J. Crigler, to form a

HEHL, LAMBERT, SR.

Boone Co. church named after the Hebron Lutheran Church in Virginia. Hopeful Lutheran and Hebron Lutheran started a joint parish, with one pastor, Rev. David Harbaugh, serving both congregations. He lived in a parsonage midway between the two churches. On July 15, 1854, the cornerstone was laid for the newly christened Hebron Lutheran Church. Its modern address is 3140 Limaburg Rd., just east of today’s Connor High School in Boone Co. Trees on the church property were felled for use in construction of the new building, and the bricks were handmade on-site. The building was completed and dedicated on December 3, 1854. The Hebron Lutheran Church of Virginia sent $500 to help pay for construction of its Boone Co. namesake. In 1856 the Ebenezer Lutheran Church was founded in Boone Co. and accepted as a member of the parish. That church continued holding ser vices until 1892, when it merged with the Hopeful Lutheran Church. The Hebron Lutheran Church celebrated its 100th anniversary in 1954. The City of Hebron took its name from the Hebron Lutheran Church. Several additional acres of land adjoining the Hebron Lutheran Church property were purchased in 1968, and a new, modern edifice was built. A $1 million wing was added in 1991, which contains a social hall seating 450 and educational space. Hebron Lutheran Church, with about 350 active members, continues to be a vibrant, growing church, with a wide range of programs. It is currently a member of the Indiana-Kentucky Synod. “Celebration Is Set for Boone Church, Founded in 1806,” KE, June 6, 1956, 1. “Church Chat,” KP, March 11, 1967, 1. Lentz, H. Max. A History of Lutheran Churches in Boone County, Ky. York, Pa.: P. Anstadt, 1902. Waltmann, Henry G. History of the IndianaKentucky Synod of the Lutheran Church in America. Indianapolis: Central, 1971.

HEEKIN. Heekin is in Grant Co., south of Williamstown on U.S. 25 and west on Ky. Rt. 2937. Named for the Heekin Spice Company of Cincinnati, the neighborhood now consists of a smattering of houses and two churches. The thriving Mount Olivet Church of Christ is engaged in a building program. Nearby is the Grassy Run Baptist Church and its adjacent cemetery. Eagle Creek, Rattlesnake Creek, Clark’s Creek, and Grassy Run furnished water needed by the early settlers. The creek beds sometimes served as roads in those days, but landowners were soon made responsible for surveying and maintaining roads in their neighborhoods. The grade schools, which were established about three miles apart, within walking distance for students, included the Independence School, on nearby Chipman Ridge Rd., and the Heekin School. The Heekin School was later consolidated with the Mason School. The Mason School closed its high school in 1953 so its students could enter Grant Co. High School. The present MasonCorinth Elementary School opened in 1991. Conrad, John B., ed. History of Grant County, Kentucky. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992.

Pease, Janet, comp. Abstracted County Court Records. Vols. 1 and 2. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1985.

Mary Louis Evans

HEHL, LAMBERT, JR. (b. July 22, 1924, Newport, Ky.). Lambert Lawrence Hehl, a judge and a legislator, is the son of Lambert Lawrence Hehl Sr. and Martha Daly Hehl. He received his early education at St. Vincent de Paul Elementary School in South Newport and went on to graduate from Newport High School. In 1943 Lambert Hehl Jr. volunteered for the U.S. Marines; he served as a legal clerk in the Pacific Theater and had achieved the rank of sergeant by the time he left military ser vice in 1946. On May 25 of that same year, he married Helyn Mae Bathiany, and the couple had two daughters. During the early years of his marriage, Hehl worked by day to support his family and attended evening classes at Chase College of Law. After receiving his law degree in 1952, he maintained a solo law practice until 1956, when he became an associate, and later a partner, in the Newport firm of Benton, Benton, Luedeke, Rhoads, and Hehl. In 1962 Hehl began a successful law partnership with Norbert Bischoff, which lasted until 1982. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, in addition to his burgeoning law practice, Hehl served as president of the Campbell Co. Junior Chamber of Commerce (see Northern Kentucky Chamber of Commerce) and as state vice president of the Kentucky Jaycees, and he maintained memberships in the James Wallace Costigan Post No. 11, the American Legion Lawler-Hanlon Post No. 5822, the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and many other civic organizations. From 1953 to 1956, he served as deputy Campbell Co. tax commissioner under his father, who was serving his fourth term as county tax commissioner. On December 2, 1957, Judge Fred Warren named Hehl Jr. county judge pro tem so that he could swear his father into office for a fift h term as county tax commissioner. Lambert Hehl Jr.’s election in 1959 as a Kentucky state senator marked the beginning of his wide-ranging career as an elected official. From 1960 until the end of his term in 1963, he also served as chair of the senate judiciary committee. From 1969 to 1980, he was a member of the central executive committee of the Kentucky Democratic Party and also officiated as a special hearing officer. His long career in county government began with two terms (1963–1973) as county commissioner with Judge Andrew J. Jolly. In 1974 Hehl succeeded Jolly as Fiscal Court judge; he served in this capacity until 1982, although during the last five years of his county judgeship, the position’s title was county judge-executive. Kentucky governor John Y. Brown Jr. (1979–1983) appointed Hehl to an interim term as county circuit judge in 1983. The following year, Governor Martha Layne Collins (1983–1987) appointed him as Campbell Co. district judge, a post to which he was twice elected, continuing in this position until 1990. That same year, the chief justice of the Kentucky Supreme Court, Robert Stephens, announced Hehl’s ap-

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pointment as chief regional judge of the Sixth Appellate Court District; he served in this capacity until his retirement in 1990. Throughout Hehl’s lengthy tenure in public office, his exhaustive efforts on behalf of his Campbell Co. constituency helped to lay the groundwork for Northern Kentucky’s ongoing residential and industrial revitalization. His proactive legislative style and aggressive pursuit of state and federal funds for Northern Kentucky fostered the establishment of intrastate highways and bridges and sparked other projects that have since opened the area to expansive development. His 20-year stint on the Campbell Co. Fiscal Court saw the completion of I-275 through Campbell Co. and across the Ohio River, the construction of I-471, and the construction of the AA Highway in Campbell Co. and beyond. Such essential connector routes also fostered the birth of Northern Kentucky University at Highland Heights in the late 1960s and the school’s growth in the 1970s. The Commonwealth of Kentucky honored the significant contributions of both Hehl and former Kentucky governor Bert Combs (1959–1963) with the December 19, 1979, dedication of the CombsHehl Bridge; its heavily traveled double span carries six lanes of I-275 across the Ohio River at Brent. Hehl is also the recipient of the National Jaycees’ Distinguished and Unselfish Ser vice Award and the National Veterans of Foreign Wars’ Life Saving Award. Hehl’s peers on various professional and government organizations, such as the Chase Law School Alumni, the Campbell Co. Bar Association, the Kentucky Association of County Judge-Executives, the Northern Kentucky Transportation Committee, and the Northern Kentucky Area Planning Commission, have selected him as their president. Since his 1990 retirement, Hehl has remained a driving force of community involvement within Northern Kentucky. He has been active in various civic and fraternal organizations and has honored his hometown roots by serving as president of Newport’s Clem and Ann Buenger Boys & Girls Club and the Newport High School Alumni Association. In April 1994 Hehl was named chairperson of Newport’s Bicentennial Commission, a duty he executed with faithful precision. Hehl’s wife of 58 years, Helyn, died in October 2004. He currently resides in Fort Thomas with his present wife, Pat Zint Hehl. Beasley, David. “Hehl Rode New Highways to Success as County Official,” KP, October 17, 1982, B2. ———. “Lambert Hehl Helped Bridge NKY and Ohio,” SC, January 30, 2005, 4B. Hehl, Lambert. Interview by Jan Mueller, April 28, 2006, Fort Thomas, Ky. Long, Paul A. “Judge Hehl Will Retire at Year’s End— Public Career Began in 1953,” KP, November 1, 1990, 1K–2K. Purvis, Thomas L., ed. Newport, Kentucky: A Bicentennial History. Newport, Ky.: Otto Zimmerman, 1996.

Janice Mueller

HEHL, LAMBERT, SR. (b. August 4, 1895, Newport, Ky.; d. December 26, 1970, Fort Thomas, Ky.). Lambert Hehl Sr., a respected civic leader, a

440 HELENA World War I veteran, and a longtime Campbell Co. tax commissioner, was the son of Frank and Mary Wilderley Hehl. He grew up in Newport, where he received his early education. In 1917 Hehl was employed as a ticket agent at the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad depot when the U.S. declaration of war on Germany and the subsequent passage of the Selective Ser vices Act prompted a nationwide conscription effort. Hehl enlisted with the U.S. Marines; by November of the same year, he was undergoing training at Quantico, Va., and awaiting deployment to France. On April 5, 1918, while advancing with his unit, the 6th Marine Brigade, in France’s Toulon Sector, Private Hehl was struck in the leg with shrapnel, becoming Campbell Co.’s earliest casualty wounded in action in France during World War I. Another Newport resident from Hehl’s company, James Wallace Costigan, died July 31, 1918, from wounds received the month before at Belleau Wood; Costigan was Newport’s first World War I casualty. The James Wallace Costigan American Legion Post in Newport memorialized Costigan. Hehl later served as that post’s commander and for 30 years was its ser vice officer. His interest in veteran affairs was further demonstrated by his longtime assistance to widows and other dependents, securing lawfully allowed benefits due to them. On June 16, 1920, Hehl married Martha Daly; they had a son and a daughter, Lambert Hehl Jr. and Virginia. Although the family experienced its share of tough times during the Great Depression, in 1935 Hehl was appointed assistant county road engineer, a post he held until 1941. The devastating Ohio River flood of 1937 hit Northern Kentucky during his tenure. Hehl contributed his civic talents to the community by serving as county chair for the local Red Cross Disaster Committee. His position as public ser vice officer for the James Wallace Costigan American Legion Post allowed him to utilize the facility’s hall as the area’s earliest shelter and soup kitchen. By January 21, when the rising waters covered 68 blocks and were continuing to displace more Newport residents, Hehl’s emergency shelter was serving two meals a day to almost 200 families. After the U.S. Congress declared war on Japan and its allies on December 8, 1941, Newport’s citizens, fraught by paranoia and fear of saboteurs in the wake of Pearl Harbor, mounted an active defense of the city’s businesses and infrastructure. Their coordinated efforts included the establishment of the Municipal Council of Defense, of which Hehl was a member. The defense council organized multiple emergency response teams, including air raid wardens, medical personnel, and rescue squads. That same year, Hehl had decided to run for public office. He took the tax commissioners’ exam and, despite his limited formal education, passed it. This accomplishment was always a source of pride for Hehl, who had undertaken extensive selfeducation after returning from active duty during World War I. He ran on the Democratic ticket as a candidate for Campbell Co. tax commissioner in 1941 and was elected, beginning the first of six

consecutive terms in 1942. For the next 24 years, until his retirement in 1965, Hehl served in this capacity; during his long tenure, the tax commission office’s reputation for efficiency was recognized on a nearly annual basis by the state. In 1953 Lambert Hehl Jr. had been appointed deputy county tax commissioner under his father. After Lambert Hehl Sr. had won his fift h bid for the office of Campbell Co. tax commissioner in 1957, the younger Hehl was offered the opportunity to pay a touching tribute to his father. Judge Fred Warren named Lambert Hehl Jr. county judge pro tem, thus allowing the father to be sworn into office by his son. In addition to his responsibilities as a public official, Hehl Sr.’s political activity included serving as the executive secretary of the Campbell Co. Democratic Committee for almost two decades. Known as a powerful public speaker, he supported his close personal friend U.S. congressman Brent Spence by campaigning for him throughout his 32 years in office. On April 27, 1970, Hehl was chosen as the recipient of the second annual Brent Spence Memorial Award, bestowed upon him by members of the Campbell Co. Democratic Committee. Lambert Hehl Jr., by then a seasoned public official in his own right, honored his father with a touching eulogy before introducing him to accept the award. Just a few months later, on December 26, 1970, Lambert Hehl Sr. collapsed at his home at 81 Southview Ave. in Fort Thomas and died. He was buried at St. Stephen Cemetery in Fort Thomas. Hehl, Lambert, Jr. Interview by Jan Mueller, April 28, 2006, Fort Thomas, Ky. “Lambert Hehl Dies at 75,” KP, December 28, 1970, 1K–2K. Murphy, John. “Tears of Joy Honor Hehl Sr.” KP, April 28, 1970, 1K. Purvis, Thomas L., ed. Newport, Kentucky: A Bicentennial History. Newport, Ky.: Otto Zimmerman, 1996.

Janice Mueller

HELENA. Helena is located in the southeastern part of Mason Co. near the Fleming Co. line. It was incorporated on March 8, 1854, and for a period during the 1880s was annually electing a police judge and a town marshal. The town was located near the Helena Station on the Maysville and Lexington Railroad line that runs between Maysville and Lexington (see Louisville and Nashville Railroad; TransKentucky Transportation Railroad). In 1856 the Richland Academy was opened in Helena community as a girls’ school. It later became part of the county system and enrolled more than 100 students at the end of the 19th century. The community of Helena had a Masonic Lodge (see Masons), a post office, and churches, in addition to the school. The Helena Methodist Church has a long history, and the church’s current building dates from 1914. In recent years, a number of Amish people have moved into the general area, and an Amish school now operates across from the railroad tracks in Helena. Calvert, Jean, and John Klee. The Towns of Mason County: Their Past in Pictures. Maysville, Ky.:

Maysville and Mason Co. Library Historical and Scientific Association, 1986. Clift, G. Glenn. History of Maysville and Mason County. Lexington, Ky.: Transylvania, 1936.

John Klee

HELLEBUSCH, BERNARD H. F. (b. April 23, 1825, Oldenburg, Germany; d. June 12, 1885, Covington, Ky.). Bernard Hellebusch, an organist and hymnal publisher, came from a musical family. Having immigrated to the United States in search of opportunity, he arrived in Covington by flatboat in January 1844; some of his siblings followed. Hellebusch began to teach school at the Germanspeaking Mother of God Catholic Church in Covington, using the melodeon (a small pump organ) that he had brought with him. Although most of his career centered on the Mother of God Church, he also taught at Holy Trinity Church (Heiligen Dreiheit Kirche) in Cincinnati’s West End. Hellebusch became both a teacher and the principal at Mother of God School, in addition to giving private music lessons. A student of the Enlightenment, Hellebusch promoted the German Singmesse tradition, which emphasized the folk song rather than a classical Latin approach to church music. He wrote seven sets of Singmesse hymns, 34 in all. The Catholic Youth’s Hymn Book (1871) was the first to provide English translations of them. Perhaps Hellebusch’s greatest contribution was the German-language hymnal he first published in 1858, Gesang und Gebetbuch, through which he introduced for the first time to the U.S. church such hymns as “Holy God” (“Grosser Gott”) and “O Sacred Head Surrounded” (“O Haupt Voll Blut und Wunden”), along with many others. This hymnal was used throughout German-Catholic communities, and Hellebusch’s modest church salary was enhanced by the royalties from its sales. During his last years at Mother of God, the present church building was erected. Hellebusch persuaded the pastor, Father Teutenberg, and the parish to install a new organ. No doubt his campaign had the support of his brother Clemens Hellebusch, who was a wealthy jeweler and a parish trustee. The Koehnken organ installation was overseen by Bernard Hellebusch in 1876. Toward the end of Hellebusch’s career, his type of music was falling out of favor in the church, in preference for what was known as the Caecilian Movement. Upon the arrival of Mother of God’s new pastor, Rev. William Tappert, and his musician-brother Rev. Henry Tappert, Caecilian music was embraced by the church, and Hellebusch departed to finish out his career at the neighboring St. Aloysius Catholic Church, also in Covington. The Hellebusch family lived at the southeast corner of Fift h and Russell Sts., Covington, when he died in 1885. His first wife, Marian Putthoff, had died in 1860. His second wife, Margaret Merle, bore him 11 children, the youngest of whom was age six at the time of Hellebusch’s death. Hellebusch’s musical contributions have been largely forgotten, and only archival copies of his very suc-

HEMINGRAY, ROBERT

cessful hymnal remain. He was buried at Mother of God Cemetery, Covington. Hellebusch, Juliana Mattei. “B. H. F. ‘Teacher’ Hellebusch (1825–1885),” NKH 1, no. 2 (Spring–Summer 1994): 13–23.

Karl Lietzenmayer

HELM, CHARLES JOHN, SR. (b. June 21, 1817, Hornellsville, N.Y.; d. February 1868, Toronto, Canada). Charles John Helm Sr., who became a lawyer, a military officer, the U.S. consul general, and a Confederate agent to Havana, Cuba, was the first of six children of Francis T. and Sallie B. McKinney Helm. In 1817, his birth year, his family moved to Newport, where in 1834 Francis Helm, a veteran of the War of 1812, became Newport’s first mayor. Educated in Newport, Charles was tutored in law by John W. Tibbatts, a noted attorney, congressman, and infantry colonel, and a sonin-law of Gen. James Taylor Jr., founder of Newport. Upon admission to the bar in 1842, Helm practiced law in Tibbatts’s firm until Tibbatts, on April 9, 1847, organized the 16th U.S. Infantry Regiment (which included 4 of the 10 companies from Kentucky), which had been reactivated on February 11 for the Mexican War. Helm was appointed a 1st lieutenant and later reached the rank of brevet major. The regiment was disbanded on August 16, 1848, and Helm returned to his law practice in Newport. Helm was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives for one term in 1851. President Franklin Pierce named him U.S. commercial agent to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, in 1853. In 1854 Helm married Louise A. Whistler in Newport. They had five children. Back in St. Thomas, Helm successfully negotiated to have the Danish government revoke certain imposts that had hampered U.S. merchant shipping. In 1858 President James Buchanan appointed Helm as the country’s consul general to Cuba. That strategic Spanish shipping hub became very important when the Civil War commenced in 1861. Rumors spread that Helm might defect to the Confederacy, whereupon U.S. secretary of state William Seward made several attempts to retain Helm in his position in Havana, even to the extent of sending him a silk flag, according to some accounts. Nevertheless, Helm resigned as consul general and returned to the United States, evading all attempts to have him arrested for his allegiance to the South. Confederate president Jefferson Davis sent Helm back to Cuba in July 1861 as a special agent for the Confederacy; his circuitous journey took him through Canada and England to Havana. Helm worked to ensure Cuba’s neutrality during the Civil War, while simultaneously acting as the monitor of Confederate blockade-running activities. After the war, fearful of arrest for treason, Helm moved his family to Toronto, Canada, where an enclave of former Confederate politicians and senior military officers lived. He was in the welcoming party for the visiting Jefferson Davis at Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario, Canada, after Davis was released from federal prison in 1867. The exiled Helm died in

Charles Helm.

Toronto in 1868. His wife, Louise, and their three surviving children, Charles John Helm Jr., born in St. Thomas; Louise, born in Havana; and William W., born in Canada, returned to Newport, where Charles Jr. and William practiced law, the former becoming circuit judge. Collins, Richard H. History of Kentucky. Vol. 1. Covington, Ky.: Collins, 1882. Perrin, William Henry, J. H. Battle, and G. C. Kniffi n. Kentucky: A History of the State. Louisville, Ky.: F. A. Battey, 1888. Reis, Jim. Pieces of the Past. Vol. 2. Covington: Kentucky Post, 1991. Roberts, William Hugh. Mexican War Veterans: A Roster of the Regular and Volunteer Regiments in the War with Mexico, 1846–1848. Washington, D.C.: A. S. Witherbee, 1887.

Robert Michael Venable

HEMINGRAY, ROBERT (b. June 22, 1820, near Johnstown, Pa.; d. December 27, 1898, Covington, Ky.). Robert Hemingray joined Ralph Gray to found the Gray & Hemingray Glass Works in 1848. They were pioneer industrialists in the Northern Kentucky region, providing a product eagerly welcomed by a market hungry for a local source of quality glassware. Gray died in 1863, and in 1870 the glass works was incorporated as the Hemingray Glass Company. The company became recognized worldwide as a leader in the production of domestic and industrial glassware. Robert’s parents, William and Ann Hemingray, arrived in the United States about 1818 from England and settled on the Conemaugh River, near Johnstown, in western Pennsylvania. William found work making salt from the saline springs that abounded in the area. Robert Hemingray was born in a salt-camp cabin in 1820. William Hemingray moved his family to Pittsburgh in 1825 and opened a small general store. Unfortunately, William drowned November 22, 1832, and Ann died August 29, 1834, leaving Robert Hemingray orphaned at age 14. Despite trying circumstances, Hemingray managed to obtain a sound education, completing a college course prior to marriage and embarking on his life’s work. He was employed by the Phillips

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Glass Works, located in “Pipetown,” an industrial Pittsburgh suburb located east of the city along the Monongahela River. Because of his education, Hemingray was engaged in the business aspects of the company rather than the actual manufacturing of glass. The “Great Fire of 1845” destroyed essentially all of industrial Pittsburgh and most of its residential neighborhoods. The Phillips Glass Works was consumed by the fire as was, most likely, the residence of the young Hemingray family. Conditions in Pittsburgh became grim as thousands were put out of work and many people were left homeless. Soon after the fire, Hemingray joined forces with Ralph Gray, a glassblower living in Birmingham, Pa., an industrial community across the Monongahela River from Pittsburgh. Together they descended the Ohio River to Covington with hopes of starting their own glass works. The two were unsuccessful in immediately acquiring a suitable site in Covington and were forced to lease a small lot in Cincinnati. They quickly constructed a furnace for making glass, obtained the necessary raw materials, and procured molds; they began producing glassware in late 1848. In 1852 they purchased a small lot near the intersection of Second St. and Madison Ave. in Covington and moved the production of glassware to Covington while maintaining the sales room in Cincinnati until 1881, when it also was relocated to Covington. Hemingray was progressive as well as innovative in the art of glass manufacturing. Once he and Gray had overcome the obstacles confronting them in their start-up of the glass works, he was able to focus on improvements in operational efficiency and product quality. He received patents for improvements in machinery and product design from 1860 to 1887 and encouraged his partners and employees to seek enhancements that resulted in additional patents assigned to the glass works. Robert married Mary E. Carroll June 6, 1842, in Pittsburgh, and the couple had eight children. Gray’s younger brother Anthony married Susan Carroll, a sister of Hemingray’s wife. Anthony died April 27, 1865, and Susan died two years later. Robert and Mary Hemingray took the five Gray children into their home to be raised to adulthood. The oldest son, John C. Gray, became superintendent of the Hemingray Glass Company in 1897 and was elevated to the position of general manager upon the death of Hemingray. Hemingray was not politically active. While he voted with the Whig Party, he did not seek public office, nor is there any indication that he played a role in politics behind the scenes. Northern Kentucky had strong pro-Union feelings before and during the Civil War. When the area was threatened by an attacking Confederate force in September 1862, Hemingray joined Amos Shinkle’s Covington militia company as a sergeant. Hemingray’s leadership capabilities were sorely tested during the war years, especially after the death of his partner, Ralph Gray; however, Hemingray managed to hold the company together. Robert Hemingray died at his home at 219 Garrard St. in Covington in late 1898; Mary died

442 HEMINGRAY GLASS COMPANY in 1901. They were buried in the Hemingray lot at Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. Covington Health Department Death Certificate No. 759, for the year 1898. Drummond, Glenn. A Genealogical Study of the Ancestral Line of Robert “Robin” Hemingray, Conway Taylor Hemingray, Susan Ashley Hemingray for the Purpose of Identifying Their Connection to a Revolutionary Patriot. Notasulga, Ala.: Glen Drummond, 2003. Highland Cemetery Records, Fort Mitchell, Ky. Hyve, H. G. (Bea). The Hemingray Glass Co.: A Most Colorful History. San Diego: Clarice Gordon, n.d. [ca. 1998]. “Pioneer Dead—Founder of Company Robert Hemingray Died,” KP, December 27, 1898, 1. Probate, Marriage, and Deed Records, Hamilton Co., Ohio (Cincinnati), Kenton Co., Ky. (Covington and Independence), and Allegheny Co., Pa. (Pittsburgh).

Glenn Drummond

HEMINGRAY GLASS COMPANY. The Hemingray Glass Company, once located in Covington, was founded by a partnership of Ralph Gray and Robert Hemingray in 1848. From a very modest beginning on a small leased lot in Cincinnati, the company grew to become one of the nation’s largest manufacturers of domestic and industrial glassware. The factory was moved from Cincinnati to Covington in 1852, then to Muncie, Ind., in 1888; the company’s business offices continued to function in Covington until 1919. The Owens-Illinois Glass Company bought the assets of the Hemingray Glass Company in 1933 and closed the firm’s operations in 1972. Gray and Hemingray came to Covington from Pittsburgh. Both had been associated with glassmanufacturing interests in Pittsburgh before the “Great Fire of 1845,” which destroyed most of that city. Their initial goal was to build a glass factory in Covington, but because they found no suitable site, they located in Cincinnati, where a glass furnace was constructed fronting on Mayor’s Alley (Hammond St.). They began to produce glass products in 1848. Four years later they secured a desired property in Covington, near the northwest corner of the intersection of Second St. and Madison Ave. The factory was moved to Covington as soon as production facilities were completed; however, the warehouse and the sales room remained in Cincinnati until 1881. The cities of Cincinnati, Covington, and Newport were thriving and growing rapidly. As Cincinnati was the center of commerce for the Ohio River Valley, there was a large demand for domestic and commercial glassware. The nearest sources of these products were the glass houses of Wheeling, W.Va., and Pittsburgh, but the Pittsburgh fire had created an uncertain void in the availability of glassware that the Gray & Hemingray Glass Works (as the firm was first known) quickly fi lled. Products varied, but the greatest demand was for apothecary glassware, bottles of various forms, fruit jars, oil lamps, and tableware. These products remained the staple of the company throughout its first two decades.

Hard work, a quality product, a rapidly expanding market, and limited competition enabled the Gray & Hemingray Glass Works to flourish during the 1850s. Even when war clouds formed early in the 1860s and the national economy became shaky, the glass works continued to prosper and grow. The death of Gray in 1863, resulted in great consternation for Hemingray. Gray’s will stipulated that, because of the great uncertainty prevailing at the time, his undivided half interest in the glass works be sold and the proceeds invested for the support of his widow. Not only did Hemingray lose a close friend and business partner, but the thought of bringing into the firm an interest outside of the family was particularly unsettling. He was able to marshal a small group of family members and close friends who acquired Gray’s half interest, enabling the company to survive. The half interest was equally divided among Joseph C. Hemingray, Samuel J. Hemingray, Richard Evans, and James L. Foley. Joseph C. and Samuel J. were brothers of Robert Hemingray; Richard Evans, Robert’s brother-in-law, and James L. Foley were close friends and associates. The subsequent death in 1866 of Samuel J. Hemingray created another episode of uncertainty, because Samuel’s widow immediately sold her inherited one-eighth interest to an outsider with no experience in glass production. Th is dilemma was quickly resolved through the purchase of that interest by Evans and Foley. Incorporated in the state of Kentucky in 1870, the company continued to grow. Additional land was acquired and new buildings constructed to enable the company to satisfy the expanding market. Fruit jars, oil lamps, and telegraph insulators came to be the primary products. The Hemingray Glass Company eventually became the world’s largest producer of glass insulators for telegraph, telephone, and electric power distribution. The Covington business site offered a number of advantages at the outset, such as easy access to the Ohio River for the shipment of finished products and receipt of raw materials. A block away from the Covington plant was the Walsh Distillery, a major user of glass bottles beginning in 1873. However, floods, droughts, ice, and other weather conditions sometimes overwhelmed these advantages. The company suffered severe losses during the floods of 1883 and 1884, which forced work to cease for extended periods. In addition, the flood of 1884 caused structural damage to the Hemingray Glass Company’s buildings. The variable flow rates of the river resulted in frequent periods when low flow prevented the essential delivery of coal, sand, and other necessary raw materials to the plant. Ice jams or running ice on the river would also bring traffic to a standstill (see Ohio River Navigation). One of the company’s buildings was severely damaged by a tornado that passed along the river in 1860. Natural gas was the fuel of choice for rival glass manufacturers located in the upper Ohio River Valley by the 1880s, so Robert Hemingray attempted to locate a source of natural gas. He drilled test wells on company-owned property,

beginning in 1884. The first well yielded sufficient natural gas to heat the boilers but not nearly enough to fire the furnaces, and further exploration proved fruitless. In 1887 the company was approached by representatives of the Manufacturers Guarantee Fund Association of Muncie, Ind., with an offer of free property and natural gas in exchange for agreeing to relocate the factory to that city. The offer, coming on the heels of devastating floods and record low water levels in the Ohio River, was attractive enough that company officials chose to accept it. The company began to move production facilities to Muncie in 1888. Although Robert Hemingray continued to be the president, factory operations in Muncie were under the direction of Ralph G. Hemingray, Robert’s oldest son. Daniel C. Hemingray, the youngest son, secretary-treasurer, was responsible for the operation of the business offices, which remained in Covington. Robert C. Hemingray, the second son, was factory superintendent until health problems forced his retirement. The natural gas reserves had been touted as “inexhaustible.” No one knew that the “Indiana Natural Gas Belt” would be depleted within a very few years. An attempt was made in 1900 to reopen the Covington factory on a limited basis, but it was decided to terminate the attempt after operating for one year because of high maintenance costs. In the meantime, efforts were under way to purchase property for a new Covington factory near the intersection of Seventh and Russell Sts. The site was above flood stage, as well as lying adjacent to the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway. Unfortunately, the property owners insisted on a higher price for the land than the company was willing to pay, and negotiations broke down. All thoughts of returning to Covington were abandoned. The final decision was to construct “producer gas” furnaces in Muncie and retain the factory there. After Ralph Hemingray died, May 11, 1920, the company came under the control of Phillip McAbee, husband of Ralph Hemingray’s daughter Carol. McAbee had little glass-manufacturing experience, and the loss of markets during the onset of the Great Depression in the 1930s took a toll on the Hemingray Glass Company along with other glass manufacturers. McAbee soon found the firm in debt with no foreseeable opportunity to recover; consequently, he chose to put his glassmaking company on the market, and the OwensIllinois Glass Company bought it. Hamilton Co. (Cincinnati) and Kenton Co. (Independence and Covington) Deed Records. Hyve, H. G. (Bea). The Hemingray Glass Co.: A Most Colorful History. San Diego: Clarice Gordon, n.d. [ca. 1998]. Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Covington city directories and newspapers.

Glenn Drummond

HEMINGRAY GLASS COMPANY ARCHAEOLOGY. A 1986 archaeological project explored the Covington site occupied by the Hemingray Glass Company from 1852 until

HENRY, JOSEPHINE W.

1888. The property, acquired in at least seven transactions from 1852 to 1880, took in nearly the entire block north of Second St. and west of Madison Ave., as well as portions of the block to the south. Considerable effort was made in the 1986 archaeological excavations at the Hemingray Glass Company’s work site to expose the remnants of the factory complex (see Covington Urban Archaeology). Originally, the company’s building complex contained a batch house; a bottle-blowing house; company offices; clay, molding, and sandblasting areas; a decorating room; ovens; packing rooms; and steam heated lehrs (ovens through which glassware travels on a belt). The various parts of the complex ranged from one to four stories tall. In total, 315.1 linear meters (1,034 feet) of limestone foundation walls were exposed across the large area. Excavated features included the bases of the glassblowing ovens, a decorating oven, a large cistern, a lehr, and a series of unidentified ovens. In addition, a large excavation unit was placed within massive waste deposits near the north end of the complex. This pit extended to nearly 5 meters (16.4 feet) below the present surface; however, the base of the deposits was not encountered. More than 221.77 kilograms (489 pounds) of glass waste were processed at the screens. When the Hemingray Glass Company was active in Covington, Ohio River commerce provided coal for the company’s glass furnaces, but historical documents indicate that sand was purchased from Missouri and lead from Illinois. Ralph Gray and Robert Hemingray, the founders and owners, produced apothecary glassware, chemical apparatus, decanters, fruit jars, lamp glasses, lightning rods, packing bottles, perfumery glass, pickling bottles, telegraph insulators, and tumblers. The Hemingray Glass Company is well documented in the 1870 U.S. Census Manufacturing Schedule. According to that source, the firm made a capital investment of $250,000 and had 209 employees, 67 of them, or nearly one-third, children. Owing to the extreme heat of summer, the glassworkers were furloughed during July and August. Production materials were valued at $87,350, wages of $88,631 were paid, and sales amounted to $192,000. Flintware, fruitware, greenware, and lantern ware were the company’s products listed. Hemingray Glass received 11 U.S. patents for advances in glass manufacturing during its stay in Covington: 4 for improvements in the manufacture of canning jars, 4 for advances in glass telegraph insulators, and 3 for manufacturing techniques. Robert Hemingray’s 1871 patent for a threaded glass insulator heralded a shift of focus to mass production of first telegraph and then telephone and electric insulators, which were the firm’s mainstay product for the next six decades, well past the company’s move away from Kentucky. Drummond, Glenn. Hemingray Glass Company, Covington, Kentucky: A Chronological Listing of Pertinent Real Estate Actions, 1815–1899. Notasulga, Ala.: Glenn Drummond, 1994. Genheimer, Robert A. “Archaeological Testing, Evaluation, and Final Mitigation Excavations at Covington’s Riverfront Redevelopment Phase 2 Site,

Kenton County, Kentucky.” Prepared by R. G. Archaeological Ser vices, Covington. Submitted to the city of Covington, 1987.

Robert A. Genheimer

HENDERSON, CHARLES L. (b. September 1893, Paris, Ky.; d. December 27, 1918, France). Henderson, the son of Harriet Lee, was the first African American from Covington to be killed in action while serving in France during World War I. On April 1, 1918, Henderson was among the first African Americans to depart Covington for Camp Zachary Taylor in Louisville. He was with the 325th Field Signal Battalion, 92nd Infantry Division. These African Americans, drafted into the U.S. Army by the Covington Selective Ser vice Board, were given a grand send-off by the community, family, and friends, as demonstrated by the brass band that accompanied them to their train. When Henderson died, the military authorities had a difficult time locating his nearest relative, even though his mother, his brother, and a nephew were living in Covington. Henderson was buried at the Oise-Aisne American Cemetery, Fère-enTardenois, France. On September 1, 1919, World War I veterans in Covington decided to honor their fallen comrades by organizing an American Legion post. Henderson was honored by the naming of the Charles L. Henderson American Legion Post No. 166. William H. Martin Jr., a veteran of World War I, was selected as its first commander. In May 1932 Charles H. Bishop became the new commander at an installation held at the Knights of Pythias Hall. In July of that year, a minstrel show was presented under the sponsorship of Post No. 166 at its post home, Prospect and Wheeler Sts. In December 1941 Post No. 166 was reactivated just before Pearl Harbor. The Charles L. Henderson American Legion Post No. 166 remains an active part of the community. “Legion to Install,” KP, May 6, 1932, 7. “Officers Installed,” KP, May 10, 1932, 2. “Plan Minstrel Show,” KP, July 19, 1932, 1. Reis, Jim. “All Quiet on the Home Front Then Came Pearl Harbor,” KP, December 7, 1998, 4K. “Seeking Kin of Dead Soldier,” KTS, November 4, 1919, 28. “Selects Start Soldier Life,” KP, April 1, 1918, 1. “Soldier’s Kin Sought,” KP, November 4, 1919, 1. “To Form Negro Post,” KP, September 1, 1919, 2. “To Give Minstrel Show,” KP, July 24, 1932, 8.

Theodore H. H. Harris

HENDERSON-ROUSE TAVERN. Located on the Dry Ridge Trace (now U.S. 25, the Dixie Highway), on the south side of Crittenden, this six-room log tavern is said to have been built in 1815 by Joseph Meyers. The first proprietor was county magistrate James Theobald, who operated the tavern until 1822. The tavern was large for its day, with three rooms on the first floor and three on the second floor. Each room was about 20 feet square. The south room on the first floor was the barroom. Heated by a large fireplace when necessary, it contained a writing desk, tables, chairs, and a bar along one wall. This room also served as the

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magistrate’s courtroom, where misdemeanor cases were tried, boundary disputes over land claims were settled, and administrators for estate settlements were appointed. The north room on the first floor was the tavern’s dining room. The ringing of the first bell at mealtime was the signal for ladies and children to be seated. Men were seated on the sounding of the second bell. A doorway in the west wall led to a detached brick kitchen, where meals were prepared and carried by slave children into the dining room. Rev. Thomas Henderson of Scott Co. acquired the 340 acres of land that included the tavern in 1822. He served as the tavern owner and operator, a farmer, a schoolmaster, and a Baptist minister until his death in 1846. His family continued to operate the tavern afterward. During the Civil War, the property and the tavern suffered considerable damage when the area was occupied by the 18th Michigan Regiment of the U.S. Army. With other changes brought about by time, the tavern became a private residence. Conrad, John B., ed. History of Grant County. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992.

John B. Conrad

HENRY, JOSEPHINE W. (b. February 22, 1843, Newport, Ky.; d. January 8, 1928, Versailles, Ky.). Josephine Williamson Henry, a writer, teacher, and women’s rights activist, was the daughter of Captain Euclid and Mary Kirby Williamson and the niece of Captain John A. Williamson, steamboat line owner and developer of the Central Bridge across the Ohio River at Newport. When Josephine was age 15, she and her family moved to Versailles, in Woodford Co., where she lived for the remainder of her life. She became an accomplished musician and gave piano lessons in her home. She also taught for several years at the Versailles Academy for Ladies. She married Confederate Army veteran Capt. William Henry, and they had a son, Frederick V. Henry, born in 1868. Captain Henry was also a teacher; he started the Henry Academy for Boys in Versailles. Josephine joined the Kentucky Equal Rights Association and espoused many of their ideas. In 1888 she began to campaign for voting rights for women and the following year attacked repressive Kentucky laws dealing with women’s property rights. In 1890 Josephine Henry became the first woman in Kentucky to run for an elected state office; she was defeated in her effort to become clerk of the Kentucky Court of Appeals. Henry’s son, Frederick, began publishing a newspaper, which he called the Versailles Clarion. In 1891, while in Chicago researching a story for his newspaper, he was killed during a train derailment. It is believed that her son’s death caused Henry to become an ardent agnostic. She developed a great disdain for biblical teachings and for Christianity in general. Henry was physically small; she looked more like a schoolmarm than the dynamic speaker and fiery suff ragette she later became. She detested many things about the marriage ceremony, especially that the bride had to

444 HERITAGE ACADEMY give up her surname and promise to obey her husband and that the bride was given away like chattel by her father. Henry also wanted women to stop using Miss or Mrs. before their name, since most men used no similar designation. She proposed that male children carry their mother’s surname and female children use their father’s. In her view marriage and divorce were the world’s biggest problems, and marriage was the worse of the two. She claimed that by Kentucky law it was almost a crime to be a married woman. Henry wrote two books, Marriage and Divorce and Women and the Bible. Because of her extreme views concerning religion and marriage, many in the women’s rights movement opposed her, and she was later expelled from the Kentucky Equal Rights Association as an undesirable member. However, in 1920 the National American Woman Suff rage Association presented to Josephine Henry its Pioneer Distinguished Ser vice award for her lifetime of dedication to women’s issues. Henry suffered a stroke in December 1927 and died about a month later, at age 84. She was buried in a nondescript grave in the Versailles Cemetery, where a simple marker was erected, bearing only her name. Now nearly a century after her death, the fiery suff ragette is all but forgotten, even in her home state. However, aided by the tenacity of her convictions, many of the causes she espoused have come to fruition. “Josephine W. Henry,” LCJ, August 20, 1995, sec. D, p. 1. Orr, John. “Josephine W. Henry—A Pioneer for Women’s Rights.” Connections Magazine, March 1997, 6. “Pioneer Woman Is Dead,” LCJ, January 9, 1928.

country by the early 17th century. He was the son of slave-owning Virginians Lewis and Frances Thompson Herndon. Elijah Herndon arrived in Campbell Co. before 1800, and on August 30, 1813, he joined the 4th Regiment of the Kentucky Militia, whose captain was Squire Grant (see Grant Family) and whose commander was Gen. William Henry Harrison, the future president. Herndon and his company participated in the Battle of the Thames at Chatham, Ontario, where Shawnee Indian Chief Tecumseh was killed. Herndon was married three times and fathered 12 children. He and his wife Catherine donated the land on which the Mount Gilead Methodist Church at Carthage in Campbell Co. was built. Mary Gregg Herndon, a daughter, married William Evermont Bryan on October 21, 1845. Another daughter, Elizabeth, married Simeon Dicken; their son Absolom Columbus Dicken wrote a Civil War diary about his days as a Confederate. On April 18, 1806, Elijah Herndon bought 130 acres of land in Campbell Co. on Washington Trace for $260 from Benjamin Beall and had it surveyed by William Kennedy. There, in 1818, he built a house from bricks that had been used as a ship’s ballast. The house still stands. According to Elijah’s great-grandson Robert Herndon, who died in 1973, the noted author Harriet Beecher Stowe had visited in the Herndon home and referred to it in Uncle Tom’s Cabin. Elijah Herndon died in 1849 and was buried in the Mount Gilead Methodist Church Cemetery. Campbell County Kentucky History and Genealogy. Falmouth, Ky.: Falmouth Outlook, 1978. Wessling, Jack. Early History of Campbell County Kentucky. Alexandria, Ky.: Privately published, 1997.

Jack Wessling

HERITAGE ACADEMY. This Christian school for students in grades K–12 was founded in the early 1980s by Rev. Cleddie Keith, the pastor of Heritage Fellowship (Assembly of God) in Florence, Ky. The primary purpose of Heritage Academy, a Christ-centered alternative to secular education, is to train students in the knowledge of God and the Christian way of life and to give students an excellent education. The teachers at Heritage Academy aspire to foster the development of the whole child: one who is spiritually alert, morally sound, and emotionally and intellectually mature. The first administrator of the school was Malcolm Pugh. Students come from all over the tristate area. Classes at the school are small, with an elementary student-teacher ratio of 18:1 and a high school ratio of 22:1. In 2005 the school’s enrollment was 265; in 2006 Heritage Academy graduated 18 high school seniors. Gutierrez, Karen. “Grad’s Odyssey Gets Last Twist,” KE, May 22, 2006, 1A.

Gail Chastang

HERNDON, ELIJAH (b. November 27, 1774, Goochland Co., Va.; d. July 26, 1849, Carthage, Ky.). Early settler and Indian-fighter Elijah Herndon was a descendant of European kings and colonial governors. His forebears had come to this

HERSHFIELD, OLIVE S. VAIL (b. October 11, 1903, Bellevue, Ky.; d. June 14, 1951, Cincinnati, Ohio.). Olive Vail Hershfield, a well-known performer and dance instructor, was the daughter of Willard and Eliza Mae Hale Vail. Her father worked as a commission merchant and real estate agent. The family moved to 307 Berry Ave. in Bellevue when Olive was four years old. Early in life, she developed a keen interest in dancing and began teaching dancing when she was just 11. She graduated from Bellevue High School and later the Schuster-Martin School of Dramatics in Cincinnati and then operated a dance studio in Bellevue for about 10 years, where she had 250 pupils. Later she studied under some of the top dance masters in New York City; Paris, France; and Berlin, Germany. In 1931 she went to Hollywood, where she appeared in the movie The Spirit of Notre Dame. Olive later danced with the Ziegfield Follies and with George White’s’ Scandals and also toured with an RKO dance troupe. During her stellar career, she performed in 10 countries and mastered numerous native dances. She married Larry Hershfield, and the couple was childless. She retired from dancing in 1941 to take a position with the U.S. Post Office Department, in Washington, D.C. She was diagnosed with a heart problem in September 1950, at age 47, and died of the malady

about nine months later at Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati. She was buried at the Mount Zion Cemetery in New Richmond, Ohio. Ohio Death Certificate No. 37811, for the year 1951. “Olive Vail Hershfield Dies, Prominent Dance Teacher,” CE, June 16, 1951, 12. “Widely Known Dance Instructor Succumbs,” KP, June 15, 1951, 1.

HESLER. Hesler is a town in Owen Co., located near the intersection of Ky. Rts. 845 and 227. It was founded in 1820 by Daniel McCarthy Payne of Lexington, who purchased its site from Jacob Hesler. Hesler, an early settler, was instrumental in Owen Co.’s formation in 1819. Payne’s plat of the town featured a square at the center, on which was planned a courthouse and a jail. Hesler’s residence (used as a courtroom for some time) was also on the square, which, in turn, was surrounded by 194 lots, each having a frontage of 66 feet and a depth of 198 feet. Payne had visions of a growing town and very likely of selling off the lots for a profit. In 1821 part of Gallatin Co., below New Liberty and Bromley, was added to Owen Co., making Hesler no longer the geographic center of the county. Therefore, on January 15, 1822, the court ordered that the county seat be removed to lands owned by William B. Forsee, James Gess, and Andrew Parker, where the city of Owenton is located today. During the mid-1920s, Hesler was referred to as one of the most flourishing places in the county. It had four stores, two garages, two blacksmith shops, two cream stations, a barbershop, a bank, a church, an elementary school, and a number of progressive-minded citizens. In 1996 city water came to Hesler when additional mains were built by the Tri-Village Water District through the area, along with a 150,000 gallon water storage tank. Houchens, Mariam Sidebottom. History of Owen County: “Sweet Owen.” Louisville, Ky.: Standard, 1976. Johnson, Omer. “Expansion Quenches Owen’s Thirst for Water,” KP, February 14, 1996, 8A. Vertical fi les, Owen Co. Public Library, Owenton, Ky.

Doris Riley

HEVING BROTHERS (John Aloysius Heving, b. April 29, 1896, Covington, Ky.; d. December 24, 1968, Salisbury, N.C.; Joseph William Heving, b. September 2, 1900, Covington, Ky.; d. April 11, 1970, Covington, Ky.). The Heving brothers, John and Joe, professional baseball players, were the two youngest sons of a German immigrant family of six boys and two girls. Their parents were Frank and Louise Busse Heving. They became involved in the trades of their father and other close relatives, which were brick making (see Brickyards) and carpentry. In their youth the brothers relished informal games on the local baseball sandlots, little realizing the place baseball was going to occupy in their lives. The older brother, John, played locally with the Holy Cross Standards and the Covington Chesters as a catcher. He left in 1920 at the age of 24 for Battle Creek, Mich., to play for a minor league team in

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Ontario, Canada. It was there that he met and married Ruth Matthews; the couple had one daughter, June. Other minor league cities where John Heving played included Tulsa, Okla.; Mobile, Ala.; and Toledo, Ohio. He was called up to the major league to play for the St. Louis Browns in 1920, played with the American League’s Boston Red Sox between 1924 and 1930, and finished his career with the league’s Philadelphia Athletics in 1932. A highlight in his career was playing in the 1931 World Series against the National League’s St. Louis Cardinals. After completing his playing career, John became a minor league manager. He retired from professional baseball in 1950. Heving died in 1968 at the age of 72 in N.C. and was buried at the Rowan Memorial Park Cemetery in Salisbury, N.C. John was influential in persuading his younger brother Joe to give up his job as a carpenter and join a minor league team in Bartlesville, Okla., as an outfielder. Joe also played for teams in Topeka, Kans.; Portsmouth, Va.; Asheville, N.C.; and Memphis, Tenn. The National League’s New York Giants called him up to the majors in 1930. They added him to their roster as an outfielder, but he was later switched to a relief pitcher. He pitched throughout the rest of his career. His first major league pitching victory came close to his hometown when he beat the Cincinnati Reds at Crosley Field in Ohio on May 3, 1930. In his baseball career he played with the New York Giants, the American League’s Chicago White Sox, the Cleveland Indians, the Boston Red Sox, and the National League’s Boston Braves, finishing his career with the last team in 1945. He was jokingly referred to as the only grandfather playing major league ball in 1942. During his early career, he married Emily Bubbenhoffer, and they had one daughter, Evelyn. Later, he married Nancy Abner Carlson, who had two children, Jimmy and Vendela, by former marriages. Together, Joe and Nancy Heving had one daughter, Joelene, and one son, Joe Jr. Joe Heving loved to share stories of his baseball-playing years with family and friends. “One mild regret in my life,” he once said, “was the fact that I never pitched for the Covington Blues,” Covington’s short-lived 1913 entry in the startup Federal League (see Covington Blue Sox). After retirement from professional baseball, Joe continued to play with teams in Northern Kentucky and at times was honored by the Cincinnati Reds at their annual “Old Timers” games. Joe died in 1970 in Covington and was buried at St. Mary Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. In 2004 the city of Covington honored John and Joe Heving and their baseball careers by placing a Kentucky State Historical Marker in the city and conducting a ceremony attended by officials and local relatives. The marker was fittingly placed near a park where in times past there was a sandlot for enjoying the game of baseball. “Athletics Drop Heving,” NYT, June 22, 1933, S7. James, Bill, et al., eds. Stats All-Time Major League Handbook. Skokie, Ill.: Stats, 1998. “Joe Heving, 65, Giant Pitcher,” NYT, April 13, 1970, 41. Rutledge, Mike. “Covington Brothers Played in Big League,” KP, May 4, 2004, 3K.

Joe Heving Jr.

HIGHFIELD. Highfield is a home located in Owenton in Owen Co., at the corner of N. Adams and E. Blanton Sts., across from the First Baptist Church. The original tract of land included the entire eastern section of Owenton and was purchased by Robert Parker in 1785 from the State of Virginia. In about 1839, Willis Roberts purchased this land and constructed the home now on the site in about 1840. The home was owned and occupied for 101 years by members of the Roberts family. During the 1850s, John C. Breckinridge, campaigning for Congress, spoke from the porch at Highfield (see Sweet Owen). The lumber used in the original house, which had six rooms and two halls, was cut from trees growing on the grounds. The window and door facings, along with the frames and doors, were made by hand. The original singles were hand-hewn. The hand-carved stairway rail and spokes (baluster) are made of cherry. The risers, treads, and floors are ash. The present two-story log cabin at the rear of the home replaced former slave quarters and was once used as a summer kitchen. Houchens, Mariam Sidebottom. History of Owen County: “Sweet Owen.” Louisville, Ky.: Standard, 1976. Vertical fi les, Owen Co. Public Library, Owenton, Ky.

Doris Riley

HIGHLAND AVE. BAPTIST TABERNACLE. This church owes its existence to the dedicated efforts of Miss Maggie Kuhnhein. In July 1914, the First Baptist Church of Newport sent her to start mission work among poor mothers and their families in the West End of Newport. The women began worshipping together in a house at 327 W. Sixth St., Newport. As the group grew, they moved ser vices to a larger house at Seventh and Brighton Sts. and began calling themselves the Brighton Street Baptist Church. The congregation soon outgrew that building, leading some men connected with the church to build a crude wooden structure, with sawdust floors, nearby at Eighth and Brighton Sts. The first ser vice was held in the new building on Sunday morning November 23, 1919, with Rev. Harry Drake delivering the sermon. Within a short time, crowds of 300 to 400 worshippers were attending. From the beginning, the church endeavored to hire well-educated, highly qualified men to lead the congregation. In 1920 they employed their first full-time pastor, Rev. O. J. Steger, who in 1952 became pastor of the First Baptist Church of Newport. They hired as his assistant D. B. Eastep, who later served for 35 years as pastor of Calvary Baptist Church in Latonia. In the early 1930s, the Brighton Street Baptist Church changed its name to the Newport Baptist Tabernacle. In 1939 the congregation hired a dedicated young pastor, Rev. Harmon Eggleston, who remained pastor for the next 42 years. During his tenure, he discontinued the practice of passing offering plates, preferring to have donation boxes placed at the doors of the church. During the 1940s, Eggleston had a regular local radio program on station WCPO and later on station WKKY.

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During the late 1940s, the church began looking for a building that was located outside the Newport flood district. They purchased the old First Church of the Nazarene building in Newport at Seventh and Putnam Sts. in 1950 (see Nazarenes). The Newport Baptist Tabernacle purchased a parsonage in town at 46 15th St. in 1954. After World War II, most inner-city churches began losing members, as many people moved to the suburbs. It soon became apparent that if the Newport Baptist Tabernacle was to survive, it would need to find a new site outside the city, where a modern facility with ample parking could be built. In 1973 the church contracted with the Roman Catholic order of the Sisters of Good Shepherd to purchase several acres of adjacent land along Highland Ave. in Fort Thomas. The old church building in Newport was sold and a new, modern, 525-seat sanctuary was built on the Fort Thomas property. The church was pleasantly surprised when about a dozen of the Sisters of Good Shepherd, their next door neighbors at Our Lady of the Highlands, attended the Baptist church’s dedication ser vice on April 11, 1976. After the move, the church’s name was changed to the Highland Ave. Baptist Tabernacle. The financial burden of building the new church seemed insurmountable to the small congregation; however, through the sacrificial giving of dedicated members, all church debt was retired by 1992. Pastor Harmon Eggleston retired as pastor in April 1981 and subsequently took a position as pastor to the senior members of Calvary Baptist Church in Latonia. Rev. Floyd Arnold served as interim pastor at the Highland Ave. Baptist Tabernacle until Rev. Jack Holmes Jr. was hired as senior pastor in July 1981. Rev. Holmes served until 1984, when a retired Ohio schoolteacher, Rev. Ray Shepherd, became pastor. Shepherd resigned in 1993, and Rev. John Harrison Jr. served as pastor until 2000. The present pastor is Rev. David Simpson, who has been there since 2001. The current membership of Highland Ave. Baptist Tabernacle is about 250. History of The First Baptist Church, Eighth and York Streets, Newport, Kentucky. Newport, Ky.: First Baptist Church, 1987. Turner, Robert. “History of the Highland Avenue Baptist Tabernacle, 1911–2006,” Highland Avenue Baptist Tabernacle, Fort Thomas, Ky.

Jack Wessling

HIGHLAND AVE. WESLEYAN CHURCH. Covington’s Highland Ave. Wesleyan Church is one of the oldest of the congregations in Northern Kentucky that developed into the Pilgrim Holiness Church. The “Pilgrims” were one of the parent bodies of the Wesleyan Church of today. The roots of the Highland Ave. Wesleyan Church go back to 1893, when Rev. Richmond Reed, Rev. L. Shumate, and Rev. John Kennett opened a mission in Covington that became known as the Lifeboat Mission. The mission cooperated with the evangelistic work of the God’s Bible School’s Salvation Boat of Cincinnati. A permanent location for the mission was purchased by God’s Bible School in 1917 at the

446 HIGHLAND CEMETERY corner of Pike and Banklick Sts. in Covington, where as many as six ser vices were conducted each week. Often they were preceded by open-air street meetings, accompanied by singing and brass bands. On May 15, 1918, under the direction of Rev. Lawrence Wade, the ministry became a part of the International Apostolic Holiness Church. The congregation purchased the property it was using from God’s Bible School on September 15, 1920. In 1922, following the merger of the denomination, the church’s official name became the Pilgrim Holiness Church of Covington. Yet, for many years thereafter it was known as the Pike Street Mission. During Wade’s tenure, the Kentucky District conference was held at the Pilgrim Holiness Church. Rev. C. L. Wireman became pastor in 1923, and then Rev. A. A. Price in 1925. During Price’s tenure, the frame building at Pike and Banklick was replaced with a fine brick structure. In 1927 Rev. Plennie Williams and his wife served as copastors, and a year later, they were followed by Rev. Thomas Bishop. The former Kentucky District superintendent Rev. J. T. Johnson was pastor from 1929 to 1933. The second floor of the facility was finished as a parsonage during his term. In 1934 Rev. E. E. Leadingham was called as pastor, but he remained only a short time because he was elected to serve as Kentucky District superintendent. Leadingham was succeeded by Rev. Maurice Finger. In 1939, during the tenure of the next minister, Rev. F. M. Singleton, the church paid its building debt in full. Also under Singleton, a house and lot for a parsonage were acquired on the corner of Homesdale Ct. and Madison Ave. in Covington. In 1949 Rev. Ralph Tromble assumed the pastorate. When Tromble was appointed district superintendent in 1954, his term was completed by Dr. J. R. Mitchell, then dean of theology at God’s Bible School. In February 1955, Rev. E. R. Mitchell began his 14-year pastorate. In December 1955 the congregation purchased property for the construction of a new worship structure at 729 Highland Ave. in Covington. With that purchase came an adjacent lot on W. 19th St. that included a splendid old home, which served and continues to serve as a parsonage. Groundbreaking Day at the new site, with Rev. R. A. Beltz as the guest speaker, was September 16, 1956. On November 24, 1957, the church cornerstone was laid, and in spring 1958 the first ser vices were held on Highland Ave. in the church basement. The new church was dedicated on May 11, 1958, with Rev. William Neff, general superintendent as guest speaker. In 1968 the Pilgrim Holiness Church merged with the Methodist Church of America, creating the denomination of the Wesleyan Church in the holiness tradition. Consequently, the church became known as the Covington Highland Avenue Wesleyan Church on June 26 of that year, and Rev. Mitchell moved to a new ministry. In 1969 Rev. Hansel D. Wright served as the interim pastor. The year 1970 brought the arrival of Rev. Larry Freels, who directed an energetic outreach. Four buses were transporting individuals to Sunday ser vices,

and the church opened its doors to the Week Day School of Religion, which was attended by 165 children per week at one time. Freels remained pastor for 12 years. From 1982 to 1986, the pastor was Rev. Daniel Eckart, a gifted writer who authored several denominational articles while in Covington. During the 1980s the bus ser vice was halted in response to economic and other pressures. Rev. Roger Atwood, who followed Eckart, ministered for a short time and was followed by Rev. Donald Lane, who was the minister from 1987 to 1991. The Latonia Wesleyan Church, whose attendance had declined greatly, merged on June 30, 1990, with the Highland Ave. church, and the facilities in Covington were improved. In 1991 Wright again served as interim pastor prior to the arrival of Rev. Kevin Barnsdale in January 1992. Many heating and cooling improvements at the church and the parsonage were made under Barnsdale. In 1993 the church celebrated its centennial anniversary. On November 10, 2002, Rev. F. Keith Biddle became pastor. “Covington Church Celebrated 100-Year Journey,” KP, September 18, 1993, 9K.

F. Keith Biddle

HIGHLAND CEMETERY. Located at the intersection of the Dixie Highway (U.S. 25) and I-75 in Fort Mitchell, Highland Cemetery has the secondlargest acreage of all cemeteries in Kentucky and the largest in Northern Kentucky. Locally, only Evergreen Cemetery in Southgate has more burials. Highland Cemetery was dedicated in 1869, just as the burial lands at the old Craig Street Burial Grounds and at the Linden Grove Cemetery, both in Covington, were approaching their capacities. Adolph Strauch, a Prussian immigrant and a landscape gardener of the Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati, came to Fort Mitchell to help lay out the new cemetery; George A. Yates was hired as the site’s surveyor. Highland Cemetery’s first burial was Mary Ann Blythe, on June 12, 1869. Her body was re-interred from Linden Grove Cemetery. During the late 1870s, some 1,700 graves were moved from the Craig Street Burial Grounds to the new suburban Highland Cemetery. Located along the old Covington and Lexington Turnpike three miles south of Covington, the Highland Cemetery was originally farmland owned by the Hagerty and Sandford families, consisting of three parcels, a total of 114 acres. The developers of Highland Cemetery paid $27,205 for these properties. The approximately 2,000 people who attended the grand dedication were offered the opportunity to purchase subscription books as down payments on graves. This offer was a means to start cash flowing into the business. Many prominent Northern Kentuckians have been laid to rest at Highland Cemetery. Some of the better-known families buried there are the Bruces, the Ernsts, the Fisks, the Hemingrays, the Shinkles, the Stewarts, and the Wares; individuals interred at Highland Cemetery include actress Una Merkel, Confederate general James Morrison Hawes, Medal of Honor winner Cavalry M. Young, Confederate spy Henry Thomas Harri-

son, artist Dixie Selden, and Jerome Respess, owner of the 1909 Kentucky Derby winner, Wintergreen. The grounds of the cemetery offer a continuously evolving and a veritable history lesson on Northern Kentucky and its citizens. The most impressive monument there belongs to Covington banker J. D. Shutt, who is entombed alone within a massive mausoleum; on its top is a life-size bronze likeness of Shutt. A number of eccentric activities have taken place at the cemetery over the years. In 1909, for example, 11 days after the death of Bradford Shinkle (a brother of Vincent Shinkle, one of the cemetery’s founders), a guard was instructed to open his casket hourly in the holding vault, because Bradford Shinkle had feared being buried alive. As of April 19, 2006, there were 44,912 interments spread across Highland Cemetery’s 251 acres. In recent years, the cemetery owners have acquired the more-than-100-acre Independence Cemetery in southern Kenton Co.; and in 1995 about five acres of the Fort Mitchell cemetery were committed for use as the Highland Pet Cemetery, where an array of pets now rest. Cliff, a beloved Covington canine officer who lived during the 1990s, was buried in the Highland Pet Cemetery in a formal police ceremony in early August 1998. Today, nature lovers and other visitors are drawn to the Highland Cemetery’s miles of walking trails that traverse the property’s rolling hills, along with many species of plants and wildlife. “Area History Buried in Ft. Mitchell’s Highland Cemetery,” KE, January 5, 1975, 6. “Feared Burial Alive: Casket Is Guarded,” KP, June 10, 1909, 2. Highland Cemetery. www.highlandcemetery.com (accessed on April 19, 2006). Linden, Blanche M. G. “Adolph Strauch’s Landscape Plan,” QCH 53. no. 1 (Spring–Summer 1995): 30– 45. Reis, Jim. “Highland Envisioned as Place of Solitude, Beauty for Burial,” KP, June 25, 2001, 4K.

Sharon Jobert

HIGHLAND COUNTRY CLUB. The Highland Country Club was a continuation of the Inverness Country Club, the first golf club in Northern Kentucky and the second one in metropolitan Cincinnati. It was developed in 1896 by Samuel Bigstaff (1845–1912) and his business partners. Located in the District of the Highlands (Fort Thomas), the nearly 25-acre site lay along a former streetcar line (Memorial Pkwy.). The connection to the streetcar line was important because it allowed easy access to and from Covington, Newport, and Cincinnati. The majority of the club’s 400 members lived in Covington. The property was bounded by the Newport Waterworks, Southgate Ave., and Mount Pleasant Rd. (N. Fort Thomas Ave.), and one of the nine holes lay across the streetcar tracks, requiring a player to cross the tracks to the fairway located on the waterworks grounds. Wishing to enlarge the course, members unsuccessfully sought to acquire adjacent property. Furthermore, the club had only leased its grounds, and members found that the lease could not be renewed. After the clubhouse was destroyed by a fire, the Inverness

HIGHLAND UNITED METHODIST CHURCH

Club closed in 1909. Houses on four new streets, Dixie Pl. and Hartweg, Rosemont, and Strathmore Aves., were built at the club’s former location. Club members wanted to utilize the undeveloped hillsides in the southern part of Fort Thomas, and they looked for a new location within walking distance of the streetcar line, which ended close to the intersection of S. Fort Thomas Ave. and Alexandria Pk. (U.S. 27). While some Covington members joined the new Fort Mitchell Country Club, a determined group of former Inverness members bought three parcels of land on the west side of Alexandria Pk. for $9,750. These properties, which were located near the streetcar line and close by the intersection of S. Fort Thomas Ave. and Alexandria Pk. (U.S. 27), had been an orchard of apple, cherry, and peach trees, most of which were removed from the new links. Created with $200,000 in capital and with 78 members, the Highland Country Club, with only tennis courts and nine golf holes, opened on Labor Day in 1915. A large crowd gathered and viewed the plans for the proposed clubhouse. The course was completed and ready for play on April 15, 1916, and the wooden clubhouse, with two floors and a basement, was completed in July. It contained a dining room, a ballroom, and a kitchen on the first floor, an office on the second floor, and locker rooms and three bowling lanes with handset pins in the basement. The clubhouse was the scene of many social activities in the city and the county, including organized dances, wedding receptions, high school formal events, dinners, and fundraisers. On the hilly nine-hole golf course, golf professionals gave lessons and managed the course, and some of the early pros even made hickory-shafted golf clubs for members. Since the Inverness club had been instrumental in the formation of the Greater Cincinnati Golf Association, and since the Highland Country Club was an outgrowth of the former club, many of Highland’s golfers participated in the association’s tournaments over the years. One of the tournament golfers from the Highland Country Club was Johnnie Fischer, who won the 1932 NCAA Collegiate Golf Championship. Fischer found himself stymied on the 18th green in the 1936 U.S. Amateur Tournament in his match with Scotsman Jack McLean. In a spectacular play, Fischer hit his golf ball over his opponent’s golf ball to tie the hole and went on to win the match in extra-hole play. Membership at Highland Country Club was limited to men until the 1950s, when golf became more popular with women; then they became members also. A fire in the kitchen destroyed the clubhouse in 1968, but no lives were lost. As reconstruction began on the original foundation, golfing activities continued. The new clubhouse, whose main dining room and bar area looked out toward the rolling course and its background hills, was opened in 1969. A large swimming pool and tennis courts built adjacent to the clubhouse provide varied activities for member families and their guests. Since 1924, club members had discussed adding a second nine holes for golf on property to the

north across Blossom Ln. After one false start, members fi nally raised enough money to buy additional land and enlarged the course to 18 holes in 1983. Even though residential sites and I-471, a busy interstate highway, surround its grounds, Highland Country Club received recognition as an Audubon wildlife sanctuary in 1999. Earlymorning viewers catch frequent glimpses of deer, foxes, and wild turkeys. At all hours, rabbits, squirrels, and raccoons attempt to share the course with the players. Songbirds are abundant, and owls and falcons have been spotted too. When the Fort Thomas Military Reservation was active, its officers were given golfing privileges at the club’s course, a perquisite that may have contributed to the local post’s excellent reputation among officers. For many years, it was said, the Fort Thomas post assignment was first choice for West Point Academy graduates. Reis, Jim “A Mover and Shaker Little Remembered Today.” In Pieces of the Past, by Jim Reis, 2: 61. Covington, Ky.: Kentucky Post, 1991. Skyzinski, Rich, “The U.S. Amateur Turns 100,” Golf Journal, August 2000.

Betty Maddox Daniels

HIGHLAND HEIGHTS. Formerly, the combined area of present-day Fort Thomas and Highland Heights was known as “The Highlands.” When Henry Stanbery incorporated the District of the Highlands (today Fort Thomas) in 1867, he did not include the portion now known as Highland Heights, which was referred to in deeds at that time as the Highland Baby Farms. In 1917 the Highlands Real Estate and Investment Company built a model home at the corner of Renshaw Rd. and Main Ave. A streetcar line (see streetcars) was extended from S. Fort Thomas Ave. to the area, in an attempt to encourage development, but little occurred. Residents proposed incorporation in 1927 and asked that the city be known as Highland Heights. When incorporated, the new city had exactly 125 residents, the minimum required by law. The first city building was located on Renshaw Rd., but a $1.25 million facility was built in 1980 on Johns Hill Rd. on the ground once occupied by the Claradan Fishing Lake (see fishing). Over the years, several attempts have been made to merge Highland Heights with the Campbell Co. communities of Cold Spring and Crestview, but to no avail. Development in the area was sluggish until Northern Kentucky State College (now Northern Kentucky University) arrived in 1972. Construction of I-471 and I-275 (see Expressways) has also contributed to the city’s growth. Many businesses have come to the city, and several housing developments have been built. Today, Highland Heights is a flourishing small city, easily reached from almost anywhere in the tri-state area. In 1990 the city had a population of 4,223; by 2000 it had grown to 6,554. In 2008 Highland Heights annexed the campus of Northern Kentucky University. Campbell Co. Historical Society. Campbell County, Kentucky: 200 Years, 1794–1994. Alexandria, Ky.: Campbell Co. Historical Society, 1994.

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U.S. Census Bureau, “American Fact Finder. Data Set. Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF1) 100-Percent Data. Custom Table.” www.census.gov.

HIGHLAND UNITED METHODIST CHURCH. Founded in 1830, the Highland United Methodist Church, located between Memorial Pkwy. and N. Fort Thomas Ave. across from Highlands High School, is the oldest church in Fort Thomas. The congregation originally met at Mount Pleasant, the home of William and Alice Taliaferro at now 1819 N. Fort Thomas Ave., in what was originally known as the District of the Highlands (Fort Thomas). The gathering of worshippers at the Taliaferro house was considered a Methodist church. In 1832 a one-room log structure was built on land donated by the Taliaferro family, on the edge of their property and now at the intersection of Holly Ln. and N. Fort Thomas Ave. This building served as the Mount Pleasant Methodist Church and School and often was used as the community’s meeting place; for a brief period, the building was also shared with a Baptist church. In the early years, the ministers of the church were the Methodist circuit riders, who arrived on horseback. In 1852 the cabin was replaced with a frame church building in town at what is now E. Southgate St. and N. Fort Thomas Ave. At that time, the church also was referred to as the Mount Pleasant Church. It housed one of Fort Thomas’s early public schools, which attracted students from Newport as well as from homes and communities located nearby on the banks of the Licking River. With the building of the Fort Thomas Military Reservation during the 1890s in the south end of town, the social center of the area shifted. At the same time, Samuel Bigstaff, a land developer and streetcar promoter, was building homes in Fort Thomas in the vicinity of what is now N. Fort Thomas Ave. and Memorial Pkwy. In 1899 Bigstaff decided it would be advantageous to have a church in his development, so he donated two lots to the Mount Pleasant Church’s congregation, moving its location closer to the center of town. Plans for the new church building called for a 60-by-94-foot stone Gothic structure. After $6,000 of the $16,000 needed to erect the church building had been collected, the women of the church raised most of the remaining funds to cover construction costs through dinners and ice cream socials. The dedication of the new church, now named Highland Methodist Episcopal Church, took place on July 29, 1900. Concert soprano soloist Mary Hissem DeMoss, a California, Ky., native who performed in New York City’s Carnegie Hall, sang for those attending. Owing to an increase in the size of the congregation and the church’s growing educational needs, the Highland Methodist Church built an educational building during 1923 and 1924; the twostory expansion contains not only classrooms but a community room, used by groups including scouts (see Boy Scouts; Girl Scouts) and by Highlands High School for its sports banquets. During the flood of 1937, many displaced residents were

448 HIGHLANDS HIGH SCHOOL housed at Highlands High School and ate meals at the Highland Methodist Church. The church began to be known for its music during the 1920s, with the leadership of organist Daniel Humphrey Davies, a native of Wales. He was renowned not only in Fort Thomas but also throughout the Greater Cincinnati area. This tradition continues today with organist Carl Relyea, a graduate of New York City’s prestigious Julliard School of Music. During World War II, 148 members of the Highland United Methodist Church served in the military, and 5 of them died in the war. During that war, the American Red Cross operated a surgical dressing unit at the church from 1942 through 1945, making dressings and bandages that were packed at the church and sent to U.S. military units serving throughout the world. In 1954 the present organ was installed; its magnificent pipes are located in the front of the sanctuary. In 1967 the church started a preschool program that was the forerunner of the Bluebird Early Learning Center and now is known as the Bluebird Christian Preschool. In September of that same year, the church’s tower was damaged by a fire. During 1985 the church underwent a major renovation that included the installation of air conditioning. The years of 1998 through 2006 have been a time of expansion and change for the Highland United Methodist Church. Dr. Lowell Ford became its first associate pastor. During this period, the church gave up one of its lots along N. Fort Thomas Ave. in order to build a parking lot that is currently shared with the Fort Thomas School District. During 2004 and 2005, the church purchased a house on N. Fort Thomas Ave. known as the Tudor house for church offices and meeting rooms. The front entrance to the church was changed with the closing of the Avenue of Champions, originally connecting Memorial Pkwy. with N. Fort Thomas Ave. The church is now connected directly with a new plaza that is used as a gathering place after church and for an occasional outdoor wedding. “Church Damage Is Undetermined,” KP, September 4, 1963, 1. “Highland Methodist Church Tower Burns,” KP, September 3, 1963, 1. “New Sunday School for Highlands,” KP, April 17, 1924, 1. Reis, Jim. “A Beacon for Mortality—Methodist Church Stood on Firm Ground in Early Fort Thomas,” KP, November 9, 1998, 4K.

1912 and from the Southern Association for colleges and schools in 1914. In 1915 the high school moved into a new building at its current location on Memorial Pkwy. in Fort Thomas. There were 93 students by then, and the school’s first football team took the field that fall. A library was added in 1932, and in 1935 a Highlands High School student named Jean Megerle was crowned Miss Kentucky. A north building was added to the school in 1937, and the current gymnasium opened in 1955. Extensive renovation was completed in 2007. Highlands High School is considered one of the best public high schools in Kentucky for academic and athletic achievement. The student enrollment is 800, and there are 48 teaching staff members. The school offers 16 Advanced Placement courses. The school was recognized by the Kentucky Department of Education as a Pacesetter School for superior performance on CATS testing and is a permanent member of the College Board and Council for Academic Success. Newsweek magazine ranked Highlands High School as one of “the 1,000 Best High Schools in America” in 2005 and 2006. In 2005 Highlands High School’s graduating class led Northern Kentucky with eight National Merit Finalists and four Commended Students. In 2006 there were four National Merit Finalists and four Commended Students. The We the People team, an elective senior government course, won the state championship and advanced to national competition in 2003, 2005, and 2006. Highlands has won 17 state football championships and captured state cross-country championships in 2002, 2003, and 2004; state soccer championships in 2005 and 2006; and a women’s track-and-field championship in 2008. Sports that students may participate in include archery, baseball, basketball, bowling, cheerleading, cross country, fast-pitch softball, football, golf, swimming and diving, tennis, track and field, and volleyball. School organizations include Academic Team; Blueprints Literary Anthology; Chamber Choir; Chess Club; Concert Band and Color Guard; Family, Career & Community Leaders of America; French Club; Future Business Leaders of America; Future Teachers Team; German Club; Highlandaries; Jazz Band; Key Club; Marching Band; Mock Trial; National Art Honor Society; National English Honor Society; National Honor Society; National Spanish Honor Society; Poetry Slam; Robotics Team; Science Club; Spanish Club; Speech, Drama, and Debate Teams; Student Council; Treble Choir; and We the People Team.

Paul L. Whalen

HIGHLANDS HIGH SCHOOL. Highlands High School, located in Fort Thomas, is the high school for the Fort Thomas Independent School District. The school began in 1886, when Professor James McGinness established a three-year high school course in the Fort Thomas City Building. The first four-year graduating class of the school, which came to be named Highlands High School, took place with four students in 1891. The high school received accreditation from the state in

“First Annual Commencement of the Highland High School,” KSJ, June 18, 1891, 5. “New Highlands High School Is Growing,” KP, June 26, 1914, 2. “Rapid Growth of School Is Seen,” KP, April 25, 1930, 1.

Bill Thomas

HILL, THEODORE MCDONALD (b. 1846, Alexandria, Ky.; d. May 4, 1900, Alexandria, Ky.). Ted Hill was the son of William and Elizabeth Nation Hill. His mother died at age 24. He quit school

at 15 and joined the Kentucky 5th Infantry of the Confederate Army. He later served under Colonel Henry L. Giltner and also under Gen. Robert E. Lee. After the war, he returned to Alexandria, where he studied law under the renowned lawyer Richard Tarvin Baker and was admitted to the bar in 1871. Hill married Mary Isaphine White on January 1, 1868, and the couple had five children. Hill was elected Alexandria police judge in 1872 and served until 1877. He was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives and served 1877– 1881. Afterward, he resumed his law practice in Newport. Upon the death of Campbell Co. judge T. P. Makibben in April 1888, Hill was appointed to succeed him. He served in that position until 1898. Hill became ill at his Alexandria home in spring 1900 and died. Both he and his wife are buried in the Alexandria Cemetery. Biographical Cyclopedia of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Chicago: John M. Gresham, 1896. Levin, H., ed. The Lawyers and Lawmakers of Kentucky. Chicago: Lewis, 1897. Reis, Jim. “A Man of Convictions; Hill Rose to Top in Local Politics,” KP, September 22, 2003, 5K.

HILLCREST CEMETERY. Hillcrest Cemetery, a public perpetual-care cemetery, is located two miles north of Dry Ridge on the west side of U.S. 25 (Dixie Highway). It was opened in 1926, when J. H. Colcord, along with Louis Lucas, Robert M. Lucas, and John L. Vest, incorporated the Dry Ridge Burial Park Association after acquiring 13.71 acres from Colcord Some. Burial lots were sold, but at the onset of the Great Depression, the burial association was placed in receivership. In 1932 the property was sold to the Dry Ridge Cemetery Company, incorporated by J. H. Colcord, Mabel Eckler, and Harry J. Eckler, a Dry Ridge funeral director. In 1979 the cemetery’s corporate provisions were restated in accordance with Kentucky law to include James Hudson as an incorporator. This well-operated, well-kept cemetery, with hundreds of graves, has burial space for the foreseeable needs of the community. Conrad, John B., ed. History of Grant County. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992.

John B. Conrad

HILLS OF KENTUCKY DULCIMERS. Founded in 1992 by ten local amateur musicians, Hills of Kentucky Dulcimers (HOKD) is a nonprofit organization that seeks to promote Kentucky’s state instrument, the mountain dulcimer, and its rich Appalachian heritage throughout the Northern Kentucky and Cincinnati region. HOKD defines its primary mission as “entertaining and educating our neighbors and communities with the beautiful music made by mountain dulcimers and traditional mountain instruments.” Members of this family-oriented club work to maintain a powerful local influence regarding Appalachian pride. They encourage people of all ages to learn about the dulcimer and its history, and they present music performances in various public venues, including festivals, hospitals, libraries, nursing

HISTORICAL SOCIETIES

homes, and schools. Programs frequently include information about par ticu lar songs, customs, and contributions related to Appalachians. To generate excitement about Appalachian music and culture, especially within young people, HOKD members emphasize exploration and participation. Donations received for performances support general operations and further the club’s goal to help people gain hands-on experience with mountain dulcimers. During programs, children are encouraged to learn to play traditional songs such as “Old Joe Clark,” “Boil Dem Cabbage Down,” “She’ll Be Coming Round the Mountain,” and “Skip to My Lou.” In 2004 HOKD donated 24 cardboard dulcimers to A. D. Owens Elementary School in Newport for use in fourth- and fift hgrade music classes. In 2005 the organization gave funds to Campbell Ridge Elementary School in Campbell Co. to increase the number of dulcimers available to students. Members also shipped three dulcimers to South America to assist a music teacher who helped her students learn music theory and how to play the instrument. HOKD collaborates regularly with other local institutions to provide creative Appalachian outreach experiences for people in Northern Kentucky. In October 2002 HOKD joined with the Cincinnati Dulcimer Society and Thomas More College to sponsor a free public program that featured Jean Ritchie and the Appalachian music tradition. Each spring, HOKD supports the Northern Kentucky University event Dreamfest by teaching dulcimer playing to gifted students from area schools. This experience has inspired many of the schools to start dulcimer clubs and classes. HOKD members also offer free dulcimer classes to new members and hold a monthly gospel jam session at a local nursing home. The group’s emphasis on music fellowship and family fun has added atmosphere to public entertainment venues such as Paramount’s Kings Island, Old Coney’s Appalachian Festival, and Tall Stacks. HOKD has produced one CD, Hills of Kentucky Dulcimers, recorded in 2002 by Stephen Seifert, a nationally known dulcimer player who grew up in Northern Kentucky. This musical collection features members playing autoharps, mountain dulcimers, guitars, harmonicas, mandolins, and the washtub bass. HOKD membership has grown rapidly since the club was formed more than a decade ago. The Cincinnati Dulcimer Society (CDS), which began in 1979, was the only dulcimer society in the area at that time. As interest expanded, members of that organization joined with others to create HOKD. HOKD now has more than 150 members. Whenever members of CDS and HOKD gather to perform, they laughingly call themselves “Both Sides of the River.” Hills of Kentucky Dulcimers. www.hokdulcimer.com (accessed April 4, 2006).

Sherry Stanforth

HINDE, THOMAS (b. July 10, 1737, Oxfordshire, England; d. September 28, 1828, Newport, Ky.). Physician Thomas Hinde received his early education

in rural England and studied medicine and surgery at St. Thomas Hospital in London. By age 20 he had become so proficient that he was granted a license to practice from the prestigious Royal Academy of Surgeons. He became a surgeon’s mate in the Royal Navy and was sent to America in 1757. There he served with Gen. James Wolfe at the battle for Quebec during the French and Indian War. The general was severely wounded, and Hinde valiantly tried to save his life but was unsuccessful. The famous artist Benjamin West’s Death of General Wolfe (1771) features Hinde as the attending surgeon, holding Wolfe in his arms. Hinde resigned his navy commission and took over the practice of a retiring physician in Essex Co., Va., then later moved to King and Queen Co., Va. In 1767 he married Mary Todd Hubbard, with whom he had eight children. His next move was to Hanover, Va., where he became a close friend of Governor Lord Dunmore and of Patrick Henry, the celebrated orator and statesman. His new friends soon persuaded him to switch his allegiance to the oppressed colonies. During the Revolutionary War, Hinde used his personal fortune to make sure that all colonial troops were properly inoculated. When the war ended, he left Virginia for Newport, Ky., where he spent the remainder of his life. He became the most beloved physician in the area; he was willing to treat illnesses thought hopeless by other physicians. Adept at diagnosing and treating maladies, he was truthful in talking to patients about their conditions. Hinde was an avowed atheist and would often ridicule people who spoke of religion. When his wife became interested in Christianity, he was so exasperated that he placed a blister patch on her neck in an attempt to determine if she had gone insane. When he removed the patch, he claimed to have been miraculously saved by God and made into a zealous Christian. From that day forward, he always insisted on having prayer with his patients before treating them. It was also said that he lost all desire for money and worldly goods. He gave medical treatment to everyone regardless of the person’s ability to pay, and he made no attempt to collect unpaid bills. For the next 40 years, his family regularly attended church. Hinde was married for 61 years, and he always told his wife that he wanted them to depart this life together. When near death, he took hold of his wife’s wrist and checked her pulse to see if she was ready to go. Reluctantly, he told her that she was in fine condition and that he would have to leave without her. He died in 1828, but his burial location is unknown. Hartman, Margaret Strebel, and W. Rus Stevens. Campbell County Kentucky History and Genealogy. Campbell Co., Ky.: W. R. Stevens, 1984. Purvis, Thomas L., ed. Newport, Kentucky: A Bicentennial History. Newport, Ky.: Otto Zimmerman, 1996. Reynolds, Charles W. “The Medical Fraternity,” Papers of the Christopher Gist Historical Society 2 (1950–1951): 1–51. Wessling, Jack. Early History of Campbell County Kentucky. Alexandria, Ky.: Privately published, 1997.

Jack Wessling

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HISER, BERNIECE TERRY (b. April 6, 1908, Cowcreek, Ky.; d. January 5, 1995, Williamstown, Ky.). Author and folklorist Berniece Iona Terry Hiser was born along the Beech Fork of the Kentucky River in Owsley Co. to Wilson Edgar and Ruse Wilder Terry. When her father died, he was the last surviving Kentucky veteran of the SpanishAmerican War (see National Guard, SpanishAmerican War). Berniece grew up in a rural part of Owsley Co., southeast of the county seat of Booneville. She attended Pine Mountain Settlement School through the 10th grade, then left that school at age 16 to attend Berea College in Berea, Ky., where in 1940 she earned a BA in English. She earned an MA in secondary education and library science from the University of Kentucky. An avid folklorist, she continued her studies, which included advanced work in the field of folklore, under William Hugh Jansen, a professor of English at the university. She married Ora M. Hiser, and the couple had two daughters. Hiser’s first book, Quare Do’s in Appalachia: East Kentucky Legends and Memorats, based on “stories of supposedly real happenings (do’s), given me by word of mouth by members of my family and in a few cases by friends of Eastern Kentucky,” was published in 1978 when Hiser was age 70. Another book, The Adventure of Charlie and His Wheat-Straw Hat, published eight years later, was a children’s book set in Kentucky during the Civil War; it earned several children’s literature awards for the author. Hiser taught a variety of subjects at various grade levels in Kentucky and Indiana before retiring in 1974. She was also a school librarian. She authored some 50 manuscripts, which included poems, folklore collections, and romances. Hiser, who referred to herself as an “Appalachianat-large,” was well versed in folk remedies (she maintained a card fi le of herbal, faith, and other treatments), folksinging, dulcimer picking, and mountain crafts, including weaving. Hiser and her husband lived for many years, following retirement, in Walton, Boone Co., Ky. At the time of her death at age 86, on January 7, 1995, Berniece Hiser was living at the Grant Manor Nursing Home in Williamstown. She was buried in Pleasant View Cemetery, Grant Co., Ky. Halfman, Janet. “Heard Any Good ‘Quare Do’s’ Lately?” CE, September 3, 1978, 8. Hiser, Berniece T. The Adventure of Charlie and His Wheat-Straw Hat: A Memorat. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1986. ———. Quare Do’s in Appalachia: East Kentucky Legends and Memorats. Pikeville, Ky.: Pikeville College Press, 1978. “Kentucky Deaths,” KP, January 7, 1995, 9A. Wikipedia. “Berniece T. Hiser.” http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Berniece_T._Hiser (accessed February 16, 2007). ———. Wilson Edgar Terry. http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Wilson _Edgar_Terry.

Kathryn Witt

HISTORICAL SOCIETIES. Most Northern Kentucky counties have formed nonprofit associations, some more active than others, with the goal of preserving their county’s history and genealogy.

450 HISTORIC PRESERVATION Many of the historical societies publish a newsletter or some similar publication for their members. In order to preserve the records of their respective counties and cities, such societies may take on projects such as surveys of cemeteries, especially small, private burial grounds. A historical society is likely to be involved heavily in genealogy and willing to respond to queries concerning family history, either gratis or for a modest research fee. Sometimes such organizations fade and are reconstituted later. This was the case in Boone Co., where the present historical society is the third one formed over the years; the same has happened in both Campbell and Kenton counties. In some counties in Northern Kentucky, the functions of genealogy, history, and museum development are combined in one group, as in Campbell Co.; in others, such as Mason Co., they remain separate. Few if any of these organizations existed before World War II. However, the efforts of certain dedicated individuals, such as O. J. Wiggins, resulted in the publication of several worthwhile articles on local history during the 1880s in the Covington Daily Commonwealth newspaper. One of the most noteworthy groups organized to record and preserve the history of the Northern Kentucky region was the Christopher Gist Historical Society. Organized soon after World War II, its modus operandi was the production of research presented in the form of unpublished oral papers delivered before its membership. Covington attorney Stephens Blakely was a founder of the group, as was Charles B. Truesdell, and for many years it owned and met at the historic Carroll House, at 216 E. Fourth St. in Covington. This society has left a legacy in the form of several volumes of papers, copies of which are held by the Kenton Co. Public Library, the archives of Northern Kentucky University (NKU), and the office of the Kenton Co. Historical Society. The society no longer produces research. Its present function is to award small scholarship grants and to hold meetings that feature speakers. In the 1960s, Chester Geaslen, who ultimately published several volumes of the region’s history on his own initiative, helped awaken interest in local historical research. His volumes remain in print and are valuable resources. Margaret Strebel Hartman did similar work for Campbell Co. In the 1970s, a group calling itself the Northern Kentucky Historical Society operated in the area, often meeting at restaurants with guest speakers. Its members were known to travel to various historical sites throughout the state. For several decades, Kentucky Post reporter Jim Reis wrote a weekly column Pieces of the Past, relating to the entire Northern Kentucky region. In the course of his career at the Kentucky Post, Reis produced more than 1,000 weekly articles. He is also a major player in the long-term success of the Campbell Co. Historical and Genealogical Society, perennially the best-attended historical group in the state. A selected compilation of Reis’s work has been published in three volumes by his newspaper. The Kenton Co. Historical Society was founded in 1977. It has produced a newsletter throughout

its existence. Since 1993 it has also published a regional full-size magazine biannually called Northern Kentucky Heritage. In 1978 the Kentucky Historical Society (KHS) wanted to improve outreach and strengthen local heritage organizations statewide, so it began publishing the Circuit Rider, through which local groups were surveyed regarding ser vices that might benefit them. The Historical Confederation of Kentucky (HCK) was then formed. The HCK staff offers programs, supplies resources, and organizes seminars to train local historians and curators. This organization has assisted most of the historical societies in Northern Kentucky in one way or another, but especially it has helped the Campbell Co. and Kenton Co. societies in the production of an annual History Day event, usually held in late February. Since 1993 History Day has been scheduled on a Saturday at the campus of NKU in Highland Heights. Attendance of more than 250 participants at lectures, workshops, and exhibits of local history books and items of interest is the norm at History Day. Historical societies also exist in Bracken Co. (Bracken Co. Historical Society), Carroll Co. (Port William Historical Society), Gallatin Co. (Gallatin Co. Historical Society), Grant Co. (Grant Co. Historical Society), Mason Co. (Kentucky Gateway Museum Center; Mason Co. Genealogical Society), Owen Co. (Owen Co. Historical Society), Pendleton Co. (Pendleton Co. Historical Society), and Robertson Co. (Robertson Co. Historical Society). “Ft. Mitchell Tries to Hang onto History,” KE, August 18, 2002, B1. “Historical Society Formed,” Northern Kentucky Observer, April 7, 1977, 5. “Historical Society to Be Organized,” KP, December 11, 1913, 7. Roberts, Alice Kennelly. “Erlanger Historical Society Celebrates Depot Heritage,” KP, September 13, 1995, 2KK.

Karl Lietzenmayer

HISTORIC PRESERVATION. Preservationists often say ruefully that no one appreciates old buildings until they are endangered. This was true in the 1950s and 1960s, when it almost seemed as if the United States was at war with itself. Federally funded urban-renewal projects leveled old neighborhoods in the name of progress. Expressways ripped through central cities. A pervasive “new is better” mentality toppled countless historic buildings. While Northern Kentucky was spared much wholesale destruction, Covington’s old city hall and courthouse, Newport’s Mount St. Martin mansion, and other landmarks fell to the bulldozers. In the 1960s, preservationists decided to try to put the brakes on the bulldozers by strengthening the federal government’s role in, and commitment to, preserving the nation’s architectural heritage. In 1966 the U.S. Congress passed two laws that helped move preservation into the mainstream: the National Historic Preservation Act and the closely related Section 4f of the Department of Transportation Act.

During the same era, middle- and upper-class citizens began to rediscover urban life. In Northern Kentucky, people developed a new appreciation for the fanciful or stately buildings overlooked by earlier generations, as well as rundown but livable old neighborhoods. Affordable and close to downtown Cincinnati, they offered an adventurous alternative to suburban living. Over the next four decades, hundreds of historic residential and commercial buildings across the region were renovated and restored. The boisterous 1960s also nurtured civic activism, and an energized citizenry fought for its neighborhoods. Residents of Covington’s LickingRiverside, then in the early stages of revitalization, successfully resisted redevelopment of their community as high-rise luxury housing and parkland. In 1971 residents nominated Riverside Dr. to the National Register of Historic Places as Northern Kentucky’s first historic district. While the designation exerted little control over local planning decisions, it provided valuable recognition of the neighborhood’s importance. Five blocks south, another crisis soon appeared. At Fifth and Garrard Sts., where cars turned left to travel over the Veterans Memorial Bridge to Newport, stood the Jonathan Hearne House, the high-style Italianate residence of a prominent 19th-century Covingtonian. When the Commonwealth of Kentucky proposed building a new bridge where the house stood, it touched off a furor. The bridge project was canceled in the late 1970s, primarily because it was not needed. To disgruntled bridge backers, however, the preserved Hearne home was “the house that stopped the bridge.” In the center of Covington, members of Mother of God Catholic Church banded together to reclaim their historic neighborhood, which became the Mutter Gottes National Historic District. In Newport, residents of the newly formed Mansion Hill Neighborhood Association successfully fought freeway ramps that would have split the neighborhood in two. A court battle over a “compromise” off-ramp ended in an out-of-court settlement. During the late 1970s, suburban-type shopping centers were still seen as a cure for ailing downtowns. Shopping plazas were proposed for both downtown Covington and East Newport. In both cases, strong local opposition brought the plans to a halt. Often the first step in preservation of buildings was to identify and categorize them. Beginning in the late 1970s, the Kentucky Heritage Council (KHC), the state historic preservation office, funded surveys of historic architecture in many communities. Thousands of buildings were eventually photographed and recorded by the Kentucky Historic Resources Inventory, which was used as a planning tool by local and state governments. KHC also provided matching grants to prepare nominations to the National Register of Historic Places. Over the next three decades, a total of 31 National Register historic districts were created in Northern Kentucky: in Bellevue, Burlington, Camp

HOAGLAND FAMILY

Springs, Covington, Erlanger, Fort Mitchell, Lakeside Park, Ludlow, Newport, Rabbit Hash, and Walton. Early preservation efforts were often led by volunteers and dedicated amateurs. As preservation gained credibility and acceptance, the field became increasingly professionalized. Preservation also began to be a function of local government, like city planning and economic development. Beginning in the mid-1980s, Bellevue, Boone Co., Covington, Ludlow, and Newport joined KHC’s Certified Local Government (CLG) program, which provided funds to local communities to set up their own preservation programs. Most CLGs enacted preservation ordinances providing for the designation of local landmarks and historic districts, where high standards for exterior renovation and new construction applied. Among many other duties, preservation commissions enforced these guidelines, educated owners about proper restoration techniques, and honored preservation successes with awards. Despite good intentions and growing support, inconsistent decisions, work done without permits, lack of enforcement, and political pressure remained problems for local preservation commissions. Across Northern Kentucky, support for local preservation programs, and urban planning in general, fluctuated with shifting political winds. In Covington, for example, the preservation officer position was abolished in 2005 and then reinstated months later. As a largely rural but rapidly growing county, Boone Co. followed a somewhat different course from its more urbanized neighbors. In 1986 it established a countywide preservation program, the second of its kind in the state. The Boone Co. Historic Preservation Review Board’s multifaceted programs included a preservation plan, a historiccemetery mapping project, and heritage education programs, including the innovative Heritage Tourism Map. In 2002 the board published a book, Historic Structures of Boone County, Kentucky. Beginning in the 1970s, federal and state initiatives were enacted to aid preservation and further urban development. In 1976 the U.S. Congress enacted a tax credit for rehabilitation of incomeproducing historic buildings, and Kentucky soon became a leader in its use. Among other local projects, the credit helped fund the reconstruction of Covington’s Independent Order of Odd Fellows Hall, which was gutted by fire in 2002. In 1979 KHC started the Kentucky Main Street program, which promoted the revitalization of historic downtowns. The closely related Renaissance on Main program, launched in the 1990s, directed grants for downtown revitalization across the state. Eventually Bellevue, Covington, Dayton, Elsmere, Erlanger, Fort Thomas, Ludlow, and Newport became Renaissance communities. During the 1980s, federal Urban Redevelopment Action Grants were awarded for two controversial development projects in Northern Kentucky. One was a condominium development, markedly different in size and scale from the historic homes around it, that was built at the western end of Cov-

ington’s Riverside Dr. The other was a proposed redevelopment of the former Wiedemann Brewery in Newport as a mixed-use commercial complex incorporating some of the original buildings. This project was never built, and the brewery was eventually demolished. Beginning in 1993, federal Transportation Enhancement (TE) grants were used across the country for a variety of civic improvement projects along major transportation routes. In 1996 the City of Walton secured a TE grant to purchase and begin the restoration of the Colonel Abner Gaines House, which dates from about 1814, as the Gaines Tavern History Center. The 1990s also saw renewed attempts at the kind of large-scale urban-renewal efforts that had disrupted cities decades before. In 1996 a privately led regional planning effort called Forward Quest called for redevelopment of part of Covington’s Emery-Price Historic District, a historically African American Eastside neighborhood, as a marina. Public outcry, however, stopped the project. In Newport, a downtown block was cleared for a proposed Millennium Freedom Tower, which was never built. Lost was the 1927 Newport Finance Building (Campbell Towers), for years the tallest building in Northern Kentucky, which was originally planned for renovation by the same developer. As urban land became increasingly scarce and valuable, older neighborhoods and commercial districts were threatened by “teardowns.” In the late 1990s, an entertainment and shopping complex called Newport-on-the-Levee reshaped Newport’s riverfront. Lost to the cause was the National Register–listed Posey Flats (1890), the city’s oldest apartment house. The eastern half of Newport’s Cote Brilliante neighborhood was destroyed in 2004 for a shopping center, under construction in 2008. The surviving half of the community, however, became Newport’s fift h historic district in 2005. Preservationists feared that such conflicts would intensify and multiply in coming years as development pressures increased. In Boone Co., the county’s rapid rate of land speculation and development made preservation of historic cultural resources a challenge. Old buildings and family cemeteries were particularly at risk. As of 2006, at least 10 percent of the county’s Kentucky Historic Resources survey sites had been demolished after being recorded. Road projects continued to threaten historic resources in town and country alike and push sprawl into the rural hinterland. Following years of controversy, the long-planned widening of Covington’s 12th St., which will remove more than 100 buildings between I-75 and Scott St., was begun in 2008. Allen, Randy. “Developer Seeks OK for Covington Center,” KE, April 25, 1980, A1. ———. “Town Center Weathers Another Vocal Assault,” KE April 23, 1980, A1. Conley, Joe. “Pleas May Save Old Hearne House,” KP, July 12, 1973, 1. Driehaus, Bob. “City, Tower’s Planners Soothe Neighbors’ Fears,” KP, January 14, 1998, 3K.

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Kreimer, Peggy. “Old Tower Must Fall for New— Building to Be Razed for Monument Work,” KP, January 14, 1998, 1K. ———. “Quest Marina Touches Nerve—Most of Quest Plan Well-Received,” KP, February 27, 1997, 1K. Lietzenmayer, Karl. “Riverside Assailed: The TurningPoint of a City,” NKH 9, no. 1 (Fall–Winter 2001), 10–18. Morse, Susan. “Neighborhood Spirit Shapes a City,” Historic Preservation 40, no. 4 (July–August 1988): 24. Remlinger, Connie. “Mansion Hill, Newport, State to Try for Ramp Compromise,” KP, October 24, 1985, 14K. Schoolmeester, Ron. “Rousing Riverside Dwellers Rally to Beat Resolution for Renewal,” KE, November 22, 1968, 14. Schroeder, Cindy. “Newport Strikes Deal for Posey Flats,” KE, November 11, 1997, B1. Tortora, Andrea. “Marina Proposal Becomes Hot Issue—Covington Commissioners Oppose Plan,” KE, October 8, 1996, B1A.

Margaret Warminski

HITEMAN, CHARLOTTE B. (b. December 1, 1929, Newport, Ky.). Actress and model Charlotte Hiteman was the daughter of Thurman and Anne Fletcher Hiteman. The family lived at Ninth and Maple Streets in Newport, and Charlotte attended Newport High School. By age 15 she had already competed in beauty contests at places such as Tacoma Park and Coney Island. In August 1936, before she turned 16, the five-foot-three hazeleyed blond of 108 pounds won the title of Miss Kentucky. The pageant that year took place at Newport’s Hippodrome Theater (see Movie Theaters). In the next month, she was on the runway in Atlantic City, N.J., vying for Miss America and claiming to be 18 years old. Although she did not win the national competition, she went on to a career on the stage and as a model. She appeared on the George White Show in New York City, which was similar to the Ziegfeld Follies, and with the N.T.G. Revues. Upon her return to Northern Kentucky, she has had an extensive career modeling for the likes of Shillitos and Kroger. Today, Charlotte lives in Southgate and in Florida. She continues to make an occasional guest appearance as the commonwealth’s oldest Miss Kentucky. Hicks, Jack. “Memories Never Fade for Pageant Winners,” KP, October 9, 1996, 1K. “Northern Kentucky Girls Will Vie for Beauty Title,” KP, August 8, 1940, 1. Reis, Jim. “Oldest Living Miss Kentucky Won in ’36,” KP, October 16, 2000, 4K.

HOAGLAND FAMILY. Members of the Hoagland family were among the early settlers of Hunter’s Bottom in Carroll Co. Cornelius Hoagland was the fourth generation of a Dutch immigrant family who in 1657 came from Harlaam, Holland, to New Amsterdam (New York City). Cornelius was born in 1750 on a farm along the Millstone River in Windsor, Middlesex Co., N.J. He was the fourth son of Martinus and Phoebe Van Okie Hoagland. In 1776 four of the Hoagland brothers, John, Martin, Cornelius, and Abraham, volunteered for

452 HODGE, GEORGE BAIRD, GENERAL ser vice in the New Jersey militia. Martin became a captain, and their uncle Okey Hoagland became a major. In early 1777, Capt. Cornelius Hoagland organized New Jersey’s only mounted horse troop at Middlebrook. His unit, along with four mounted horse troops from Connecticut and one from Massachusetts, became the elite Second Light Dragoons Regiment, under the command of Elisha Sheldon. The Dragoons excelled at reconnaissance, and at Gen. George Washington’s insistence, they cross-trained with sabers and with rifles as mounted infantry. Operating most frequently in small groups, the Second Light Dragoons staged numerous harassment raids and supply ambushes throughout New Jersey, Connecticut, and upstate New York. Frequently, the Dragoons acted as bodyguards for General Washington or covered retreats of the army, and at Valley Forge, Pa., they patrolled the perimeter. The Second Light Dragoons were the last unit dismissed from ser vice by General Washington at West Point, N.Y., on November 20, 1783. Capt. Cornelius Hoagland was stationed at Morristown, N.J., in the winter and early spring of 1776–1777. On May 15, 1777, he married Mary Tuttle, daughter of Capt. Moses Tuttle of Mount Pleasant, northwest of Whippany, N.J. Tuttle was the owner of a famous iron mine that produced cannon and shot for the colonies’ war effort. The Tuttle family had arrived in Boston in 1635, about the same time the Hoaglands came to New Amsterdam, and were prominent members of society in Connecticut. The original Yale University buildings were erected on William Tuttle’s land near the New Haven, Conn., green. Mary Tuttle was related through her mother to the large Ford family; her uncle Jacob Ford’s home in Morristown served as Gen. George Washington’s headquarters in the winter of 1779–1780, and Mary attended dances and social events there. Immediately following the war, Cornelius joined his father-in-law in running the iron business. Together, they expanded the enterprise, which included the original mine, forges, and mills. Cornelius and his brother-in-law Charles Hoff, on March 15, 1781, entered land surveys for 1,000 acres each along the Ohio River in what became Hunter’s Bottom. A series of financial panics in the middle and late 1780s nearly bankrupted the Tuttle iron business and prevented Hoagland from making use of the Kentucky lands until 1797. Between 1778 and 1798, the first nine children of Cornelius and Mary Hoagland were born in Windsor, Middlesex Co. In 1793 Cornelius Hoagland paid taxes in Pequannok, Morris Co., N.J. Apparently Hoagland was working through his debts, because he served as a carpenter for the Peter Ogden estate in Morristown; Ogden, a relative of the Tuttles, participated in approving the U.S. Constitution. The lure of open lands in the West continued to attract Cornelius Hoagland and his family. He and his eldest son, Moses, came to Kentucky in 1797, entered the survey in the Kentucky land records, and cleared their land. Indian mounds were lo-

cated on the property. They then returned to New Jersey, and Cornelius sold his property there. In 1801 Cornelius brought the entire family, including Mary, eight children, and his sister Anna, to Hunter’s Bottom. His older brother Martin Hoagland settled in Lexington that same year. Cornelius and his sons built a low, one-story, rambling house, where George Rogers Clark is said to have stayed overnight later. Cornelia and Emily Hoagland were born in 1800 and 1803, respectively. In 1801, upon the recommendation of Presley Gray, lieutenant colonel of the 51st Regiment, Kentucky governor James Garrard (1796–1804) appointed Cornelius Hoagland a major in the regiment; Hoagland resigned that commission late in 1802. He replaced Presley Gray as assistant judge of the local circuit court on February 25, 1805. The Kentucky circuit of the court’s chief justice, Cary L. Clarke, included Boone, Campbell, Gallatin, Harrison, Pendleton, and Scott counties. While returning from a court session in Port William in July 1806, Hoagland stopped to view work being done to clear land, was struck by a burning tree limb, and died at 56, leaving Mary to raise 11 children in the wilderness. Cultured and educated, Mary Tuttle Hoagland is said to have educated several of the neighborhood children in addition to her own. Her stories of the events she witnessed firsthand during the Revolutionary War, and especially stories of George Washington, were part of the lore and legend of Hunter’s Bottom. A land partition in 1806 divided the Hoagland farm into 12 equal parts, each child and the widow receiving about 100 acres. Mary died in February 1836 and was buried at Hunter’s Bottom. The Hoagland family’s eldest son, Moses Tuttle Hoagland, followed in his father’s footsteps, serving in the Kentucky Militia’s 2nd Regiment Mounted Volunteers during the War of 1812. The family history claimed that Moses served on the staff of Gen. Andrew Jackson and was given a battlefield command as a major at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815, but there is no validating muster list. He married Sarah Paine (Payne) of Lexington and lived at Hunter’s Bottom. Okey Hoagland, an attorney who speculated in land both in Indiana and in Kentucky, bought portions of the Hoagland family’s lands from his sister, Delia Morris, and his brother, Martin, who moved west. Okey, who became lame and later blind, constructed what was later known as the Hampton House, a square-set house with a center corridor, from architectural plans he acquired while in New Jersey. Two daughters of the Hoagland family, Mary Caroline and Emily, married sons of John Conway, another early Hunter’s Bottom settler, and descendants of the Conway family members continue to live at Hunter’s Bottom on farms. Jane Hoagland married William White, and he built them a home at Hunter’s Bottom that stood for over 150 years. Carpenter, Daniel Hoagland. History and Genealogy of the Hoagland Family in America from Their First Settlement at New Amsterdam, 1638–1891. From Data Furnished Mainly by Daniel Hoogland Carpenter. New York: J. Polhemus, 1891. Held by the New York Historical Society, New York City.

Hampton, Ella., “Early Settlers in Hunters Bottom,” 1965, Carroll Co. Public Library. Memoirs of the Lower Ohio Valley. Vol. 1. Madison, Wis.: Federal, 1905. Held by the Filson Historical Society, Louisville, Ky. U.S. Treasury Warrants 2014, 2015 for 1,000 acres on the Ohio River, Ky. Survey No. 2341, filed November 3, 1797, Secretary of State’s Office, Frankfort, Ky.

Diane Perrine Coon

HODGE, GEORGE BAIRD, GENERAL (b. April 8, 1828, Fleming Co., Ky.; d. August 1, 1892, Longwood, Fla.). Gen. George Baird Hodge, a Confederate soldier, a lawyer, and a politician, was the son of William Hodge and the former Sarah Baird. He received his early education at the Maysville Seminary (see Maysville Academy). After graduation, he entered the Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., where he received his bachelor’s degree in 1845. He served as a lieutenant in the navy for nearly six years, seeing ser vice at the siege of Vera Cruz during the Mexican War. He studied law and began his legal practice in Newport. Shortly thereafter, he married Keturah Tibbatts, daughter of lawyer John Wooleston Tibbatts and granddaughter of James Taylor Jr., founder of Newport. He ran as a Whig candidate for the U.S. Senate in 1853 (see Whig Party) but was defeated by Richard H. Stanton. In 1859 he was elected to the state legislature as a Democrat (see Democratic Party). In 1861 he left Kentucky to join the Confederate Army; he served under fellow Kentuckian Gen. Simon Bolivar Buckner. Later that same year, he was elected to represent Kentucky’s Eighth District in the Confederate Provisional Government. While holding that office, he continued to serve in the Confederate Army. He recruited a company of men from Campbell Co. and led it south, where it became part of Kentucky’s “Orphan Brigade.” He received several promotions for gallantry and meritorious conduct and was eventually made brigadier general. After the Civil War, he returned to Newport and resumed his practice of law. In 1873 he was elected a state senator. When his term ended, in 1877, he left politics and moved to Longwood, Fla. He died and was first buried in Florida. Three children, Judge John T. Hodge, Ann Taylor Hodge, and Mrs. Samuel C. Bailey, survived him. He had always told his son that he wanted to be buried in Kentucky; thus, on January 1, 1903, John T. Hodge had his father’s remains reburied at Evergreen Cemetery in Southgate. The Biographical Encyclopedia of Kentucky. Cincinnati: J. M. Armstrong, 1878. “General Hodge Dead,” KSJ, August 9, 1892. “General Hodge Remains Brought to Newport,” KP, January 1, 1903. Purvis, Thomas L., ed. Newport, Kentucky: A Bicentennial History. Newport, Ky.: Zimmerman, 1996.

HODGE, JOHN T. (b. March 28, 1863, Florence, Ky.; d. February 10, 1934, Newport, Ky.). Judge John T. Hodge’s father was Confederate general George Baird Hodge. His mother was Keturah Tibbatts Hodge, a daughter of John Wooleston Tibbatts and a granddaughter of Gen. James

HOGAN, HENRY LEE, MAJOR GENERAL

Taylor Jr., founder of Newport. John’s early education was in Newport public schools. He entered the Cincinnati Law School and in 1887 graduated third in a class of 118. After leaving school, he apprenticed under lawyer W. H. McCoy in Cincinnati. In 1890 Hodge opened a law office in Newport. He married Virginia Lee Lovell on April 4, 1891. Appointed Campbell Co. master commissioner in 1893, Hodge soon became a prominent figure in local Democratic politics and over the years held many influential positions in the party. In 1897 he was elected to a six-year term as Circuit Court judge. Judge Hodge was a lifelong resident of Newport, where he and his wife were members of St. Paul’s Episcopal Church. He also served as exalted ruler of the Newport Elks Club. Hodge and his wife Virginia Lovell divorced in 1905, and he married Grace Stewart in September 1906. Hodge suffered a paralyzing stroke in 1931, forcing him to give up his legal practice. In 1934 he died of pneumonia at age 70 at his home at Park Ave. and Nelson Pl. in Newport. He was buried in the Evergreen Cemetery in Southgate. Biographical Cyclopedia of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Chicago: John M. Gresham, 1896. “Former Judge Expires at Newport,” CE, February 11, 1934, 2.

HOEFKER, JOHN HERMAN, MAJOR (b. May 24, 1919, Covington, Ky.; d. July 18, 1990, Covington, Ky.). Reconnaissance pi lot and fighter ace John Hoefker was the son of Harry Herman and Alma Studer Hoefker. He grew up in Fort Mitchell but was sent across the Ohio River to attend high school at St. Xavier in Cincinnati. While at St. Xavier, he played football and graduated with the class of 1937. Following graduation, he worked in his father’s grocery store, located at 1634 Holman Ave. in Covington. In August 1941 Hoefker left a manager position at his father’s store to join the U.S. Army Air Corps as an aviation cadet and was sent to King City, Calif., for flight training. Following primary and advanced flight training, Hoefker received his pi lot wings and the rank of second lieutenant on March 16, 1942. Soon he received orders assigning him to the 153rd Observation Squadron, 67th Observation Group, at Esler Field, La. Hoefker arrived as the unit was receiving more modern aircraft, including the P-43 Lancer and the P-51A Mustang. The unit spent time familiarizing themselves with the aircraft and developing new techniques and tactics for flying combat reconnaissance missions, and in September 1942 they were declared combat ready. By October 1942 the men of the 67th Reconnaissance Group were shipped to England without their aircraft and assigned to the 8th Air Force. They set up their base in Membury, England, and were assigned a photoreconnaissance version of the Royal Air Force Spitfire fighter; they began training to familiarize themselves with the European combat theater. By April 1943 Hoefker was reassigned to the 107th Reconnaissance Squadron, and like other members of his unit, he was required to serve temporary duty with a Royal Air Force squadron. He was as-

signed to the 165th Squadron based at Kenley. While assigned to this unit, Hoefker flew 11 combat missions, including convoy patrols, bomber escort, and fighter sweeps over mainland Europe. In November 1943 the 67th Reconnaissance Group was reassigned to the 9th Air Force and to Middle Wallop, England. They were reequipped with new F-6D Mustangs, the latest photoreconnaissance version of the P-51 Mustang, which carried lighter armor to increase speed, as well as cameras to photograph enemy targets. On December 20, 1943, lieutenants John Hoefker and Frank Dillon of the 107th Recon Squadron flew the first tactical reconnaissance mission flown by the U.S. Army Air Force over northern Europe. The unit’s primary job was to photograph potential targets for bombing missions, but they were also to assess bomb damage of targets after a raid and provide information about enemy troop movements in France. By early 1944 Hoefker was reassigned as a flight leader of the newly formed 15th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron and was promoted to the rank of captain. From March 1944 through the early part of June, the primary mission of the unit was to document enemy shore installations and troop movements in the Normandy area of northern France. On the morning of June 6, 1944 (D-Day), Hoefker and his men were assigned to fly inland to report German troop movements toward the invasion beaches. During their D-Day missions, men of Hoefker’s unit shot down three German aircraft, and on June 7, 1944, Hoefker scored his first victory over a Messerschmitt Me-109 while flying a two-plane reconnaissance flight over Le Mans, France. These were the first of 8.5 victories officially credited to Hoefker. He also had two unconfirmed victories to his credit. Hoefker’s most notable actions occurred during the German Ardennes Offensive of December 1944. The Germans attempted to attack with infantry and tank units through a weak spot in the American lines in the Ardennes Forest on the Belgium border. Using a long period of bad weather that virtually grounded all Allied aircraft, the Germans hoped to split the Allied forces in two and take the port of Antwerp, Belgium. Hoefker and his men flew low-level reconnaissance missions over the Ardennes under difficult conditions in an attempt to locate advancing enemy forces. On December 17, 1944, he and his wingman took off on a flight over the Ardennes in poor conditions. Early in the mission they became separated, and Hoefker continued on the mission alone. Over the Ardennes, he flew low-level, recorded some of the enemy’s positions, and was fired upon by German gun positions. On several occasions he engaged enemy fighters in low-level combat, shooting down three German fighters. Toward the end of the mission, he found his wingman, and together they attacked an enemy bomber flying low-level toward American positions. For this mission, Hoefker was awarded the Silver Star. During the period of December 23 to December 31, 1944, Hoefker flew four reconnaissance missions over a heavily defended section of the Ardennes Forest to gain additional information for ground commanders on

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German positions. Twice during this period, he was shot down by enemy ground fire, and both times he managed to evade capture and return through enemy lines to his unit, once after being wounded. For his devotion to duty during this period, Hoefker was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross. He continued flying combat missions through May 1945 and then returned to the United States in June 1945 to fly demonstration flights for the Army Air Corps at air shows. By the end of the war, Hoefker had been promoted to the rank of major and had been awarded the Silver Star, 2 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 31 Air Medals, and 2 Purple Hearts. He also was the second-highest scoring ace of his unit and the third-highest scoring reconnaissance ace of the war—an amazing feat since reconnaissance pi lots engaged in combat only as a last resort; their primary mission was to gather intelligence and get it back at all costs. In 1946 Hoefker was assigned to Langley, Va., where he served as a flight leader for the 161st Reconnaissance Squadron flying RF-80 jet aircraft. He served with this unit until his discharge in January 1947. Shortly after his discharge, Hoefker bought a store in Ludlow, Ky., which he operated until 1948. In November of 1947, he married Jean Lubbe of Covington, and they eventually had three children, Jill, Jack, and Jim. In 1948 Hoefker took over his father’s Covington store and operated it for 34 years, retiring in 1982. He died of a stroke on July 18, 1990, and was buried in Floral Hills Cemetery in Taylor Mill. Hoefker, Jill. Interview by Robert Snow, April 19, 2007, Fort Thomas, Ky. Ivie, Torn. “Fighter Aces of Europe,” Air Classics Magazine, Winter 1985, 59. ———. “Recon’s Finest Hour,” Air Classics Magazine, April 1992, 32. Olynyk, Frank. Stars and Bars: A Tribute to the American Fighter Ace, 1920–1973. London: Grubb Street, 1995. Personal papers of Major John Hoefker, in the possession of Jill Hoefker, accessed April 19, 2007.

Robert B. Snow

HOGAN, HENRY LEE, MAJOR GENERAL (b. 1920, Cincinnati; d. April 13, 1986, Melbourne, Fla.). World War II general Henry Lee Hogan, after spending his preteen years in the Philippines, graduated from Highlands High School in Fort Thomas (1938). He was the son of Lt. Col. Henry Leon and Nell Emily Bolan Hogan, and the family lived at 72 Mayfield Ave. in Fort Thomas. His father was a dentist who practiced in Covington. Hogan graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point (1943), where he was a track star, and became an Army Air Corps pi lot flying B-17 Fortresses out of Foggia, Italy. He flew 51 combat missions over Germany in his bomber christened “Lil Abner,” sometimes landing at Russian air bases on their western front as part of shuttle bombing runs. After World War II he became the flight instructor and military secretary for Gen. Maxwell Taylor. In the late 1950s, Hogan was involved in the early planning of the U.S. Air Force Academy at Colorado Springs, and he held several command positions

454 HOLBROOK within SAC (the Strategic Air Command) and Pentagon assignments of importance before retiring on December 1, 1972. He received many military awards, including the Distinguished Flying Cross, and eventually logged 6,000 hours flying time. Hogan died at the Holmes Regional Medical Center in Florida, and his funeral took place at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. “Friendliness of Russians Stressed,” KE, December 2, 1944, 1. “H. Lee Hogan Helped Found Air Force Academy in Denver,” KE, April 15, 1996, A10.

HOLBROOK. Holbrook, in southwestern Grant Co. near the Owen Co. border, is located in the beautiful Eagle Creek valley along Ky. Rt. 22. It is believed that the community was named for Isaac Holbrook, a large landowner. The name was confirmed when a post office was established there in 1876. By 1850 the White Chapel Episcopal Church South was established on land donated by Uriah and Deborah Bickers. The church’s first building was destroyed by fire and was replaced by the present structure on land donated by Nelson P. Poe. In 1940 the Uriah Bickers Memorial Association acquired a site adjoining the church property for use as a meeting place for the descendants of the Bickers family, who settled there in 1826. Bethany Baptist Church was organized in 1880. Its building was replaced in 1922 and used for 42 years until it burned. A new modern church building was completed in 1965. In the early 1900s, Holbrook had two general stores. There was also a blacksmith shop, a buggy shop, and a steam-powered mill for grinding wheat and corn into flour and meal. Doctors A. L. Abbott and Allie Agee practiced medicine in the town at that time. Conrad, John B., ed. History of Grant County. Williamstown, Ky.: Grant Co. Historical Society, 1992.

John B. Conrad

HOLLADAY, BEN (b. October 1819, New Liberty, Ky.; d. July 8, 1887, Portland, Ore.). Ben Holladay, a noted owner of stagecoach lines, was one of the seven children of William and Margaret Hughes Holladay. Like many other residents of Owen Co., the family moved westward to Missouri, and by 1837 they were living at Weston, just across the Missouri River from Fort Leavenworth, Kans. Ben’s father had driven wagon trains through the Cumberland Cap into Kentucky, and Ben quickly learned that business. In 1840 he married Ann Notley Calvert of Weston. During the Mexican War, Ben Holladay held a contract to supply Gen. Stephen Kearny’s Army of the West with provisions, delivered by wagons. By 1852 Holladay moved to California, where he became known as the Stagecoach King. He started, purchased, and consolidated several stage lines running passengers, freight, and the lucrative U.S. mail across the western plains, operating as the Holladay Overland Mail & Express Company. He collected annual fees of more than $650,000 from the postal ser vice for his mail routes, and he eventually owned the famous but short-lived Pony Ex-

press in its waning days. Operating more than 3,000 miles of stage routes, he became one of the largest individual employers in the country. He had lavish homes scattered around the United States, in which he often entertained business associates. He befriended Mormon leader Brigham Young, and he greatly improved mail delivery to Denver. In the mid-1860s, fed up with Indian attacks on his coaches and recognizing the coming impact of the railroad, he sold his stage holdings to Wells Fargo for $1.5 million and entered the steamboat navigation business along the West Coast. That venture was known as the Northern Pacific Transportation Company. Holladay also attempted to build a railroad from California to Portland, Ore., where he owned some of the first street railroads. The Panic of 1873 bankrupted him and his Oregon railroad plans. Holladay died at age 68 in Portland and was buried at the Mount Calvary Cemetery on the west side of that city. Race horses, cigars, and an eastside neighborhood of Portland have been named for Holladay, a transplanted Owen Countian whom some have called the father of modern transportation. Ben Holladay probably made and lost more money than any other person from the Northern Kentucky region. Frederick, J. V. Ben Holladay: The Stagecoach King. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 1989. Utah History to Go. www.historytogo.utah.gov (accessed June 20, 2007).

Michael R. Sweeney

HOLMES, DANIEL HENRY, JR. (b. July 16, 1851, New York, N.Y.; d. December 15, 1908, Hot Springs, Va.). The poet Daniel Henry Holmes Jr., the third of four children of Daniel Holmes and Eliza Kennison Holmes, was raised to take over the family’s dry goods business, but he did so for only a very short period. He was sent at age 16 to Manchester, England, to learn the commercial arts, which he disliked intensely. He detested office work and as soon as he could, he moved to Covington and entered law school. His interest in law practice, however, was described as “desultory”; when his law partner died in an accident, he took it as a sign that he should turn to his real interests, writing poetry and music. Holmes subsequently spent four years in Paris, France, at the Lycée Bonaparte. In 1883 he married Rachel Gaff, the daughter of a Cincinnati distiller. The following year he published his first book of poetry, Under a Fool’s Cap: Songs, and toured Europe with his wife. In 1891, after giving up his law practice, he returned to Europe, where he studied Greek, Latin, Italian, counterpoint, and harmony. John Wilson Townsend observed that “after Theodore O’Hara and Madison Cawein, Daniel Henry Holmes was Kentucky’s finest lyric poet.” Holmes’s second book of verse, A Pedlar’s Pack, was published in New York City in 1906. The poems contained in it had been largely written in Dresden, Germany. His final work, Hempen Homespun Songs, was published in Cincinnati, also in 1906. He died in Virginia in 1908, and after ser vices at his inherited estate, Holmesdale, in

Covington, he was buried in his wife’s family plot at Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati. “Dan Holmes Dies While in Virginia,” KP, September 15, 1908, 3. “Dan Holmes’ Funeral,” KP, December 16, 1908, 3. Gastright, Joseph F. Gentlemen Farmers to City Folks: A Study of Wallace Woods, Covington, Kentucky. Cincinnati: Cincinnati Historical Society, 1980. Holmes, Daniel H. A Pedlar’s Pack. New York: E. D. North, 1906. Mosher, Thomas B. Forward to Under a Fools Cap: Songs. 3rd ed. Thomas P. Mosher, 1914. Spring Grove Cemetery Records, Cincinnati. Townsend, John Wilson. Kentucky in American Letters, 1784–1912. Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1913.

Joseph F. Gastright

HOLMES, DANIEL HENRY, SR. (b. April 28, 1816, Point Pleasant, Ohio; d. July 3, 1898, New York, N.Y.). Daniel Holmes was orphaned at an early age and was raised by his older brother Sam Holmes in the village of Columbia, east of Cincinnati. Eugene Levassor, who lived nearby, hired Daniel Holmes as his valet. Levassor also taught him to speak French and to play the flute. Holmes went to New York City and worked for the Lord and Taylor Department Store (see Department Stores). When Lord and Taylor opened a store in New Orleans, La., the young Holmes became its manager. The store was only a modest success, but Holmes bought the store from his employers and reopened it as the Daniel Holmes Store, which became very successful. He purchased all of his merchandise in Europe, where he was known as the “King of New Orleans.” By the 1960s, the Holmes Department Store chain operated 18 department stores in three states. It was among the largest independent department store chains in the nation. In 1847 Daniel Holmes married Eliza Kennison in New Orleans, and the couple had four children; among them was Daniel Henry Holmes Jr., who became a noted Kentucky poet. In the spring of each year, Holmes traveled up the rivers to Cincinnati, where he dropped off his family to visit friends in Covington, Ky., while he continued on to Europe to shop for fashionable dry goods and luxuries. In the 1850s, Holmes began to buy property next to the home of his old mentor Eugene Levassor in Covington. During the Civil War, he moved his family to Covington and ran the business from there. After the war, Holmes spent $200,000 on a large High Victorian Gothic house, which he named Holmesdale, just south of Covington. He had a Boston firm design a landscape plan with hundreds of trees, a pond, and a pasture. For many years, the groundskeeper kept a herd of cows and sold milk to neighbors. After his wife died in 1884, Daniel Holmes spent less time in Northern Kentucky. He sold the northern half of his land to developers, who opened the Holmesdale subdivision. His will left the mansion and property to his son Daniel Jr. and divided his money among the other children. He died in 1898 at his New York City apartment. His body was brought to Covington for ser vices at Holmesdale, then was

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buried in a family crypt in Metarie, La., a suburb of New Orleans. His home and part of his property became Holmes High School in 1919. “Dan Henry Holmes Reigned as Retail King,” KP, January 5, 2004, 5K. Gastright, Joseph F. Gentlemen Farmers to City Folks: A Study of Wallace Woods, Covington, Kentucky. Cincinnati: Cincinnati Historical Society, 1980. “Holmes Dead,” KP, July 4, 1898, 1. Nordheim, Betty. “Daniel Henry Holmes, 1816–1898,” NKH 8, no. 2 (Spring–Summer 1996): 28–38. “School Born of a Castle—Covington’s Richest Man Was Also ‘King of New Orleans,’ ” KP, October 17, 2005, 4K.

Joseph F. Gastright

HOLMES HIGH SCHOOL. Holmes High School, located along Madison Ave. in Covington, is a unique and historic school marked by classic architecture. When founded (long before it was known as Holmes), it was the commonwealth of Kentucky’s first public high school as well as the first coeducational public high school in the state. More than 150 years later, Holmes High School continues to provide high-quality secondary education. Its graduates continue to matriculate at some of the finest universities. Thousands of Holmes alumni have distinguished themselves in their professions and in ser vice to country and to community. Holmes High School, part of Covington Independent Schools, offers classes for students in grades 9 through 12. In 2005 the high school had 86 full-time classroom teachers and 1,057 students; the student-teacher ratio was 12:1, ranking Holmes among the top schools of its category in the state. Covington Independent Schools allocates about $4,760 per pupil for instructional expenses. Holmes, founded as Central High School in 1853, is the oldest operating public high school in Kentucky. The original school began with 20 students and was located in classrooms of the old Fourth District School at 11th and Scott Sts. in Covington. In 1872 it moved into a new 12-room building at 12th and Russell Sts. and was renamed the Covington High School. In 1919 the school moved to the former Holmes mansion, built by Daniel Henry Holmes Sr., who owned retail stores in Covington and in New Orleans. Holmes built the home of his dreams in 1866. Known as Holmesdale castle, it was a three-story, English Gothic structure with 32 rooms, patterned after a castle in Siena, Italy. Two large pillars guarded the entrance to the estate. Flowers, shrubbery, and large trees brought in from many parts of the world flanked the long driveway and concealed the home. Only the tower, which rose well above these, could be seen from the road. At one point along the drive, Holmes had a sign: “North, South, East, or West— Home is Best.” Below and to the east of the main house were a carriage house and stables—these buildings and the arcade leading from today’s Junior High Building to the Administration Building are the only parts of the castle still standing. Today the carriage house and the stables have been converted into a residence for the school’s custodian and his wife. Holmesdale featured a small

lake with an island in the center; the high school football stadium is now located where the lake and the island were. There were four cisterns placed around the building so that water would be available in case of fire. In 1915 Holmes’s heirs sold the palatial home to the Covington Board of Education for $50,000. The following year construction began on a new school building, which was completed in January 1919; at that time the students moved from the old high school building at 12th and Russell Sts. The cafeteria, the band room, and the bookstore were in the Holmes mansion. Gradually, because of its new location, the Covington High School became known as Holmes High School. In 1927 a new building for junior high students, designed by the Weber Brothers, was completed. Ten years later, in 1936, the Covington Board of Education decided to demolish the “castle” to make space for a new administration building. Students were given a chance to bid a last farewell to their beloved castle on a cold, windy Wednesday before the 1936 Thanksgiving holiday. Thirty years later, in 1966, a new science building and the David M. Evans Field house were completed. In 1980 the Virginia Chapman Academic and Vocational School was built on the campus; it merged with the high school in 2000. In 2009 the school’s boys’ basketball team won its first state championship. “New Junior High School May Open This Week,” KP, September 11, 1927, 6. Nordheim, Betty Lee. Echoes of the Past: A History of the Covington Public School System. Covington, Ky.: Covington Independent Public Schools, 2002.

Suzanne C. Wendt

HOLY CROSS CATHOLIC CHURCH. The Latonia section of Covington (known as Milldale in the 19th century) was included within the boundaries of St. Augustine Parish (established in 1870) until 1890. Catholics from this southern reach of Covington found it difficult to travel to St. Augustine Catholic Church for Sunday mass. At first, the bishop of Covington, Camillus Paul Maes, did not agree with requests for a separate church in Latonia because the St. Augustine Church was facing financial difficulties. But with concern that the mostly German Catholic population of Latonia might lose their faith without a more constant presence of the Church in their midst, the St. Augustine Church’s pastor, Rev. Paul T. Abeln, agreed to the request of Latonia’s Catholics that a church should be built in their village. Bishop Maes finally gave his consent to proceed and put Abeln in charge of the project. Under Abeln’s direction, property in Latonia was purchased on Longworth St. (now Church St.) and the cornerstone was laid on August 24, 1890. The brick structure was near enough to completion for the first mass to be celebrated there on Christmas Day by the first resident pastor, Rev. Bernard A. Baumeister. On the Feast of the Finding of the Holy Cross (May 3) in the following year, Maes officially dedicated the new church, named Holy Cross Catholic Church in honor of that feast day.

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After Milldale was incorporated as the city of Latonia in 1896, the parish’s population grew rapidly. The size of the church and the parish school, staffed by the Sisters of St. Benedict, soon proved inadequate. The congregation, led by Rev. John B. Reiter, who had begun his 34-year pastorate in 1898, decided to build a new church, rather than add to the old one, even though many parishioners were newcomers who had debt on the new homes they had recently purchased. The result was a large stone church across the street from the original building, designed by architect Anthony Kunz Jr. In elaborate ceremonies, Maes dedicated the new Holy Cross Catholic Church on November 29, 1908. Also participating were civic leaders and nonCatholic residents, who recognized that the presence of a Catholic church was a boon to the ongoing development of Latonia. The old church was then used temporarily as the school. With the assistance of a very generous anonymous donor, the heavily indebted parish was able to go forward in 1914 with plans to erect a new school. The Holy Cross Catholic Church managed to build a parish high school in 1930, also with the Benedictine Sisters in charge. After the death of Reiter in 1932, the new pastor, Rev. Louis Fey, emphasized education and worked diligently to update the facilities of Holy Cross High School, improving its science and music departments and its library. The high school continues today, although in 1986 it became Holy Cross District High School, serving students from several area parishes, rather than the students of Holy Cross Parish alone. The parish endured a dispute over a controversial renovation plan in the mid-1980s during the pastorate of Rev. Joseph Brink. His successor, Msgr. Elmer Grosser, oversaw a more modest painting and repair of the church in time for the centenary of the parish in 1990. Feldman, Jim, and Bev Lonneman. Holy Cross Centennial Book. Covington, Ky.: Holy Cross Catholic Church, 1990. Nieberding, Robert H. “History of Holy Cross Parish, Covington, Kentucky,” master’s thesis, St. Paul Seminary, St. Paul, Minn., 1956. Ryan, Paul E. History of the Diocese of Covington, Kentucky. Covington, Ky.: Diocese of Covington, 1954. Tenkotte, Paul A., David E. Schroeder, and Thomas S. Ward. To Be Catholic and American in Northern, Central, and Appalachian Kentucky: The Diocese of Covington, 1853–2003. Forthcoming.

Thomas S. Ward

HOLY CROSS HIGH SCHOOL. In 1891 a grade school was established at Holy Cross Catholic Church in Milldale (now Latonia) and the Sisters of St. Benedict were retained as the teachers at the parish. After a major boom in housing began, a modern 12-room building was completed in 1915 at a cost of $36,000. Sister Lioba, O.S.B., started to accept a few advanced students into a high school program at the grade school. The first high school diploma went to Helen Pernice in 1921. Commercial and pre–liberal arts diplomas were issued in the 1920s.

456 HOLY SPIRIT CATHOLIC CHURCH In 1930, in spite of the Great Depression, parishioners built the present high school structure on the site of the original parish church; it was a $40,000 building, complete with a cafeteria, a gymnasium, a library, and 13 classrooms. The commercial department was incorporated into the fouryear program. The average class size was between 30 and 40, and the Benedictine nuns ran both schools. The secondary education became known as the Holy Cross High School (HCHS). The post–World War II baby boom swelled enrollment at both schools to capacity. In 1961 Pastor Thomas B. Finn constructed a new building, now named in his honor, with science and language labs, a recreation hall, and a new gymnasium, at the corner of 36th and Church Sts. The gym was provided just in time for legendary basketball coach George Schneider to guide the Holy Cross Indians, the high school’s basketball team, to the Kentucky state finals in 1965. One of the all-time-great basketball players to come out of Northern Kentucky, Dave Hickey, was a member of that team. In 1969 Bob Mark became HCHS’s first lay principal. Peak enrollment was 400 between 1968 and 1972, reflecting the baby boom. After 1972 the enrollment saw a steady decline. By 1980 Holy Cross was becoming an inner-city parish. Most of the Benedictines were gone, tuition was steadily rising, and the flight to the suburbs had taken its toll on enrollment; graduating classes were down to about 25 students. The parish could no longer afford to keep the high school on its own. By 1985, when the enrollment was less than 200, Bishop William Hughes of the diocese changed it from a parish high school to a district high school of the Diocese of Covington (see Roman Catholics). In 1986 Bill Goller, a longtime teacher at the school, became its principal and guided it until 2001. In 1988 a grassroots group of alumni formed an association to improve the situation at the high school. Annual appeals, a weekly bingo, and a fall festival were instituted. Today, as a result of these efforts, HCHS boasts an enrollment of more than 400. A wrestling and a football program were started, and a new practice field was added, largely financed by Covington philanthropist Oakley Farris. More than 40 memorial scholarships, some of them endowed, are awarded each year. Feldman, James, and Beverly Lonneman. Holy Cross Church, 1890–1990. Covington, Ky.: Self-published, 1990. Holy Cross Parish, 1891–1916. Covington, Ky.: Wallenborg Stationery, 1916. Silver Jubilee Souvenir. Thou Shalt Sanctify the Fiftieth Year. Covington, Ky.: Vesper, 1941.

Jim Feldman and Bill Goller

HOLY SPIRIT CATHOLIC CHURCH. The Holy Spirit Catholic Church in Newport resulted from a decreasing Catholic urban population and the dwindling number of priests in the Diocese of Covington (see Roman Catholics). The city of Newport, on the Ohio River, attracted many Catholic immigrants of Irish, German, and Italian extraction in the 19th and early 20th centuries. But in the mid-20th century, many Catholics moved to

the suburbs. A large number of people from Appalachia, mostly Protestants, moved into Newport in place of the departed Catholics. Thus, the city that boasted five Catholic churches found it difficult to sustain so many individual Catholic parishes and their schools. The bishops of the Diocese of Covington had to face the reality of changing demographics. In 1969 Bishop Richard H. Ackerman mandated that Immaculate Conception Catholic Church (established in 1856) close. The other four churches survived until the late 1990s. It was these four—Corpus Christi Catholic Church (established in 1845), St. Stephen Catholic Church (established in 1855) (see Holy Spirit Catholic Church), St. Francis de Sales Catholic Church (established in 1912), and St. Vincent de Paul Catholic Church (established in 1916)—that made up the new parish. By the mid-1990s, as the pastors of the four separate parishes reached retirement age, Bishop Robert W. Muench decided that he could no longer provide a resident priest for each parish. He decreed in 1997 that the four parishes be suppressed and that a new church, Holy Spirit Catholic Church, be established, with each of the former parishes to serve as missions related to it. The merged school system of the four parishes had already been designated by the name Holy Spirit in 1984. Rev. Richard Bolte was appointed pastor and Rev. Donald Enzweiler parochial vicar of the new church. In 2001 Muench ordered all of the former churches except St. Stephen be closed and put to other uses. St. Stephen Church, renamed Holy Spirit Catholic Church, then became the sole location of worship for Holy Spirit Parish, with Bolte as the pastor. Although parishioners of the former parishes were disappointed to lose their churches, most of them worked together through the difficult transition to make the new parish the home of one Catholic community for Newport. Decree of Bishop Robert W. Muench, August 28, 2001, Diocese of Covington Archives, Erlanger, Ky. Decree of Bishop Robert W. Muench, Messenger, April 25, 1997, 1. “Jubilee Cross Visits Holy Spirit Parish,” Messenger, November 3, 2000, 6–7. “Newport to Become One Parish, Four Missions,” Messenger, April 25, 1997, 1. Ryan, Paul E. History of the Diocese of Covington, Kentucky. Covington, Ky.: Diocese of Covington, 1954. Tenkotte, Paul A., David E. Schroeder, and Thomas S. Ward. To Be Catholic and American in Northern, Central, and Appalachian Kentucky: The Diocese of Covington, 1853–2003. Forthcoming.

Thomas S. Ward

HOME BUILDERS ASSOCIATION OF NORTHERN KENTUCKY. It was during the home-building boom that followed World War II (1941–1945) that home builders in America formally organized to meet the demands being thrust upon them. In Northern Kentucky, home builders found that multiple local governments issued conflicting regulations administered by people poorly informed about complexities of the industry. Fur-

ther frustrating entrepreneurs in the home-building business, state officials in Frankfort imposed additional requirements that applied to the commonwealth’s metropolitan areas in par tic u lar. Th is was the setting in which the Home Builders Association of Northern Kentucky (HBANK) was founded by sixteen residential contractors in 1955. Builders, remodelers, suppliers, and subcontractors came together in order to interact as a body with government; their purpose was to provide leadership in shaping regulations and legislation, setting standards of construction and consumer relations, educating consumers and their own members, fostering a good public image, and contributing to the community through charitable endeavors. As early as 1956, bills were introduced in the Kentucky legislature by local attorney Morris Weintraub proposing countywide planning and zoning, while eliminating local official jurisdiction over the process. At the time, these bills failed, but planning and zoning legislation did become a major concern of the community and the industry in subsequent years. Interaction with the Northern Kentucky Area Planning Commission (NKAPC), created by the Kentucky legislature in 1961, and other planning units consumed significant amounts of time for both builders and city officials as communities in Northern Kentucky continued to experience growing pains. Beginning in 1956, the HBANK called for consolidating and streamlining governmental operations and supported the planning process, even though many local governments resisted. Wary of those supporting this new process, local governmental officials succeeded in maintaining the status quo—creating considerable controversies especially in the river cities of Boone, Campbell, and Kenton counties. Builders called for consolidation of ser vices, citing the complexity of 44 cities and three counties, each with different building codes and zoning and subdivision regulations. Builders advocated the pooling of ser vices in certain areas rather than eliminating boundaries. The HBANK sponsored successful legislation that made the NKAPC advisory to cities and local planning commissions, thus eliminating duplicate hearings on planning and zoning issues. Other developmental issues of interest to the HBANK included preservation of hillsides, agricultural lands, and property rights; the Northern Kentucky Property Rights Association was formed in response to the latter concern. The HBANK introduced new concepts in residential planning, including Open Space Communities, Cluster Development, and Planned Unit Development (PUD). PUD, which involves integrating multiple uses in a development, was adopted in Kenton Co. and later used as a model ordinance for adoption nationwide. It was applied in the subdivisions of Beech Grove, in the Prospect Point development that became part of Villa Hills, and later in Boone Co. at the Oakbrook subdivision. In 1958 the HBANK supported the adoption of a uniform building code in the Northern Kentucky counties of Boone, Campbell, and Kenton that was

HOMELAND SECURITY AND 9/11

designed to upgrade the quality of building. A 1963 survey revealed that most of the communities in these three counties had no building code in effect, and while a few others had codes expressed in several typed pages, some of these were still based on code formulations dating from 1895. Code enforcement was sporadic at best and in many cases nonex istent. The HBANK proposed and secured adoption of the National Building Code as the uniform code in the three counties of Boone, Campbell, and Kenton. In 1976 the HBANK prepared legislation to establish a state department of buildings, housing, and construction, but the Kentucky General Assembly did not approve the legislation until 1978, after the tragic Beverly Hills Supper Club fire in 1977. The new department then approved a uniform building code for adoption at the local level and developed a mechanism for enforcement. Northern Kentucky cities and counties, at the builders’ urging, adopted the statewide building code, which was placed in effect in August 1981. The One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code and the Building Officials of America Code became the statewide building code adopted at the builders’ urging by Boone, Campbell, and Kenton counties and their cities. Also endorsed was centralized building inspection in Northern Kentucky, but this was not directly related to the planning process. Builders throughout the state successfully challenged the state plumbing code in a dramatic confrontation with suppliers and labor. Legislation was adopted in 1966 that opened the way for use of updated materials, notably plastic pipe, in one of the HBANK’s most significant and successful endeavors. But bureaucratic delays made the industry and consumers wait five years before the new technology could be implemented. Because construction standards, a mechanism for handling consumer complaints, and stringent requirements for builders and remodelers were needed in order to maintain good consumer relations and enhance the industry image, in 1990 the HBANK adopted the Registered Builder/Remodeler Program. It requires builders and remodelers to meet a strict set of qualifications, including business ethics, customer references, peer review, and financial integrity. The program includes professional contracts incorporating workers’ compensation and liability insurance, a one-year limited warranty, and a complaint-handling procedure that has proved to be of great value to buildersremodelers as well as new owners. A builder’s or remodeler’s failure to meet these standards is cause for censure. The expansion of building in the 1960s created an increased demand for tradespeople, so it was necessary to train new people to fi ll the jobs. The HBANK in 1967 began its Apprenticeship Program, which has been expanded from carpentry to include electricity and HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). It is offered in both English and Spanish. The HBANK sponsors several consumer events each year to show new homes and products: The Northern Kentucky Cavalcade of Homes, begun

in 1963, is an annual spring showcase of new homes of various price ranges in locations scattered throughout Northern Kentucky. Homefest has displayed new homes in one location each year since 1974. Citifest is an annual showing of upscale homes in older cities, particularly in Newport, that started in 2002. The Home Products Expo, begun in 1974, is an annual exhibit of products and services for new and remodeled homes. Previously held at either the Drawbridge Inn in Fort Mitchell or the Crestview Mall in Crestview Hills, it now occurs at the Northern Kentucky Convention Center in Covington. The home builders’ association’s television show, My New Kentucky Home, first broadcast in 2000, regularly appears on Insight Communications (ICN 6) in Northern Kentucky. It features interviews with builders, remodelers, and suppliers and commentary on home products and ser vices. A strong demand for apartments was evident in Northern Kentucky by the end of the 1960s. In response, builders sought information on apartment construction, sound control, financing, and management through the Northern Kentucky Apartment Council, established as an arm of the HBANK. Its purpose was to provide a forum for education and information and to inform the public and local governments of the need for this type of housing. Apartment construction has continued to flourish over the years. In 1988 the council merged with the Greater Cincinnati Apartment Association. In 2006 the HBANK moved to new headquarters on Circleport Dr. in Erlanger, where it has administrative offices, training facilities, and classrooms, as well as an events center that can accommodate more than 200 people. Home Builders Association of Northern Kentucky. Industry Standard. Fort Mitchell: Home Builders Association of Northern Kentucky, 2001. Wiedeman, Donald M. Milestones and Memories: The Heartbeat of Housing in Northern Kentucky. Fort Mitchell: Home Builders Association of Northern Kentucky, 2001.

Donald M. Wiedeman

HOMELAND SECURITY AND 9/11. On September 11, 2001, America found itself at war with neither a country nor an alliance of countries but with a multinational ideology, often divorced from the ruling government of any nation, which proclaimed that the United States was a great evil, to be destroyed by any and all means available. The attacks on the United States and its interests overseas had started years earlier: the USS Cole, the U.S. embassies in Africa, and individual U.S. citizens. But those events had not been given credence by the U.S. government as a coordinated attack against the nation and its citizens by those adhering to a violent Islamic ideology. On September 11, 2001, four airliners were hijacked in the United States and used as flying bombs. Three of them hit their intended targets. Two airplanes hit the World Trade Center in New York City, and another crashed into the Pentagon, in Arlington, Va. The fourth aircraft failed to hit its

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target when passengers fought back and caused it to crash into a remote farm field in Pennsylvania. Brian Williams, a native of Northern Kentucky, died in the attack on the World Trade Center. The immediate result of these aerial attacks was a shutdown of air transportation within U.S. airspace for two days as the federal government made sure no other aircraft hijack plan was in place and updated the nation’s air-transportation security procedures. During the days immediately following the attack, citizens within Northern Kentucky, as elsewhere, took part in church memorial ser vices and vigils remembering those who had been killed. State and county governments opened their emergency operation centers, and law enforcement officers throughout Kentucky were placed on overtime, patrolling areas considered as targets (see Civil Defense). As a result of the attacks, known now as “9/11” because they occurred on September 11, the lifestyles of U.S. citizens changed. The federal government created the Department of Homeland Security, which established an advisory security system. Using the color codes of green, blue, yellow, orange, and red to represent ascending threat levels, Homeland Security warns citizens regarding the likelihood of terrorist attacks. Among the major impacts 9/11 had on everyday life in Northern Kentucky was that friends and family members could no longer greet or say goodbye to one another at the Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport passenger gates. Airports throughout the nation suddenly increased these and other security procedures. Citizens who enjoyed watching and taking pictures of aircraft, trains, and towboats now had to consider the risk that such activities might make them suspect as terrorists. Government offices became inconvenient to visit because of newly established security policies. Background security checks on individuals became more common, as did the thorough uncovering of false claims regarding a person’s education level, employment, military ser vice, and outstanding warrants. New restrictive regulations were implemented by the federal government controlling the movement of cargo by barge, aircraft, train, ship, and truck, while industries were required by various levels of government to upgrade security at their facilities. The open military base, one permitting free admittance without checking, became a thing of the past. All of these changes came at a cost passed on to U.S. citizens through higher prices for goods and curtailed governmental social ser vices. Through July 1, 2004, some $85 million had been spent in Kentucky by the federal Department of Homeland Security, and this figure did not include funds spent by other federal agencies to increase Kentucky’s ability to detect, deter, respond to, and recover from a terrorist attack. “Federal Money Covers Wide Range of Local Safety Needs,” KP, May 23, 2005, K1. “Ham Radio to the Rescue,” KP, June 25, 2005, A12. “Terrorism 101,” KP, January 24, 2005, K1.

Charles H. Bogart

458 HOMELESSNESS AND HOMELESS SHELTERS HOMELESSNESS AND HOMELESS SHELTERS. Like many other urban areas, Northern Kentucky has a homeless population. The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) defines a homeless person as an individual who lacks a fi xed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence, or one who has a primary nighttime residence that is a supervised publicly or privately operated shelter designed to provide temporary living accommodations (including welfare hotels, congregate shelters, and transitional housing for the mentally ill); an institution that provides a temporary residence for individuals intended to be institutionalized; or a public or private place not designed for, or ordinarily used as, a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings. HUD’s definition does not include persons who are doubled up with family or friends, living in overcrowded conditions or in substandard housing. Neither does it take into consideration the cost burdens borne by the many low-income households that pay 60 percent or more of their income to live in housing that is inadequate for their needs. HUD says, in other contexts, that housing is affordable to a household when the cost of rent and utilities does not exceed 30 percent of the household’s adjusted income. In an attempt to understand homelessness better, the state’s housing finance agency, Kentucky Housing Corporation (KHC), conducted homelessness surveys in 1993 and again in 2001. These studies found that economic instability (resulting from job loss, low wages, divorce, lack of job skills or training, inability to gain access to public assistance, loss of such assistance, and other factors) is a leading cause of homelessness. Additional causes are domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, illness, and family rejection. The KHC surveys found significant differences between the homeless population in the urban areas of Covington and Northern Kentucky, Lexington and Fayette Co., and Louisville, on one hand, and the rural areas of the rest of the state, on the other hand. In the urban areas, the majority of homeless individuals were men; in the rural areas more women than men were homeless. In addition, the homeless people in urban areas are more likely to be unsheltered (living on the streets) than are those in rural areas. In all areas, a significant number of homeless individuals are children. It is extremely difficult to determine the number of homeless persons, especially those who are unsheltered. A count in January 2005 found a total of 305 homeless persons in Northern Kentucky on one night. The number would likely have been considerably higher had the count been made during the summer months, when the unsheltered homeless are more visible. A 2001 report by Applied Information Resources, funded by the Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati, estimated that 25,488 individuals had experienced episodes of homelessness in the Greater Cincinnati–Northern Kentucky area in the previous year. There are many local social ser vice agencies that try to help the homeless find housing and attempt to address the root causes of homelessness in Northern Kentucky. Most of the agencies are

members of and participants in the Northern Kentucky Housing and Homeless Coalition. Together, they coordinate efforts to provide affordable housing and supportive ser vices to the homeless. In December 2005, HUD awarded these agencies more than $1.6 million to provide homeless individuals housing, rental assistance, and supportive social ser vices such as case management, mental and physical health care, job training, education, budget management, domestic violence counseling, life-skills training, and substance abuse treatment. Despite this funding, it has long been recognized that there is a critical shortage of emergency shelter beds available in Northern Kentucky, especially for men. Efforts to correct this problem have been ongoing for more than 10 years. During the late 1990s, the concept of a one-stop day center, social ser vice facility, health care clinic, and shelter evolved and came to be known as the Life Learning Center. The center was to be established in Covington, where the majority of homeless persons are located and where the existing agencies that provide the ser vices have their offices. Despite funding commitments and available sites, the City of Covington twice rejected the project, once by preempting the intended site, using eminent domain laws, and on a second occasion by denying the required zoning change. The projected Life Learning Center in Covington remains a viable concept to address the most critical needs of the homeless but has yet to find the necessary political support. Several emergency and transitional shelters for the homeless operate in Northern Kentucky, although the number of persons in need far exceeds the number of available beds. Welcome House of Northern Kentucky, a typical shelter serving women and children, has turned away more than 2,000 people in need of shelter in a year owing to the lack of available beds or because of household makeup. Efforts to increase the number of shelter beds available routinely face stiff opposition in Northern Kentucky. Emergency and Transitional Shelters Operating in Northern Kentucky Boone Co. Women’s Crisis Center, Outreach Office, 11 Shelby St., Florence, for victims of domestic violence, 23 beds. Campbell Co. Brighton Center Independent Living Ser vices, Seventh and Park Aves., Newport, a youth transitional living program for ages 16 through 21. Henry Hosea House, 901 York St., Newport, 3 units for transitional shelter. Interfaith Hospitality Network, 336 W. Ninth St., Newport, for families and children, up to 30 beds. Salvation Army, 340 W. 10th St., Newport, transitional housing, 2 units. Transitions Droege House, 925 Fift h Ave., Dayton, a detox center for adult men and women, 9 beds; transitional housing for chemically dependent men, 10 beds. Veteran’s Administration Domiciliary, 1000 S. Fort Thomas Ave., Fort Thomas, for homeless

veterans, 10 beds (see Veterans Administration Medical Center). Kenton Co. Homeward Bound, 13–15 20th St., Covington, for youth, 16 beds. Madonna House, Fort Mitchell, for single women over 18 in the last trimester of pregnancy. NorthKey Transitional Apartment Program, 722 Scott Blvd., Covington, for mentally ill adults, supervised living. Transitions, 1629 Madison Ave., Covington, for chemically dependent women and their children, 15 units. Welcome House, 205 Pike St., Covington, for women and children, 25 rooms. Women’s Crisis Center, 835 Madison Ave., Covington, for victims of domestic violence. “Giving Hope a Home,” KP, January 13, 2003, 1K–3K. The Health Foundation of Greater Cincinnati. www .healthfoundation.org (accessed January 6, 2006). “Homeless Shelter Loses Land to City,” KE, January 24, 2001, B1. Homes & Communities. www.hud.gov (accessed January 6, 2005).

Barry Grossheim

HOMING PIGEONS. During the first half of the 20th century, homing pigeons were raised in Northern Kentucky, participated in races, and performed their duties as communicators. Earlier, before the invention of the telegraph, the homing (carrier) pigeon constituted the “overnight express.” For instance, when President Andrew Jackson died in Nashville on June 8, 1845, the residents of Washington, D.C., learned of his death one and one-half days later via the homing pigeon network. Generally owned by the stagecoach industry and located in major cities such as New Orleans, Nashville, Lexington, Cincinnati, and Pittsburgh, these birds contributed significantly to keeping the nation informed. Lexington was a major relay point for the pigeons. Individual birds were confined in cages on the roof of the stagecoach station. Each cage was marked with the bird’s city of destination. Well fed and well attended, the pigeons were ready to fly at a minute’s notice for a premium fee. A note was inserted into a small pouch attached to a bird’s leg, and the bird was released. Within three hours the Cincinnati bird would arrive, with the note aboard. Travel times varied with the distance and with winds aloft, but often birds attained a speed of 50 miles per hour and could fly 600 miles to their destination. The only threat was posed by an occasional eagle or hawk en route. Once the pigeon arrived, it would be fed and rested, then placed in a cage for its return stagecoach ride. Some birds had the ability (the instinct) to fly return routes, and those were highly valued. The Lexington-Cincinnati route was discontinued in 1851 with the stringing of the first telegraph lines from Lexington, through Grant and Kenton counties, to Cincinnati. Homing pigeons were used in the Civil War, World War I, and World War II. Bud Deglow, a Covington resident, for instance, offered the use of

HOPEFUL LUTHERAN CHURCH

his pigeons during World War II. From around 1910 through the 1950s, there were several individuals in the region who raised, trained, raced, and even wagered on their birds. Covington and Bellevue had pigeon racing clubs. There were local races, such as the popu lar 45-mile Sunday morning run from Dillsboro, Ind., to Bellevue, Ky. Typically, a club member transported the competing birds to Dillsboro and released them at a set time. Meanwhile, back in Bellevue, a clock was mounted on the back wall of each bird’s roost, and when the bird landed on its perch, a camera was triggered, recording the bird’s arrival time. One bird from the J. H. & S. Loft at 228 Prospect Street, Bellevue, was entered in the 1954 Mountain Empire Futurity, a 320-mile western endurance trip. Of the 450 birds that were entered from 31 states, only 7 completed the run. The J. H. & S. bird won second-prize money. This Bellevue aviary held government contracts for the breeding, raising, and training of birds for national emergencies. Homing pigeons were also used in local celebrations. On May 9, 1913, the opening day of the Covington Blue Sox team in the new Federal Baseball League, homing pigeons were released to each of the other cities in the league, announcing that Covington now had major league baseball. “Bellevue Bird One of Seven to Finish Big Race,” KP, October 15, 1954, 10. “Bud Deglow Had Appreciation for Fully Living His Life,” KP, November 10, 2001, 12A. Coleman, J. Winston. Stage- Coach Days in the Bluegrass. Louisville, Ky.: Standard Press, 1936.

Michael R. Sweeney

HOPEFUL HEIGHTS. The community of Hopeful Heights in Boone Co. grew up around the Hopeful Lutheran Church, from which the town’s main thoroughfare, Hopeful Church Rd., also received its name. The church’s adjacent cemetery contains the graves of many important Boone Countians. For many years, the area was a sleepy neighborhood of farms, but when I-75 was built, it brought the development of the nearby Florence Mall. Thereafter, Hopeful Heights began participating in the amazing population growth that has been so much a part of Boone Co.’s recent history. In November 1960, there was a movement by the City of Florence to annex Hopeful Heights, but 22 Hopeful Heights residents fi led suit to stop the action in December. In April 1961, Hopeful Heights incorporated as a protective move. With a population of only 550, and in view of the continuing debate regarding the provision of much-needed city ser vices, especially sewers, the sixth-class City of Hopeful Heights faced a severe financial crisis. In 1969 a majority of the city’s residents signed a petition requesting the dissolution of their town; in January 1970, the Appeals Court dismissed a suit attempting to block the dissolution, and the city came to an official end. By 1982 about half of Hopeful Heights had been made part of Florence, and by 2000 the entire area had been annexed by Florence. Becker, Lee B. “Hopeful Heights Off to New Disagreement,” KE, August 23, 1969, 21.

“Hopeful Heights Is Dissolved,” KP, January 29, 1970, 1K. “Hopeful Hts. Had Lost All Hope,” KE, December 26, 1982, C7. Reis, Jim. “Annexation Battles Stirred Hopeful Heights,” KP, July 15, 1996, 4K.

HOPEFUL LUTHERAN CHURCH. Hopeful Lutheran Church, located just outside of Florence in Boone Co., is the oldest Lutheran church west of the Allegheny Mountains. The founding families were members of the Hebron Lutheran Church in Madison Co., Va., and descendants of German colonists who had immigrated to North America during the early 1700s. (See German Americans.) The first families coming from Virginia to Kentucky arrived in Boone Co. in November 1805. The members of the group were Elizabeth Hoffman, John and Millie House, George and Elizabeth Rouse, John and Nancy Rouse, Ephraim and Susannah Tanner, and Frederick and Rose Zimmerman. Each family soon built a cabin, with the exception of George Rouse, who pitched his tent not far from where the present Hopeful Lutheran Church now stands. The first religious ser vices were held at the homestead of George Rouse. Worship ser vices were conducted in German and included hymn singing, prayers, and sermons read by Ephraim Tanner. These settlers’ former pastor in Virginia, Rev. William Carpenter, sent a constitution and urged them to form a congregation. They did so on January 6, 1806, and the following men signed that constitution: Daniel Beemon, John Beemon, John House, George Rouse, Jacob Rouse, John Rouse, Michael Rouse, Ephraim Tanner, Simeon Tanner, and Frederick Zimmerman. All signers were from the Hebron Church in Virginia; five had arrived with the original group in November, and the remaining five arrived soon thereafter. George Rouse donated an acre of ground on which to build the church, and in 1807 a log church was constructed. In his 1854 history of the church, Rev. David Harbaugh described the building: “It was a cabin church in reality, built of unhewn logs. The roof and door were made of clapboards; the floor with puncheons, and the seats were made of saplings. An opening was made at each end by sawing out some logs for windows. These were always open, that is, without sash or lights. They had neither stove nor fireplace in it, yet they met for worship during the winter.” From the beginning, the congregation of the Hopeful Lutheran Church strove to have an ordained minister come at least once a year to administer the sacraments. Rev. William Carpenter came from Virginia at least twice for that purpose. In 1813 he moved to Boone Co. and became the first pastor of the congregation. He served the parish longer than any of his successors, ministering until his death in 1833. Both a new constitution and a new church building were added during Carpenter’s pastorate. The new church building was a 25-by-25-foot log church, with an end gallery and a raised pulpit. Before his death, Carpenter wrote to Rev. Jacob Crigler, urging him to take charge of the Hopeful church’s parish. Crigler did so in 1834.

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Pastor Crigler was heartily in favor of the use of English in the liturgy. In the final years of Carpenter’s ministry, ser vices had alternated between German and English, but under Crigler, English became the language used exclusively in worship. In 1837 a 35-by-50-foot brick church was built from bricks made from a site near the church. Much of the work was donated, so the final treasurer’s report listed only $1,587 in expenses. In 1854 the Hebron Evangelical Lutheran Church was formed near what became Hebron. The Hopeful and Hebron Lutheran churches formed a joint parish, which lasted until 1947, and a parsonage was built halfway between the two on a lot near Limaburg. Rev. W. C. Harter began his work at Hopeful Lutheran Church in early 1864 with great promise, but he died after a brief illness on July 31 of that year. After a short vacancy, Rev. Thomas Drake was called to become the church’s pastor in 1865. During the Civil War, Drake had served as a provost marshal in Fairfield Co., Ohio. The predominant political mood of the congregation was highly in favor of the South, and since some of the people in the county had been arrested or imprisoned by a provost marshal during the war, Pastor Drake was not well received. Although he remained at Hopeful Lutheran Church for two years, he accomplished little because of the bitter feelings regarding his ser vice during the war. Rev. A. G. Emmerson began his ser vice at Hopeful Lutheran Church in 1867 and was able to bring healing and growth to the church during his two-year ministry. Rev. W. C. Barnett became pastor in 1871 and led the church for the next 10 years. From 1881 to 1883, Rev. A. J. Douglas was pastor of the parish. His son, Lloyd C. Douglas, was an author who wrote such books as The Robe and Dr. Hudson’s Secret Journal. Except for the pastorate of Rev. H. Max Lentz (1890–1900), the period from 1881 to 1916 was one of the shortest terms of ser vice for pastors at Hopeful Lutheran Church. In 1917, during the pastorate of the Rev. George A. Royer, the present brick church building was erected at a cost of more than $12,000. At the end of Rev. J. Paul Rimmer’s pastorate, the Hopeful-Hebron joint parish was dissolved; each church became independent. A brick parsonage was built beside the Hopeful Lutheran Church in 1949, during the pastorate of Rev. Herman V. J. Andres. An educational wing was added, and in 1956 the church celebrated its 150th anniversary. Rev. Robert C. Richter became pastor in 1963 and served the parish until his retirement in 1980. Rev. John H. Pollock followed him in 1981. In 1991 extensive remodeling was begun and a new social hall was added to the church. This work on the church was dedicated in November 1992. In April 1996 Rev. Blair Fields was called to become the church’s pastor. In 2005 the church broke ground for a new sanctuary, and in 2006 the congregation celebrated its 200th anniversary. Fields remains the church’s pastor. Church records and archives of Hopeful Lutheran Church, Boone Co., Ky.

460 HORD, REBEKAH HECHINGER Harbaugh, David. A History of the Evangelical Lutheran Congregation of Hopeful Church, Boone County, Kentucky. Cincinnati: S. V. Crossman, 1854. Lentz, H. Max. History of Lutheran Churches in Boone County, Kentucky. York, Pa.: P. Anstadt, 1902.

Michael D. Rouse

HORD, REBEKAH HECHINGER (b. January 25, 1899, Maysville, Ky.; d. July 7, 1977, Maysville, Ky.). Rebekah Hechinger Hord, the daughter of Ferdinand and Hattie Oridge Hechinger, became the first woman mayor of a city in Kentucky. She graduated from Maysville High School in 1916 and married Dr. Winn E. Hord on April 26, 1920. She was a Democrat and, during the late 1940s, was the first woman to serve as a Maysville city commissioner. She was elected without opposition as mayor in November 1951, after having served as mayor pro tem following the resignation of James M. Collins, the previous mayor. To run for the seat, Hord had defeated former mayor Rex Parker in the Democratic primary. Her subsequent election made her not only the first woman mayor of Maysville but also the first woman ever to hold the position of mayor of a city in Kentucky. She was reelected in 1957 and served through May 1961. As mayor, she was instrumental in securing federal aid to build the town’s vital floodwall (see Flood Control). After completing her terms as mayor, Hord ran unsuccessfully for the Kentucky legislature in 1960. Her involvement in the Democratic Party extended to the national level when she served as a delegate to Democratic national conventions in 1939 and 1960. Her daughter, Harriet Cartmell, was elected mayor of Maysville in 1986. Hord’s varied interests led her to participate in many civic and professional organizations, such as the Kentucky Municipal League, the American Red Cross, the League of Women Voters, the Humane Society, and the Nomads women’s club. She died, apparently of a heart attack, in 1977 and was buried in the Maysville and Mason Co. Cemetery. Calvert, Jean, and John Klee. Maysville, Kentucky: From Past to Present in Pictures. Maysville: Mason Co. Museum, 1983. “Former Maysville Mayor Hord Discovered Dead in Mansion,” CE, July 11, 1977, 1. “Mayor Hord Wins Re-Election,” KTS, November 7, 1957, 1. “Mrs. Rebekah Hord Is Elected First Woman Mayor of Maysville,” KP, August 6, 1951, 1. “Office Oath Taken by City Commission: Mayor Begins Term,” KE, January 8, 1952, 1.

Thomas S. Ward

HORNER, CHARLES D. (b. August 1859, Tennessee; date and place of death unknown). Charles Horner was the principal of Newport’s African American Southgate St. School from 1897 to 1904. He married Rebecca Day Minnes, and the couple had six children, including Charles E. Horner, who became a medical doctor in Newport. The family resided in the Cincinnati neighborhood of Cumminsville until Charles D. Horner became principal of the Southgate St. School in 1897.

Horner was active in the Newport community; for example, in June 1899 he was elected an officer of the Colored Four Hundred Society of Newport. The Horners resided at 152 Van Voast Ave. in Bellevue in 1900, later moving to 404 W. Fourth St. in Newport. In August 1902 Horner helped organize and was a speaker at the Kentucky State Colored Chautauqua, which was held at Electric Gardens at 11th and Brighton Sts. in Newport. While principal of Southgate, Horner requested that the high school’s program be expanded from three to four years, to match the program of Newport High School. His proposal was accepted and implemented, and the Southgate St. High School continued to offer its African American student body four years of high school until the school was closed in 1921. In June 1905, Horner was asked by the Newport Board of Education to resign as principal and was given until the July board meeting to reply to their demand. The board minutes do not indicate the reason for the board’s request. He resigned before the July board meeting, and from that time on no further information about Horner is available. “Horner Must Go,” KP, June 22, 1905, 5. “Newport,” CE, July 18, 1899, 3. Newport Board of Education. Fifty-Third Annual Report of the Public Schools of Newport. Newport, Ky.: Campbell Co. Printing, 1901. “Newport News,” KTS, August 15, 1902, 3. Reis, Jim. “Educator’s Son Worked Hard to Be Called ‘Doctor’,” KP, February 4, 2004, 4K.

Theodore H. H. Harris

HORNER, CHARLES E. (b. August 1, 1882, Cincinnati, Ohio; d. October 11, 1948, Cincinnati, Ohio). Charles E. Horner, the son of Charles D. Horner and Rebecca Day Minnes Horner, became the first African American medical doctor in Newport. He attended public schools up to the eighth grade, leaving school at age 15. At age 16, he went to work in a restaurant as a cook and a pantryman. In 1899, at age 17, Horner moved from Ohio to Newport and began working as a janitor at the Southgate St. School, where his father was the principal; he also waited tables at evening parties. He later held janitorial jobs at two churches and worked as a window washer, a porter in stores, and a waiter at nighttime poker parties. In 1903, with $300 in his bank account, Horner entered the Eclectic Medical College in Cincinnati, attending classes during the day and working as a waiter at night. He graduated with a degree in medicine from the college in 1907. In 1908 he worked as a Pullman porter stationed in Chicago, traveling throughout the United States, Canada, and parts of Mexico. In 1910 he took the Kentucky State Medical Board examination and passed with an average score of 79. In May 1911 Horner married Emma Walker. He began his medical practice in Newport, where he lived, and treated mostly white patients. In February 1918 Horner almost lost his life while trying to visit sick patients in a flooded area of Newport. He was in the floodwaters in a flatboat with a man named George Wooding, when the ves-

sel collapsed at Fourth and Isabella Sts. Wooding drowned, but Horner was rescued and recovered. Horner was active in St. Andrew’s Episcopal Church in Cincinnati. He was a 32nd Degree Mason. In the 1930s, Horner was married a second time, to Katharine Berry. In 1943 he retired from medical practice and moved to a farm he owned in Williamsburg, Ohio. He died in 1948, and his remains were cremated at the Cincinnati Crematory. Dabney, W. P. Cincinnati’s Colored Citizens. Cincinnati: Dabney, 1926. “Death Notices,” KE, October 13, 1938, 32. “Dr. Charles E. Horner,” KTS, October 13, 1948, 4. “Man Drowned When Flatboat Capsized on Flooded Street,” KTS, February 12, 1918, 11. “Newport Physician to Face Grand Jury,” KP, August 8, 1940, 1. Reis, Jim. “Educator’s Son Worked Hard to Be Called ‘Doctor’,” KP, February 4, 2002, 4K.

Theodore H. H. Harris

HORSE RACING. Competitive licensed horse racing in Northern Kentucky has primarily involved thoroughbreds. All thoroughbred horses have unbroken bloodlines drawn from three Arabian stallions (the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, and the Godolphin Barb) and approximately 40 English mares. As pioneers began settling Kentucky during the second half of the 18th century, they discovered that the nutrients in the area’s limestone- and mineral-based waters and grasses strengthened horses and made this the perfect place to breed and raise thoroughbreds. Challenge match races and the laying out of private racetracks on farmlands were common during the settlement period and in the years immediately following Kentucky statehood in 1792. One early settler, William Whitley of Lincoln Co., helped to establish the model for competitive thoroughbred racing in America. Whitley, who had fought the British in the Carolinas during the Revolutionary War, had a deep personal aversion to anything associated with England, including its longestablished horse-racing traditions. Consequently, when he laid out his private racecourse, Sportsman Hill, he decided that racing on it would be conducted counterclockwise and on dirt (not clockwise and on grass, as in England). Both of these changes were soon adopted nationwide as being the “American way” to race thoroughbreds. The Lexington Association Track, which was built in 1828, was the first racetrack in Kentucky to conduct thoroughbred racing by a set of written rules and to have a formal governing board. The next significant racecourse to open in Kentucky was the Louisville Jockey Club Track (later known as Churchill Downs). It was opened by Col. Matt J. Winn and a group of investors on May 17, 1875, the same day the new track in Louisville ran the first Kentucky Derby. This presence of thoroughbred racecourses in Lexington and Louisville helped convince a group of horsemen and local officials from Central and Northern Kentucky that they too should open a thoroughbred racetrack. Seven men, track president and race judge T. J. Megibben; racing secretary Maj. Elias D. Lawrence; horseman

HORSE RACING

Col. Robert W. Nelson; attorney and Covington councilman Frank P. Helm; judges George G. Perkins and Walter W. Cleary; and John Taylor, the son of Gen. James Taylor Jr., joined together to form the Latonia Agricultural and Stock Association, which obtained a state charter to race thoroughbred horses in 1882. Having purchased 109 acres in the Milldale District near Covington from Gen. James Taylor, the track’s new officers proceeded to build their racetrack, named Latonia (see Latonia Racecourse) after the nearby Latonia Springs, once a popu lar summer resort. On June 9, 1883, Latonia’s opening day, the racetrack drew a crowd estimated to number 10,000. Oddly, the featured race that day, the Hindoo Stakes, saw horses named Leonatus, Drake Carter, and Ragland finish first, second, and third, respectively, thus duplicating the exact finish they had achieved a few weeks earlier in the Kentucky Derby at Louisville. The facts that three Derby horses raced in Latonia’s opening feature and that the jockey aboard Leonatus was Isaac Murphy, the jockey with the alltime leading win percentage in stakes in American racing history, were strong indications that Latonia was starting out on the right foot. The Hindoo Stakes, which became the Latonia Derby in 1888, remained Latonia’s top race; often in the years that followed, the purse provided to the winner of the Latonia Derby was larger than either the Kentucky Derby’s purse or any of the stakes’ purses offered at the Lexington Association Track. Racehorse owners were soon rotating their stock from the track in Lexington to the one in Louisville and ending at Latonia, a racing sequence soon christened Kentucky’s 3-L Race Circuit. The success of Latonia and the new 3-L Race Circuit (see Three-L Highway) spawned three lower-level area copycat tracks, one in Oakley, a northeast suburb of Cincinnati, and two in Northern Kentucky. The first, the Gentlemen’s Full Racing Park in Oakley, opened in 1889 and closed in 1904. In April 1896 the Queen City Race Track (1896–1905) opened just south of Newport, along the Licking River. It offered smaller purses and catered to cheaper horses. Even so, one of the nation’s top riders, Jimmy Winkfield, who was living in Cincinnati, rode at both the Oakley and the Newport tracks. The third of these tracks, The Rosedale Electric Light Jockey Club (Rosedale, Ky., now part of Covington), which also opened in 1896, found fame by becoming one of America’s earliest lighted evening racecourses, but bankruptcy was declared in 1897 and it never reopened. Latonia’s rapid rise to be counted among the top tracks in Kentucky helped to keep its quality of racing at a high level until 1929, the year the Great Depression began. Racing at Latonia drew some of the nation’s best horses, many noted trainers, the best jockeys, and some of the most famous owners in America. In a period from 1915 to 1928, Latonia led all North American tracks in total purse moneys awarded. Horses racing at Latonia set several speed records, and the prestigious stake races the track added, such as the Clipsetta Stakes and the Latonia Oaks for distaffs, and the opencompany Latonia Cup and Fall Championship,

garnered nationwide interest, drew prestigious fields, and attracted large crowds. Racing at Latonia peaked in the mid-1920s. Two races held there, Latonia’s 1923 Fall Championship and the third leg of the 1924 American International challenge race, were such important events that they are included in all major thoroughbred horseracing histories covering this period. The ownership at Latonia changed several times over the years, alternating between local and outof-town owners. The final change occurred in 1919, when a race syndicate headed by Matt J. Winn, called the Kentucky Jockey Club, bought all the thoroughbred tracks in Kentucky. This change in ownership had an immediate impact on the Latonia Derby, which was diminished in importance as Winn concentrated on making the Latonia Derby’s rival, the Kentucky Derby, America’s most famous race. The 1930s were difficult years at Latonia. Purses were substantially reduced, the top stables no longer raced there, and the track struggled just to survive. Latonia closed suddenly in 1939 after its properties were sold to the Sohio Refining Company (Standard Oil of Ohio). Thoroughbred racing did not resume in Northern Kentucky until 1957, and at that, it came in a backdoor manner. A five-eighths-mile harness track had been opened during the 1950s in Florence in Boone Co., and in 1957 the Northern Kentucky Turf Association (the parent organization of Kentucky Raceways) obtained a license to conduct a thoroughbred meet. Kentucky Raceways conducted one meet in 1957 (September 7–October 5) and then closed. Meanwhile, plans were in the works to open a second Latonia track, also to be located in Florence. The key founding figure of what was called the Latonia Jockey Club Inc. was Matt Winn Williamson, the grandson of Matt J. Winn. New Latonia (the original track became known as Old Latonia) opened on August 27, 1959, and drew a crowd totaling 10,000. The jubilation associated with the track’s successful opening, and its owner’s high hopes, did not last long. Undercapitalized, the track fell into receivership in November 1959, emerged barely hanging on, and throughout the 1960s, 1970s, and mid-1980s conducted racing acknowledged as being clearly below the levels established by the earlier Latonia track. In 1965 Corwin Nixon’s Ohio-based harness organization agreed to help pay for lighting at Latonia, and from 1965 until the mid-1980s the Latonia Trots held meets at the track. Briefly, during the 1970s, quarter-horse racing was conducted at Latonia. The track’s personable general manager, John Battaglia (1971–1977), whose son Mike remains the track announcer, had helped launch quarter-horse racing, one of the many attempts during Battaglia’s tenure as general manager to utilize Latonia’s facilities fully and draw more customers to the track. The track’s thoroughbred meets in this era produced three memorable firsts. Latonia was the first track to conduct night racing in Kentucky (March 29, 1969) and the first track in Kentucky to offer Sunday racing (December 7, 1980). Then on March 22, 1974, it became the 12th track nationwide, and the lone one in

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Kentucky, to produce a triple dead heat for a win. Latonia was bought in 1967 by Emprise, which ran Sportser vice, the concessionaire that later morphed into the Delaware North Corporation. Nineteen years later, on April 9, 1986, Latonia was sold to the partnership of businessmen Jerry Carroll and James Thornton and renamed Turfway Park. Turfway Park’s fi rst meet was held in the fall of 1986. In August 1987 Carroll and Thornton dissolved their partnership after Carroll outbid Thornton for control of the track. While Carroll was running Turfway Park (1986–1999), the track gained attention for the innovations it introduced and its improved quality of racing. Carroll transformed the Spiral Stakes, a contest that began as a $10,000 ungraded stake, into what eventually became a Grade II $600,000 event, the Jim Beam Stakes, a race that produced three Preakness winners (Summer Squall, 1990; Hansel, 1991; and Prairie Bayou, 1993), a Belmont winner (Hansel, 1991), a Kentucky Derby winner (Lil E. Tee, 1992), and three Eclipse Champion Horse Award winners (Summer Squall, 1990; Prairie Bayou, 1993; and fi lly-champ Serena’s Song, 1995). Carroll spent millions improving the track’s racing surface and physical plant. On July 22, 1994, he opened the Race Book, a state-of-the-art simulcasting betting facility soon copied nationwide. Attendance and track revenues peaked in the late 1990s and, true to form, Carroll, the speculator in properties, sold out and moved on to a new enterprise—building a motor sport facility called the Kentucky Speedway. On January 15, 1999, it was announced that a partnership consisting of the Keeneland Association; Dreamport, a division of GTECH Corporation; and Harrah’s Entertainment had purchased Turfway Park. Each new owner had a specific reason for joining this partnership. Both GTECH Corporation and Harrah’s Entertainment were positioning themselves to profit, should video gambling devices be allowed at racetracks in Kentucky, and Keeneland was attempting to block Churchill Downs, which had purchased Ellis Park in Kentucky, from dominating the Kentucky racing circuit and its dates. In 2006 the GTECH Corporation sold out to the other two partners. Turfway Park holds annual Spring, Fall, and Holiday meets and in 2005 became the first North American track to race on Polytrack, a synthetic surface that allows all-weather racing. The track has just completed a multimilliondollar expansion of the paddock and saddling area, the gift shop, and its food-distribution sites. It has also launched an aggressive campaign to attract new fans to the track by offering discounted food and drink, providing live music entertainment, and hosting special community parties and gatherings. Old Latonia and New Latonia are gone, but their legacy is preserved and lives on at the horse-racing facility that today is named Turfway Park. Claypool, James C. The Tradition Continues: The Story of Old Latonia, Latonia, and Turfway Racecourses. Fort Mitchell, Ky.: T. I. Hayes, 1997.

462 HORSE SHOE GARDENS The Media and Information Guide. Florence, Ky.: Turfway Racecourse, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2007

James C. Claypool

HORSESHOE GARDENS. The Horseshoe Gardens was an entertainment resort located along the Ohio River at the foot of Ward St. in Bellevue, Ky. Formerly known as the Riviera Beach and Dance Hall, and before that as the Queen City Beach, it was one of the various Campbell Co. beachfronts on that stretch of the river that helped the City of Cincinnati bring the national Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) convention to the region in 1898. Families of Civil War veterans rode streetcars to Bellevue and Dayton, Ky., to frolic on the naturally sandy beaches of the bend in the Ohio River, as the former soldiers reminisced at their convention in Cincinnati. After the Queen City Beach was sold in 1916, the new owners renovated it, building a lavish dance hall to entice customers on a year-round basis. It advertised a new maple floor that could accommodate 1,000 dancers. A radio bandstand system amplified the music throughout the hall. In 1928 Bellevue native Ed Rohrer purchased the business, by then called the Riviera Beach and Dance Hall, and changed its name to the Horseshoe Gardens. It sported a tropical-island theme and featured the most popu lar local and regional bands. A newspaper account at the time described it as “brilliance on the Ky. Shore of the Ohio River.” The dance pavilion offered performances by the Justin Huber Orchestra, Michael Hauer’s Orchestra, the Royal Kentuckians, the Nightingale Orchestra, Bob Ranier, Earl Arnold, Fats Waller, bluegrass singer Harry Willsy, the “Ky. Songbird” Norbert Rechtin, the Mills Brothers, Murray Horton and his band from WLW radio, and the like. The Horseshoe Gardens also had a large veranda and an outdoor dining area called the Starlight Terrace. Another attraction was the Crystal Floating Palace, a party area anchored to the dance pavilion that featured bright lights in the shape of a giant horseshoe. Customers could get a speedboat ride from the dock for 35 cents. Many special events were held at the Horseshoe Gardens, such as ballroom-dancing contests, concerts, a Bavarian villa, bathing-beauty contests, dinner dances, holiday dances, and Mardi Gras balls. Miss United States for 1932, Ludlow’s Anne Lee Patterson, led a parade of bathing-beauty winners at the resort one Sunday evening in April of that year. The Horseshoe Gardens remained a popular entertainment mecca until 1933. The Great Depression facilitated its demise, and the flood of 1937 destroyed any hopes of reviving the business. In 1955 a group of people who had regularly frequented the establishment formed the Horseshoe Gardens Alumni Association. They renewed friendships and cherished memories at an annual dance and dinner party. Reunions are no longer held, but the sentimental memory of the Horseshoe Gardens lingers on. The site is now the Bellevue Beach Park, which continues to be an im-

portant gathering place for community events and open-air summer concerts. “Miss United States in Style Parade,” KP, April 17, 1932, 8. Reis, Jim. “Beach Became Horseshoe Gardens,” KP, June 12, 2000, 4K. ———. “Cherished Dreams Linger in Memories of Youthful Years,” KP, May 22, 1995, 4K. ———. “One Peach of a Beach,” KP, June 12, 2000, 4K.

Robin Caraway

HORSFALL, WILLIAM H. (b. March 3, 1847, Alexandria, Ky.; d. October 22, 1922, Newport, Ky.). U.S. Congressional Medal of Honor recipient William H. Horsfall was the second of six children of English-born Jonathan Horsfall and his wife Elizabeth, residents of Alexandria, Ky. By 1860 the family had moved to Newport, where William resided during his adult life. At age 14, he boarded the steamer Annie Laurie, which was heading for the Kanawha River in what was then Virginia. The young boy, who was small for his age at just four feet and three inches in height, arrived in Charleston, Va. (today W.Va.), and enlisted on January 1, 1862, in the Union Army’s Company G, 1st Kentucky U.S. Infantry, as a drummer. His uniforms and shoes were always too big for him, and he usually walked barefoot, causing blisters and infection throughout his term of ser vice in the military. He also suffered from knee calluses from carry ing the cumbersome snare drum. In combat situations, Horsfall used a sharpshooter’s 20pound rifle with a telescope for long-range sighting. He fought in the Battle of Shiloh at Pittsburg Landing, Tenn., and at the battle of Stone River, near Murfreesboro, Tenn. On May 21, 1862, during the siege of Corinth, Miss., Capt. James T. Williamson was shot in the hip and lay helpless between the lines of fire as his unit retreated. Horsfall rested his rifle against a tree, stooped low, and ran to Williamson. The boy slowly dragged the heavier captain by the wrists, as bullets dug into the earth all around him. Finally they reached safety behind the reestablished skirmish line. Gen. William Rosecrans, commander of the Union division fighting there, complimented Horsfall for his bravery. Horsfall was captured on September 10, 1893, at Graysville, Ga., and was held prisoner at Andersonville Prison, Andersonville, Ga., until August 19, 1864. Then on March 1, 1865, he reenlisted in the Union Army in Company K, 4th Regiment, of the U.S. Veteran Volunteers, in Cincinnati. During this term of ser vice, Horsfall contracted a severe cold from exposure to the elements and sleeping on the ground. His untreated illness became progressively worse, though he stayed with his regiment until being discharged on March 1, 1866. For most of his adult life, Horsfall was a semi-invalid suffering from rheumatism and pain in his lungs, back, and limbs, as well as from heart disease. After the war he worked as a notary public; he also authored war poems, wrote music, and sang. Horsfall married Loretta Davis in 1871 and became the father of six children. He was the commander of the William Nelson Post of the Grand Army of the Republic in Newport. President Grover Cleveland

(1893–1897) awarded Horsfall the U.S. Congressional Medal of Honor on August 9, 1895, for “most distinguished gallantry in action at Corinth, Miss., May 21, 1862.” Horsfall died in 1922 in his home at 218 W. Third St., Newport, at age 75. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery at Southgate in a GAR plot, where a Kentucky Historical Marker memorializes his bravery and courage. Civil War Soldiers & Sailors System. “William Horsfall.” www.itd.nps.gov/cwss/ (accessed September 26, 2006). Fiore, C. A. Young Heroes of the Civil War. Unionville, N.Y.: Royal Works Press, 1932. Macon Co., Georgia. Andersonville National Cemetery and Historic Site. www.maconcountyga.org (accessed September 26, 2006). “War Veteran Dies,” KP, October 23, 1922, 3.

Garry A. Casson

HOSEA HOUSE. The Henry Hosea House, located at 901 York St., Newport, was renovated and donated by David and Marcia Hosea in 1992 to the Interchurch Organization as a memorial to David Hosea’s father and grandfather. The facility, a former VFW hall, now serves as a soup kitchen run by the Interchurch Organization, commonly known as ECHO, a nonprofit agency started by Sister Mary Dorgan, C.D.P., and other ministers and community members from Campbell Co. to help the poor and the homeless (see Homelessness and Homeless Shelters). ECHO officially began on April 19, 1991, serving about 30 meals a day at the fellowship hall of the First Church of the Nazarene, located at 830 York St. in Newport; since the move to the Henry Hosea House in 1992, ECHO serves an average of 150 meals each evening. In June 1997 ECHO expanded its meal ser vice to include weekends and to offer other direct ser vices, including a referral ser vice that connects guests with other social agencies. The foot clinic offers on-site care by trained nurses and doctors and provides new shoes and socks for clients. ECHO also provides blankets, fans, personalcare items, school supplies, and Thanksgiving food baskets. The Adopt a Family for Christmas program recruits businesses, churches, community groups, and families to purchase gifts and food for families that otherwise would not have a holiday. During the winter ECHO operates a program called HUGS, an acronym for Hats, Underwear, Gloves, and Socks. ECHO has four staff members but utilizes more than 400 volunteers at Hosea House throughout the year. The organization depends on the generosity of many agencies, individuals, organizations, and the community. “Her Kitchen Feeds Their Bodies; She Warms Their Spirits,” KP, April 14, 1993, 1–2KK. “Soup Kitchen Adds on Day—Hosea House Expands to Meet Need,” KE, January 15, 1995, B3.

Gabrielle Summe

HOSPITALS. The first hospital that operated in Northern Kentucky was the medical facility at the Newport Barracks, at the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers in Newport. Two prominent

HOUSE, GERRY

physicians practiced there, Nathaniel Burger Shaler and Gen. Charles Stuart Tripler. The widely respected Shaler tended to the ill, both military and civilian, from the height of the cholera epidemic in 1832 almost until his death in 1882. Tripler, a career military officer, was at Newport for a few years during the late 1850s, when he wrote the long-used military medical classic Manual of the Medical Officer of the Army of the United States. Tripler also improved upon the U.S. Army’s field ambulances by adding a fourth wheel. He participated in local civilian medical societies, especially in Cincinnati. The major U.S. Army medical facility in Honolulu today is named in his honor. In the early 1850s, two medical practitioners, one named Dr. Holt and his partner, a Dr. Delaney, opened what they called an infirmary in Covington for the treatment of disease, mainly of the eyes and ears. The first civilian general hospital in Northern Kentucky was St. Elizabeth Hospital in Covington, founded in 1861 (see St. Elizabeth Medical Center). Operated by the Sisters of the Poor of St. Francis, a Catholic order of nuns, the hospital cared for soldiers from either side of the conflict who were injured in the Civil War. As the St. Elizabeth Medical Center, it continues and prospers today, both in Covington and from its modern medical campus in Edgewood. During the Civil War, there were several military hospitals in Covington and at least one in Newport (see Civil War Hospitals). They existed temporarily during the conflict as needs required. Another early hospital in Campbell Co. was in the Federal-style home at 185 Ridgeway Ave. in Fort Thomas; it operated just after the war for a short time. In Campbell Co. in the 1890s, Dr. J. L. Pythian had bedrooms at his office at 810 Washington Ave. in Newport. This was where the autopsy on the headless body of Pearl Bryan took place in 1896. From 1895 to 1897, Dr. J. Oliver Jenkins had a similar facility, known as the Jenkins Hospital, at Seventh and Isabella Sts. in the West End of Newport. Each structure stands today. Both offered 24-hour care in a hospital-like setting and catered primarily to a clientele who could afford to pay for it. These two facilities, known as transition hospitals, accepted emergency cases, but contagious patients were not admitted. The next hospital in the region was Speers Memorial Hospital in Dayton, the first major hospital in Campbell Co. It opened in 1897 and closed in 1973. In 1908 the Hayswood Hospital opened in Maysville. A gift of Mary V. Wilson, it operated until 1983, when it was replaced by the modern forprofit Meadowview Regional Medical Center, up on the hill south of downtown Maysville along the AA Highway. Meadowview is the largest of the hospitals out in the region away from the KentonCampbell urban area. It has 101 beds today and serves seven counties in Kentucky and Ohio. In 1914 the Booth Memorial Hospital opened along E. Second St. in Covington. It served the Covington community until 1979, when competitive forces moved it to Florence in Boone Co. The Booth facility in Covington, which began as a Salvation Army home for girls, soon converted

into the first general hospital for the Salvation Army in the United States. In 1989, after the hospital moved to Florence, it was sold to the St. Luke Hospital, and it operates as St. Luke Hospital West today. In the period between 1916 and 1919, a proposed hospital for 20th St. and Madison Ave. in Covington was much talked about, but it never got off the ground. In the 1920s, a doctor operated a so-called hospital in a large home in Erlanger, along the Dixie Highway, that only lasted a few years; and in Covington, along W. Third St., an African American medical practitioner, Dr. Dunham, ran a storefront hospital. Denied practice privileges at Booth and St. Elizabeth hospitals, he was forced to place his patients somewhere else. From 1921 to 1926, the U.S. Public Health Ser vice ran a convalescent hospital for veterans of World War I; the facility was spread over several buildings in Fort Thomas, including three former hotels, the Altamont, the Avenel, and the Shelby Arms. A medical facility that never materialized was the Effie Slaughter Memorial Hospital, planned as a Covington hospital for African American patients. Although fundraising drives were carried out during 1928, further plans for the facility never were completed. In the early 1940s, a local doctor proposed a 10-bed hospital for Fort Thomas near the intersection of Mayo and N. Fort Thomas Ave., but it never developed. At the end of World War II, the U.S. Army Air Force ran a convalescent hospital, one of seven nationally, for almost two years (1945–1946) at the Fort Thomas Military Reservation. Injured fl ight crew members were rehabilitated there. Afterward, the hospital became the first U.S. Veterans Administration (VA) Hospital for the Cincinnati region (see Veterans Administration Medical Center). The present VA hospital on Vine St. in Cincinnati opened in 1952, and by 1957 the general-hospital aspect of the VA operation in Fort Thomas had been phased out and moved to Cincinnati; a VA nursing home operates at that site in Fort Thomas today. U.S. congressman Brent Spence, the district’s representative, tried to retain and expand the VA hospital in Fort Thomas. In the late 1940s, there were plans, which never came to fruition, for as many as 750 VA hospital beds for Fort Thomas. In 1954 the St. Luke Hospital opened as a publicowned entity along Grand Ave. on the Newport– Fort Thomas boundary in Fort Thomas. The St. Luke Hospital has since expanded into Florence, by buying the Booth Hospital there, and into Falmouth, in a building once known as the Pendleton Co. Hospital, where the St. Luke Hospital runs its alcoholic detoxification unit. In recent years, this hospital has been a member of the Health Alliance of Greater Cincinnati. After Booth Hospital moved from the riverfront neighborhood of Covington to Turfway Rd. in Florence, the Salvation Army sold the business and property to the St. Luke Hospital in 1989. Today, that facility, operating as St. Luke Hospital West, is expanding. Most recently, St. Luke has sought to divest itself of its membership in the Health Alliance, as has Cincinnati’s Christ

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Hospital; both claim that they are not receiving a fair share of the resources. There also have been discussions of a merger between the St. Luke Hospital and the St. Elizabeth hospital groups. Other Northern Kentucky hospitals include the Grant Co. Hospital, now the St. Elizabeth Medical Center, Grant Co. It was founded in 1960 as a 30-bed facility under the direction of leaders such as Dr. Fred Scroggin. In Owen Co., there is the 24-bed New Horizons Medical Center, which has served Owenton and Owen Co. since 1951 under several different names and managers; and in Carrollton there is the Carroll Co. Memorial Hospital, founded in 1954 with 54 beds, which also has had several operators and owners over the years. In the early days of nursing education, nurses usually attended nursing school at the hospital where they worked. That was how hospitals developed their nursing staffs. The William Booth and St. Elizabeth hospitals in Covington each had a nursing school, as did Speers Hospital in Dayton. When nursing degree programs developed, it became easier for local colleges such as the Gateway Community and Technical College, Northern Kentucky University, and Thomas More College to handle nurses’ education. All three schools work closely with existing hospitals in that effort today. The development of private medical insurance in the 1940s and Medicare and Medicaid in the 1960s, combined with the spiraling cost of modern medical care, have prompted the emergence of cost-saving specialty hospitals in Northern Kentucky. Such facilities do not require all the equipment and space of a general hospital and therefore are able to charge lower rates. Today, on the campus of the St. Elizabeth Medical Center in Edgewood, is the HealthSouth Rehabilitation Hospital, formerly the Rehabilitation Hospital of Northern Kentucky. Not far away in Florence is the Cardinal Hill Rehabilitation Hospital, a division of the Lexington-based Cardinal Hill Hospital. Near the Cardinal facility is the Gateway Rehabilitation Hospital. Donnelly, Joseph. Newport Barracks—Kentucky’s Forgotten Military Installation. Covington, Ky.: Kenton Co. Historical Society, 1999. Poweleit, Alvin C., and James A. Schroer, eds. A Medical History of Campbell and Kenton Counties. Cincinnati: Campbell-Kenton Medical Society, 1970. ———. Medical History of Northern Kentucky. Cincinnati: Campbell-Kenton Medical Society, 1990.

Michael R. Sweeney

HOUSE, GERRY (b. March 28, 1948, Covington, Ky.). Gerald L. House, a radio personality and songwriter, is the son of Homer and Lucille Jacobs House. He grew up in Independence and graduated from Simon Kenton High School (1966) and from Eastern Kentucky University at Richmond. Nicknamed “Mr. Controversy Pants,” House is the king of FM radio in the Nashville listening market. He earns top ratings as he broadcasts over 98 WSIX and has been honored with numerous

464 HOUSTON, STANWOOD & GAMBLE COMPANY awards from the Country Music Association, the Academy of Country Music, and Billboard. His show, which includes various broadcasting sidekicks, is full of skits, comedy routines, and talk. His late mother was a frequent contributor to the on-air action and frivolity via telephone from her home in Independence. House previously worked in Los Angeles; Ithaca, N.Y.; and Jacksonville, Fla. Those stints were during his rock music years. As a songwriter, he has penned hit songs for the likes of George Strait (The Big One), Reba McEntire (Little Rock), and his neighbor LeAnn Rimes (On the Side of Angels); Randy Travis and the Oak Ridge Boys have recorded other House pieces. As a comedian, he has cut two albums, The Cheater’s Telethon and Bull, both released internationally. While in Los Angeles, House wrote for the Roseanne television show. He has hosted nationally syndicated radio shows, including Countryline USA, America’s Number Ones, and The Saturday Night House Party. As one of the nation’s top country disk jockeys, House continues to command the morning drive radio hours on weekdays with his House Foundation broadcast over the Big Six (98 WSIX). He married Allyson Faulkner (also from Northern Kentucky) in 1974. Gerry and Allyson House have one daughter, Autumn, and reside in the Music City of Nashville. The Big 98. “Gerry House.” www.wsix.com (accessed September 17, 2006). Hicks, Jack. “Maw-Maw and Her Son Chat on the Air,” KP, June 22, 1992, 1K. Kingsbury, Paul, ed. The Encyclopedia of Country Music. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998. Wikipedia. “Gerry House.” http://en.wikipedia.org (accessed September 17, 2006).

HOUSTON, STANWOOD & GAMBLE COMPANY. The sales office of the Houston, Stanwood & Gamble Company (HSG), which made steam engines, was in Cincinnati, and “Cincinnati, O” was cast into the steam chest covers of many HSG engines, but the firm’s factory was actually in Covington. The company was situated on the property once occupied by the Covington Locomotive and Manufacturing Works, between Second and Third Sts. along Philadelphia St. Beginning in 1891 and continuing through the mid1920s, HSG manufactured more than 17,000 steam engines. Testifying to their excellence is the fact that most were still running by 1927. If the number of engines in preservation are a measurement of production, HSG was a major manufacturer. Extant engines are found throughout the South, where the company sold many engines. Ranging from an 8-by-12-inch single-cylinder engine to a massive 16-by-24-inch double-cylinder model, the engines were applied to an array of tasks, not the least among them the powering of sawmills. Partners Charles R. Houston, James B. Stanwood, and James N. Gamble formed their company in 1891. Only the previous year, the Cincinnati firm of Procter & Gamble had incorporated as the Procter & Gamble Company, with James N. Gamble serving as the company’s first vice presi-

dent. He was the son of James Gamble, the founder of Procter & Gamble, who died in the same year that Stanwood, Gamble, and Houston launched their steam-engine manufacturing company. In 1897 the Covington business incorporated and became the Houston, Stanwood & Gamble Company Inc. Both Houston and Stanwood brought to the firm considerable experience gained during their employment at the Lane & Bodley Company, located directly across the Ohio River in Cincinnati. Lane & Bodley manufactured agricultural traction engines and factory engines. Initially, HSG’s main building, made of stone, had been used as a railroad car shop by the Southern Railway. In all likelihood, the stone building had been part of the Covington Locomotive works. In 1904 the acquisition of the Western Foundry Company gave HSG the ability to manufacture its own gray-iron castings. In 1905 Houston proposed the building of playground equipment for children at Covington’s Third District School to serve the neighborhoods where most of HSG’s employees resided. In November 1909, a rail line from the Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N) to the Houston, Stanwood & Gamble plant was proposed. Eventually, the L&N ran a spur from a southern point where the rails and the streets were on approximately the same level to the northern point, where the company’s buildings stood on a level lower than the main line. When World War I erupted, HSG made production changes to aid in the war effort. Early on, the factory converted to the production of engine lathes. In 1915 the Cincinnati Iron and Steel Company paid $200,000 for 200 lathes to use in the manufacture of mortar shells. At the time, HSG employed 250 workers around the clock. Even though the United States did not declare war against Germany until 1917, American merchant ships were transporting loads of American-built matériel to the Allies. After the war, in 1920, the Covington engine company’s Stanwood Smokeless Boiler, boasting a patented downdraft, was marketed and became an immediate success. Architects across the United States regarded the company’s new product as the cleanest and most economic boiler being made. Branch HSG sales offices were opened in many U.S. cities, and the firm also engaged in a lively overseas trade. HSG also built throttle-governing engines and automatic-cut-off engines. The latter featured governors that worked by inertia. Installed in the flywheel, the governors closely regulated engine speed, a refinement necessary in generating electricity. Southern sawmills relied upon the throttling engines. Most of the existing HSG engines are of the side-crank variety, but the company also produced center-crank models. The majority of the company’s extant engines have balanced valves, but the firm advertised engines with standard slide valves. From 1906 to 1927, about 10,000 boilers were manufactured at the Covington factory. In December 1924 the Stanwood Corporation replaced the Houston, Stanwood & Gamble Company Inc.

By 1927 the Stanwood Corporation was producing Stanwood Smokeless Boilers, horizontal-return tubular boilers, locomotive firebox boilers, feed water heaters, steel smokestacks, tanks, and steam engines. Around 140 workers were employed. During the first half of the 1940s, the Stanwood Corporation ceased production. “Enlarging Its Plant,” KP, December 13, 1905, 8. “Expensive Improvements,” CE, November 17, 1909, 10. “His Answer Filed,” CE, May 27, 1899, 2. “Local Plant Gets $200,000 War Order,” KP, November 27, 1915, 1. “New Machine Shop,” KP, December 8, 1914, 4. “Stanwood Boilers, Made in Covington, Have Proved Superior,” KP, April 24, 1927, 14. “Western Foundry Absorbed,” KP, July 7, 1904, 1. “Willow Run Road,” KE, October 7, 1909, 13.

Robert T. Rhode

HOWARD, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN (b. April 1860, Kentucky; d. May 4, 1918, Covington, Ky.). Benjamin Franklin Howard, who established Elks lodges (see Civic Associations) for African Americans, was raised in Covington. After he obtained a copy of the Elks initiation ritual—the organization was then all white—Howard rewrote the ritual for use by African Americans and copyrighted it. Because it was denied a charter in Kentucky, the first African American Elks Lodge (Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks of the World) was incorporated in Cincinnati. However, before the lodge was established in Cincinnati, Covington was home to its headquarters. Later, other African American lodges were created under Howard’s leadership throughout the United States, laying the foundation for the establishment of an Elks grand lodge. In June 1899 the first Grand Lodge for the African American Elks was assembled in Cincinnati, and Howard was elected the Grand Exalted Ruler. A constitution for the new Grand Lodge was drawn up and approved. Howard served as the lodge’s Grand Exalted Ruler until July 28, 1910. In 1916 the State of Kentucky finally permitted B. F. Howard to incorporate a lodge, called Ira Lodge No. 37, in Covington. Its first Exalted Ruler was Howard. After he failed to become the new Grand Exalted Ruler of the Southern Grand lodge, however, Howard left the organization but continued his fraternal involvement by joining a new organization in Cincinnati, the Fraternal Mutual Benevolent Association. Howard, the founding father of the first African American Elks lodge in the United States, lived in Covington until his death in 1918 and was buried in Covington’s Linden Grove Cemetery. “Black Elks Founder Honored with Marker,” KP, November 27, 1995, 2K. “Covington Officials Rededicate City Park,” CE, August 30, 1998, C1B. Day, Michele. “Lodged in History, Elks to Host National Ceremony Here for Black Leader Ben Howard,” KP, October 16, 1987, 7K. Fisher, John C. K. “Elks in Covington Honor Black Chapter’s Founder,” KP, October 19, 1987, 14K.

HUBBARD, HARLAN Harris, Theodore H. H. “The History of AfroAmerican Elkdom and Benjamin Franklin (B. F.) Howard in Covington, Kentucky, 1889–1918,” NKH 1, no. 2 (Spring–Summer 1994): 43–44. “Park Honors Elks Group Founder,” CE, December 2, 1995, C3.

Theodore H. H. Harris

HOWARD, FRANCIS W. (b. June 21, 1867, Columbus, Ohio; d. January 18, 1944, Covington, Ky.). The fift h bishop of the Diocese of Covington (see Roman Catholics), Francis W. Howard, was the son of Francis Howard, a grocery store operator, and Catherine Sullivan Howard. Francis W. Howard was educated in the Catholic schools of Columbus, Ohio. He studied for the priesthood at Mount St. Mary Seminary in Cincinnati and was ordained by Bishop John Watterson for the Diocese of Columbus on June 16, 1891, at St. Joseph Cathedral in that city. In 1898 Howard received permission to attend graduate school at Columbia University in New York City. Howard spent many years as a parish priest in the Diocese of Columbus. He was stationed at Jackson, Ohio, and St. Joseph Cathedral in Columbus. For a time, he also served as chaplain of St. Francis Hospital and St. Anthony Hospital in Columbus. He was the organizing pastor of Holy Rosary Parish in Columbus. He supervised the construction of a permanent Holy Rosary Church in 1915 and established a parish elementary and high school. In 1901 Howard organized the first Columbus Diocesan School Board. In the following year, he participated in the establishment of the National Catholic Education Association (NCEA). For the next 42 years, he held offices in the NCEA: he was secretary general from 1903 to 1928, president from 1928 to 1936, and a member of the Advisory Board until his death in 1944. In 1923 he received word from the Vatican that he had been appointed the fift h bishop of Covington, and he was consecrated a bishop on July 15, 1923, at St. Mary Cathedral in Covington, by Archbishop Henry Moeller of Cincinnati. Howard led the Diocese of Covington through the years of the Great Depression, the anti-Catholic bigotry of the Ku Klux Klan (the 1920s), the devastating flood of 1937, World War II, and the initial development of the suburbs in Northern Kentucky. He greatly expanded the activities of Catholic social ser vices in the diocese and accelerated the growth of the church in the mountain counties served by the diocese. During his tenure as bishop, he established new parishes in Fort Thomas (St. Catherine of Sienna), Fort Wright, Hazard, Paintsville, and Southgate. Howard also appointed the first resident pastors at St. Leo Parish in Versailles, Ky., and St. Stephen Parish in Himlerville (Beauty). In 1943 he began organizing the Our Savior parish and school in Covington for the African American community of Northern Kentucky. Education was one of Howard’s primary concerns. He worked enthusiastically to improve and expand the Catholic school system, overseeing the establishment of several central high schools in the diocese: Covington Catholic High School,

Covington Latin School, Lexington Latin School, and Newport Central Catholic High School. In addition, Howard transformed Villa Madonna College (see Thomas More College), established in 1921 by the Sisters of St. Benedict of Covington, into a diocesan institution under the direction of the three major religious orders of women in Northern Kentucky. Howard’s philosophy of education was at odds with the general thinking of the day. He strongly believed that parents were the primary teachers of their children and that secular authorities should not interfere with this basic right. Consolidation of small rural schools, standardization in education, the expansion of curriculum outside the classical disciplines, and secularization were all rejected by Howard. His education motto summed up his thoughts on curriculum: “teach few things, but teach them well.” He also rejected the idea of state funding for Catholic schools, believing that any such aid would come with strings attached and would thus compromise the educational standards of the parish schools. Howard died in 1944 in Covington. Following a funeral mass at St. Mary Cathedral, he was laid to rest at St. Mary Cemetery in Fort Mitchell. Messenger, special memorial ed., 1944, 15–18. Tenkotte, Paul A., David E. Schroeder, and Thomas S. Ward. To Be Catholic and American in Northern, Central, and Appalachian Kentucky: The Diocese of Covington, 1853–2003. Forthcoming.

David E. Schroeder

HOWARD, ULIE (b. June 22, 1874, Ghent, Ky.; d. October 17, 1947, Fort Mitchell, Ky.). Lawyer and politician Ulie J. Howard was born in Carroll Co., the son of John and Mary Scott Howard. His early education was in the local public schools. He graduated from Ghent College in Ghent and apprenticed law in the Carrollton office of Judge Joseph A. Donaldson. In 1894 Howard began law school at Centre College, in Danville, Ky. He passed the Kentucky bar exam in 1895 and set up practice in Covington. In 1901 he formed a partnership with Harvey J. Myers Jr., to create the law firm of Myers and Howard, which soon became one of the most prominent in Northern Kentucky. Howard married Carrie Brent Alexander on April 21, 1897, and they had only one child, Charlton Alexander Howard, who was born on December 23, 1900. The family lived at 312 E. Second St., in Covington. Ulie’s wife, Carrie, died on November 9, 1917. Ulie married a widow, Aileen Brown Southgate, in 1918, and they made their home in Fort Mitchell. When Harvey Myers Jr. died on July 1, 1933, Ulie created a new partnership with his son, Charlton Alexander “Alex” Howard. They opened an office in the Coppin’s Department Store building in Covington at the corner of Seventh St. and Madison Ave. In 1927 Ulie Howard was elected Kenton Co. commonwealth attorney. His son became a Kentucky state senator but died young in 1947. Later that same year, Ulie J. Howard died of a cerebral hemorrhage at his Fort Mitchell home. Both he and his son were buried in Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell.

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Johnson, E. Polk. A History of Kentucky and Kentuckians. New York: Lewis, 1912. Rootsweb. “Ulie J. Howard.” www.rootsweb.com (accessed December 31, 2005).

HUBBARD, ANNA WONDER (b. September 7, 1902, Grand Rapids, Mich.; d. May 3, 1986, Payne Hollow, Trimble Co., Ky.). Anna Hubbard and her husband, Harlan Hubbard, an artist and writer, were married for 43 years and lived a deliberately simple, self-sufficient life. Anna was born in Michigan, the daughter of John and Nellie Ross Eikenhout. She graduated with honors from Ohio State University in Columbus and taught French and German at Hope College in Holland, Mich., for two years before moving to Cincinnati to take a position as a fine arts librarian at the Cincinnati Public Library. She met Harlan Hubbard there. Anna Hubbard was a skilled pianist and cellist and an avid reader in three foreign languages. She was also reserved and quiet like her husband. The Hubbards were married in 1943 and lived for a short time in a tiny studio behind Harlan’s mother’s home in Fort Thomas. In 1944 they moved to Brent, along the Ohio River in Campbell Co., and lived in a tent on the riverbank while Harlan Hubbard built a shantyboat. They lived for two years in the shantyboat before traveling in it downriver to Louisiana. Their journey took five years to complete. After their return to Fort Thomas, the Hubbards moved to Payne Hollow, a remote, wooded valley by the Ohio River in Trimble Co., Ky., nine miles downriver from Madison, Ind. It was a place they had fallen in love with on their shantyboat trip. They built their own rustic home and boat and grew their own food, canning fruits and vegetables for the winter months. In the evenings the Hubbards wrote in their journals, read to each other by candlelight, or played music together. Anna Hubbard was a gracious hostess to visitors at Payne Hollow. She died at age 84 in 1986, and her ashes were buried along the path leading to her home at Payne Hollow. “Anna Hubbard, Woman of Quiet Strength, Dies,” KP, May 6, 1986, 1K–2K. Cunningham, Mia. Anna Hubbard: Out of the Shadows. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 2001. Hubbard, Harlan. Payne Hollow: Life on the Fringe of Society. Frankfort, Ky.: Gnomon Press, 1974. ———. Payne Hollow Journal. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1996.

Bill Thomas

HUBBARD, HARLAN (b. January 4, 1900, Bellevue, Ky.; d. January 16, 1988, Madison, Ind.). Harlan Hubbard was a writer, an accomplished musician, and an artist who produced many paintings of the Northern Kentucky countryside and of riverboats and shantyboats on the Ohio River. He is often referred to as the Henry David Thoreau of Kentucky. Hubbard wrote a number of autobiographical books, including Shantyboat and Payne Hollow.

466 HUBER, JUSTIN Hubbard was born in a house on Grandview Ave. in Bellevue, Campbell Co., the son of Frank G. and Rose Swingle Hubbard. His father died when Harlan was seven years old, and a short time later, he and his mother moved to an apartment in New York City, to be closer to Hubbard’s two older brothers. Hubbard finished high school in New York and turned down a scholarship offer from Cornell University. Instead, he attended the National Academy of Design in New York for two years. A visit to the Metropolitan Museum of Art was the turning point in his life. After viewing paintings of the great postimpressionist artists, he wrote, “I grasped the meaning of Cezanne, Gauguin, and Van Gogh, and was never the same afterwards.” Hubbard returned to his brother’s art studio after his visit to the museum and completed his first oil painting. This was the moment he decided to be an artist. In 1921 Hubbard and his mother returned to Northern Kentucky. His mother rented an apartment in Fort Thomas, and Hubbard went to work doing odd jobs for builders in the community. Rose Hubbard found a job working for a newspaper in Cincinnati, and soon she and her son purchased a lot on Highland Ave. in Fort Thomas. Harlan Hubbard designed and built their home himself. It was patterned after an old farmhouse he had seen while walking in the country. The Hubbards’ home is located near Ruth Moyer School. About the year 1929, Hubbard began to visit the little town of Brent, Ky., on the Ohio River. He stored his canoe there and eventually constructed a crude art studio near the river. He painted many river scenes while he was in Brent. Between 1936 and 1937, he moved his Fort Thomas studio to a hill overlooking the Ohio River and painted more than 100 landscapes of Campbell Co. A year or two later, Hubbard built another studio behind his mother’s home in Fort Thomas and began to paint there. His brick studio now sits on the edge of the Highland Hills Park. Hubbard’s personality was well suited for the often solitary nature of landscape painting. His landscapes depict a sense of stability and permanence in nature, both of which are abiding themes throughout his work. Hubbard married Anna Eikenhout (see Anna Hubbard), a Cincinnati librarian, in 1943, a few months before his mother died. The couple went on hiking trips in New England and Michigan and afterward lived in the studio behind the family home in Fort Thomas. During winter 1944 they moved to Brent and lived in a tent along the bank of the Ohio River while Hubbard constructed a shantyboat. The Hubbards lived on the river in Brent for the next two years in their 10-by-16-foot shantyboat. Hubbard rented out his Fort Thomas home in order to have a source of income. The Hubbards spent the next five years traveling down the Ohio and the Mississippi rivers to the bayou country of Louisiana in their shantyboat. Before returning home, they sold their shantyboat, bought an old car, and took a 10-month tour of the western United States. Hubbard wrote the book Shantyboat during this trip. The couple returned

to Fort Thomas in 1952 and lived in Hubbard’s studio for a short time before deciding that the city was losing some of its small-town appeal—that is, it was becoming too civilized. The Hubbards decided to pack their car and trailer and move to Payne Hollow on the Ohio River in Trimble Co., Ky. They had spent a summer at Payne Hollow on the first leg of their journey by shantyboat to Louisiana. Payne Hollow was so isolated that it could not be reached by car. The Hubbards had to walk down a half-mile path from a farm on the top of the hill to reach their new home. Visitors either walked the same path or arrived by boat. The Hubbards purchased seven acres in Payne Hollow and lived there for the remainder of their lives. Hubbard built a small home on a hillside above the river. The dominant feature of the house was the large window overlooking the river. The walls, ceilings, and doors were all wood. The main room served as a living room, a kitchen, a dining room, and a bedroom. Hubbard also dug a cistern, made a johnboat, and planted a vegetable garden near the river. He built a studio and workshop on the steep hill next to the house, and there he created paintings and fashioned woodcuts. He also constructed a goat house next to the vegetable garden and a tiny guesthouse on a hill on the other side of a creek. The Hubbards grew their own food, made their own furniture (except for a grand piano that Anna played each evening), and lived without electricity or running water. Hubbard did most of the heavy work and would take time each day to write in his journal and paint. In the evenings, the Hubbards would read to each other or play music together. Hubbard played the violin and viola. Although he was an introvert and a difficult person to get to know, Harlan Hubbard was a deep thinker who revealed himself in his writing and paintings. He was a gifted writer with a phi losopher’s mind. Hubbard’s accomplishments as a landscape painter continue, even today, to build his stature in the world of art. His art depicted his life and the world around him; he painted the small towns, hills, valleys, and rivers he loved. It has taken many years for Hubbard’s artwork to be appreciated. His entries for the annual exhibit at the Cincinnati Art Museum were rejected nine years in a row, and his paintings from the period 1920– 1940 were stored at his studio on Highland Ave. in Fort Thomas for almost 30 years. Today, his paintings are on exhibit at the Behringer-Crawford Museum in Covington and at Hanover College in Madison, Ind. Anna Hubbard died in 1986, and Harlan Hubbard died of cancer two years later at age 88. He died in the living room of Dr. Robert Canida’s home in Madison, Ind., and his ashes were buried along the pathway leading to the Payne Hollow home. There is a stone marker on the rock at the gravesite, carved by Mike Skop, a retired art professor at Northern Kentucky University. The carving shows a simple heart with the names Anna and Harlan inscribed inside it. Berry, Wendell. Harlan Hubbard: Life and Work. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1990.

Gateley, Joe, and Faye Gately. Interview by Bill Thomas, October 13, 1999, Fort Thomas, Ky. Hubbard, Harlan. Payne Hollow: Life on the Fringe of Society. Frankfort, Ky.: Gnomon Press, 1974. ———. Payne Hollow Journal. Lexington: Univ. Press of Kentucky, 1996. Skop, Mike, and Kathy Skop. Interview by Bill Thomas, October 22, 1999, Fort Thomas, Ky.

Bill Thomas

HUBER, JUSTIN (b. November 23, 1892, Covington, Ky.; d. September 8, 1969, Grayson, Ky.). Orchestra conductor and composer Edward Justin Huber was the son of Henry and Elizabeth Jane Davis Huber. His father was a barber, and the family lived in Covington. Having a good ear for music, Justin had mastered playing the drums by age four. He was regarded as a child prodigy in music. As a youth he appeared in local vaudev ille acts, performing the cakewalk at such places as the Ludlow Lagoon (see Lagoon Amusement Park) and the Covington Opera House. In high school he was a member of various musical groups and played the calliope on Ohio River steamboats during the summer. There were very few instruments he could not play. Huber married a cousin from Ohio, Josephine Eckenroth, on March 15, 1911, in Covington. Soon afterward he published a “catchy” Indian ragtime piece entitled “Fire Water.” His employment was as a secretary for a railroad and at the Covington post office. In 1919 he was a pianist for a local jazz orchestra—admirers referred to his “wicked fingers.” In the early 1920s, Huber and his family moved to the Hyde Park area of Cincinnati, where he formed an orchestra. First appearing in 1922, his orchestra played in many places, including Chester Park in Cincinnati; Horseshoe Gardens in Bellevue; Buckeye Lake, east of Columbus, Ohio; the Ritz Hotel in New York City; the opening of the Florentine Room at the Gibson Hotel in Cincinnati; and various dance palaces throughout Pennsylvania. In addition, orchestra performances were broadcast over WLW radio in Cincinnati. Generally, the orchestra consisted of 10 to 12 members and it played for both round and square dancing. It performed at many corporate functions as after-dinner entertainment. By 1938 the grueling demands of his travels had caught up with Huber. He disbanded his orchestra and went into the coal business, investing in coal mines. Over the years Huber’s musical groups went by various names, depending on the occasion and the type of music requested—symphony or jazz. Mainly, they were known as Justin Huber’s Orchestra (early 1920s), the Kentucky Colonels’ Orchestra (late 1920s), Huber’s Orchestra (1930s), Justin Huber’s 10 Piece Orchestra (1930s), Justin Huber and His Original 11 Piece Recording Orchestra (1930s), and, in New York City, Justin Huber and His Cincinnati Society Orchestra (mid 1930s). Throughout his life Huber also composed music, some of which was published, but none of his music sold in any significant volume. His wife, Josephine, died in 1955, and afterward Huber set up

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a recording studio in Blue Ash, Ohio. Following a short unsuccessful second marriage, he closed the studio and moved to Charleston, W.Va., to sell pianos at a music store. He spent the last years of his life in Grayson as the music director for radio station WGOH-A.M. Several times each broadcast day, Huber presented live five-minute piano interludes. In Grayson he married for a third time in 1961. A lifelong smoker, Huber died of emphysema at age 77 in 1969 and was buried at Highland Cemetery in Fort Mitchell, next to his parents. Edward Justin Huber Microfi lm Collection, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. A twomicrofi lm set. “Justin Huber,” CE, September 9, 1969, 33. “Kentucky Jazz Artist,” KP, November 6, 1919, 1. Kline, Elinor J. “Edward Justin Huber (1892–1969),” microfi lm, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. “Young Covington Composer,” KP, December 16, 1911, 3.

In 1951 he became a director in the Mason Co. Fund, the forerunner of the United Appeal agency in the county. Humphrey’s wife, whom he married June 16, 1920, was Allie Young, from Bath Co., Ky. They had two sons and also raised a foster daughter and three nephews. Humphrey died in Maysville at his home at 614 E. Third St. in 1958 and was buried in the Washington Baptist Cemetery in Washington, Ky. Calvert, Jean, and John Klee. Maysville, Kentucky: From Past to Present in Pictures. Maysville, Ky.: Mason Co. Museum, 1983. “Long Useful Life of City’s Leading Colored Citizen Ends,” Maysville Public Ledger, September 22, 1958, 1. Stout, Louis. Shadows of the Past. Lexington, Ky.: Host Communications, 2006. “W. H. Humphrey Former Head at Fee, Dies,” Maysville Daily Independent, September 22, 1958, 1. “William Humphrey an Honor to His Native City, Maysville, and Kentucky,” Maysville Public Daily Ledger, June 15, 1904, 2.

Mary Ellen Lucas

HUMPHREY, WILLIAM (b. December 24, 1879, Mason Co., Ky.; d. September 20, 1958, Maysville, Ky.). William Humphrey, a well-known African American teacher, was the son of George and Annetta Berry Humphrey. Professor Humphrey, as he became known, began his academic career at age 13 while working as a school janitor at the colored school in Maysville. He finished 10 grades of school there in 6 years. He then attended Berea College in Berea for five years, working as a headwaiter at the same time. At Berea College, he completed his last two years of high school and three years of college, earning his BA in 1904. A year of graduate study at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass., followed, but health problems made it necessary for him to return to Maysville for a period of rest. He later earned an MA from Ohio State University in Columbus and a BS at Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Ala. At this time, Humphrey was asked to work with African Americans in Mason Co., and he helped to rebuild the county’s colored school at Mayslick, which had burned. His teaching career began there. The following year, he took a teaching position at the old colored school in Maysville, where he served as principal from 1907 to 1930. In 1930 the John G. Fee Industrial High School was built on E. Fourth St. in Maysville, and Humphrey served as its principal for a total of 42 years. Under his direction it became a four-year high school for African Americans. Through his influence, the integration that took place in the late 1950s within the Maysville schools was accomplished more smoothly, even though he had retired in 1949. In 1930 Humphrey was chosen as president of the Kentucky Negro Education Association. Over the years, he served as a deacon and in every official lay position in Maysville’s Bethel Baptist Church. From March 1950, when the Maysville Municipal Housing Commission was established to oversee the city’s 100-unit low-cost housing program, until his death, Humphrey was part of the four-member governing body of the commission.

HUNT, FRANK WILLIAMS, CAPTAIN (b. December 16, 1861, Newport, Ky.; d. November 26, 1906, Goldfield, Nev.). Frank Williams Hunt, who became governor of Idaho, was the son of Thomas Benjamin Hunt, a captain in the Union Army during the Civil War, and Eugenia A. Montmolin Hunt. Frank Hunt attended Newport schools. It was not academics, though, but adventure that interested Hunt; he was a pioneer in the tradition of Simon Kenton and Daniel Boone. In 1888 Hunt headed west in search of both adventure and business opportunities. He settled in Idaho, where he invested in the mining industry. Idaho territory in 1888 included not only what is today Idaho but also today’s states of Montana and Wyoming. The Idaho Territory, formed during the gold rush, was governed by an appointee of the U.S. president. In 1889 the territorial political leaders met in Boise and drafted a state constitution, which was adopted by territorial leaders on August 6, 1889, and approved by voters in the territory. On July 3, 1890, Idaho became the 43rd state in the union. Whether or not Hunt was among the 68 leaders who drew up the constitution, he was soon involved in Idaho state politics. In 1893 he was elected to the Idaho state senate. On November 10, 1896, he married Ruth Maynard, the daughter of John W. Maynard of Boise. When the Spanish-American War (see National Guard, Spanish-American War) began in 1898, Hunt joined the army with the rank of 1st lieutenant in the 1st Idaho Volunteers. His unit, which shipped to the Philippines, took part in the capture of Manila on August 13, 1898. After the Spanish surrender, Hunt stayed in the Philippines to battle rebels who were angry that the United States had not granted them independence. Hunt ended his military ser vice as a captain and returned to Idaho to resume politics and mining. In 1900 Hunt ran as a Democratic candidate for governor in the state, which was heavily Republican, and won with 50.8 percent of the votes. He

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was sworn in as Idaho’s fift h governor on January 7, 1901. The term was for two years. It was during his administration that the Academy of Idaho at Pocatello, the forerunner of Idaho State University, was established. As governor, Hunt sought to attract business from the east to Idaho in order to gain more jobs for the people. He also supported the 8-hour workday when 10 hours was a common working shift. Two years later, he sought reelection but was defeated by Republican John T. Morrison. After his defeat, Hunt settled in Emmett, Idaho, and continued in the mining business. He later was named vice president of the Dewey Combination Lease Company, which operated mines in Goldfield, Nev. He also continued his involvement in Idaho statewide politics. In 1904 he was a state delegate to the national Democratic convention. Hunt died from pneumonia in 1906 at age 44 and was buried at the Masonic Cemetery in Boise, Idaho. Purvis, Thomas L., ed. Newport, Kentucky: A Bicentennial History. Newport, Ky.: Otto Zimmerman, 1996. Reis, Jim. “Fame Found Out West—Newport Native Served as Fift h Governor of Idaho,” KP, December 1, 2003, 5K.

Jim Reis

HUNT, ROBERT WOOLSTON (b. December 9, 1838, Fallsington, Bucks Co., Pa.; d. July 11, 1923, Chicago, Ill.). Metallurgist Robert W. Hunt received his early education in the schools of Covington and went on to study analytical chemistry in Philadelphia. In 1860 he established the first analytical laboratory associated with a steelworks in the United States. During the Civil War, he was the commandant of Camp Curtin in Harrisburg, Pa., with the rank of captain in the Union Army. It was the largest training camp of the war; almost 300,000 Union troops passed through it. After the war, Hunt assisted George Fritz in building the first Bessemer steelworks for the Cambria Iron Company at Johnstown, Pa. Hunt went on to develop Bessemer mills in Michigan and in Troy, N.Y., where he became associated with the nation’s oldest engineering school, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. He became a member of that school’s board of trustees in 1886, and in 1888 he started the Robert W. Hunt Company to apply demanding standards of inspection and testing throughout the steel and iron industry; the company he founded continues today, based in Pittsburgh. Hunt received several engineering awards, including the John Fritz Medal in 1912 and the Washington Award in 1923. He contributed greatly to the literature of his field of research. A personal friend of Andrew Carnegie, Hunt was the first person in modern history to be awarded an honorary degree by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. His estate endowed the Hunt Professorship in Metallurgical Engineering at the school. Hunt died at his home in Chicago in 1923 and was buried at the Oakwood Cemetery in Troy, N.Y. “Captain Robert W. Hunt,” NYT, July 12, 1923, 17. Illinois Death Certificate No. 6019591, for the year 1923. Oakwood Cemetery Records, Troy, N.Y.

468 HUNTER, JACOB Rensselaer. “Robert Woolston Hunt,” in the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Hall of Fame. www.rpi .edu (accessed October 28, 2006). Wilson, James Grant, and John Fiske, eds. Appleton’s Cyclopedia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton, 1894.

HUNTER, JACOB (b. ca. 1760, Rowan Co, N.C.; d. March 1856, Owen Co., Ky.). Jacob Hunter was an early pioneer and explorer of the area that became Owen Co., and that is where he settled. In 1780 he was one of the first to fi le for land in the Owen Co. area, according to Virginia Land Office records. He was a private in the Revolutionary War, in the Virginia lines, and in 1833 he received a pension for his ser vice. Hunter was married three times. He died in 1856 in Owen Co. He was originally buried at the Hunter Cemetery on Big Twin, but his remains were moved to the Owenton International Order of Odd Fellows Cemetery in 1983. Houchens, Mariam Sidebottom. History of Owen County: “Sweet Owen.” Louisville, Ky.: Standard, 1976.

HUNTER’S BOTTOM. This 10-mile stretch of Carroll Co. bottomland from Locust Creek to Canip Creek was named for Joshua Hunter, who put his rough cabin here and claimed a preemption from Fincastle Co., Va. A long portage trail angling south-southeast from Tippecanoe in northwestern Indiana crossed the Ohio River near Madison, Ind.; this trail led through Hunter’s Bottom. There, the first surveyors and settlers found much evidence of American Indian seasonal residence on the banks of the Ohio. The Potawatomi may have been only the latest tribe to inhabit this fertile land; some of the artifacts—arrowheads, ax fragments, bones, shards—trace back to the Adena and Mississippian era several hundred years before any white man arrived. French explorers and traders had also passed through the area. Among the earliest surveys entered in the Hunter’s Bottom area were several Fincastle and Kentucky Co. entries: 3,500 acres by John May, 800 acres by Thomas Brown, and 1,700 acres by John Saunders. None of these became permanent settlers. In 1797 Cornelius Hoagland (see Hoagland Family) and his brother-in-law Charles Hoff, both Revolutionary War officers from old-line Dutch families of New Amsterdam (New York City) and New Jersey, entered surveys for 1,000 acres each and cleared some land. But it was not until 1801 that Hoagland brought his family down the Ohio River to settle in the upper stretch of Hunter’s Bottom. The Hoagland children and descendants dominated society in the eastern end of Hunter’s Bottom until well into the 20th century. John Conway and his wife Mary Elizabeth Hopwood came to Hunter’s Bottom in 1803 from Fauquier Co., Va. They settled on 300 acres at the Canip Creek end of Hunter’s Bottom and raised seven children. John Conway, one of the children, married Emily Hoagland, and his brother Peter Conway married Mary Caroline Hoagland Kent, thus cementing family ties between the two ends of Hunter’s Bottom. Peter and Mary Caroline Con-

way settled near the mouth of Locust Creek, and their son George built a large farmhouse that stands today just to the west, owned by Rudy Conway, a descendant. In 1803 Samuel Fearn (see Fearn Family) moved his extensive family from Bourbon Co. to Hunter’s Bottom. The Fearns purchased 1,000 acres straddling what became the border between Carroll and Trimble counties at Spillman Rd. By 1850 the Fearn family had built a large gristmill at Milton, dabbled in real estate on both sides of the Ohio River, and constructed large brick houses. After the Civil War, the next generation of Fearns operated a packet steamship business, with the Maggie Harper serving Louisville, Madison, Carrollton, and the Kentucky River. The Fearns also were founders of the Hunter’s Bottom Turnpike Company. The original road through Hunter’s Bottom ran on the bank of the Ohio River and was annually flooded, making transport difficult. So the residents moved the road several hundred feet south to the position of Ky. Rt. 36, paying the expenses through subscriptions to the Turnpike Company. The Fearns eventually built more large brick homes. Five gracious homes in Hunter’s Bottom were attributed to the Fearn family, including Fearn Hill, on the National Register, the Sam Fearn place, and Richwood, which served as an upscale riding camp and is now a bread and breakfast. Up on the hillside above Hunter’s Bottom, the Taylor family dated from the earliest settlement period. Several branches of this family remain in the area. Cornelius Deweese, Francis Giltner, and William White appeared at Hunter’s Bottom in the 1820s. They settled in the middle section of the bottoms on old Hoagland lands. William White married into the Hoagland family. The Deweese place was remarkable for its three-story brick facade, its iron grille upper porch, and its large, formal pear and apple orchards. Cornelius Deweese, although not a Methodist, donated a lot on the northwest corner of his farm where the Hopewell Methodist Church was built. Several German immigrants arrived at Hunter’s Bottom in the 1840s. The Johann Obertödler family was already in residence in 1848, when the Friedrich Detmer family moved from Rising Sun, Ind. A German-speaking Reform congregation was established and met at the Hopewell Methodist Church until 1895; in that year the Methodists moved to Locust. The following year, the families of Friedrich Detmer, Heinrich Hotfi l, Johann Obertödler (Obertate), Fred Thiemann, Frank Thiemann, and Karl Walkenhorst formed a German Evangelical Protestant congregation and built a church next to the Hopewell School. Residing among the landowners at Hunter’s Bottom before the Civil War were a number of slaves, at the most 8 to 10 slaves on a large plantation. Relations between slave owners and their slaves varied widely. Two cases—Adam Crosswhite and Richard Daly—became part of the larger American history. Hunter’s Bottom School, the earliest permanent school built in Carroll Co., was constructed in 1846 as a one-room log structure on one-quarter

acre of land donated by William White. When the common school system was organized in 1867, Hunter’s Bottom School was designated as School District No. 12. Most of the early teachers at Hunter’s Bottom were male. The Hunter’s Bottom school district was consolidated when a two-story brick structure was built at Locust in 1910; the children were then bused from the river bottoms to Locust. After the 1963 consolidation of the western area into the combined Carrollton and Carroll Co. school system, both Hunter’s Bottom and Locust children were bused into town. Even though steamboats still ran along the Ohio and would stop at private and public landings as late as the 1930s to take people to Louisville, railroads had made such economic impact that the great days of steamboats were finished. By 1900 many of the old settler families began moving out of Hunter’s Bottom, to be replaced by new people. Carrollton Democrat, May 8, 1884. Family Bible of Emma McClaran Fearn, in possession of Larry Douglas Smith of Louisville, Ky. Gentry, Mary Ann. A History of Carroll County. Madison, Ind.: Coleman, 1984. Hammon, Neal O. Early Kentucky Land Records, 1773–1780. Louisville, Ky.: Filson Club, 1992. Smith, Larry Douglas. “The Fearns of Hunters Bottom, Kentucky,” Kentucky Historical Society, Frankfort, Ky.

Diane Perrine Coon

HUNTINGTON BANK. P. W. Huntington began working as a messenger for a Columbus, Ohio, bank in 1853, at age 17. He stayed with the bank for 13 years and then in 1866 opened his own bank, named P. W. Huntington and Company; however, in 1905 he incorporated it as the Huntington National Bank of Columbus. In 1966 Huntington Bank created its International Banking Division, and in 1972 it became the first bank in the United States to offer 24-hour banking. Huntington Bank is currently one of the nation’s 40 largest multibank holding companies. It has more than 8,000 employees at 350 offices in eight states, most of them in Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and West Virginia. With the advent of interstate banking in the 1980s, Huntington Bank moved into the Northern Kentucky market, acquiring Commonwealth Trust Bank Corp., parent of the old Covington Trust Company, in 1986. Covington Trust had its headquarters for many years at the northeast corner of Sixth St. and Madison Ave. in Covington. Huntington Bank currently operates 49 banking offices with about 800 employees in Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky. Eleven of the bank’s offices are located in the two counties of Boone and Kenton. The bank is an avid supporter of many local charities. Huntington. “Huntington Customer Ser vices: Community Affairs.” http:www.huntington.com (accessed April 11, 2007).

HURRELL, GEORGE EDWARD (b. June 1, 1904, Covington, Ky., d. May 17, 1992, Los Angeles, Calif.). George Hurrell, the photographer who

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set the standard for the glamorized publicity stills in Hollywood, was the son of Edward Eugene and Anna M. Hurrell. His father was a shoemaker; his mother was born in Baden-Baden, Germany. While some sources list Cincinnati as George Hurrell’s birthplace, Hurrell himself clearly states in correspondence that he was born in Covington, Ky. He was raised in Cincinnati until age five, when the family moved to Chicago. At about age eight, Hurrell became interested in painting and drawing. He learned to use a camera to photograph and study his own paintings. When he was 16, in 1920, he attended the Art Institute of Chicago on a scholarship, but he soon found that working as a photographer provided a needed income. In 1925 Hurrell moved to Laguna Beach, Calif., and was commissioned to photograph painters and their paintings. He had more success, however, photographing the society crowd. He moved to Los Angeles in 1927 and worked briefly with the famous photographer Edward Steichen, who influenced him to pursue celebrity portraiture. Named the “Grand Seignior of the Hollywood Portrait,” Hurrell produced images of the Golden Age in the 1930s and early 1940s. His most famous ones pictured Humphrey Bogart, James Cagney, Joan Crawford, Betty Davis, Clark Gable, Greta Garbo, Jean Harlow, Rita Hayworth, Katherine Hepburn, Ramon Navarro, Tyrone Power, Jane Russell, Norma Shearer, and Mae West. His art background as a painter enhanced his instinctive awareness of how to utilize exposure, composition, and contrast in his photographs to present his subjects best, thereby gaining their complete confidence. The unmistakable Hurrell look was achieved by his control of a movable boom light, combined with key lighting at high angles, to create lush and dramatic images that were sensual yet spiritual. Hurrell’s classic glamour Hollywood portraits were discovered by a later generation when they were exhibited at New York’s Museum of Modern Art in 1965. Soon, exhibitions in other major museums throughout the world created an ongoing revival of interest in his early works. Numerous art books were published of his glamorized images, placing him in the spotlight for a second career, during which he photographed celebrities such as Warren Beatty, Natalie Cole, Liza Minnelli, Paul Newman, Robert Redford, Sharon Stone, and John Travolta. After 60 years as the most legendary glamourportrait photographer of the stars, George Hurrell died of cancer at age 87 in 1992. His portraits of Hollywood luminaries created the idealized images of movie icons from the Golden Age that are highly valued and avidly collected today. A documentary film entitled Legends in Light: The Photography of George Hurrell (directed by Carl Colby) premiered on the TNT cable television network in 1995. “George Hurrell,” vertical fi les, Kenton Co. Public Library, Covington, Ky. Keating, Michael E. “Looking at Stars for Your Closeups,” CE, January 27, 2007, 1E. Vieira, Mark A., and George Hurrell. Hurrell’s Hollywood Portraits: The Chapman Collection. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1997.

John Schlipp

HUTCHERSON, JOSH (b. October 12, 1992, Union, Ky.). Joshua Ryan Hutcherson, one of the nation’s up-and-coming child actors, is steadily obtaining larger movie roles. The son of Chris and Christina Michelle Fightmaster Hutcherson, Josh grew up with his younger brother, Connor, in Northern Kentucky. Josh’s interest in acting prompted him to sign a management contract with the Heyman Talent Agency in Cincinnati. Afterward, he traveled to Los Angeles, accompanied by his mother, to pursue an acting career. The young actor has made guest appearances in a variety of television shows: Jimmy Kimmel Live, Justice League, Line of Fire, The Division, and ER. His movie career includes Miracle Dogs (2003), American Splendor (2003), Motorcross Kids (2004), The Polar Express (2004), Zathura: A Space Adventure (2006), RV (2006), Bridge to Terabithia (2007), Firehouse Dog (2007), Winged Creatures (2008), Journey to the Center of the Earth 3-D (2008), and Cirque Du Freak (scheduled for release in 2009). Hutcherson has won two Young Artist Awards: in 2004 for “Leading Young Actor in a TV Movie, Miniseries or Special” for his role in Wilder Days (TNT) and in 2008 for “Leading Young Actor in a Feature Film,” for his role in Bridge to Terabithia (Buena Vista Pictures). Hutcherson, Josh. E-mail to Mary Texter, November 22, 2005. The Internet Movie Database. www.imdb.com (accessed December 12, 2005).

Mary Texter

HUTCHINSON, CONRAD, JR., “HUTCH,” WARRANT OFFICER (b. October 25, 1919, Bloomsburg, Pa.; d. March 5, 1996, Grambling, La.). Conrad Hutchinson, an innovator in music for marching bands, was the son of Conrad and Helen Hutchinson. He earned his BA in music education from Tuskegee Institute in Macon Co., Ala. During World War II he served in the U.S. Army’s Command Headquarters Band in Calcutta, India, and achieved the rank of warrant officer, junior grade. Hutchinson was awarded the Good Conduct Medal as well as the China, Burma, India Theater Medal, with five battle stars. In 1945 he became music director for the Lincoln-Grant Schools in Covington. It was while Hutchinson was at the LincolnGrant Schools that he initiated marching to contemporary music; the result was the distinctive step style of marching that is commonly performed by many African American marching bands today. Hutchinson would march the high school band around the schoolyard in this style, never missing any of the musical notes. Ever the creative mentor, Hutchinson developed a lasting relationship between his students and their music. He also developed popu lar school dance and jazz bands, and a number of his students went on to play professionally in clubs in and around Cincinnati. While living in Covington, Hutchinson resided on W. 10th Street, on E. Bush St. and on Russell St. When Hutchinson was not conducting the school bands, he worked for Cincinnati radio stations WSAI and WLW as staff organist, conducted

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theater bands and orchestras, and played the organ at churches. He was the staff arranger for Cincinnati’s famed King Records and worked with the Big Three Music–Warner Brothers Publishers. He engaged in graduate study at the University of Cincinnati; Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio; the New England Conservatory of Music; and Vandercook College of Music in Chicago, where he earned an MA in music education. In 1952 Hutchinson left Covington and LincolnGrant Schools for a job at the Grambling State University in Louisiana, where he served as music director for more than 40 years, receiving numerous awards. In 1996 he died in Grambling, La., and was buried there. “Celebration of Life, Conrad Hutchinson, Jr., March 9, 1996,” Special Collections, A. C. Lewis Memorial Library, Grambling State Univ. Grantonian, 1950, William Grant High School Year Book, in Theodore H. H. Harris’s collection.

Theodore H. H. Harris

HYGEIA. William Bullock, an English naturalist and the owner of the Egyptian Hall Museum in London, England, visited Cincinnati in 1827 on his travels through Mexico and North America. Enchanted by the approximately 1,000-acre Elmwood estate of Northern Kentucky businessman Thomas D. Carneal (present-day Ludlow), Bullock purchased it in 1828 and began to make plans for developing a speculative town on the property, to be called Hygeia after the Greek goddess of health. Bullock enumerated the virtues of the locale, which included the beauty and healthfulness of the site, the freedoms and low taxes of the United States, the friendliness of Cincinnati, the fact that it was a thriving city, and the high quality and low cost of goods and provisions. He said, “Every hour I spent in this place . . . served to convince me, that, for the industrious peasant, artisan, manufacturer, or other person, with a small income, arising from capital, no situation I had seen embraced so many advantages as a place of residence.” About the Elmwood estate, he wrote, “a finer site for building a small town of retirement, in the vicinity of a populous manufacturing city, could scarcely exist.” Bullock anticipated that his proposed town would appeal not only to Americans but also to his acquaintances with limited incomes in Great Britain, where, he claimed, living expenses were three times those of the Cincinnati area. He intended Hygeia to be not merely a speculative town but one of the earliest planned suburban communities in the United States; though never executed, it remains a fascinating episode in American townplanning history. Speculative towns were commonplace in the 19th-century U.S. West. Carneal had helped to lay out Covington in 1815, and it seems likely that he may himself have considered a town on the Elmwood site and encouraged Bullock in the idea. However, most American speculative towns had nondescript, gridiron plans and lacked the sophisticated layout and architectural character of Hygeia. Bullock recorded his design process: “I made

470 HYGEIA a little model of the land, and determined to have it laid out to the best possible advantage with professional assistance, on my [return] to England.” He had expertise to make both plaster and wax molds and evidently created his own topographical model of the site. Once back in London, for “professional assistance,” he hired English Regency architect John Buonarotti Papworth (1775–1847) to design the town and its buildings. Bullock had previously retained Papworth, in 1819, to create a new gallery for the Egyptian Hall. Papworth was a versatile and prolific architect who designed everything from landscapes to furniture and had a large practice in country houses and in urban commercial buildings with iron and glass fronts. He designed a palace for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg in Germany (which was not built) and thereafter made the most of the royal connection. Working-class housing interested him, and he published numerous designs for small villas and cottages. His architecture was eclectic and predicted the multiple styles of the 19th century. He laid out several streets in London and planned additions to nearby Dulwich and to Cheltenham in Gloucestershire. However, Hygeia was his most extensive and complete town-planning scheme. A striking aspect of the Hygeia plan is its figural elegance. Its multiple geometries make it an arresting image on the page. This feature served Bullock well as he published the plan in his Sketch of a Journey through the Western States of America, intended as a description of his travels, a prospectus for his new town, and a laudatory account of Cincinnati. The abstract graphic qualities of the plan have continued to attract interest, and it has been frequently republished in books and articles on urban planning history. Some critics have faulted it for its functional deficiencies, for a lack of synthesis among its complex geometries, and for a “meaningless” use of diagonal streets that “lead nowhere,” but such criticisms tend in part to misunderstand the plan, the first purpose of which was to provide a striking visual image to attract the notice of potential investors and residents. Hygeia would have fi lled the 1,000 or so acres of Bullock’s site, stretching more than two miles from east to west along a curve in the Ohio River, opposite and slightly west, downriver, from Cincinnati, covering much of the central area of current-day Ludlow. The town’s northern boundary was the river, while on the south it climbed into the hills of what is now Covington’s Devou Park. The centerpiece of the plan is a large circlein-a-square of streets and drives; within the circle is another square, bisected by cross streets, forming four smaller squares composed of rows of town houses looking outward onto naturalistic gardens containing freestanding villas and ornamental ponds. Four churches, facing north and south, interrupt the uniform ranges of townhouses and create architectural focal points. At the center is a minute, circular “fountain place.” From the corners of the smaller squares, four diagonal streets radiate outward. Above the circular centerpiece, uphill to the south, three public

buildings occupy the central axis of the plan: a town hall flanked by a museum and a library. Below the centerpiece, on the riverbank to the north, are flower and vegetable gardens, divided into small communal plots for the town residents. The western portion of the plan contains two squares of terraced town houses facing inward onto central gardens; their perimeters are screened by ranges of outward-facing, semidetached villas (freestanding double houses or duplexes). Farther west are more dispersed streets of semidetached and freestanding villas. The eastern portion of the plan (nearest Cincinnati), contains orthogonal ranges of semidetached villas; beyond these are communal stables and a market square, bordered by rows of shops, probably with shopkeepers’ residences above. Farther east, on a small branch, is a brewery (the town’s only manufacturing establishment), with long rows of workers’ housing beyond. Near the riverfront are an inn, a public bath, and “Mr. Bullock’s House” (the still-existing Elmwood Hall), its river view awkwardly blocked by a proposed row of semidetached villas. On a promontory to the southeast is a picturesquely planned cemetery with naturalistic walks and a central chapel like a small classical temple, all of which, as the caption states, are “like Père la Chaise [cemetery] at Paris” (laid out ca. 1803, by architect A. T. Brongniart). Had it been executed, this would have been the first such picturesque cemetery in America. The Hygeia plan has been credited as among the earliest of “garden cities.” Indeed, Papworth called it a “Rural Town,” and it contains large percentages of green space. Despite Bullock’s speculative intentions, the plan exhibits some of the idealizing tendencies of Enlightenment utopias of the period, in this case not an ideally ordered industrial city (such as Robert Dale Owen’s New Harmony, Ind., ca. 1825), but a beautiful, “gardenesque” alternative to the chaos and unhealthful conditions of emerging industrial cities. Hygeia exhibits a further Enlightenment idea: an encyclopedic array of different planning, housing, and architectural typologies. It sums up several decades of British town-planning strategies (orthogonal, radial, and naturalistic, with squares, circuses, and picturesque gardens) and echoes various 18th- and early-19th-century extensions to existing cities, such as Bath, England; Edinburgh New Town, Scotland; and Regent St. and Regent’s Park in London, the latter near Bullock’s museum in Piccadilly. As was done for Regent St. and Regent’s Park—also a speculative planning scheme— Bullock probably meant to build Hygeia in stages, the sales of each portion paying for the development of the next. Unlike the British town plans, however, which usually aimed at middle- and upperclass occupants, Hygeia exhibited a degree of social idealism by providing healthful cottages and small row houses for workers and artisans along with middle-class villas and residential squares. It included around 800 to 1,000 residential units, perhaps meant to accommodate 2,000 or more occupants. (By comparison, Cincinnati in 1827 had a population of about 20,000). As with similar English planned communities, Bullock and Papworth

would have controlled the design of Hygeia’s public buildings and houses. Papworth provided drawings for a variety of buildings in multiple styles, including Greek, Gothic, Italianate, Roman, and a simplified neoclassicism. Despite its conceptual elegance, Hygeia failed. First, it was remote and lacked convenient transportation to Cincinnati. Boats and ferries formed the only direct connection to Hygeia. Bridges, roads, and railways to the site were still several decades in the future. Second, there was a lack of jobs: other than shops and the brewery, the absence of factories meant that workers would have no way to make a living. Hygeia was not planned as a wholly selfsupporting community and thus posited a “suburban” dependence upon Cincinnati at a time significantly before the larger city developed real suburbs (the Hygeia plan preceded the development of the Cincinnati suburbs of Clifton and Glendale by a quarter century and Mariemont and Greenhills— which it conceptually resembled—by a full century). Hygeia failed to attract either local residents or British emigrants; had it been adjacent to London rather than Cincinnati, it might have succeeded. Finally, Bullock failed to foresee that sites downstream from developing industrial cities like Cincinnati would eventually themselves become industrial communities, while cleaner, upstream sites would become more desirable residential suburbs. Perhaps needing capital, Bullock sold 710 acres of the estate to Israel Ludlow Jr. in 1831. Shortly thereafter, his friend Frances Trollope, an author who had lived in Cincinnati and visited Bullock at Elmwood Hall, published her famous book The Domestic Manners of the Americans, in which she lampooned Americans generally and Cincinnatians specifically, for their lack of culture. Her book perhaps sank Bullock’s last hopes of attracting residents from Britain. Conceding defeat, he sold his remaining acreage in 1836, mostly to Israel Ludlow, and eventually returned to England. From the 1830s on, the Ludlow family and their relatives the Kenner family slowly developed the town of Ludlow on the site. It has a simple grid of streets, with nothing of the complex character of Hygeia. In the 1870s, the completion of the Cincinnati Southern Railroad and the arrival of its shops and associated industries in Ludlow and the construction of a railway and pedestrian bridge across the Ohio River to Cincinnati solved at once the jobs and transportation problems of the little community, and it became something of a railway boom town, with an eventual population of 6,000. Ironically, several of the Hygeia housing types, such as freestanding houses and cottages, semidetached or double houses, and row houses, all in multiple architectural styles, did appear in Ludlow a half century and more after Bullock and Papworth’s similar designs. The later 20th-century decline of the railroad and the gradual disappearance of industry from Ludlow has left it again a residential bedroom community in a quiet river setting, with small and medium-sized houses in a variety of styles, similar to Bullock’s original vi-

HYGEIA

sion (but lacking Papworth’s avant-garde planning). Perhaps with preservation of its historic buildings and careful development of its riverfront, Ludlow can yet recapture some of the bucolic character promised by Hygeia. The great virtue of Hygeia was its striking plan and architectural character. It was one of the earliest and most sophisticated suburbs proposed for America or, for that matter, Eu rope. Although its plan had little effect on the later development of Ludlow, perhaps the memory of Hygeia unconsciously raised the level of planning in neighboring Cincinnati, with its eventual picturesque

cemeteries, garden suburbs, and other urban amenities. Bullock, William. Sketch of a Journey through the Western States of North America. London, 1827. Reprinted in Early Western Travels, by Ruben G. Twaites. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark, 1905. Choay, Francoise. The Modern City. New York: George Braziller, 1969. Costeloe, Michael P. William Bullock, Connoisseur and Virtuoso of the Egyptian Hall: Piccadilly to Mexico (1773–1849). Bristol, UK: Univ. of Bristol, 2008.

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———. “William Bullock and the Mexican Connection,” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 22 (Summer 2006): 275–309. McHarcy, George. Catalogue of the Drawings Collection of the Royal Institute of British Architects: Office of J. B. Papworth. London: Riba and Gregg International, 1977. Reps, John W. The Making of Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1965. Tenkotte, Paul A. “Rival Cities to Suburbs: Covington and Newport, Kentucky, 1790–1890,” PhD diss., Univ. of Cincinnati, 1989.

Patrick Snadon


Chapter H of the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky