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The GEO-5 Process Acronyms and Abbreviations Contributors Glossary Index

“There is a huge amount to be done if we are to reach a state of sustainability. Do not despair, do not be weighed down by it. All I ask of you is that you go home and do what you can.� Wangari Maathai (1940-2011), Nobel Lauriate.

The GEO-5 Process MANDATE

In February 2009, as part of UNEP’s overall mandate to keep the global environment under review, the 25th Session of the UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum reconfirmed the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO) mandate, requesting the Executive Director to: “continue to conduct a comprehensive, integrated and scientifically credible global environmental assessment, avoiding duplication and building on ongoing assessment work, to support decision-making processes at all levels, in the light of the continuing need for up-to-date, scientifically credible, policy-relevant information on environmental change worldwide, including analyses of cross-cutting issues and indicator-based components” and to: “strengthen the policy relevance of GEO-5 by including an analysis of case studies of policy options, that incorporates environmental, economic, social and scientific data and information and their indicative costs and benefits to identify promising policy options to speed up achievement of the internationally agreed goals such as those agreed at the Millennium Summit in 2000 and in Multilateral Environmental Agreements” (UNEP/GC.25/2/III) (http:// www.unep.org/gc/gc25/Docs/Proceedings-English.pdf). Support for the fifth Global Environment Outlook (GEO-5) was further approved in November 2011 by the United Nations General Assembly 2nd Committee (Economic and Financial) (resolution A/C.2/66/L.57) (http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/ UNDOC/LTD/N11/601/65/PDF/N1160165.pdf).

OBJECTIVES, SCOPE AND PROCESS

The objectives, scope and process for GEO-5 were defined and adopted in a Final Statement by the Global Intergovernmental and Multi-stakeholder Consultation that took place in March 2010 and included 91 governmental representatives and 55 other main stakeholders.

Objectives

The consultation reaffirmed the above mandate by identifying the following objectives for the assessment: • provide a comprehensive, integrated and scientifically credible global environmental assessment to support decision-making processes at appropriate levels; • engage all governments, relevant UN bodies, and other stakeholders in GEO-5 in order to support and strengthen its scientific credibility, policy relevance and legitimacy; • strengthen the on-going process of capacity building for developing countries and countries with economies in transition to conduct environmental monitoring and

assessments at all levels, in collaboration with relevant on-going activities of UNEP and other initiatives, including through south-south and triangular cooperation; • inform, as appropriate, the strategic directions of UNEP and other relevant UN bodies; • strengthen the policy relevance of GEO-5 by including an analysis of case studies of policy options, that incorporates environmental, economic, social and scientific data and information and their indicative costs and benefits to identify promising policy options to speed up achievement of the internationally agreed goals such as those agreed at the Millennium Summit in 2000 and in multilateral environmental agreements; • inform and learn from relevant global and regional processes and meetings where progress towards these agreed goals is discussed; and • identify data gaps in the thematic issues considered by GEO-5.

Scope

GEO-5 builds on previous GEO reports and continues to provide an analysis of the state, trends and outlook of the global environment. It differs from previous GEO reports in its emphasis on internationally agreed goals and in providing possible means of accelerating achievement of those goals. GEO-5 is made up of three distinct but closely linked parts. Part 1 assesses the state and trends of the global environment in relation to key internationally agreed goals such as the Millennium Development Goals and those of various multilateral environmental agreements. The assessment is based on national, regional and global analyses and datasets. Part 2 prioritizes a number of environmental themes per region, selected through a consultative process in light of relevant internationally agreed goals. The regional assessments identify and appraise promising policy responses that could help speed up the achievement of these goals. Part 3 identifies options with potential to assist the transition towards sustainable development and suggests possibilities for global response. The consultation proposed ten key questions for UNEP to address. To a great extent, these questions helped define the scope of the GEO-5 assessment and to guide the process. Key questions for Part 1 i. What are the current drivers, state and trends and outlook for the global environment? ii. Do the current drivers, state and trends of the environment reflect progress towards meeting internationally agreed goals? iii. What are the main challenges for the life-supporting functions of the Earth System and the drivers that cause them? The GEO-5 Process

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iv. To what extent do existing monitoring and observation activities and institutional arrangements meet the need to keep the state and trends of the environment under review? v. What are the main gaps and barriers to meeting the agreed goals? Key questions for Part 2 vi. Which internationally agreed goals are high priorities for each region? vii. What policy options can be most successfully applied in each region to help speed up meeting internationally agreed goals? viii. What policy options facilitate environmental monitoring and its use in decision making? Key questions for Part 3 ix. What policy approaches could be suitable for scaling up in order to accelerate meeting internationally agreed goals? x. What types of sustainable change and innovation are needed over the long term?

Process

The March 2010 consultation also provided direction for strengthening the process of the GEO-5 assessment through: • engaging the best available scientific and policy expertise; • ensuring scientific credibility, policy relevance, and legitimacy of the assessment by engaging a wide range of stakeholders; • constituting multidisciplinary groups of experts nominated by governments and other stakeholders using a transparent process;

• establishing three overarching advisory groups: a HighLevel Intergovernmental Advisory Panel to provide guidance to experts; a Science and Policy Advisory Board to ensure the scientific credibility of the process; and a Data and Indicators Working Group to provide core data support to the process; • subjecting the assessment to extensive scientific expert peerreview and government review; • continuing to target institutional capacity building by engaging developing country experts; and • communicating key messages and findings to target audiences in an accessible manner.

PARTNERSHIPS AND COLLABORATION

The development of GEO-5 involved extensive collaboration both within UNEP and between UNEP and a network of multidisciplinary experts, research institutions and GEO collaborating centres, all of whom made their valuable time and knowledge available to the process. The consultation requested that experts for content development, including reviewers and advisory groups, be nominated by governments and other main stakeholders including GEO collaborating centres and other partners, based on their expertise and using a transparent process drawing from the nomination process of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The nominated experts were then engaged by the UNEP Secretariat on the basis of their expertise, with due consideration of gender and regional balances.

Figure 1 The development of GEO-5: milestones in the production process

2010

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The GEO-5 Process

Content Development

Chapter expert groups

The GEO-5 report has 17 chapters. An expert working group was established for each chapter to conceptualize, research, draft, revise and finalize the manuscripts. More than 310 authors were involved in content development. Each chapter expert group included 5–38 individuals under the leadership of two or three coordinating lead authors and supported by a UNEP chapter coordinator. Other members of the chapter expert groups comprised lead authors and contributing authors.

GEO-5 fellows

GEO-5 continued to pursue the Fellowship initiative established during the GEO-4 process in 2005. This engages early career professionals in the GEO process so that they can gain experience from participating in a major global environmental assessment. A total of 21 fellows from 18 countries participated in GEO-5.

Outreach working group

An outreach working group was established that included one member of each chapter expert group as well as UNEP experts. The group prepared the overarching outreach strategy for GEO-5 and identified target audiences and relevant meetings to disseminate findings.

REVIEW PROCESS

The GEO-5 assessment underwent three rounds of review involving more than 300 experts. The first was an internal one within UNEP; the second was an external review by governments and UNEP’s extensive network of science and policy experts, including those

nominated by governments and other stakeholders. The final review was undertaken by governments and well-known scientific experts from both the natural and social science communities. The final round of expert review was an independent peer-review process facilitated by the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP). The ESSP sent a call for reviewers to its global expert network and then selected interested experts based on their field as well as gender and geographical balance. In the final expert peer review, each chapter had three to four expert scientific reviewers with extensive experience in the subject area covered by the respective chapter. The content development process and all review stages were supported by the Science and Policy Advisory Board who provided guidance to chapter authors, reviewers and the UNEP Secretariat to ensure that the process was scientifically credible and robust.

GEO-5 advisory groups

Three external specialized advisory bodies were established to support the assessment process. High-Level Intergovernmental Advisory Panel The panel comprised 20 high-level government representatives from all six UNEP regions. The panel, using the Global Environmental Goals framework (for more detail see http:/geg. informea.org/goals), identified the internationally agreed goals for GEO-5 to assess, and formulated strategic advice to GEO-5 authors and other groups to assist them in their assessment of the goals. They also provided initial guidance on the structure and content of the GEO-5 Summary for Policy Makers and further guidance

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to the experts in finalizing the draft in preparation for the final intergovernmental negotiation. In addition, ad-hoc guidance was provided to UNEP throughout the assessment process, in particular in aligning the GEO-5 process with the relevant processes of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20). The panel met three times in 2010 and 2011. Science and Policy Advisory Board The board comprised 18 distinguished scientists and senior representatives from the policy community and met twice in 2011. The board was responsible for strengthening the scientific credibility and policy relevance of the assessment by providing guidance throughout the process. They provided high-level strategic advice; standards and guidelines for the assessment and review process; and undertook a mid-term and final evaluation of the assessment process. Data and Indicators Working Group The group met once in March 2011 and provided support to the assessment process on the use of core datasets and indicators. They consulted with experts to identify priority environmental indicators and identified available datasets, as well as data gaps and related issues.

CONSULTATION PROCESS

UNEP organized global and regional consultations and meetings throughout the assessment process. The following are some of the key meetings convened since the inception in November 2009. GEO-5 planning meetings Two planning meetings were convened with experts familiar with the GEO process, including UNEP’s GEO specialists, in November 2009 and January 2010. The meetings focused on reviewing lessons learned from the previous GEO processes and the implementation of Governing Council Decision 25/2/III. The experts formulated UNEP’s analytical framework and a vision of the future global assessment to propose to the Global Intergovernmental and Multi-stakeholder Consultation on GEO-5. Global Intergovernmental and Multi-stakeholder Consultation This consultation defined and adopted the scope, objectives and process for GEO-5 in March 2010. Regional consultations A series of seven regional consultations were held between September and October 2010. The consultations, which engaged many different stakeholders, determined five or six priority environmental challenges in each region and selected internationally agreed goals of relevant concern, as well as identifying potential policy options in the region, implementation of which could speed up meeting the selected goals. Policy expert meeting In October 2010 a policy expert group, including one policy expert from each region nominated to participate in the GEO-5 regional policy analysis, as well as several independent policy experts, was convened to discuss the challenge of policy analysis in the context of identifying policies that help speed up the 492

The GEO-5 Process

Participants at the intergovernmental meeting to endorse the GEO-5 Summary for Policy Makers in Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

attainment of internationally agreed goals. The policy expert group provided guidelines for the regional policy analysis. Global production and authors’ meetings Two global production and authors’ meetings were convened in November 2010 and in September 2011 to discuss and develop GEO-5 chapter content and outlines, to address review comments, and to harmonize different approaches and presentation styles. Chapter working group meetings More than 30 meetings were convened to prepare, review and revise the drafts for individual chapters. Summary for Policy Makers intergovernmental meeting A final open-ended intergovernmental meeting was convened in January 2012 in the City of Gwangju, Republic of Korea, to negotiate and endorse the GEO-5 Summary for Policy Makers (SPM). The meeting, attended by 53 governments, endorsed the summary, which presents the policy-relevant findings of GEO-5 and is published as a separate document. The GEO-5 Summary for Policy Makers was launched at the 12th Special Session of the Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum in February 2012. The launch of GEO-5 will coincide with the final preparatory stages of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), taking place two decades after the UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio Earth Summit) set the agenda for the transition to sustainable development. GEO-5 highlights the current state, trends and outlook for the planet and its people, and showcases more than 100 initiatives, projects and policies that are pioneering positive environmental change across the globe. GEO-5 highlights not just the perils of delaying action, but the options for transforming sustainable development from theory to reality. Further information is available at www.unep.org/geo

Acronyms and Abbreviations 3Rs 4Rs ABC ABS ACCOBAMS

ACP ACC ACS ACSAD ACTO ADFEC ADB AEM AEWA AHTEG AICS AIDS ALR AMAP AMCs AMCEN ANAM AOAD APVMA AQG ASCLME ASCOBANS

ASEAN ATS AZEs BBOP BC BCLME BFP BPA BRIC CAA CAC CAFE CAN CAP CAPRADE CAR CARICOM CAS

reduce, reuse, recycle reduce, reuse, recycle and re-think atmospheric brown cloud access and benefit sharing Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and contiguous Atlantic Area Panama Canal Authority adaptation to climate change Association of Caribbean States Arab Center for Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization Abu Dhabi Future Energy Company Asian Development Bank agri-environment measures African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbird Agreement Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group Australian Inventory of Chemical Substances acquired immune deficiency syndrome Agricultural Land Reserve (Canada) Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme advanced market commitments African Ministerial Conference on the Environment National Environmental Authority of Panama Arab Organization for Agricultural Development Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority air quality guidelines Agulhas and Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic, North East Atlantic, Irish and North Seas Association of Southeast Asian Nations Antarctic Treaty System Alliance for Zero Extension sites Business and Biodiversity Offsets Programme black carbon Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem Bolsa Floresta Programme bisphenol-A Brazil, Russia, India and China Clean Air Act (United States) command and control Corporate Average Fuel Economy (United States) Andean Community Common Agricultural Policy of the EU Andean Committee for Disaster Awareness and Prevention 1) Central African Republic, or 2) Central Albertine Rift Caribbean Common Market 1) complex adaptive systems, or 2) Chemicals Abstract Service

CBD CBNRM CBR CCAD CCCCC CDC CDM CDEMA CEB CEC CEPA CEHI CEPREDENAC CFC CFU CGIAR CH4 CITES CLRTAP CMC CMP CMS CO CO2 CONAVI COP COSEWIC CRED CRP CSA CSCL CSD CSP CSIRO CSO CSRP CZMU DAC DALY DDT DESA DEWA

Convention on Biological Diversity (UN) Community Based Natural Resources Management crude birth rate Central American Commission on Environment and Development Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States) Clean Development Mechanism Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency Chief Executive Board for Coordination (UN) Commission for Environmental Cooperation (under NAFTA) Canadian Environmental Protection Act Caribbean Environmental Health Institute Centre for Natural Disaster Awareness and Prevention chlorofluorocarbon community forest unit Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research methane Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution Chemical Management Center Chemicals Management Plan Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals carbon monoxide carbon dioxide Comisi贸n Nacional de Vivienda conference of the parties Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters Conservation Reserve Program (United States) environmental services certificates Chemical Substance Control Law Commission on Sustainable Development Conservation Security Program (United States) Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (Australia) civil society organisation Sub-regional Fisheries Commission Coastal Zone Management Unit (Barbados) Development Assistance Committee (OECD) disability adjusted life year dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN) 1) Division of Early Warning and Assessment (UNEP), or 2) Dubai Electricity and Water Authority Acronyms and Abbreviations

493

DPSIR DRC DRR EA EAC EAF EAP EBA ECESA ECHA ECLAC ECOWAS EE EEA EC EU EIA EIONET EKC EM-DAT EMEP EMG ENRM EPA ERS ERMA EQIP ES ESA ESI ESS ETS EU EUROBATS Ex-COPs EWS FAO FDI FIBA FIT FIT-FIR FLORES FON FONAFIFO FONAG 494

drivers, pressures, state, impacts, responses Democratic Republic of the Congo disaster risk reduction ecosystem approach East African Community ecosystem approach to fisheries Environmental Action Programme of the EU ecosystem based adaptation Executive Committee on Economic and Social Affairs (UN) European Chemicals Agency Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean of the United Nations Economic Community of West African States energy efficiency European Environment Agency European Commission European Union 1) Energy Information Association, or 2) environmental impact assessment European Environment Information and Observation Network environmental Kuznets curve Emergency Events Database European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme Environment Management Group Environmental and Natural Resources Management (World Bank) 1) environmental performance assessment, or 2) Environmental Protection Agency (United States) Economic Research Service (United States) Environmental Risk Management Authority Environmental Quality Incentives Program (United States) Earth System 1) environmentally sensitive area, or 2) European Space Agency environmental services index Earth system science emissions trading scheme European Union Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats Extraordinary Conferences of the Parties to the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions early warning system Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations foreign direct investment Fondation Internationale du Banc d’Arguin feed-in tariff first-in-time, first-in-right (or the Doctrine of Prior Appropriation) Forest Land Oriented Resources Envisioning System Friends of Nature Fondo Nacional de Financiamiento Forestal Fund for the Protection of Water

Acronyms and Abbreviations

FSC Forest Stewardship Council G7 Group of Seven (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, United States) G8 Group of Eight (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russian Federation, United Kingdom, United States) GAPS Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GCC Gulf Cooperation Council GCF Green Climate Fund GCLME Guinea Current Large Marine Ecosystem GCM general circulation models GCP gross cell product GDP gross domestic product GEF Global Environment Facility GEMS Global Environmental Monitoring System GEO Global Environment Outlook GEOSS Global Earth Observation System of Systems GESAMP Group of Experts on Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection GHG greenhouse gas GIS geographical information systems GISS Goddard Institute for Space Studies GLASOD Global Assessment of Human-Induced Soil Degradation GM Global Mechanism GMO genetically modified organism GNP gross national product GPA Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities GPCP Global Precipitation Climatology Project GPI genuine progress indicator GPW Gridded Population of the World GUPES Global University Partnership on Environment and Sustainability GW gigawatt GWP 1) Global Water Partnership, or 2) global warming potential GWSP Global Water System Project HAB harmful algal blooms HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCH hexachlorocyclohexane HDI Human Development Index HFA Hyogo Framework for Action HFC hydrofluorocarbon HIV human immunodeficiency virus HKHT Hindu Kush-Himalayan-Tibetan HLCP High Level Committee on Policy HLIAP High-Level Intergovernmental Advisory Panel HS Harmonized System HTAP hemispheric transport of air pollution HWS human water security IAEG Inter-agency and Expert Group IATTC Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission IBA important bird area ICARM integrated coastal and river management ICCA indigenous and community-conserved areas

ICE ICHRP ICLEI ICLZT ICRISAT ICT ICZM IDB IDMC IEA IFAD IFPRI IGRAC IIASA IISD IJC ILBM ILC ILEC ILM ILO IMO IMPACT INBO INVERMAR IOC IOMC IP IPA IPA CIS IPAT IPBES IPCC IPR IPSI IPSRM IRP ISDR ISEW ITPGRFA ITF IUCN IWI IWM IWRM JHU

International Court for the Environment International Council on Human Rights Policy Local Governments for Sustainability integrated rotating crops, livestock production and zero-tillage operations International Crop Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics information and communication technology integrated coastal zone management Inter-American Development Bank Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre 1) International Energy Agency, or 2) integrated environmental assessment International Fund for Agricultural Development International Food Policy Research Institute International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre International Institute for Applied System Analysis International Institute for Sustainable Development International Joint Commission integrated lake basin management indigenous and local communities International Lake Environment Committee 1) integrated land management, or 2) indigenous land management International Labour Organization International Maritime Organization International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade International Network of Basin Organizations Invertec Pesquera Mar de Chiloé Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO Inter-organizational Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals intellectual property indigenous protected area Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the Commonwealth of Independent States Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change intellectual property rights International Partnership on Satoyama Initiative International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management integrated resource planning International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture International Transport Forum International Union for the Conservation of Nature International Watersheds Initiative (North America) integrated watershed planning and management integrated water resources management Johns Hopkins University (United States)

JPOI JPoI JRC LAC LAS LECZ LDC

LDCF LEZ LIFDC LME LPG LRTAP MA MAP MARPOL M&E MDG MDTF MEA MERCOSUR MMWD MFA MINAM MMAs MPA MSC MSW N2O NAAEC NAFA NAFTA NAMA NASA NBI NBSAP NEG/ECP NEPA NEPA NEPAD NEPAD CAADP NERC

NPP NGO NH3 NHX

Johannesburg Plan of Implementation Joint Plan of Implementation European Commission Joint Research Centre Latin America and the Caribbean League of Arab States low elevation coastal zone 1) least developed country, or 2) London Dumping Convention: Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter Least Developed Countries Trust Fund low emission zone low-income food deficit countries large marine ecosystem liquefied petroleum gas long-range transboundary air pollution Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Mediterranean Action Plan for the Barcelona Convention International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships monitoring and evaluation Millennium Development Goal Multi-Donor Trust Funds (UN) multilateral environmental agreement Mercado Común del Sur Marin Municipal Water District material flow accounting Portal del Ministerio del Ambiente del Perú marine managed area marine protected area Marine Stewardship Council municipal solid waste nitrous oxide North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation National Forest Authority North American Free Trade Agreement nationally appropriate mitigation actions National Aeronautics Space Administration (United States) Nile Basin Initiative national biodiversity strategies and action plans New England Governors/Eastern Canadian Premiers National Environment Policy Act (United States) National Environmental Protection Agency (China) New Partnership for Africa’s Development NEPAD Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme 1) National Energy Research Center (Jordan; Syria), or 2) Natural Environment Research Council (United Kingdom) net primary productivity non-governmental organization ammonia ammonia and ammonium Acronyms and Abbreviations

495

NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NICNAS National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme NOAA National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (United States) NOWPAP Action Plan for the Protection, Management and Development of the Marine and Coastal Environment of the Northwest Pacific Region NO2 nitrogen dioxide NOX nitrogen oxides NPRI National Pollutant Release Inventory (Canada) NRTEE National Roundtable on the Economy and the Environment NMVOCs non-methane volatile organic compounds O3 ozone OCP organochlorine pesticides ODA official development assistance ODS ozone-depleting substance OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OP obsolete pesticide OPRC International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation OPT Occupied Palestinian Territories OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic PA protected area PAEC Cuban Energy Saving Programme PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PBDE polybrominated diphenyl ethers PCB polychlorinated biphenyls PCT polychlorinated terphenyls PERI Political Economy Research Institute, Univeristy of Massachusetts (United States) PES payment for ecosystem services PM particulate matter PM2.5 particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 micrometres (0.0025 millimetre) or less PM10 particulate matter with a diameter of 10 micrometres (0.01 millimetre) or less POPs persistent organic pollutants PPCDAm Action Plan for Protection and Control of Deforestation in the Amazon PPP purchasing power parity PROCEL Programa Nacional de Conservação de energia eléctrica (National Electrical Conservation Programme) (Brazil) PSP paralytic shellfish poisoning PTC production tax credit QSAR quantitative structure-activity relationships R&D research and development RAFNET Rwanda Agro-forestry Network RCP representative concentration pathways REACH Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances programme (EU) RE renewable energy REC renewable energy credits 496

Acronyms and Abbreviations

REFIT renewable energy feed-in-tariff RES renewable energy systems REDD Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation REMP renewable energy master plan REMPEC Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea ROPME Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the sea area surrounded by Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates RPBR Río Plátano Biosphere Reserve (Honduras) RPS Renewable Portfolio Standard RWH rainwater harvesting SADC Southern African Development Community SAICM Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management SCBD Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity SCCF Special Climate Change Trust Fund SEA strategic environmental assessment SFM sustainable forest management SEEA System of Environmental-Economic Accounting SEMARNAT Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales SICA Sistema de la Integración Centroamericana (Central America Integration System) SIDS small island developing states SLCF short-lived climate forcer SLM sustainable land management SNACs Significant New Activity Controls SNS sacred natural sites SNURs Significant New Use Rules SOE state owned enterprises SoE state of the environment SOER State of the Environment Report of the EEA SOX sulphur oxides SO2 sulphur dioxide SPB sustainability policy banks STAR System for the Transparent Allocation of Resources SST sea surface temperature SWF Sovereign Wealth Funds TCO traditional communal lands TBNRM transboundary natural resources management TEAP Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (the Montreal Protocol) TEEB The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity TEK traditional ecological knowledge TEU twenty-foot-equivalent units TFCA transfrontier conservation areas TK traditional knowledge TM technology mechanism TMDL total maximum daily load TRI Toxics Release Inventory (United States) TRIPs trade-related aspects of international property rights

TSCA UK UN UNCCD UNCED UNCLOS UNCSD UNCTAD UNDG UNDP UNDRIP UNECE UNEP UNEP-CEP UNEP-PCFV UNEP-WCMC UNESCO UNFCCC UNFF UNHCR UNICEF UNIDO UNITAR

Toxic Substances Control Act (United States) United Kingdom United Nations United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification United Nations Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Development Group United Nations Development Programme United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples United Nations Economic Commission for Europe United Nations Environment Programme United Nations Environment Programme – Caribbean Environment Programme United Nations Environment Programme – Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles United Nations Environment Programme – World Conservation Monitoring Centre United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change United Nations Forum on Forests The United Nations Refugee Agency United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations Institute for Training and Research

UN-REDD United Nations collaborative initiative on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation in Developing Countries UNSD United Nations Statistics Division UNU United Nations University UNWTO United Nations World Tourism Organization USA United States of America USAID United States Agency for International Development US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency UV ultraviolet VITEK vitality of traditional ecological knowledge VOC volatile organic compound vPvB very persistent and very bioaccumulative WAIS West Antarctic ice sheet WCI Western Climate Initiative (North America) WFD Waste Framework Directive of the EU WHO World Health Organization WIO Western Indian Ocean WMO World Meteorological Organization WRI World Resources Institute WSSD World Summit on Sustainable Development WTO World Trade Organization WTP willingness to pay WUE water-use efficiency WWAP World Water Assessment Programme WWDR World Water Development Report WBCSD World Business Council for Sustainable Development WCRP World Climate Research Programme WFP World Food Programme (United Nations) WHC World Heritage Convention WWF World Wide Fund for Nature ZZE economic and ecological zoning

Acronyms and Abbreviations

497

Contributors GEO-5 Author teams Chapter 1 Drivers: Susana B. Adamo, Columbia University, USA; Jane Barr, independent expert, Canada; David Laborde Debucquet, International Food Policy Research Institute, USA; Elizabeth R. Desombre, Wellesley College, USA; Thomas Dietz, Michigan State University, USA; Matthew Gluschankoff, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Konstadinos Goulias, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Jason Jabbour, UNEP, Kenya; Yeojoo Kim, Korea Environment Institute, Republic of Korea; Marc A. Levy, Center for International Earth Science Information Network, USA; David López-Carr, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Catherine P. McMullen, independent consultant, Canada; Alexandra C. Morel, Centre for International Earth Science Information Network, USA; Ana Rosa Moreno, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico; Siwa Msangi, International Food Policy Research Institute, USA; Matthew Paterson, University of Ottawa, Canada; Batimaa Punsalmaa, Water Authority, Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism, Mongolia; Eugene A. Rosa, Washington State University, USA; Paul F. Steinberg, Harvey Mudd College, USA; Ray Tomalty, McGill University, Canada; Craig Townsend, Johns Hopkins University, USA. Chapter 2 Atmosphere: May Antoniette Ajero, Clean Air Initiative-Asia Center, Philippines; Susan Casper Anenberg, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA; Paulo Artaxo, University of São Paulo, Brazil; Geir Braathen, World Meteorological Organization, Switzerland; Luis Abdon Cifuentes, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Chile; Lisa Emberson, Stockholm Environment Institute, UK; Sara Feresu, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe; Kevin Hicks, Stockholm Environment Institute, UK; Msafiri Jackson, Ardhi University, Tanzania; Johan C. I. Kuylenstierna, Stockholm Environment Institute, UK; Yousef Meslmani, Atomic Energy Commission, Syria; Nicholas Muller, Middlebury College, USA; Frank Murray, Murdoch University, Australia; Seydi Ababacar Ndiaye, Labo de Physique et de l’Atmosphère et de l’Océan, Senegal; Emily Nyaboke (GEO Fellow), Intergovernmental Authority on Development Climate Prediction and Applications Centre, Kenya; Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh, Asian Institute of Technology, Thailand; T.S. Panwar, The Energy and Resources Institute, India; Linn Persson, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; Drew Shindell, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA; Sara Terry, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA; Eric Zusman, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan. Chapter 3 Land: Magdi T. Abdelhamid, National Research Centre, Egypt; T. Mitchell Aide, University of Puerto Rico, USA; Björn Alfthan, UNEP/GRIDArendal, Norway; Fethi Ayache, Université de Sousse, Tunisia; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, University of California, Merced, USA; Saturnino (Jun) M. Borras Jr., Erasmus University Rotterdam, Philippines; Chizoba Chinweze, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria; Tahia Devisscher, Stockholm Environment Institute, UK; Tom P. Evans, Indiana University, USA; Jana Frélichová, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Lawrence Hislop, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Norway; Carol A. Hunsberger, Carleton University, Canada; Jason Jabbour, UNEP, Kenya; Shashi Kant, University of Toronto, Canada; David López-Carr, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA; Hillary Masundire, University of Botswana, Botswana; Juan Albaladejo Montoro, Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain; William K. Pan, Johns Hopkins University, USA; Narcisa G. Pricope (GEO Fellow), University of Florida, USA; Roberto Sánchez-Rodríguez, University of California, Riverside, USA; Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen, UNEP-WCMC, UK; Jessica Smith, UNEP-WCMC, UK; Carlos Souza Jr., Amazon Institute of People and the Environment, Brazil; Tracy L. Timmins (GEO Fellow), University of Calgary, Canada; Héctor Francisco del Valle, Centro Nacional Patagónico, Argentina; Joris de Vente Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Spain; Leo C. Zulu, Michigan State University, USA. Chapter 4 Water: Maite Aldaya, Botín Foundation, Spain; Hermanni Backer, Helsinki Commission, Finland; Erica Brown Gaddis, SWCA Environmental Consultants, USA; Paul Roger Glennie, UNEP-DHI Centre for Water and Environment, Denmark; Yi Huang, Peking University, China; Hans Günter Brauch, Freie University of Berlin, Germany; Peter Koefoed Bjørnsen, UNEP-DHI Centre for Water Environment, Denmark; Salif Diop, UNEP,

498

Contributors

Kenya; Mariele Evers, Leuphana University of Lueneburg, Germany; Carlo Giupponi, University of Venice Ca’ Foscari, Italy; Sherry Heileman, independent consultant, France; Gensuo Jia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Ljubomir Jeftic, independent consultant, Croatia; Alioune Kane, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Tiina Kurvits, UNEP/GRIDArendal, Norway; Robin Mahon, University of West Indies, Barbados; Walter Rast, Texas State University, USA; Santiago Reyna, National University of Cordoba, Argentina; Lisa Speer, Natural Resources Defense Council, USA; Jaap van Woerden, UNEP, Switzerland; Roy Victor Watkinson, Roy Watkinson Environmental Consulting Ltd, UK; Judith Weis, Rutgers University, USA. Chapter 5 Biodiversity: John Agard, University of West Indies, Trinidad and Tobago; Dolors Armenteras, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia; Mario Baudoin, San Andres University, Bolivia; Kabir Bavikatte, Natural Justice, South Africa; Bastian Bertsky, UNEP-WCMC, UK; Neil Burgess, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Stuart H.M. Butchart, Birdlife International, UK; Joji Carino, International Indigenous Forum on Biodiversity, Philippines; William W.L. Cheung, University of East Anglia, UK; Ben Collen, Zoological Society of London, UK; Nigel Dudley, Equilibrium, UK; C. Max Finlayson, Charles Sturt University, Australia; Leslie G. Firbank, University of Leeds, UK; Rodrigo Fuentes, ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines; Alessandro Galli, Global Footprint Network, Italy; Yogesh Gokhal, The Energy and Resources Institute, India; Simon Hales, University of Otago, New Zealand; Marc Hockings, University of Queensland, Australia; Robert Höft, Secretariat of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Canada; J. Carter Ingram, Wildlife Conservation Society, USA; Valerie Kapos, UNEP-WCMC, UK; Justin Kitzes, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Ashish Kothari Kalpavriksh, Environment Action Group, India; Linda Krueger, Wildlife Conservation Society, USA; Melodie A. McGeoch, South Africa National Parks, South Africa; Thomasina E.E. Oldfield, Traffic International, UK; Christian Prip, Ministry of Environment, Denmark; Camilo Garcia Ramirez, National University of Colombia, Colombia; Kent H. Redford, Wildlife Conservation Society, USA; Monica Marcela Morales Rivas (GEO Fellow), Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia; John G. Robinson, Wildlife Conservation Society, USA; Alison M. Rosser, UNEP-WCMC, UK; Jörn P.W. Scharlemann, UNEP-WCMC, UK; Holly Shrumm, Natural Justice, South Africa; Damon Stanwell-Smith, UNEPWCMC, UK; Heikki Toivonen, Finnish Environment Institute, Finland; Bas Verschuuren, WCPA Specialist Group on Cultural and Spiritual Values of Protected Areas, Netherlands; Johanna von Braun, Natural Justice, South Africa; Matt Walpole, UNEP-WCMC, UK. Chapter 6 Chemicals and Waste: Ricardo Barra, University of Concepción, EULA Environmental Sciences Centre, Chile; Borislava Batandjieva, Consultancy Services, Bulgaria; Arthur Russell Flegal Jr., University of California, Santa Cruz, USA; Walter Giger, Giger Research Consulting, Switzerland; Ivan Holoubek, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Czech Republic; Heather Jones-Otazo, Health Canada, Canada; Liu Lili, Basel Convention Coordinating Center for Asia and the Pacific, China; Philip Edward Metcalf, Independent Consultant, British/South African; Karina Silvia Beatriz Miglioranza, National Council of Scientific and Technological Research, Mar del Plata University, Argentina; Mónica Patricia Montory Gonzalez (GEO Fellow), University of Concepción, Chile; Adebola A. Oketola (GEO Fellow), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Oladele Osibanjo, Basel Convention Coordinating Centre for Training and Technology Transfer for the African Region, University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Pierre Portas, Waste Environment Cooperation Centre, Switzerland; Ian Rae, University of Melbourne, Australia; Martin Scheringer, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, Switzerland; Claudia ten Have, UNEP, Kenya; Roy Victor Watkinson, Roy Watkinson Environmental Consulting Ltd, UK. Chapter 7 An Earth System Perspective: Genrikh Alekseev, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Russia; Opha Pauline Dube, University of Botswana, Botswana; Niki Frantzeskaki, Dutch Research Institute for Transitions, Netherlands; Benjamin Gaddis, SWCA Environmental Consultants, USA; Andrew Githeko, Medical Research Institute, Kenya; Jill Jäger, independent expert, UK; Pushker Kharecha, NASA Goddard Institute for

Space Studies, USA; Derk Loorbach, Dutch Research Institute for Transitions, Netherlands; Neeyati Patel, UNEP, Kenya; James Reynolds, Duke University, USA; Johan Rockström, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; Jan Rotmans, Dutch Research Institute for Transitions, Netherlands; Vladimir Ryabinin, World Meteorological Organization, Switzerland; Jiansheng Ye (GEO Fellow), Lanzhou University, China. Chapter 8 Data Needs: Charles Davies, UNEP, Kenya; Jaap van Woerden, UNEP, Switzerland; Ashbindu Singh, UNEP, USA. Chapter 9 Africa: Ameer Abdulla, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Centre for Mediterranean Cooperation, Spain; Osman Mirghani M. Ali, University of Khartoum, Sudan; Adnan A. Awad, University of the Western Cape, South Africa; Habtemariam Kassa Belay, Center for International Forestry Research, Ethiopia Office, Ethiopia; Kerry W. Bowman, University of Toronto, Canada; Rannveig K. Formo, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Norway; Marina Gomei, World Wildlife Fund, Italy; Charlotte Karibuhoye, Foundation Internationale du Banc d’Arguin, Senegal; Winnie Lau, Forest Trends, USA; Masego Madzwamuse, independent consultant, South Africa; Clever Mafuta, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Norway; Jennifer Clare MohamedKaterere, independent expert, South Africa; Francis Mwaura, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Valerie Rabesahala, independent consultant, Madagascar; Sachooda Ragoonaden, Indian Ocean Commission, Mauritius; Bevlyne Sithole, Shanduko Centre for Agrarian Research, Zimbabwe. Chapter 10 Asia and the Pacific: Iskandar Abdullaev, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Uzbekistan; Raquibul Amin, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Thailand; Yumiko Asayama, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Magnus Bengtsson, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; Robert Dobias, USAID/Climate Change Adaptation Project Preparation Facility for Asia-Pacific, Thailand; Mark Elder, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; Rodrigo Fuentes, ASEAN Biodiversity Centre, Philippines; Anirban Ganguly, The Energy and Resources Institute, India; Prodipto Ghosh, The Energy and Resources Institute, India; Guibin Jiang, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Mikiko Kainuma, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Yatsuka Kataoka, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; Peter N. King, Institute for Global Environmental Studies, Thailand; Robert Kipp, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; Marie Leroy, Institute for Political Studies, Science Po, France; Keping Ma, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Vishal Narain, Management Development Institute, India; Simon Hoiberg Olsen (GEO Fellow), Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; Shavkat Rakhmatullaev, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Uzbekistan; Nilapha Ratanavong (GEO Fellow), Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific, Thailand; Jianbo Shi, Research Center for EcoEnvironmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Diana Suhardiman, International Water Management Institute – Southeast Asia, Indonesia; Poh Poh Wong, University of Adelaide, Australia; Shiqiu Zhang, Peking University, China. Chapter 11 Europe: Thomas Bernauer, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland; Olga Chkanikova (GEO Fellow), Lund University, Sweden; Sophie Condé, National Museum of Natural History, France; Karine Danielyan, Yerevan State University, Armenia; Nicolai Dronin, Moscow State University, Russia; Lisa Emberson, Stockholm Environment Institute, UK; Joyeeta Gupta, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands; Naira Harutyunyan, Central European University, Hungary; Anastasia Idrisova, Central European University, Hungary; Pavlos Kassomenos, University of Ioannina, Greece; Olena Maslyukivska, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, Ukraine; Ruben Mnatsakanian, Central European University, Hungary; Nora Mzavanadze, Central European University, Hungary; Alexander Orlov, The State University of New York, Stony Brook, USA; Mirjam Schomaker, independent consultant, Switzerland; Jerome Simpson, The Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, Hungary; Åsa Swartling, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden.

Chapter 12 Latin America and the Caribbean: Andrea Brusco, UNEP, Panama; Ligia Castro, CAF – Development Bank of Latin America, Panama; Antonio Clemente (GEO Fellow), Water Center for the Humid Tropics of Latin America and the Caribbean, Panama; Keston Finch, The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Elsa Galarza, Universidad del Pacifico, Peru; Silvia Giada, UNEP, Panama; Alexander Girvan, The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Mayte González, The Nature Conservancy, Panama; Keisha Garcia, The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Mark Griffith, UNEP, Panama; Gladys Hernández, Centro de Investigaciones de la Economía Mundial, Cuba; Guillermo Castro Herrera, International Sustainable Development Center, Panama; Paul Hinds, College of Science, Technology and Applied Arts of Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago; Martha Macedo de Lima, Barata Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil; Arturo Flores Martínez, Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales – SEMARNAT, Mexico; Graciela Metternicht, UNEP, Panama; Ana Rosa Moreno, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico; Ernesto Guhl Nannetti, Institute for Sustainable Development – CIDES, Colombia; Keith Nichols, Organisation of the Eastern Caribbean States, St. Lucia; Rodrigo Noriega, International Sustainable Development Center – CIDES, Panama; Daniel Fontana Oberling, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Martin Obermaier, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Mary Otto-Chang, independent consultant, Jamaica; Aida Pacheco, Universidad del Pacifico, Peru; Maurice Rawlins (GEO Fellow), The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Andrea Salinas, UNEP, Panama; Asha Singh, CaribInvest (West Indies) Limited, Guyana; Michael Taylor, University of West Indies, Jamaica; Elisa Tonda, UNEP, Panama; Angel Ureña, Panama Canal Authority, Panama; Oscar Vallarino, Panama Canal Authority, Panama; Ernesto Viglizzo, National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Argentina; Jessica Young, MarViva Foundation, Panama; William Wills, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Joanna Noelia Kamiche Zegarra, Universidad del Pacifico, Peru. Chapter 13 North America: Robert Adler, University of Utah, USA; Jane Barr, independent expert, Canada; John Campbell, US Forest Service, USA; James Dobrowolski, US Department of Agriculture, USA; José Etcheverry, York University, Toronto, Canada; Catherine Hallmich (GEO Fellow), Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Canada; Jim Lazar, The Regulatory Assistance Project, USA; Philippe Le Prestre, Université Laval, Canada; Lailai Li, Stockholm Environment Institute, Thailand; Alexander Kenny, Center for International Sustainable Development Law, Canada; Lori Lynch, University of Maryland, USA; Russell M. Meyer, Pew Center on Global Climate Change, USA; Robin Newmark, US Department of Energy, USA; Janet Peace, Pew Center on Global Change, USA; Julie A. Suhr Pierce, US Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, USA; Marc Sydnor, University of Denver, USA; Stephen Yamasaki, EcoTerra Solutions, Canada. Chapter 14 West Asia: Asma Abahussain, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Ibrahim Abdel Gelil, Arabian Gulf University, Egypt; Mohamed Abdulrazzak, Independent Expert, Saudi Arabia; Anwar Abdu Khalil, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Mohammad S. Abido, Damascus University, Syria; Fouad Abousamra, UNEP, Syria; Mukdad Al-Khateeb, Environment Research Center, Iraq; Maha Al-Sabbagh, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Lulwa N Ali, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait; Mahmoud Al-Sibai, Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands, Syria; Hashim Al-Sayed, University of Bahrain, Bahrain; Abdullah Droubi, Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones and Dry Lands, Syria; Amr El-Sammak, Arabian Gulf University, Egypt; Ahmad Fares Asfary, Independent Expert, Syria; Nesreen Ghaddar, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Mohamed Abdel Raouf Abdel Hamid Aly, Gulf Research Center, Egypt; Amir Ibrahim, Tishreen University, Syria; Mohammad Abdul Rahman Hassan, Dubai Municipality, UAE, Muhyiddine Jradi, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Ahmed Khalil, Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Sudan; Abdel Hadi Mohamed, Arabian Gulf University, Sudan; Amr El-Sammak and Ahmed Ali Salih, Arabian Gulf University, Sudan. Chapter 15 Regional Summary: Jane Barr, independent expert, Canada; Ludgarde Angèle Elisa Coppens, UNEP, Kenya; Nicolai Dronin, Moscow

Contributors

499

State University, Russia; Amir El-Sammak, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Jose Etcheverry, York University, Toronto, Canada; Lailai Li, Stockholm Environment Institute, Thailand; Clever Mafuta, UNEP/GRID-Arendal, Norway; Catherine P. McMullen, independent consultant, Canada; Renat Perelet, Institute for Systems Analysis, Russia; Flavia Rovira (GEO Fellow), Centro de Investigaciones Económicas, Uruguay; Asha Singh, CaribInvest (West Indies) Limited, Guyana; Joanna Noelia Kamiche Zegarra, Universidad del Pacifico, Peru. Chapter 16 Scenarios Sustainability Transformation: Pinar Ertör Akyazi (GEO Fellow), Boğaziçi University, Turkey; Rob Alkemade, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Andrea Bassi, Millennium Institute, USA; Livia Bizikova, International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada; Villy Christensen, University of British Columbia, Canada; Fabio Feldmann, consultant, Brazil; Martina Floerke, University of Kassel, Germany; Jill Jäger, independent expert, UK; Marcel Kok, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Paul Lucas, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Diane Mangalagiu, University of Oxford, UK; Washington Ochola, Regional University Forum for Capacity Building, Kenya; Begum Ozkaynak, Boğaziçi University, Turkey; Trista Patterson, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, USA; Natalia Pervushina (GEO Fellow), Central European University, Hungary; Laszlo Pinter, Central European University/International Institute for Sustainable Development, Hungary/Canada; Weishuang Qu, Millennium Institute, USA; Kilaparti Ramakrishna, Woods Hole Research Center, USA; Claudia Ringler, International Food Policy Research Institute, Germany; John Shilling, Millennium Institute, USA; Darren Swanson, International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada; Detlef van Vuuren, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands. Chapter 17 Global Responses: Ibrahim Abdel Gelil, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Ivar Baste, Directorate for Nature Management, Norway; Satishkumar Belliethathan, Horn of Africa – Regional Environment Centre/ Network, Ethiopia; Vivien Campal, Secretary of State for Environment and Sustainable Development, Guinea-Bissau; Bradnee Chambers, UNEP, Kenya; Melissa Goodall (GEO Fellow), Yale University, USA; Joyeeta Gupta, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands; Peter M. Haas, University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA; Zerisenay Habtezion, Harvard University, USA; Achim Halpaap, UNITAR, Switzerland; Maria Ivanova, University of Massachusetts Boston, USA; Peter N. King, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Thailand; Marcel Kok, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Bernice Lee, Chatham House, UK; Marcus Lee, The World Bank, USA; Slobodan Milutinovic, University of Nis, Serbia; Jennifer Clare Mohamed-Katerere, independent expert, South Africa; Trista Patterson, US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, USA; Felix Preston (GEO-Fellow), Chatham House, UK. Scientific Peer-Reviewers (Coordinated by ESSP): Keigo Akimoto, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Japan; Mahmoud Ali, Arab Organization for Agricultural Development, Syria; Erik Ansink, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands; Masroor Ellahi Babar, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pakistan; David Barkin, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Mexico; Janos Bogardi, University of Bonn, Germany; Philippe Bourdeau, Director (ret.) DG Research, European Commission; Josep Canadell, Marine and Atmospheric Research, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia; Graciela Ana Canziani, Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Andrea Birgit Chavez Michaelesen, Universidad Nacional Amazonica de Madre de Dios, Peru; Kevin Cheung, Macquarie University, Australia; Antonio Cruzado, Oceans Catalonia International SL, Spain; Shobhakar Dhakal, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Serigne Faye, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Marina Fischer-Kowalski, Alpen Adria Universitaet, Austria; Amadou Thierno Gaye, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Mark O. Gessner, Berlin Institute of Technology, Germany; Evgeny Gordov, Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems, Russia; Dagmar Haase, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Germany; Itsuki Handoh, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan; Nick Harvey, University of Adelaide, Australia; Lars Hein, Wageningen University, Netherlands; Gerhard J. Herndl, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Netherlands; Shu-Li Huang, National Taipei University, Taiwan Province of China; Falk Huettmann, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, USA; Ada Ignaciuk, Earth System Sciences

500

Contributors

Partnership, France; Muhammad Mohsin Iqbal, Global Change Impact Studies Centre, Pakistan; Louise Jackson, University of California, Davis, USA; Sharad Jain, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India; Ian Jenkinson, Agency for Consultation and Research in Oceanography, France; Rainer Krug, Stellenbosch University, South Africa; Nelson Lourenco, IGBPInternational Geosphere Biosphere Programme/Global Change, Portugal; Angela M. Maharaj, Macquarie University, Australia; Miyuki Nagashima, Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Japan; Daiju Narita, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, Germany; Isabelle Niang, University of Dakar, Senegal; Patrick Nunn, University of New England, Australia; Jay O’Keeffe, Rhodes University, South Africa; Jean-Pierre Ometto, Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, Brazil; Ursula Oswald Spring, National University of Mexico, Mexico; Claudia Pahl-Wostl, Institute for Environmental Systems Research, Germany; Nirmalie Pallewatta, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka; Henrique M. Pereira, University of Lisbon, Portugal; Erika Pires Ramos, Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, Brazil; Germán Poveda, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia; Francesc Prenafeta, Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology, Spain; Seema Purushothaman, Centre for Conservation Governance and Policy, ATREE, India; Dork Sahagian, Lehigh University, USA; Galia Selaya, Madre de Dios-Pando Consortium, Bolivia; Mika Sillanpaa, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland; Maria Siwek, University of Technology and Life Sciences, Poland; Erika Techera, University of Western Australia, Australia; Holm Tiessen, Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, Brazil; Klement Tockner, Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany; Aysun Uyar, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan; Emma Archer van Garderen, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa; Tracy Van Holt, East Carolina University, USA; Stefano Vignudelli, National Research Council, Italy; Hassan Virji, International START Secretariat, USA; Angela Wagener, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Hong Yang, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology, Switzerland. High-Level Intergovernmental Advisory Panel: Rajender Ahlawat, Ministry of Environment and Forests, India; Liana Bratasida, Ministry of Environment, Indonesia; Hussein A. Al-Gunied, Ministry of Water and Environment, Yemen; Wahid Al-Shuely, Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, Oman; Burcu Bursali, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Turkey; Sandra De Carlo, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Mantang Cai, Peking University, China; Jorge Laguna Celis, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico; Guilherme da Costa, Secretariat of State for Environment and Sustainable Development, Guinea Bissau; Raouf Dabbas, Ministry of Environment, Jordan; Martijn Dadema, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands; Idunn Eidheim, Ministry of Environment, Norway; Prudence Galega, Ministry of Environment and Protection of Nature, Cameroon; Nilkanth Ghosh, Ministry of Environment and Forests, India; Rosario Gomez, Ministry of Environment, Peru; Xia Guang, Ministry of Environmental Protection, China; Han Huiskamp, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands; Jos Lubbers, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands; John Michael Matuszak, US Department of State, USA; Samira Nateche, Ministry of Land and Planning, Environment and Tourism, Algeria; Kim Thi Thuy Ngoc, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam; Jose Rafael Almonte Perdomo, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Dominican Republic; Majid ShafiePour-Motlagh, Department of Environment, Iran; Van Tai Nguyen, Institute of Strategy and Policy on Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam; Jiang Wei, Ministry of Environmental Protection, China; Albert Williams, Department of the Environment, Vanuatu; Daniel Ziegerer, Federal Office of Environment, Switzerland. Science and Policy Advisory Board: Asma Ali Abahussain, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Pinhas Alpert, Tel Aviv University, Israel; Torkil Jonch Clausen, UNEP-DHI Centre for Water and Environment, Denmark; Ahmed Djoghlaf, Secretariat of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Canada; Susanne Dröge, German Institute for International and Security Affairs, Germany; Kejun Jiang, Energy Research Institute, China; Nicholas King, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Denmark; Filipo Lansigan, University of Los Banos, Philippines; Anne Larigauderie, DIVERSITAS, France; Emilio Lèbre La Rovere, Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Meio Ambiente/COPPE/UFRJ, Brazil; Jacqueline McGlade, European Environment Agency, Denmark; Luisa T. Molina, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA; Toral Patel-Weynand, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, USA; Nicolas Perritaz, Federal Office for the Environment, Switzerland; Carlos A. Quesada, University of San Jose,

Costa Rica; Chirapol Sintunawa, Mahidol University, Thailand; Sandra Torrusio, National Commission of Space Activities, Argentina; George Varughese, Development Alternatives Group, India; Robert Watson, Department for Environmental, Food and Rural Affairs, UK. Data and Indicators Working Group: Asma Ali Abahussain, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Ezgi Akpinar-Ferrand, University of Cincinnati, Turkey; Barbara Clark, European Environment Agency, Denmark; Sandra de Carlo, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Volodymyr Demkine, UNEP, Kenya; Alexander Gorobets, Sevastopol National Technical University, Ukraine; Eszter Horvath, United Nations Statistics Division, USA; Koffi Kouadio, Ministry of Environment, Water and Forest, Cote d’Ivoire; Murari Lal, University of the South Pacific, Fiji; Samwiri Musisi-Nkambwe, University of Botswana, Botswana; Ambinistoa Lucie Noasilalaonomenjanahary, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Madagascar; Toral Patel-Weynand, US Forest Service, USA; Muhammad Munir Sheikh, Global Change Impact Studies Center, Pakistan; Ashbindu Singh, UNEP, USA; Anil Kumar Thanappan, Environmental Agency – Abu Dhabi, UAE; Susan Tumwebaze, Makerere University, Uganda; Héctor Tuy, University Raphael Landivar, Guatemala; Jaap van Woerden, UNEP, Switzerland. Extended UNEP Team: Henry Aguilar, Mozaharul Alam, Jacqueline Alder, Meryem C. Amar, Neville Ash, Margarita Astrálaga, Jacqueline Alvarez, Mario Boccucci, Vivienne Caballero, Christopher Corbin, Mara Angélica Murillo Correa, Artie Dubrie, Heidelore Fiedler, Alex Forbes, Amy Fraenkel, Sandor Frigyik, Joanna Granados, Julie Greenwalt, Moustapha Kamal Gueye, Niklas Hagelberg, Jonathan Gilman, Silja Halle, Ampai Harakunarak, Arab Hoballah, Melanie Hutchinson, David Jensen, Bob Kakuyo, Khaled Klaly, Alexander Koch, Fanina R. Kodre-Alexander, Nicolas Kosoy, Angela Lusigi, Janet Macharia, Kaj Madsen, Katarina Magulova, Isabel Martínez, Patricia Miranda, David H.W. Morgan, Richard Munang, Masa Nagai, Theodore Oben, YoungWoo Park, Wahida Patwa-Shah, Alex Pires, Ravi Prabhu, Purna Rajbhandari, Jean Jacob Sahou, Andrea Salinas, John Scanlon, Yasmin Shehata, Guido Sonnemann, Tunnie Srisakulchairak, Angele Lu Sy, Gemma Shepherd, Claudia ten Have, Dechen Tshering, Stephen Twomlow, Carla Valle-Klann, James Vener, Kamar Yousuf, Massimiliano Zandomeneghi, Max Zieren. Other United Nations Bodies: Russel Arthuton, IOC of UNESCO; Magaran Bagayoko, WHO; Juan Carlos Belausteguigoitia, The World Bank; Ruhiza Jean Boroto, FAO; Christopher Briggs, UNDP; Seon-Mi Choi, UNDP; Henrik Oksfeldt Enevoldsen, UNESCO; José Escamilla, PAHO; José Javier Gómez, UN ECLAC; Jacob Gyamfi-Aidoo, UNDP; Peter Holmgren, FAO; Mahendra Joshi, UNFF; Mikhail Kokine, UN ECE; Lars Gunnar Marklund, FAO; Johnson Nkem, UNDP; Emilio Pinto, PAHO; Hitomi Rankine, UN ESCAP; Mukundan Pillay, WHO; Paul Steele, UNDP; Terrence Thompson, WHO; María Noel Vaeza, UNOPS; Walter Vergara, The World Bank; Margarita Zambrano, UNHCR. External Reviewers: Asma Ali Abahussain, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Mohammad Abido, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Mariam AkhtarSchuster, Desertnet International, Germany; Stephanie Aktipis, US Department of State, USA; Dhari Al-Ajmi, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait; Jean Albergel, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, France; Mukdad Al-Khateeb, University of Technology, Iraq; Habiba Al Marashi, Emirates Environmental Group, UAE; Sergio Alvarez, Ministry of Environment Rural and Marine Affairs, Spain; Li An, San Diego State University, USA; Matheus Marques Andreozzi, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Michelle Andriamahazo, Ministry of Agriculture, Madagascar; Fabio Franca Silva Araujo, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Fethi Ayache, Université de Sousse, Tunisia; Julio Cesar Baena, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Robert Bakiika, Environmental Management for Livelihood Improvement Bwaise Facility, Uganda; Jan Bakkes, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Zoltan Balint, FAO, Hungary; Martha Macedo de Lima Barata, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil; Alisson Barbieri, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil; Garfield Barnwell, Caribbean Community Secretariat, Guyana; Stephen Bates, Department of Sustainability Environment Water Population and Communities, Australia; Adriana Panhol Bayma, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Douglas Beard, US Geological Survey, USA; Asmeret Asefaw Berhe, University of California Merced, USA; Martial Bernoux, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, France; Alka Bharat, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, India; Janos Bogardi, University of Bonn, Germany; Hans-Georg Bohle, University of Bonn, Germany; Marcel Bovy, Sustainability

Guidance, Netherlands; Andreas Brink, Joint Research Center – European Commission, Italy; Carmen Burghelea, University of Vigo, Romania; Nadia Bystriakova, Natural History Museum, UK; Jillian Campbell, United Nations Secretariat, USA; Rita Cerutti, Environment Canada, Canada; Antony Challenger, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Mexico; Hung Chak Ho, Mississippi State University, USA; Ge Chazhong, Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning, China; Marion Cheatle, independent expert, UK; Mbow Cheikh, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Weixue Cheng, Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning, China; Norma Cherry-Fevrier, Ministry of Finance, Economic Affairs and National Development, Saint Lucia; Barthod Christian, Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development, Transport and Housing, France; Adriano Ciani, Perugia University, Italy; Barbara Clark, European Environment Agency, Denmark; Petru Cocirta, Institute of Ecology and Geography of the Academy of Sciences, Moldova; Ana Corado, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA; Sérgio Ferreira Cortizo, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Sylvie Côté, Environment Canada, Canada; Sandra De Carlo, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Nathalie Delrue, OECD, France; Xiangzheng Deng, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Alvaro Aguilar Díaz, Ministerio de Ambiente, Energía y Telecomunicaciones, Costa Rica; Kelly Rain Dodge, US Department of State, USA; Ida Edwertz, Ministry of Environment, Sweden; Kassem El-Saddik, Développement Sans Frontieres, Lebanon; Karlheinz Erb, Institute of Social Ecology, USA; Keston Finch, The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Jeff Fox, US Department of State, USA; Teodoro Georgiadis, Institute of Biometeorology of the National Research Council, Italy; Matthew Gerdin, US Department of State, USA; Anju Ghoorah, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Mauritius; Alexander Girvan, The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Kees Klein Goldewijk, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Liza Grandia, Clark University, USA; Xia Guang, Ministry of Environmental Protection, China; Andres Guhl, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia; Rodrigo Afonso Guimarães, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Slayde Hawkins, Forest Trends, USA; Hans-Joachim Hermann, Federal Environmental Agency, Germany; Jeff Herrick, US Department of Agriculture, USA; Vicki Hird, World Society for the Protection of Animals, UK; Yi Huang, Peking University, China; Lloyd C. Irland, University of Maine, USA; Klaus Jacob, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany; Ljubomir Jeftic, independent consultant, Croatia; Gensuo Jia, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Li Jinhui, Basel Convention Coordinating Centre for Asia and the Pacific, China; Liu Jinyuan, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Daniel Jones, Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK; Heather Jones-Otazo, Health Canada, Canada; Muhyiddine Jradi, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Wilfred Kadewa, University of Malawi, Malawi; Douglas Karlen, US Department of Agriculture, USA; Jiang Kejun, Energy Research Institute, China; Martin Kijazi, University of Toronto, Canada; Nicolas King, Global Biodiversity Information Facility, Denmark; Barbara Knox-Seith, US Agency for International Development, USA; Noriko Kobayashi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan; Murari Lal, University of the South Pacific, Fiji; Greg Liknes, US Department of Agriculture, USA; Ronald Macfarlane, Toronto Public Health, Canada; Mazen Malkawi, WHO, Jordan; Cai Mantang, Peking University, China; Ney Maranhão, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Saskia Marijnissen, UNDP/GEF Project on Partnership Interventions for the Implementation of the Strategic Action Programme for Lake Tanganyika, Burundi; Bernado Marke, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Brazil; Mike McGahuey, US Agency for International Development, USA; Elizabeth McLanahan, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA; Carlos Mena, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador; Alexander Metcalf, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA; Frank Müller, Asia Pacific Roundtable for Sustainable Consumption and Production, Thailand; Michele Muniz, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; John K. Musingi, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Mark Nelson, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, USA; Keith E. Nichols, Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States, Saint Lucia; Itzchel Nieto, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, Mexico; Taina Nikula, Ministry of the Environment, Finland; Theophile Niyonzima, National University of Rwanda, Rwanda; Ambinintsoa Lucie Noasilalaonomenjanahary, Ministry of Environment and Forest, Madagascar; Patrick Nussbaumer, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Austria; Htwe Nyo, National Commission for Environmental Affairs, Myanmar; Alice Oluoko-Odingo, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Andréa Oncala, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Konrad Otto-Zimmermann, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, Germany; Dawn Parker, University

Contributors

501

of Waterloo, Canada; Toral Patel-Weynand, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, USA; Netatua Pelesikoti, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa; Maria Pena, University of the West Indies, Barbados; Monica Peres, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Nicolas Perritaz, Federal Office for the Environment, Switzerland; Rebecca L. Powell, University of Denver, USA; Narcisa G. Pricope, University of Florida, USA; Kaushalya Ramachandran, Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India; Maurice Rawlins, The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Richard Roseman, US Department of State, USA; Kurt Riitters, US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, USA; Taeho Ro, Korea Environment Institute, Republic of Korea; John Romankiewicz, US Department of State, USA; Dale Rothman, University of Denver, USA; Najib Saab, Arab Forum for Environment and Development, Lebanon; Nurhuda Binti Salam, Department of Environment, Malaysia; Neil Sampson, Vision Forestry, LLC, USA; Henriette Schweizerhof, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany; Richard Sigman, OECD, France; Juliana Simões, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Benjamin Sleeter, US Geological Survey, USA; Stephan Slingerland, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; William Sonntag, US Environmental Protection Agency, USA; Anand Sookun, Central Statistics Office, Mauritius; Mary Beth Steisslinger, Global Commons Trust, USA; Karen Regina Suassuna, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Danling Tang, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Tracy Timmins, University of Calgary, Canada; Mary Andy Rowen Tobiason, US Agency for International Development, USA; Bella Tonkonogy, Department of Treasury, USA; Darin Tooney, US Department of State, USA; Jerry Touval, The Nature Conservancy, USA; Nathalie Unterstell, Ministry of Environment, Brazil; Niko Urho, Ministry of the Environment, Finland; Ingrid Verstraeten, US Geological Survey, USA; Anne Wein, US Geological Survey, USA; Judith S. Weis, Rutgers University, USA; Mona M. Westergaard, Environmental Protection Agency, Denmark; Dano Wilusz, US Department of State, USA; Maria Witmer, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Kerstin Wortman, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany; Lesley Woudberg, Ministry for the Environment, New Zealand; H. E. Mohammadi Zadeh, Department of Environment, Iran; Jieqing Zhang, Ministry of Environmental Protection, China; Daniel Ziegerer, Federal Office for the Environment, Switzerland. Individuals and institutions – from governments, partner institutions, the scientific community and the private sector – who contributed to the GEO-5 assessment process in a variety of ways, including GEO-5 regional and intergovernmental consultations: Africa: Ahmed Abdelrehim, Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe, Egypt; Ali Adan Ali, National Museums of Kenya, Kenya; Jonathan Addo Allotey, Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana; Marie-Laetitia Busokeye, Rwanda Environment Management Authority, Rwanda; Lizete Marina Firmino, Minister of Environment, Angola; Osman Mirghani Mohammed Ali, University of Khartoum, Sudan; Ayman Tharwat Amin, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Egypt; Daniel S. Amlalo, Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana; Michelle Andriamahazo, Ministry of Agriculture, Madagascar; Samuel Ndonwi Ayonghe, University of Buea, Cameroon; Adnan A. Awad, University of the Western Cape, South Africa; Robert Bakiika, Environmental Management for Livelihood Improvement Bwaise Facility, Uganda; Ndey Sireng Bakurin, National Environment Agency, The Gambia; Philip O. Bankole, Federal Ministry of Environment, Nigeria; Mohammed El Bouch, Ministry of Water and Environment, Morocco; Viriatú Cassamá, Secretariat of State for Environment and Sustainable Development, Guinea-Bissau; Oliver Chapeyama, independent consultant, Botswana; Mbow Cheikh, Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Thandiwe Chikomo, Birdlife International, Kenya; Tabeth Chiuta, World Fish Center, Zambia; Famara Drammeh, Daily Observer News Paper, The Gambia; Scopas Jibi Dima, Ministry of Environment, South Sudan; Mathieu Ducrocq, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Mauritania; Nadia Makram Ebeid, Center for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe, Egypt; Abu Bakr Elsiddig Ahmed Eltohami, Omdurman Ahlia University, Sudan; Thiyu Kohoga Essobiyou, Ministry of Environment and Forest Resources, Togo; Serigne Faye, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Michael Vosa Flyman, Department of Environmental Affairs, Botswana; Cheikh Fofana, Secrétariat Intérimaire du Volet Environnement du NEPAD, Senegal; Louis Gachimbi, National Environment Management

502

Contributors

Authority, Kenya; Tesfaye Woldeyes Gammo, Ethiopia; Brad Garanganga, SADC Drought Monitoring Centre, Zimbabwe; Jean Paul Gaudechoux, Indian Ocean Commission, Mauritius; Noha Ekram Abdel Gawad, Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe, Egypt; Amadou Thierno Gaye, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Mercy Wamukore Gichora, Kenya Forestry Research Institute, Kenya; John Githaiga, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Sives Govender, Network for the Co-operative Management of Environmental Information in Africa (EIS Africa), South Africa; Youssouf Hamadi, Ministry of Production, Fisheries, Environment, Industry, Energy and Handicraft, Comoros; Mamoudou Hamadou, Ministère de l’Hydraulique et de l’Environnement, Niger; Mohamed Salem Hamouda, Environment General Authority, Libya; Pascal Houenou, Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa, Cote d’Ivoire; Issa Ibro, Ministère de l’Environnement et de la Lutte Contre la Désertification, Niger; I. A. Jaiyeoba, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria; Remi Jiagho, Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature, Cameroon; Marie Rose Kabura, Ministry of Water, Environment, Land Use and Urban Planning, Burundi; Wilfred Kadewa, University of Malawi, Malawi; Adjakouma Kakou, Radio des Nations Unies, Cote d’Ivoire; Timothy Kaluma, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kenya; Mona Mohamed Kamal, Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency, Egypt; Macharia Kamau, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kenya; Alioune Kane, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Samuel Kanyamibwa, independent consultant, Rwanda; Lydia Karanja, National Environment Management Authority, Kenya; Charlotte Karibuhoye, Foundation Internationale du Banc d’Arguin, Senegal; Habtemariam Kassa, Center for International Forestry Research – Ethiopia Office, Ethiopia; Norah M. Kendeli, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kenya; Ahmed Khalil, Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Sudan; Mamadou Khouma, International Development Consulting, Senegal; John Kiringe, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Boniface Kiteme, Centre for Training and Research in ASAL Development, Kenya; Yao Bernard Koffi, Ministry of Environment, Water and Forest, Cote d’Ivoire; Kassim Kulindwa, Norwegian University of Life Sciences/University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Christian Padingani Kunkadi, Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Tourism, Democratic Republic of Congo; Winnie Lau, Forest Trends, USA; Robert Lewis Lettington, legal consultant, Kenya; Everlyn Macharia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kenya; Lapologang Magole, University of Botswana, Botswana; Amadou Maiga, Ministère de l’Environnement et de l’Assainissement, Mali; Willy R. Makundi, independent consultant, Tanzania; Joel Celestin Mamboundou, Croissance Saine Environnement, Gabon; Anna Mampye, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, South Africa; Paul Stephen Maro, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Isabelle Masinde, African Wildlife Foundation, Kenya; Klaus Mithoefer, African Insect Science for Food and Health, Kenya; Nosiku S. Munyinda, University of Zambia, Zambia; Telly Eugene Muramira, National Environment Management Authority, Uganda; John K. Musingi, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Mukundi Mutasa, Topline Research Solutions, Zimbabwe; Nyawira Muthiga, Wildlife Conservation Society, Kenya; Francis Mwaura, University of Nairobi, Kenya; Richard Mwendandu, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, Kenya; David Melchisédéck Yangbondo, Central African Republic; Jacques Andre Ndione, Centre de Suivi Ecologique, Senegal; Parkinson Ndonye, Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources, Kenya; Alleta R. Nenguke, Environment Management Agency, Zimbabwe; Tcharbuahbokengo Nfinn, Federation of Environmental and Ecological Diversity for Agricultural Revampment and Human Rights, Cameroon; Erasmo Roberto Nhachungue, Ministry of Environmental Affairs, Mozambique; Musisi Nkambwe, University of Botswana, Botswana; Isabelle Niang, Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar, Senegal; Betty Nzioka, National Environment Management Authority, Kenya; Jorge Rafael Jora Obiamo, Ministry of Fisheries and the Environment, Equatorial Guinea; David Obura, Coastal Oceans Research and Development in the Indian Ocean, Kenya; Ochieng Ogodo, Science and Development Network, Kenya; Jay O’Keeffe, Rhodes University, South Africa; Olukayode Oladipo, Bells University of Technology, Nigeria; Alice Oluoko-Odingo, University of Nairobi, Kenya; David Ongare, National Environment Management Authority, Kenya; Alfred Opere, University of Nairobi, Kenya; George Olago Owuor, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kenya; Chedly Rais, Regional Activity Centre for Specially Protected Areas, Tunisia; Belinda Reyers, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa; John L. Roberts, independent consultant, Mauritius; Houssein Rirache Roble, Direction de l’Environnement du Territoire et de l’Énvironnement, Djibouti; Mayar Sabet, Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe, Egypt; Jefter Sakupwanya, ORGUT Consulting AB, Mozambique; Camille Flore

Jepang Sandjong, Programme Regional Eau et Zones Humides, Cameroon; Gerald Musoke Sawula, National Environment Management Authority, Uganda; Ashraf Nour Shalaby, League of Arab States, Egypt; Constantine Shayo, Tanzania; Cletus Ignace Shengena, Vice-President’s Office, Tanzania; Gift Sikaundi, Environment Council of Zambia, Zambia; Nouri Soussi, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Tunisia; Sokhna Sy Diallo, Direction de l’Environnement et des Etablissements Classés, Senegal; Egline Tawuya, Southern African Research and Documentation Centre/Musokotwane Environment Resource Centre for Southern Africa, Zimbabwe; Maino Virobo, Department of Environment and Conservation, Papua New Guinea; Ben Wandago, International Union for Conservation of Nature Eastern Africa Regional Office, Kenya; Harun Warui, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Kenya; Baraza Wangwe, National Environment Management Authority, Kenya.

Teariki-Ruatu, Ministry of Environment, Lands and Agriculture Development, Kiribati; Maung Maung Than, Ministry of Environment Conservation and Forestry, Myanmar; Somsak Triamjangarun, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Thailand; Karma Tshering, National Environment Commission, Bhutan; Hoang Duong Tung, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam; Ahmed Ashan Uddin, Center for Global Change, Bangladesh; Jinnan Wang, Chinese Academy for Environmental Planning, China; Supat Wangwongwatana, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand; Yohpy Ichsan Wardana, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Indonesia; Albert Abel Williams, Department of Environment and Conservation, Vanuatu; Huang Yi, Peking University, China; Hai Yu, Ministry of Environmental Protection, China; Zhang Yutian, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, China; Tshewang Zangmo, National Environment Commission, Bhutan.

Asia and the Pacific: Joseph Aitaro, Ministry of Natural Resources, Environment and Tourism, Palau; Oluwatobi Akanle, International Institute for Sustainable Development, UK; Chamina Priyankari Alexander, South Asia Cooperative Environment Programme, Sri Lanka; Cholpon Alibakieva, State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry, Kyrgyz Republic; Chonchinee Amawatana, Asian Development Bank, Thailand; Saikia Anshuman, International Union for Conservation of Nature Asia Regional Office, Thailand; Kamil Ashimov, State Agency on Environment Protection and Forestry, Kyrgyzstan; Uddhav Prasad Baskota, Ministry of Environment, Nepal; Henry Bastaman, Ministry of Environment, Indonesia; Mirza Salman Babar Beg, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Pakistan; Mantang Cai, Peking University, China; Akihiro Chiashi, Ritsumeikan University, Japan; Kanchan Chopra, University of Delhi Enclave, India; Munir Chowdhury, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Bangladesh; Yoo Yeon Chul, Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea; Nicholas T. Dammen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Indonesia; Ashish Despande, Maulana Azud National Institute of Technology, India; Laksmi Dhewanthi, Ministry of Environment, Indonesia; Chazhong Ge, Chinese Academy of Environment Planning, China; Manuel D. Gerochi, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines; Abbas Golriz, Department of International Economic Affairs and Specialized Agencies, Iran; Xia Guang, Ministry of Environmental Protection, China; Toshiaki Ichinose, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Dahe Jiang, Tongji University, China; Galiya Karibzhanova, Ministry of Environment Protection, Kazakhstan; Soudavee Keopaseuth, Water Resources and Environment Administration, Lao PDR; Masanori Kobayashi, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; Cheol Hee Kim, Pusan National University, Republic of Korea; Peter Kouwenhoven, CLIMsystems, New Zealand; D. Johny Kusumo, Ministry of Environment, Indonesia; Murari Lal, University of the South Pacific, Fiji; Kosimiki Latu, Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme, Samoa; Byoung Yoon Lee, National Institute of Biological Resources, Republic of Korea; Dong Li, Tongji University, China; Daniela Liggett, University of Canterbury, New Zealand; Demetrio Jr. Luciano, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines; Nguyen Hung Minh, Vietnam Environment Administration, Vietnam; Arabindra Mishra, The Energy and Resources Institute, India; Khieu Muth, Ministry of Environment, Cambodia; Seul-ki Myoung, UNEP National Committee, Republic of Korea; Hasnun Nahar, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Bangladesh; Somrudee Nicrowattanayingyong, Thailand Environment Institute, Thailand; Nuradi Noeri, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Indonesia; Rahul Pandey, Integrated General Systems Analysis Labs, India; Majid Shafie-Pour-Motlagh, Department of Environment, Iran; Meera Pandit Pattni, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Thailand; Batimaa Punsalmaa, Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism, Mongolia; Atiq Rahman, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, Bangladesh; Bakhodir Rakhmanov, State Committee for the Nature Protection, Uzbekistan; Neelam Rana, Development Alternatives Group, India; Kim Sanghoon, Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea; Vivek Saxena, Ministry of Environment and Forests, India; Heinz Schandl, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Australia; M. I. Sharif, Bangladesh Centre for Advanced Studies, Bangladesh; Keshav Prasad Sharma, Ministry of Environment, Nepal; Leena Srivastava, The Energy and Resources Institute, India; Anond Snidvongs, Southeast Asia START Regional Center, Thailand; Laska Sophal, Ministry of Environment, Cambodia; Nguyen Van Tai, Institute of Strategy and Policy on Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam; Kiyoshi Takahashi, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; Eiji Tanaka, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan; Abhimuk Tantihabhakul, Office of National Resources and Environmental Policy and Planning, Thailand; Tshering Tashi, National Environment Commission, Bhutan; Nenenteiti

Europe: Rashad Allahverdiyev, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Azerbaijan; Ros Almond, World Wildlife Fund IUCN/SSC Sustainable Use Specialist Group, UK; Valentine Altmater, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France; Markus Amann, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria; Erik Ansik, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands; John Barrett, University of York, UK; Heike Baumueller, Chatham House, UK; Volodymyr Bilokon, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Ukraine; Bastian Bomhard, UNEP-WCMC, UK; Ninni Maud Christina Lundblad Borén, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Sweden; Daniela Breidler, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Austria; Andreas Michael Burger, Federal Environmental Agency, Germany; Olga Butko, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Ukraine; Francisco Cadarso, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Spain; Sophie Condé, National Museum of Natural History, France; William Darwall, International Union for Conservation of Nature, UK; Nicolas Dasnois, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France; David Dent, CABI Bioscience, UK; Erdoğan Erturk, Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs, Turkey; Joan Fabres, UNEP/ GRID-Arendal, Norway; Jon Geddes, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, UK; Luminita Guminita Ghita, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Romania; Nino Gokhelashvili, Ministry of Environment Protection, Georgia; Richard Gregory, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, UK; Charles Hieronymi, Federal Office for the Environment, Switzerland; Peter Hooda, Kingston University London, UK; Monika Kaczyńska, Ministry of the Environment, Poland; Larisa Kharatova, Ministry of Nature Protection, Armenia; Richard Klein, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; Natalija Koprivanac, University of Zagreb, Croatia; Hratch Kouyoumjian, Regional Science, Technology and Innovation Observatory, UK; Fred Langeweg, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Evgeny Lazarev, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Belarus; Melissa Leach, Institute for Development Studies, UK; Rik Leemans, Earth Systems Science Partnership, Netherlands; Roger Levett, Levett-Therivel, UK; Georgina Mace, Imperial College London, UK; Tural Mammadov, Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources, Azerbaijan; Tom Manders, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Peter P. Mollinga, University of London, UK; Marketa Mohn, Ministry of the Environment, Czech Republic; Davut Oguz, Ministry of Forest and Water Affairs, Turkey; Nebojsa D. Redzic, Environmental Protection Agency, Serbia; Lisa Schipper, Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden; Rima Mekdaschi Studeer, University of Bern, Switzerland; George Dragos Zaharescu, Vigo University, Spain; Dalia Maier, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Romania; Juliet Migwi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, United Kingdom; Markus Ohndorf, Institut für Umweltentscheidungen (ETH Zürich), Switzerland; Véronique Plocq-Fichelet, Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment, France; Renate Schubert, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland; David Stanners, European Environment Agency, Denmark; Wendelin Stark, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland; Thomas Stratenwerth, Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany; Petra Tacheci, Ministry of the Environment, Czech Republic; Victoria Thoresen, Partnership for Education and Research about Responsible Living, Norway; Jurjen van der Vlugt, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Netherlands; John Laing Roberts, independent expert, UK. Latin America and the Caribbean: Gherda Barreto, Ministerio del Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, Nicaragua; Marcela Bonilla, Ministry of the Environment, Colombia; Ralph Carnegie, University of West Indies, Barbados; Mónica Castillo, Comisión Centroamericana de Ambiente y Desarrollo, El Salvador; Candy Degracia, Asociación Panamá Verde, Panama; Randolph Antonio Edmead, Ministry of Sustainable Development, Saint Kitts and Nevis; Edgar Ek, Department of the Environment, Belize; Kenneth Fearon, Panama; Jose Feres, Institute of Applied Economic

Contributors

503

Research, Brazil; Argelia Estela Fernández, Agencia de Medio Ambiente, Cuba; Edwin Giovanni Tobar Guzman, Ministerio de Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, Guatemala; Arica Marianne Hill, Ministry of Agriculture, Land, Housing, and the Environment, Antigua and Barbuda; Kenrick Leslie, Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, Belize; Patricia Maccagno, Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable, Argentina; Marcelo Núñez, Ministry of the Environment, Ecuador; César E. Rodríguez Ortega, Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales – SEMARNAT, Mexico; Luis Javier Campuzano Pina, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mexico; JoseManuel Sandoval, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Colombia; Sealy Sean, Ministry of Environment, Water Resources and Drainage, Barbados; Vaitoti Tupa, National Environment Service, Cook Islands; Gabriel Rodríguez Márquez, Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura, Costa Rica; Mirella Martinez, Florida State University, USA; Diana Martucci, Ministerio del Ambiente, Ecuador; Anthony McKenzie, National Environment and Planning Agency, Jamaica; Malena Sarlo, Fundacion Mar Viva, Panama; Rodrigo Tarté, Fundación Ciudad del Saber, Panama; Jessica Young, Fundación Mar Viva, Panama. North America: Karen Bakker, University of British Columbia, Canada; Scott Barclay, National Science Foundation, USA; M. Bruce Beck, University of Georgia, USA; Luc Bouthilier, Université Laval, Canada; Paula Brand, Environment Canada, Canada; Edward Carr, University of South Carolina, USA; Richard Connor, Unisféra International Centre, Canada; Tooney Darin, US Department of State, USA; Ligia Castro de Doens, Land Eco Services, USA; Stewart Elgie, University of Ottawa, Canada; James Galloway, Nitrogen Initiative, USA; Kathryn Harrison, University of British Columbia, Canada; David Houle, University of Toronto, Canada; Giorgios Kallis, University of California, Berkeley, USA; Douglas Macdonald, University of Toronto, Canada; Ronald Macfarlane, Toronto Public Health, Canada; Jerry Melillo, The Ecosystems Center, USA; Jean Mercier, Université Laval, Canada; Tim Morris, Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation, USA; Adil Najam, Boston University, USA; Daniel Pauly, University of British Columbia, Canada; Jim Perry, University of Minnesota, USA; Rebecca L. Powell, University of Denver, USA; Carmen Revenga, The Nature Conservancy, USA; Andrew Rosenberg, Conservation International, USA; Roberto Sanchez-Rodriguez, University of California, Riverside, USA; Beverly Sithole, Management Consulting, USA; John D. Shilling, Millennium Institute, USA; Sarah Ryker, Science and Technology Policy Institute, USA; Liana Talaue-Mcmanus, University of Miami, USA; Tim Weis, The Pembina Institute, Canada. West Asia: Hesham Abd-El Rasol, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Yousef Attallah Ibrahim Abu-Safieh, Palestinian Environment Quality Authority, Palestine; Mohammad Mosa Afaneh, Ministry of Environment, Jordan; Saif Saad Abdaljabbar Al-Aany, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Iraq; Ahmed Hammodi Hamdi Al-Husseini, Ministry of Environment, Iraq; Lulwa N. Ali, Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait; Sabah Aljenaid, College of Graduate Studies, Bahrain; Khalil Ismail Abdulsahib Al-Mosawi, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Iraq; Bara Al-Nakeeb, Ministry of Environment, Iraq; Maha Al-Sabbagh, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Hashim Al-Sayed, University of Bahrain, Bahrain; Waleed Al-Zubari, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Yahia Awaidah, Consultants for Sustainable Development, Syria; Mohammad Badran, Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Saudi Arabia; Abdullah Droubi, The Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones, Syria; Alaa ElSadek, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Anwar Abdu Khalil, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Mohammed Alaa Abdel Moati, Ministry of Environment, Qatar; Abdel Hadi Mohamed, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Riad Sadek, American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Mohammed Saidam, Environment Monitoring and Research Central Unit, Jordan; Ahmed Salih, Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Walid Rajab Shahin, National Energy Research Center, Jordan; Batir Wardam, Ministry of Environment, Jordan.

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Contributors

In-kind support for GEO Fellows: American University of Beirut, Lebanon; Antioch University, USA; Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific, Thailand; Bogazici University, Turkey; University of Calgary, Canada; Central European University, Hungary; Concepción University, Chile; UNEP/ GRID-Arendal, Norway; Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; IGAD Climate Prediction and Application Centre, Kenya; Lanzhou University, China; Lund University, Sweden; McGill University, Canada; Peking University, China; Red Mercosur, Uruguay; Chatham House, UK; The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; Universidad Nacional de Colombia; University of Florida, USA; Water Center for the Humid Tropics of Latin America and the Caribbean, Panama. Contributing institutions and organizations: Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative (AGEDI); Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain; Alexandria University, Egypt; American University of Beirut, Lebanon; ASEAN Centre for Biodiversity, Philippines; Central European University, Hungary; Centre de Suivi Ecologique, Senegal; Centre for Environment and Development for the Arab Region and Europe, Egypt; Centre for International Earth Science Information Network, Columbia University, USA; Centro de Investigaciones de la Economía Mundial, Cuba; College of Science, Technology and Applied Arts of Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad and Tobago; Columbia University, USA; Commission for Environmental Cooperation, Canada; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, Uzbekistan; DIVERSITAS – International Programme of Biodiversity Science, France; Earth System Science Partnership, France; European Environment Agency, Denmark; Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Interdisciplinary Environment Laboratory, Brazil; Higher Institute for Water Management, Syria; ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, Germany; Indiana University, USA; Indian Ocean Commission, Mauritius; Institut für Umweltentscheidungen (ETH Zürich), Switzerland; Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan; Institute Oswaldo Cruz, Brazil; Institute for Sustainable Development, Colombia; International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada; International Sustainable Development Center, Panama; International Union for Conservation of Nature, Cameroon and Thailand; International Water Management Institute – Southeast Asia, Lao PDR; Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait; Moscow State University, Russia; National Environment Management Authority, Uganda; National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan; National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Argentina; Network for Environment and Sustainable Development in Africa, Côte d’Ivoire; PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, Netherlands; Regional Organization for the Conservation of the Environment of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, Mexico; Secretariat of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Canada; Secretariat of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa, Germany; Secretariat of the UN-REDD Programme, Switzerland; Southern African Research and Documentation Centre/Musokotwane Environment Resource Centre for Southern Africa, Zimbabwe; Stockholm Environment Institute, Sweden, Thailand and United Kingdom; The Arab Center for the Studies of Arid Zones, Syria; The Cropper Foundation, Trinidad and Tobago; The Energy and Resources Institute, India; Tishreen University, Syria; Universidad del Pacífico, Peru; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico; University of Bahrain, Bahrain; University of Technology, Iran; University of Toronto, Faculty of Forestry, Canada; World Resources Institute, USA. Note: The affiliations of experts are provided for identification purposes only. The name of the country usually refers to the location of the institution the expert is affiliated with.

Glossary This glossary is compiled from citations in different chapters, and draws from glossaries and other resources available on the websites of the following organizations, networks and projects: American Meteorological Society; Asian Development Bank; Center for Transportation Excellence (United States); Charles Darwin University (Australia); Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research; Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar); Edwards Aquifer Website (United States); Encyclopedia of Earth; Europe’s Information Society; European Commission Environment A to Z; European Environment Agency; European Nuclear Society; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Foundation for Research; Science and Technology (New Zealand); Global Earth Observation System of Systems; Global Footprint Network; GreenFacts Glossary; Illinois Clean Coal Institute (United States); Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; International Centre for Research in Agroforestry; International Comparison Program; International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements; International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University (United States); International Strategy for Disaster Reduction; Lyme Disease Foundation (United States); Millennium Ecosystem Assessment; Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in Europe; National Safety Council (United States); Natsource (United States); Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; Professional Development for Livelihoods (United Kingdom); Redefining Progress (United States); SafariX eTextbooks Online; TheFreeDictionary.com; United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa; United Nations Development Programme; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; United Nations Industrial Development Organization; United Nations Statistics Division; US Department of Agriculture; US Department of the Interior; US Department of Transportation; US Energy Information Administration; US Environmental Protection Agency; US Geological Survey; USLegal.com; Water Footprint Network, the Netherlands; Water Quality Association (United States); Wikipedia; World Bank; World Health Organization and World Intellectual Property Organization.

Abundance The number of individuals or related measure of quantity (such as biomass) in a population, community or spatial unit. Abrupt change The change that takes place so rapidly and unexpectedly that human or natural systems have difficulty adapting to it. Acidification Change in natural chemical balance caused by an increase in the concentration of acidic elements. Acidity A measure of how acid a solution may be. A solution with a pH of less than 7.0 is considered acidic. Adaptation Adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation. Adaptive capacity The potential or ability of a system, region or community to adapt to the effects or impacts of a particular set of changes. Enhancement of adaptive capacity is a practical means of coping with changes and uncertainties, reducing vulnerabilities and promoting sustainable development. Adaptive governance A governance approach that incorporates methods of adaptive management, adaptive policy making and transition management for addressing complex, uncertain and dynamic issues. Adaptive

governance relies on polycentric institutional arrangements for decision making at multiple scales. Spanning the local and global levels, this form of governance provides for collaborative, flexible, learning-based approaches to ecosystem management. Adaptive environmental governance The process of design and execution of policy based on contemporary understanding and ongoing analysis of evolving environmental problems. Spanning the local and global levels, it relies on polycentric institutional arrangements for decisionmaking at multiple scales and provides for evidence-based, consultative and participatory ecosystem management able to evolve along with the problems it aims to address. Adaptive management A systematic management paradigm that assumes natural resource management policies and actions are not static, but are adjusted based on the combination of new scientific and socioeconomic information. Aerosols A collection of airborne solid or liquid particles, with a typical size between 0.01 and 10 micrometres (Âľm), that reside in the atmosphere for at least several hours. Aerosols may be of either natural or anthropogenic origin. Afforestation Establishment of forest plantations on land that is not classified as forest. Alien species (also non-native, non-indigenous, foreign, exotic) Species accidentally or deliberately introduced outside its normal distribution. Glossary

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Aquatic ecosystem Basic ecological unit composed of living and non-living elements interacting in water. Arable land Land under temporary crops (double-cropped areas are counted only once), temporary meadows for mowing or pasture, land under market and kitchen gardens, and land temporarily fallow (less than five years). The abandoned land resulting from shifting cultivation is not included in this category. Anthropocene A term used by scientists to name a new geologic epoch (following the most recent Holocene) characterized by significant changes in the Earth’s atmosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere due primarily to human activities. Anthroposphere The total human presence throughout the Earth System including its culture, technology, built environment, and activities associated with these. The anthroposphere complements the term Anthropocene. Billion 109 (1 000 000 000) Bioaccumulation The increase in concentration of a chemical in organisms. Also used to describe the progressive increase in the amount of a chemical in an organism resulting from rates of absorption of a substance in excess of its metabolism and excretion. Biocapacity The capacity of ecosystems to produce useful biological materials and to absorb waste materials generated by humans, using current management schemes and extraction technologies. The biocapacity of an area is calculated by multiplying the actual physical area by the yield factor and the appropriate equivalence factor. Biocapacity is usually expressed in units of global hectares. Biodiversity (a contraction of biological diversity) The variety of life on Earth, including diversity at the genetic level, among species and among ecosystems and habitats. It includes diversity in abundance, distribution and behaviour. Biodiversity also incorporates human cultural diversity, which can both be affected by the same drivers as biodiversity, and itself has impacts on the diversity of genes, other species and ecosystems. Biofuel Fuel produced from dry organic matter or combustible oils from plants, such as alcohol from fermented sugar or maize, and oils derived from oil palm, rapeseed or soybeans. Biogas Gas, rich in methane, which is produced by the fermentation of animal dung, human sewage or crop residues in an airtight container. 506

Glossary

Biogeochemical cycles The flow of chemical elements and compounds between living organisms (biosphere) and the physical environment (atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere). Biological corridor A section of habitat designated to restore or conserve the connection between habitats that have been fragmented by human or natural causes. Biomass Organic material, above and below ground and in water, both living and dead, such as trees, crops, grasses, tree litter and roots. Biomagnification The build up of certain substances in the bodies of organisms at higher trophic levels of food webs. Organisms at lower trophic levels accumulate small amounts. Organisms at the next higher level of the food chain eat many of these lower-level organisms and hence accumulate larger amounts. The tissue concentration increases at each trophic level in the food web when there is efficient uptake and slow elimination Biome The largest unit of ecosystem classification that is convenient to recognize below the global level. Terrestrial biomes are typically based on dominant vegetation structure (such as forest or grassland). Ecosystems within a biome function in a broadly similar way, although they may have very different species composition. For example, all forests share certain properties regarding nutrient cycling, disturbance and biomass that are different from the properties of grasslands. Biosphere The part of the Earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life. Biotechnology (modern) The application of in vitro nucleic acid techniques, including recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and direct injection of nucleic acid into cells or organelles, or fusion of cells beyond the taxonomic family, that overcome natural physiological, reproductive or recombination barriers and that are not techniques used in traditional breeding and selection. Black carbon Operationally defined aerosol based on measurement of light absorption and chemical reactivity and/or thermal stability. Black carbon is formed through the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuel and biomass, and is emitted as part of anthropogenic and naturally occurring soot. It consists of pure carbon in several linked forms. Black carbon warms the Earth by absorbing sunlight and re-emitting heat to the atmosphere and by reducing albedo (the ability to reflect sunlight) when deposited on snow and ice. Blue water Fresh surface and groundwater, in other words, the water in freshwater lakes, rivers and aquifers. The blue water footprint

is the volume of surface and groundwater consumed as a result of the production of a good or service. Blue water consumption refers to the volume of freshwater used and then evaporated or incorporated into a product. It also includes water abstracted from surface or groundwater in a catchment and returned to another catchment or the sea. It is the amount of water abstracted from groundwater or surface water that does not return to the catchment from which it was withdrawn. Bleaching (of coral reefs) A phenomenon occurring when corals under stress expel their mutualistic microscopic algae, called zooxanthellae. This results in a severe decrease or even total loss of photosynthetic pigments. Since most reef-building corals have white calcium carbonate skeletons, these then show through the corals’ tissue and the coral reef appears bleached. Capacity development The process through which individuals, organizations and societies obtain, strengthen and maintain the capabilities to set and achieve their own development objectives over time. Cap and trade (system) A regulatory or management system that sets a target level for emissions or natural resource use, and, after distributing shares in that quota, lets trading in those permits determine their price. Capital Resource that can be mobilized in the pursuit of an individual’s goals. Thus, natural capital (natural resources such as land and water), physical capital (technology and artefacts), social capital (social relationships, networks and ties), financial capital (money in a bank, loans and credit), human capital (education and skills). Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-equivalent or CO2e) The universal unit of measurement used to indicate the global warming potential of the different greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide – a naturally occurring gas that is a by-product of burning fossil fuels and biomass, land-use changes and other industrial processes – is the reference against which other greenhouse gases are measured. Carbon sequestration The process of increasing the carbon content of a reservoir other than the atmosphere.

Civil society The aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions representing the interests and will of citizens. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) The mechanism provided by Article 12 of the Kyoto Protocol, designed to assist developing countries achieve sustainable development by permitting industrialized countries to finance projects for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries and receive carbon credits for doing so. Climate change The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change defines climate change as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.” Climate proofing A shorthand term for identifying risks to a development project, or any other specified natural or human asset, as a consequence of climate variability and change, and ensuring that those risks are reduced to acceptable levels through long-lasting and environmentally sound, economically viable, and socially acceptable changes implemented at one or more of the following stages in the project cycle: planning, design, construction, operation, and decommissioning. Climate variability Variations in the mean state and other statistics (such as standard deviations and the occurrence of extremes) of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes in the climate system (internal variability), or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing (external variability). Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) A group of chemicals, consisting of chlorine, fluorine and carbon, highly volatile and of low toxicity, widely used in the past as refrigerants, solvents, propellants and foaming agents. Chlorofluorocarbons have both ozone depletion and global warming potential. Congener A term in chemistry that refers to one of many variants or configurations of a common chemical structure.

Carbon stock The quantity of carbon contained in a “pool”, meaning a reservoir or system which has the capacity to accumulate or release carbon.

Conservation tillage Breaking the soil surface without turning over the soil.

Catchment (area) The area of land from which precipitation drains into a river, basin or reservoir. See also Drainage basin.

Consumptive water use The use or removal of water from a water basin that renders it unavailable for further use.

Certified emission reductions (CERs) Certification of greenhouse gas emission reductions issued pursuant to the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol, and measured in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.

Cross-cutting issue An issue that cannot be adequately understood or explained without reference to the interactions of several of its dimensions that are usually defined separately. Glossary

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Crowd-sourcing A problem-solving and production process that involves outsourcing tasks to a network of people, also known as the crowd. This process can occur both online and offline.

linked ecosystem services: primary production and nutrient cycling. Four dryland sub-types are widely recognized: dry subhumid, semi-arid, arid and hyper-arid, showing an increasing level of aridity or moisture deficit.

Cultural services In the context of ecosystems, the non-material benefits for people, including spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, recreation and aesthetic experience.

Early warning The provision of timely and effective information, through identified institutions, that allows individuals exposed to a hazard to take action to avoid or reduce their risk and prepare an effective response.

Disability-adjusted life years (DALYS) The sum of years of potential life lost due to premature mortality and the years of productive life lost due to disability. Datum A single piece of information used for reference or analysis. Dataset A collection of data on a particular issue. DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) A synthetic organochlorine insecticide, one of the persistent organic pollutants listed for control under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Dead zone A part of a water body so low in oxygen that normal life cannot survive. The low-oxygen conditions usually result from eutrophication caused by fertilizer run-off from land. Deforestation Conversion of forested land to non-forest areas. Desertification Land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. It involves crossing thresholds beyond which the underpinning ecosystem cannot restore itself, but requires ever-greater external resources for recovery. Disaster risk reduction The conceptual framework of elements intended to minimize vulnerability to disasters throughout a society, to avoid (prevention) or limit (mitigation and preparedness) the adverse impacts of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development. Drainage basin (also called watershed, river basin or catchment) Land area where precipitation runs off into streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs. It is a land feature that can be identified by tracing a line along the highest elevations between different areas, often a ridge. Driver The overarching socio-economic forces that exert pressures on the state of the environment. Drylands Areas characterized by lack of water, which constrain two major, 508

Glossary

Earth System The Earth System is a complex social-environmental system of interacting physical, chemical, biological and social components and processes that determine the state and evolution of the planet and life on it. Ecoagriculture An approach to landscape management that simultaneously advances agricultural production, conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and sustainable rural livelihoods. Ecological footprint A measure of the area of biologically productive land and water an individual, population or activity uses to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb the corresponding waste (such as carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel use), using prevailing technology and resource management practices. The ecological footprint is usually measured in global hectares. Ecosystem A dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment, interacting as a functional unit. Ecosystem approach A strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. An ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methods, focused on levels of biological organization that encompass the essential structure, processes, functions and interactions among and between organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of many ecosystems. Ecosystem function An intrinsic ecosystem characteristic related to the set of conditions and processes whereby an ecosystem maintains its integrity (such as primary productivity, food chain and biogeochemical cycles). Ecosystem functions include such processes as decomposition, production, nutrient cycling, and movements of nutrients and energy. Ecosystem health The degree to which ecological factors and their interactions are reasonably complete and function for continued resilience, productivity and renewal of the ecosystem.

Ecosystem management An approach to maintaining or restoring the composition, structure, function and delivery of services of natural and modified ecosystems for the goal of achieving sustainability. It is based on an adaptive, collaboratively developed vision of desired future conditions that integrates ecological, socioeconomic, and institutional perspectives, applied within a geographic framework, and defined primarily by natural ecological boundaries. Ecosystem resilience The level of disturbance that an ecosystem can withstand without crossing a threshold to become a different structure or deliver different outputs. Resilience depends on ecological dynamics as well as human organizational and institutional capacity to understand, manage and respond to these dynamics. Ecosystem services The benefits of ecosystems. These include provisioning services, such as food and water regulating services, such as flood and disease control cultural services, such as spiritual, recreational and cultural benefits and supporting services, such as nutrient cycling, that maintain the conditions for life on Earth. Sometimes called ecosystem goods and services. Ecotourism Travel undertaken to witness the natural or ecological quality of particular sites or regions, including the provision of eco-friendly services to facilitate such travel. Effluent In issues of water quality, refers to liquid waste (treated or untreated) discharged to the environment from sources such as industrial process and sewage treatment plants. El Niño (also El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)) In its original sense, it is a warm water current that periodically flows along the coast of Ecuador and Peru, disrupting the local fishery. This oceanic event is associated with a fluctuation of the intertropical surface pressure pattern and circulation in the Indian and Pacific Oceans, called the Southern Oscillation. This atmosphereocean phenomenon is collectively known as El Niño-Southern Oscillation, or ENSO. During an El Niño event, the prevailing trade winds weaken and the equatorial countercurrent strengthens, causing warm surface waters in the Indonesian area to flow eastward to overlie the cold waters of the Peru current off South America. This event has great impact on the wind, sea surface temperature and precipitation patterns in the tropical Pacific. It has climatic effects throughout the Pacific region and in many other parts of the world. The opposite of an El Niño event is called La Niña. Emission inventory Details the amounts and types of pollutants released into the environment. Endangered species A species is endangered when the best available evidence indicates that it meets any of the criteria A to E specified for

the endangered category of the IUCN Red List, and is therefore considered to be facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. Environmental education The process of recognizing values and clarifying concepts in order to develop skills and attitudes necessary to understand and appreciate the interrelatedness of humans, their culture and biophysical surroundings. Environmental education also entails practice in decision-making and self-formulation of a code of behaviour about issues concerning environmental quality. Environment statistics Statistics that describe the state of and trends in the environment, covering the media of the natural environment (air/ climate, water, land/soil), the living organisms within the media, and human settlements. Endocrine disruptor An external substance that interferes (through mimicking, blocking, inhibiting or stimulating) with function(s) of the hormonal system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact organism, or its progeny, or (sub) populations. Energy intensity Ratio of energy consumption to economic or physical output. At the national level, energy intensity is the ratio of total domestic primary energy consumption or final energy consumption to gross domestic product or physical output. Lower energy intensity shows greater efficiency in energy use. Environmental assessment The entire process of undertaking an objective evaluation and analysis of information designed to support environmental decision making. It applies the judgement of experts to existing knowledge to provide scientifically credible answers to policy -relevant questions, quantifying where possible the level of confidence. It reduces complexity but adds value by summarizing, synthesizing and building scenarios, and identifies consensus by sorting out what is known and widely accepted from what is not known or not agreed. It sensitizes the scientific community to policy needs and the policy community to the scientific basis for action. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) An analytical process or procedure that systematically examines the possible environmental consequences of a given activity or project. The aim is to ensure that the environmental implications are taken into account before the decisions are made. Environmental flows Quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems. Through implementation of environmental flows, water managers strive to achieve a flow regime, or pattern, that provides for human uses and maintains the essential processes required to support healthy river ecosystems. Glossary

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Environmental health Those aspects of human health and disease that are determined by factors in the environment. It also refers to the theory and practice of assessing and controlling factors in the environment that can potentially affect health. Environmental health includes both the direct pathological effects of chemicals, radiation and some biological agents, and the effects, often indirect, on health and well-being of the broad physical, psychological, social and aesthetic environment. This includes housing, urban development, land use and transport. Environmental monitoring Regular, comparable measurements or time series of data on the environment. Environmental policy A policy aimed at addressing environmental problems and challenges. Equity Fairness of rights, distribution and access. Depending on context, this can refer to access to resources, services or power. Eutrophication The degradation of water or land quality due to enrichment by nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorous, which results in excessive plant (principally algae) growth and decay. Eutrophication of a lake normally contributes to its slow evolution into a bog or marsh and ultimately to dry land. Eutrophication may be accelerated by human activities that speed up the ageing process. Evapotranspiration Combined loss of water by evaporation from the soil or surface water, and transpiration from plants and animals. E-waste (electronic waste) A generic term encompassing various forms of electrical and electronic equipment that has ceased to be considered of value and is disposed of. External cost (also externality) A cost that is not included in the market price of the goods and services produced. In other words, a cost not borne by those who create it, such as the cost of cleaning up contamination caused by discharge of pollution into the environment. Feedback Where non-linear change is driven by reactions that either dampen change (negative feedbacks) or reinforce change (positive feedbacks). Floods (river, flash and storm surge) Usually classified into three types: river flood, flash flood and storm surge. River floods result from intense and/or persistent rain over large areas. Flash floods are mostly local events resulting from intense rainfall over a small area in a short period of time. Storm surge floods occur when floodwater from the ocean or large lakes is pushed on to land by winds or storms. 510

Glossary

Food security Physical and economic access to food that meets people’s dietary needs as well as their food preferences. Forest Land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10 per cent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban use. Forest degradation Changes within the forest that negatively affect the structure or function of the stand or site, and thereby lower the capacity to supply products and/or services. Forest management The processes of planning and implementing practices for the stewardship and use of forests and other wooded land aimed at achieving specific environmental, economic, social and/or cultural objectives. Forest plantation Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation. They are either of introduced species (all planted stands), or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: contain one or two species, are of similar age and regularly spaced. “Planted forest� is another term used for plantation. Fossil fuel Coal, natural gas and petroleum products (such as oil) formed from the decayed bodies of animals and plants that died millions of years ago. Fuel cell A device that converts the energy of a chemical reaction directly into electrical energy. It produces electricity from external supplies of fuel (such as hydrogen) and oxidant (such as oxygen). A fuel cell can operate as long as the necessary flows are maintained. Fuel cells differ from batteries in that they consume reactant, which must be replenished, while batteries store electrical energy chemically in a closed system. One great advantage of fuel cells is that they generate electricity with very little pollution: much of the hydrogen and oxygen used in generating electricity ultimately combine to form water. Fuel cells are being developed as power sources for motor vehicles, as well as stationary power sources. Genetic diversity The variety of genes within a particular species, variety or breed. GEO Data Portal (now Environmental Data Explorer) The source for datasets used by UNEP and its partners in the Global Environment Outlook report and other integrated environmental assessments. Its online database holds more than 500 different variables, including national, sub-regional, regional and global statistics as well as geospatial datasets (maps), covering themes such as freshwater, population, forests, emissions, climate, disasters, health and GDP. geodata.grid.unep.ch

Global commons Natural un-owned assets such as the atmosphere, oceans, outer space and the Antarctic. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) A network aiming to link existing and planned Earth observing systems (e.g., satellites and networks of weather stations and ocean buoys) around the world, support the development of new systems where gaps currently exist, and promote common technical standards so that data from the thousands of different instruments can be combined into coherent datasets. It aims to provide decision support tools to policy makers and other users in areas such as health, agriculture and disasters. Global hectare A hypothetical hectare with world-average ability to produce resources and absorb wastes. Global (international) environmental governance The assemblage of laws and institutions that regulate societynature interactions and shape environmental outcomes. Global observation system A set of coordinated monitoring activities that would collect much needed data at a global scale on a variety of indicators such as biodiversity, water quality and quantity, atmospheric pollution, land degradation and chemical release. Global public good Public goods that have universal benefits, covering multiple groups of countries and all populations. Global warming Increase in surface air temperature, referred to as the global temperature, induced by emissions of greenhouse gases into the air. Globalization The increasing integration of economies and societies around the world, particularly through trade and financial flows, and the transfer of culture and technology. Governance The act, process, or power of governing for the organization of society/ies. For example, there is governance through the state, the market, or through civil society groups and local organizations. Governance is exercised through institutions: laws, property-rights systems and forms of social organization. Greenhouse effect A process by which thermal radiation from a planetary surface is absorbed by atmospheric greenhouse gases, and is re-radiated in all directions. Since part of this re-radiation is back towards the surface and the lower atmosphere, it results in an elevation of the average surface temperature above what it would be in the absence of the gases. Greenhouse gases (GHGs) Gaseous constituents of the atmosphere, both natural and

anthropogenic, that absorb and emit thermal radiation. This property causes the greenhouse effect. Water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and ozone (O3) are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. There are human-made greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as halocarbons and other chlorine- and bromine-containing substances. Beside CO2, N2O and CH4, the Kyoto Protocol deals with sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and nitrogen trifluoride (NF3). Green water The precipitation on land that does not run off or recharge the groundwater but is stored in the soil or temporarily stays on top of the soil or vegetation. Eventually, this part of precipitation evaporates or transpires through plants. The green water footprint is the volume of rainwater consumed during the production process. This is particularly relevant for agricultural and forestry products (products based on crops or wood), where it refers to the total rainwater evapotranspiration (from fields and plantations) plus the water incorporated into the harvested crop or wood. Grey water Water the quality of which has been adversely affected by human use, in industrial, agriculture or domestically. The grey water footprint of a product is an indicator of freshwater pollution that can be associated with the production of a product over its full supply chain. It is defined as the volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants based on natural background concentrations and existing ambient water quality standards. It is calculated as the volume of water that is required to dilute pollutants to such an extent that the quality of the water remains above agreed water quality standards. Ground-truthing A process by which the content of satellite images, aerial photographs – or maps based on them – is compared with the reality on the ground through site visits and field surveys. It is used to verify the accuracy of the images or the way they have been interpreted to produce maps. Gross domestic product (GDP) The value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year. GDP can be measured by adding up all of an economy’s incomes – wages, interest, profits, and rents – or expenditures – consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports (exports minus imports). Groundwater Water that flows or seeps downward and saturates soil or rock, supplying springs and wells. The upper surface of the saturate zone is called the water table. Gyres A large system of rotating ocean currents, primarily driven by wind movement. Large gyres exist in the Indian Ocean, North Atlantic, North Pacific, South Atlantic and South Pacific. Glossary

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Habitat (1) The place or type of site where an organism or population occurs naturally. (2) Terrestrial or aquatic areas distinguished by geographic, living and non-living features, whether entirely natural or semi-natural.

Hydrosphere All of the Earth’s water, including surface water (water in oceans, lakes and rivers), groundwater (water in soil and beneath the Earth’s surface), snow, ice and water in the atmosphere, including water vapour.

Habitat fragmentation Alteration of habitat resulting in spatial separation of habitat units from a previous state of greater continuity.

Hypoxia Lack of oxygen. In the context of eutrophication and algal blooms, hypoxia is the result of a process that uses up dissolved oxygen in the water. Algal blooms cause water to become more opaque, thereby reducing light availability to submerged aquatic vegetation, and interfering with beneficial human water uses. When the bloom dies off, algae sink to the bottom and are decomposed by bacteria using up the available oxygen. Hypoxia is particularly severe in the late summer, and can be so severe in some areas that they are referred to as “dead zones” because only bacteria can survive there.

Hard law Legally binding obligations that are precise (or can be made precise through adjudication or the issuance of detailed regulations) and that delegate authority for interpreting and implementing the law. In the context of international law, hard law refers to treaties or international agreements, as well as customary laws. These documents create enforceable obligations and rights for states and other international entities. See also Soft law. Hazard A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation.

Improved drinking water “Improved” sources of drinking water include piped water into dwellings; piped water into yards/plots; public taps or standpipes; tube wells or boreholes; protected dug wells; protected springs; rainwater.

Hazardous waste A used or discarded material that can damage human health and the environment. Hazardous wastes may include heavy metals, toxic chemicals, medical wastes or radioactive material.

Improved sanitation “Improved” sanitation includes flush lavatories; piped sewer systems; septic tanks; flush/pour flush to pit latrines; ventilated improved pit latrines (VIP); pit latrines with slab; composting lavatories.

Heavy metals A subset of elements that exhibit metallic properties, including transitional metals and semi-metals (metalloids), such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc, that have been associated with contamination and potential toxicity.

Integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) Approaches that integrate economic, social and ecological perspectives for the management of coastal resources and areas.

High seas The oceans outside national jurisdictions, lying beyond each nation’s exclusive economic zone or other territorial waters. Human well-being The extent to which individuals have the ability to live the kinds of lives they have reason to value; the opportunities people have to pursue their aspirations. Basic components of human well-being include: security, meeting material needs, health and social relations. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Organic and human-made substances composed of hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine and carbon atoms. As the ozone-depleting potential of HCFCs is much lower than that of CFCs, HCFCs were considered acceptable interim substitutes for CFCs. Hydrological cycle Succession of stages undergone by water in its passage from the atmosphere to the Earth’s surface and its return to the atmosphere. The stages include evaporation from land, sea or inland water, condensation to form clouds, precipitation, accumulation in the soil or in water bodies, and re-evaporation. 512

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Integrated water resources management (IWRM) A process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. Institutions Regularized patterns of interaction by which society organizes itself: the rules, practices and conventions that structure human interaction. The term is wide and encompassing, and could be taken to include law, social relationships, property rights and tenurial systems, norms, beliefs, customs and codes of conduct as much as multilateral environmental agreements, international conventions and financing mechanisms. Institutions could be formal (explicit, written, often having the sanction of the state) or informal (unwritten, implied, tacit, mutually agreed and accepted). Formal institutions include law, international environmental agreements, bylaws and memoranda of understanding. Informal institutions include unwritten rules, codes of conduct and value systems. The term “institutions” should be distinguished from organizations. IPCC scenarios Six future-emission scenarios based on four scenario families A1, A2, B1 and B2, where A represents globalized development,

B represents regionalized development, while 1 refers to economic growth and 2 refers to environmental stewardship.

economic conditions, for the purpose of selecting and adopting land-use options which are most beneficial to land users.

IPAT formulation Impact = Population x Affluence x Technology. An equation developed in the 1970s to describe humanity’s influence/impact on the environment.

Legal regime A system of principles and rules governing something, and which is created by law. It is framework of legal rules.

Jevons paradox The proposition that technological progress that increases the efficiency with which a resource is used tends to increase (rather than decrease) the rate of consumption of that resource.

Legitimacy Measure of political acceptability or perceived fairness. State law has its legitimacy in the state; local law and practices work on a system of social sanction, in that they derive their legitimacy from a system of social organization and relationships.

Joint Implementation A mechanism provided by Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol, whereby a country included in Annex I of the UNFCCC may acquire emission reduction units when it helps to finance projects that reduce net emissions in another industrialized country.

Leverage point A place in a system’s structure where a relatively small amount of force can effect change. It is a low leverage point if a small amount of force causes a small change in system behaviour, or a high leverage point if a small amount of force causes a large change.

Kuznets curve (environmental) A relationship between economic development and environmental pollution. Based on empirical evidence, some forms of local pollution (airborne lead, sulphur) declined significantly in industrialized countries despite robust economic growth. This follows a general pattern of poor countries being relatively unpolluted, middle-income countries more polluted, and rich countries clean again.

Life-cycle analysis A technique to assess the environmental impacts associated with all the stages of the life of a product – from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling (cradle-to-grave).

Kyoto Protocol A protocol to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted at the Third Session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. It contains legally binding commitments in addition to those included in the UNFCCC. Countries included in Annex B of the protocol (most OECD countries and countries with economies in transition) agreed to control their national anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3) so that the total emissions from these countries would be at least 5 per cent below 1990 levels in the commitment period, 2008 to 2012. Land cover The physical coverage of land, usually expressed in terms of vegetation cover or lack of it. Influenced by but not synonymous with land use. Land degradation The reduction or loss of the biological or economic productivity and complexity in croplands, pastures, forest or woodlands resulting from climate variability, natural processes, and unsustainable human activities. Land use The functional dimension of land for different human purposes or economic activities. Examples of land use categories include agriculture, industrial use, transport and protected areas. Land-use planning The systematic assessment of land and water potential, alternative patterns of land use and other physical, social and

Lifetime (in the atmosphere) The approximate amount of time it takes for concentrations of an atmospheric pollutant to return to the background level (assuming emissions cease) as a result of either being converted to another chemical compound or being taken out of the atmosphere through a sink. Atmospheric lifetimes can vary from hours or weeks (sulphate aerosols) to more than a century (CFCs). Lithosphere The outer part of the Earth, consisting of the crust and upper mantle. It is about 55 km thick beneath the oceans and up to about 200 km thick beneath the continents. The solid part of the Earth, as contrasted with the atmosphere and hydrosphere. Low emission zone (LEZ) Urban areas where travel by polluting vehicles is limited or banned. Low-impact pesticides Pesticides considered to be of minimal risk compared to other pesticides. In order for a pesticide to be truly low impact, considerations beyond the choice of pesticide product must be considered, including the timing, method and site of application. Lyme disease A multi-system bacterial infection caused by the spirochaete Borrelia burgdoferi. These spirochaetes are maintained in nature in the bodies of wild animals, and transmitted from one animal to another through the bite of an infected tick. People and pets are incidental hosts to ticks. Mainstreaming Taking into consideration as an integral part of the issue in question. Glossary

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Material flow accounting The quantification of all materials used in economic activities. It accounts for the total material mobilized during the extraction of materials and for the materials actually used in economic processes measured in terms of their mass. Marine protected area (MPA) A geographically defined marine area that is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) The eight Millennium Development Goals – which range from halving extreme poverty to halting the spread of HIV/AIDS and providing universal primary education, all by the target date of 2015 – form a blueprint agreed to by all the world’s countries and all the world’s leading development institutions. Mega-cities Urban areas with more than 10 million inhabitants. Mega-heatwave An event with regional mean temperature anomalies (over an area of ~1 million km2) of extraordinary amplitude (approximately ≥3 SD (standard deviations)) at sub-seasonal scales, of at least 7 days. Morphology The branch of biology that deals with the form of living organisms, and with relationships between their structures. Multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) Treaties, conventions, protocols and contracts between several states regarding specified environmental problems. Nanomaterial A natural, incidental or manufactured material containing particles, in an unbound state, as an aggregate or as an agglomerate and where, for 50 per cent or more of the particles in the number size distribution, one or more external dimension is in the size range 1–100 nanometres (a nanometre is one billionth of a metre). Such particles/materials are generally termed as nanoparticles (NPs), nanochemicals or nanomaterials (NMs). Natural capital Natural assets in their role of providing natural resource inputs and environmental services for economic production. Natural capital includes land, minerals and fossil fuels, solar energy, water, living organisms, and the services provided by the interactions of all these elements in ecological systems. Net primary productivity (NPP) The rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy. Some net primary production goes toward growth and reproduction of primary producers, while some is consumed by herbivores. Nitrogen deposition The input of reactive nitrogen, mainly derived from nitrogen oxides and ammonia emissions, from the atmosphere into the biosphere. 514

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Non-state actors Non-state actors are categorized as entities that (i) participate or act in the sphere of international relations; organizations with sufficient power to influence and cause change in politics which (ii) do not belong to or exist as a state-structure or established institution of a state; do not have the characteristics of this, these being legal sovereignty and some measure of control over a country’s people and territories. No-till (zero tillage) A technique of drilling (sewing) seed with little or no prior land preparation, which has a positive impact on soil erosion. Nutrient pollution Contamination of water resources by excessive inputs of nutrients. Nutrients The approximately 20 chemical elements known to be essential for the growth of living organisms, including nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and carbon. Oil sands A complex mixture of sand, water and clay trapping very heavy oil, known as bitumen. Organic agriculture A production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of synthetic inputs. Organic carbon (OC) Organic carbon, as used in climate research, usually refers to the carbon fraction of the aerosol that is not black. This term is an oversimplification because organic carbon may contain hundreds or thousands of different organic compounds with varying atmospheric behaviour. It is the quantity that results from thermal analysis of carbon aerosols. Organizations Bodies of individuals with a specified common objective. Organizations could be political organizations, political parties, governments and ministries; economic organizations, federations of industry; social organizations (non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and self-help groups) or religious organizations (church and religious trusts). The term organizations should be distinguished from institutions. Organochlorine compounds Any of a class of organic chemical compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and chlorine, such as dioxins, poly-chlorinatedbiphenyls (PCBs) and some pesticides such as DDT. Overexploitation The excessive use of raw materials without considering the longterm ecological impacts of such use. Overshoot The situation that occurs when humanity’s demand on the

biosphere exceeds supply or regenerative capacity. At the global level, ecological deficit and overshoot are the same, since there is no net import of resources to the planet.

institutional development. Policy can be seen as a tool for the exercise of governance. When such an intervention is enforced by the state, it is called public policy.

Ozone layer A region of the atmosphere situated at an altitude of 10–50 km above the Earth’s surface (called the stratosphere) which contains diluted ozone.

Policy bank A repository of good practices in policy development and implementation, supported by facilitation services that help stakeholders to identify relevant policy lessons and tools and adapt them to local needs.

Participatory approach Securing an adequate and equal opportunity for people to place questions on an agenda and to express their preferences about a final outcome during decision making to all group members. Participation can occur directly or through legitimate representatives. Participation may range from consultation to the obligation of achieving a consensus. Particulate matter (PM) Tiny solid particles or liquid droplets suspended in the air. Pastoralism, pastoral system The husbandry of domestic animals as a primary means of obtaining resources. Pasture Ground covered with grass or herbage, used or suitable for the grazing of livestock. Payment for environmental services/payment for ecosystem services (PES) Appropriate mechanisms for matching the demand for environmental services with incentives for land users whose actions modify the supply of those environmental services. Permafrost Soil, silt and rock located in perpetually cold areas, and that remains frozen year-round for two or more years. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Phytoplankton Microscopically small plants that float or swim weakly in fresh or saltwater bodies. Planetary boundaries A framework designed to define a safe operating space for humanity for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations, civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable development. Policy Any form of intervention or societal response. This includes not only statements of intent, but also other forms of intervention, such as the use of economic instruments, market creation, subsidies, institutional reform, legal reform, decentralization and

Policy dialogue A platform for major stakeholders, such as government authorities and non-governmental organizations, for awareness raising, capacity building, policy-preparation and policy-implementation. Policy diffusion The process of a policy being taken up, copied, implemented in other areas, fields, regions or sectors. Polycentric Having many centres, especially of authority or control. Pollutant Any substance that causes harm to the environment when it mixes with soil, water or air. Pollution The presence of minerals, chemicals or physical properties at levels that exceed the values deemed to define a boundary between good or acceptable and poor or unacceptable quality, which is a function of the specific pollutant. Poverty The state of one who lacks a defined amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty refers to a state of lacking basic human needs, which commonly include clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. Precautionary approach/principle The precautionary approach or precautionary principle states that if an action or policy has a suspected risk of causing harm to the public or to the environment, in the absence of scientific consensus that the action or policy is harmful, the burden of proof that it is not harmful falls on those taking the action. Prediction The act of attempting to produce a description of the expected future, or the description itself, such as “it will be 30°C tomorrow, so we will go to the beach”. Premature deaths Deaths occurring earlier due to a risk factor than would occur in the absence of that risk factor. Primary energy Energy embodied in natural resources (such as coal, crude oil, sunlight or uranium) that has not undergone any anthropogenic conversion or transformation. Glossary

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Projection The act of attempting to produce a description of the future subject to assumptions about certain preconditions, or the description itself, such as “assuming it is 30°C tomorrow, we will go to the beach.” Protected area A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. Propagation of effects An impact at one level in a system, even a very small one, may lead to larger changes as this impact moves up (or down) through a system. Provisioning services The products obtained from ecosystems, including, for example, genetic resources, food and fibre, and freshwater. Public-private partnership A contractual agreement between a public agency (federal, state or local) and a private sector entity. Through such an agreement, the skills and assets of each sector (public and private) are shared in delivering a service or facility. Public sector The portion of society that comprises the general government sector plus all public corporations including the central bank. Purchasing power parity (PPP) The number of currency units required to purchase an amount of goods and services equivalent to what can be bought with one unit of the currency of the base country, for example, the US$. Radiative forcing A measure of the net change in the energy balance of the Earth with space, that is, the change in incoming solar radiation minus outgoing terrestrial radiation. REDD/REDD+ Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries. REDD+ involves enhancing existing forests and increasing forest cover. In order to meet these objectives, policies need to address enhancement of carbon stocks by providing funding and investments in these areas. Reforestation Planting of forests on lands that have previously contained forest, but have since been converted to some other use. Remote sensing Collection of data about an object from a distance. In the environmental field, it normally refers to aerial or satellite data for meteorology, oceanography or land cover assessment. 516

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Regulating services The benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processes, including, for example, the regulation of climate, water and some human diseases. Renewable energy source An energy source that does not rely on finite stocks of fuels. The most widely known renewable source is hydropower; other renewable sources are biomass, solar, tidal, wave and wind. Resilience The capacity of a system, community or society potentially exposed to hazards to adapt by resisting or changing in order to reach and maintain an acceptable level of functioning and structure. Resistance The capacity of a system to withstand the impacts of drivers without displacement from its present state. Results-based management A managerial approach that builds on defining realistic expected results, monitoring progress towards their achievement, integrating lessons learned into management decisions and reporting on performance. Riparian Related to or located on the bank of a natural watercourse, usually a river, but sometimes a lake, tidewater or enclosed sea. River fragmentation Degree to which river connectivity and flow regimes have been altered, usually by dams and reservoirs. Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) Sea Area The sea area surrounded by the eight Member States of the Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME): Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Run-off A portion of rainfall, melted snow or irrigation water that flows across the ground’s surface and is eventually returned to streams. Run-off can pick up pollutants from air or land and carry them to receiving waters. RUrbanism An integration of urban and rural development in terms of sustainable resource use and the convergence of human well-being. Sahel A loosely defined strip of transitional vegetation that separates the Sahara desert from the tropical savannahs to the south. The region is used for farming and grazing, and because of the difficult environmental conditions at the border of the desert, the region is very sensitive to human-induced land-cover change. It includes parts of Senegal, the Gambia, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon and Chad.

Salinization/salination The process by which water-soluble salts accumulate in the soil. Salinization may occur naturally or because of conditions resulting from management practices. Scale The spatial, temporal (quantitative or analytical) dimension used to measure and study any phenomena. Specific points on a scale can thus be considered levels (such as local, regional, national and international). Scenario A description of how the future may unfold based on if-then propositions, typically consisting of a representation of an initial situation, a description of the key drivers and changes that lead to a particular future state. For example, “given that we are on holiday at the coast, if it is 30°C tomorrow, we will go to the beach�. Seagrass bed Profusion of grass-like marine plants, usually on shallow, sandy or muddy areas of the seabed. Secondary pollutant Not directly emitted as such, but forms when other pollutants (primary pollutants) react in the atmosphere. Security Relates to personal and environmental security. It includes access to natural and other resources, and freedom from violence, crime and war, as well as security from natural and human-caused disasters Sequestration In GEO-5, sequestration refers to the capture of carbon dioxide in a manner that prevents it from being released into the atmosphere for a specified period of time. Sediment Solid material that originates mostly from disintegrated rocks and is transported by, suspended in or deposited from water, wind, ice and other organic agents Sedimentation Strictly, the act or process of depositing sediment from suspension in water or ice. Broadly, all the processes whereby particles of rock material are accumulated to form sedimentary deposits. Sedimentation, as commonly used, involves transport by water, wind, ice and organic agents. Service advertising Advertising with a central focus on public welfare. Sex-disaggregated data Data separated by sex/gender in order to allow differential impacts on men and women to be measured. Shared waters Water resources shared by two or more governmental jurisdictions.

Short-lived climate forcers Substances such as methane, black carbon, tropospheric ozone, and many hydrofluorocarbons, which have a significant impact on climate change, and a relatively short lifespan in the atmosphere compared to carbon dioxide and other longerlived gases. Silvopastoral strategy The integration of trees and shrubs in pastures with animals for economic, ecological and social sustainability. Siltation The deposition of finely divided soil and rock particles on the bottom of stream and riverbeds and reservoirs. Siting authority A clearly defined and legitimate agency that authorizes construction of, for example, electricity transmission equipment. Social contract A contract or agreement between people to form a society that determines their moral and/or political obligations. Social contracts can be formal or informal and define the relationship between individuals and their government on the basis of mutual consent. Social learning Process in which individuals observe the behaviour of others and its consequences, and modify their own behaviour accordingly. Social network A social structure made up of a set of actors, such as individuals or organizations, and the ties between these actors, such as relationships, connections or interactions. Soft law Rules that are neither strictly binding in nature nor completely lacking legal significance. They are weakened along one or more of the dimensions of obligation, precision and delegation. In the context of international law, soft law refers to guidelines, policy declarations or codes of conduct which set standards of conduct. However, they are not directly enforceable. Soil acidification A naturally occurring process in humid climates that has long been the subject of research, whose findings suggest that acid precipitation affects the productivity of terrestrial plants. Species (biology) An interbreeding group of organisms that is reproductively isolated from all other organisms, although there are many partial exceptions to this rule. A generally agreed fundamental taxonomic unit that, once described and accepted, is associated with a unique scientific name. Species diversity Biodiversity at the species level, often combining aspects of species richness, their relative abundance and their dissimilarity. Glossary

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Species richness/abundance The number of species within a given sample, community or area. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) A range of analytical and participatory approaches that aim to integrate environmental considerations into policies, plans and programmes and evaluate the links with economic and social considerations. An SEA is undertaken for plans, programmes and policies. It helps decision makers reach a better understanding of how environmental, social and economic considerations fit together. Stratospheric ozone depletion Chemical destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer, particularly by substances produced by human activities. Structural adjustment A process of market-oriented economic reform aimed at reducing inflation and creating conditions for economic growth. Supporting services Ecosystem services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services. Some examples include biomass production, production of atmospheric oxygen, soil formation and retention, nutrient cycling, water cycling and provisioning of habitat. Surface water All water naturally open to the atmosphere, including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, streams, impoundments, seas and estuaries. The term also covers springs, wells or other collectors of water that are directly influenced by surface waters. Sustainability A characteristic or state whereby the needs of the present population can be met without compromising the ability of future generations or populations in other locations to meet their needs. Sustainable development Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable agriculture and livestock production Management of agricultural and livestock resources to satisfy human needs while maintaining or enhancing environmental quality and conserving natural resources for future generations. Sustainable forest management (SFM) The stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and potential to fulfill, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems. Symbiotic relationship A relationship between two different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both 518

Glossary

Synergies These arise when two or more processes, organizations, substances or other agents interact in such a way that the outcome is greater than the sum of their separate effects. System A system is a collection of component parts that interact with one another within some boundary. Taxonomy A system of nested categories (taxa) reflecting evolutionary relationships or morphological similarities. TechnoGarden The TechnoGarden scenario depicts a globally connected world relying strongly on technology and highly managed, often engineered ecosystems, to deliver ecosystem services. Technology Physical artefacts or the bodies of knowledge of which they are an expression. Examples are water extraction structures, such as tube wells, renewable energy technologies and traditional knowledge. Technology and institutions are related. Any technology has a set of practices, rules and regulations surrounding its use, access, distribution and management. Technology effect Reducing the net or at least per-person impact of resource consumption due to technological innovations. Technology transfer A broad set of processes covering the flows of know-how, experience and equipment among different stakeholders. Temperate region The region in which the climate undergoes seasonal change in temperature and moisture. Temperate regions of the Earth lie primarily between 30째 and 60째 latitude in both hemispheres. Thermohaline circulation (THC) Large-scale density-driven circulation in the ocean, caused by differences in temperature and salinity. In the North Atlantic, the thermohaline circulation consists of warm surface water flowing northward and cold deep water flowing southward, resulting in a net poleward transport of heat. The surface water sinks in highly restricted sinking regions located in high latitudes. Also referred to as the (global) ocean conveyer belt or the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). Threshold The level of magnitude of a system process at which sudden or rapid change occurs. A point or level at which new properties emerge in an ecological, economic or other system, invalidating predictions based on mathematical relationships that apply at lower levels. Tipping point The critical point in an evolving situation that leads to a new and sometimes irreversible development.

Tokenism The policy or practice of making only a symbolic effort. Topography The study or detailed description of the surface features of a region. Toxic pollutants Pollutants that cause death, disease or birth defects in organisms that ingest or absorb them. Traditional or local ecological knowledge A cumulative body of knowledge, know-how, practices or representations maintained or developed by peoples with extended histories of interaction with the natural environment. Transformation State of being transformed. In the context of GEO-5, transformation refers to a series of actions that explores opportunities to stop doing the things that pull the Earth System in the wrong direction and at the same time provide resources, capacity and an enabling environment for all that is consistent with the sustainable-world vision. Transitions Non-linear, systematic and fundamental changes of the composition and functioning of a societal system with changes in structures, cultures and practices. Transpiration The loss of water vapour from parts of plants, especially in leaves but also in stems, flowers and roots. Trillion 1012 (1 000 000 000 000) Trophic level Successive stages of nourishment as represented by the links of the food chain. Put simply, the primary producers (phytoplankton) constitute the first trophic level, herbivorous zooplankton the second and carnivorous organisms the third trophic level. Tropospheric ozone Ozone at the bottom of the atmosphere, and the level at which humans, crops and ecosystems are exposed. Also known as ground-level ozone. Urban sprawl The decentralization of the urban core through the unlimited outward extension of dispersed development beyond the urban fringe, where low density residential and commercial development exacerbates fragmentation of powers over land use. Urbanization An increase in the proportion of the population living in urban areas. Virtual water trade The idea that when goods and services are traded, the water needed to produce them (embedded) is traded as well.

Vulnerability An intrinsic feature of people at risk. It is a function of exposure, sensitivity to impacts of the specific unit exposed (such as a watershed, island, household, village, city or country), and the ability or inability to cope or adapt. It is multi-dimensional, multi-disciplinary, multi-sectoral and dynamic. The exposure is to hazards such as drought, conflict or extreme price fluctuations, and also to underlying socio-economic, institutional and environmental conditions. Wastewater treatment Any of the mechanical, biological or chemical processes used to modify the quality of wastewater in order to reduce pollution levels. Water conflict A confrontation between countries, states, or groups over water resources. Water footprint An indicator of water use that looks at both direct and indirect water use of a consumer or producer. The water footprint of an individual, community, nation or business is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual, community or nation, or produced by the business. Water quality The chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water, usually in respect to its suitability for a particular purpose. Water scarcity Occurs when annual water supplies drop below 1 000 m3 per person, or when more than 40 per cent of available water is used. Water security A term that broadly refers to the sustainable use and protection of water systems, the protection against water related hazards (floods and droughts), the sustainable development of water resources and the safeguarding of (access to) water functions and services for humans and the environment. Water stress Occurs when low water supplies limit food production and economic development, and affect human health. An area is experiencing water stress when annual water supplies drop below 1 700 m3 per person. Wetland Area of marsh, fen, peatland, bog or water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, with water that is static or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt, including areas of marine water to a depth, at low tide, that does not exceed 6 metres. Woodland Wooded land, which is not classified as forest, spanning more than 0.5 hectares, with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of 5–10 per cent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ, or with a combined cover of shrubs, bushes and trees above 10 per cent. It does not include areas used predominantly for agricultural or urban purposes. Glossary

519

Index A

abrupt change 196, 206, 401, 446 accelerating 23, 24, 44, 119–120, 158, 194, 199, 336, 361, 336, 385, 401, 407, 420, 430, 477 acidification 23, 34, 38, 41–43, 49, 99, 118, 120, 127, 129, 136, 143, 157, 207, 222, 262, 268, 294, 301, 425, 440 adapt 36, 101, 118, 119, 119, 125, 128, 143, 149, 154, 183, 204, 253, 267, 281, 319, 322, 323, 324, 326, 331, 333, 337, 338, 340, 392, 400, 409–410, 441, 450–451, 458, 475 adaptation 14, 19, 23, 77, 87, 88, 99, 100, 118, 119, 119, 128, 137, 146–151, 153, 159, 160, 236–239, 236, 244, 246, 248–251, 252, 253, 260, 262–263, 265–266, 265, 267, 281, 282, 290, 294, 298, 312, 329, 334, 336–337, 337, 338, 339–340, 354, 383, 396, 401–402, 403, 404– 407, 413, 433, 434, 435, 438, 442, 442, 450, 450–451, 460, 462, 465, 466, 475–476, 476, 481, 482 adaptive 85, 87, 88, 91, 122, 128, 158, 160, 210, 210, 234, 251, 260, 265, 267, 281, 282, 284, 298, 322, 404, 409, 421, 444, 445, 450, 450, 451, 461, 470, 475, 882, 483 adaptability 331, 364, 378, 423, 450 adaptive governance 88, 210, 450, 450, 451, 460–461, 482 adaptive management 85, 87, 91, 128, 158, 251, 281, 282, 284, 322, 331, 421, 445, 450–451, 483 aerosols 41, 56, 60, 77, 117, 199, 275, 432 Afghanistan 24, 428 Africa 6–9, 11, 19, 41, 46, 46, 57, 61, 68–6, 71–72, 81, 89, 102, 105, 108, 110, 115–117, 117, 122, 123, 128, 149, 180–181, 189, 203, 221, 225, 234–235, 237, 239–242, 245–248, 252, 252,297, 333, 402, 405, 427, 429, 432, 434, 465, 467 Africa region 244 Central Africa 239, 241 East Africa 402 Eastern Africa 108, 122, 152, 241, 242, 244, 244, 252 North Africa 11 Northern Africa 102, 240, 241, 244, 427 South Africa 34, 240, 242, 242, 245, 247–248, 247, 252, 253, 297, 402, 413 Southern Africa 74, 86, 108, 149, 235, 241–242, 244 West Africa 225, 248, 251, 402 Western Africa 76, 107, 240–241, 244 agriculture 8, 14, 23, 43, 44, 44, 51, 59, 61, 68–69, 76–77, 78, 79, 79–81, 84, 86, 89, 100, 102–104, 103, 105, 107, 125, 124, 136, 138, 139, 143, 146, 148, 150, 156, 159, 170, 180–181, 196, 201, 204, 209, 210, 222, 236, 239, 242, 242, 248, 250, 251, 252, 263, 267, 273, 281, 282, 292, 298, 302, 304, 351, 353, 356, 361, 361, 404–405, 434, 442–443, 464, 477 agricultural expansion 7, 71, 75, 84, 89, 90, 251, 310 organic agriculture 334, 335, 336 sustainable agriculture 105, 138, 150, 312, 333, 334, 335 HIV/AIDS 6, 7 air quality 32–34, 35, 39, 41, 47–48, 48, 55, 57, 59, 59, 205, 219–220, 224, 225, 265, 290, 293, 294, 298–299, 299, 301–302, 312–313, 356, 385, 404, 407, 431 520

Index

Albania 292 Algeria 245, 292 alien species 75, 114, 134, 136, 138, 143, 151, 157, 159–160, 222, 263, 265, 270, 391 Amazon 72, 72, 83, 86, 107, 154, 202–203, 228, 320, 321, 330, 334, 338, 429, 449 Andean Community 225, 320, 332, 338 Angola 241, 251 Antarctic 25, 36, 51–52, 51–52, 54, 58, 61, 77, 119, 119, 168, 181, 196, 199, 200–201, 200 Antigua and Barbuda 324 Antropocene 195 aquatic 43, 51, 100, 102–103, 108, 112–113, 114, 115, 119, 127, 129, 134–135, 136, 143, 146, 149, 168, 170, 180, 196, 329, 362, 426, 440, 442 arable 14, 51, 88, 226, 242, 304, 333–334, 364, 405, 433 arable land 14, 226, 304, 333–334, 405, 433 Arctic 36, 38, 51, 76, 77, 77, 113, 113, 121, 143, 178, 197, 199–200, 208 Argentina 69, 86, 150, 321, 321, 330, 332, 334, 335 Armenia 292, 294, 305, 413, 449 Asia and Pacific region 71, 76, 172, 206, 260, 262–263, 274, 275, 280–281, 403, 411–412 Asia and the Pacific 41, 68–69, 68, 71, 73, 104, 105, 114, 187, 227, 259–260, 262–263, 267, 268–269, 271, 276, 280–281, 282–283, 401, 401, 403, 408–411, 445 Asian Development Bank 225 Association of Caribbean States 371 Association of Southeast Asian Nations 225, 271 atmosphere 15, 25, 31–33, 33, 34, 35, 36, 41, 43, 46, 48–49, 51, 56–58, 61, 76–77, 118, 144, 149, 195–196, 196, 197, 199, 203–203, 218, 220,312, 375, 385, 401, 420, 425, 426, 442, 462, 462, 467, 467 atmospheric 25, 32–34, 33–35, 36, 38, 41, 43, 43, 44, 47, 49, 51, 51, 56–59, 59, 60, 60, 61, 73, 100, 111, 124, 143, 149, 152, 196–197, 199, 200, 268, 298, 298–299, 365 atmospheric brown cloud 58, 60 Australia 9, 24, 36, 57, 73–74, 88, 102, 106, 107, 114, 143– 144, 153, 203–204, 203, 272–273, 278, 282–283, 295, 297, 367, 412 Austria 292, 293 Azerbaijan 292

B

Bahamas 324 Bahrain 375, 380, 380, 383, 387, 391–392, 392, 394, 396 Bangladesh 109, 181, 208, 271, 277, 277, 280, 282 Barbados 101, 324, 327, 329, 338, 339 Barbados Programme of Action for Small Island Developing States 101 barley 4, 25 Belarus 292, 295, 306 Belgium 292 Belize 149, 321, 327, 330, 338

Benin 236 Bhutan 283, 424, 448 Bioaccumulation 178, 185 Biocapacity 206, 207, 443 biodiversity 5, 26, 33–34, 34, 36, 41, 43, 44, 72–73, 77, 81, 84–85, 87, 89, 100, 115, 122, 125, 133–135, 136–137, 139, 139–140, 140, 141, 143–157, 144, 146, 148, 150, 151, 154, 157, 158, 159–160, 198, 196–197, 196, 200, 200, 200, 207–209, 218, 219, 222, 225–226, 234, 236, 238, 239–250, 242–244, 248, 263, 266–270, 269, 271, 282, 291, 292–293, 294, 298, 308–313, 309, 310, 318–319, 320, 321, 329, 329, 330–331, 331–333, 335–336, 338, 329, 342, 355, 359, 362,374, 381–382, 384, 391, 392–393, 393, 396, 400–402, 401, 403–406, 408, 410–411, 414, 420, 425, 426, 431–432, 434, 436, 439–440, 440, 442, 444–445, 447, 451, 458, 461, 462, 463, 466–467, 467, 471 biofuel 4, 15, 25,26, 66, 68, 71, 76, 80, 82–84, 84, 85–86, 88, 89, 91, 139, 152, 221, 224, 237, 266, 296, 302, 338, 435, 439 biomass 4, 10, 14–16, 34, 47, 49, 61, 73, 121–122, 143, 146– 149, 153,157, 197, 204, 341, 367, 386, 428, 430, 442–443 biophysical 5, 12, 14, 25, 66–67, 69, 78, 81, 91, 146, 149, 195, 241, 382, 395, 432 biosphere 13, 27, 58, 182, 195–196, 196, 197, 207, 331, 334, 361, 393, 423 biotechnology 138, 150, 480 black carbon 32, 41, 47, 56-58, 56-57, 59-60, 197, 199, 220, 431 blue water 102–104, 102 Bolivia 324, 330, 334, 334, 338, 340, 341 Bosnia and Herzegovina 292 Brazil 9–10, 13, 15–16, 69, 72, 83, 84, 86, 145, 150, 168, 174, 182, 297, 319, 321, 324, 327, 330, 332, 334, 335, 338–339, 340–342, 449 BRIC 16, 168, 174 Bulgaria 292 Burkina Faso 245, 246–248, 250

C

Cameroon 239, 241, 248, 249, 252, 402 Canada 16, 18, 42, 72–73, 77, 145, 150, 174, 200, 204, 205205, 225, 292, 295, 350–360, 353, 361–363, 363, 365, 367, 368, 405, 410, 412 cap-and-trade 282, 341, 350, 353–354, 359 capacity building 23, 66, 87–88, 89, 91, 98, 137, 156, 169, 171, 181, 186–187, 189, 228, 242, 242, 263, 270, 278, 337, 338, 340, 341, 384, 407, 414, 446, 464–465, 470–471, 475, 476 Cape Verde 240 capital – finalcial 155, 266 – human 360 – natural 78–79, 283, 318–319, 337, 343, 404–405, 407–408, 411 carbon 4–5, 10, 18–23, 21, 25, 32–34, 37–40, 41, 43–44, 47, 49, 51, 54, 56-57, 56–58, 59–61,71–74, 79, 82, 84, 85,

87–88, 88, 91, 119, 122, 134,137, 142, 149, 151–153, 172, 184, 186, 196–197, 198, 199, 200, 202–205, 208, 219–222, 219, 238, 242–244, 243, 260, 262, 265, 265–268, 268, 271, 275, 278, 280–281, 280, 282, 290, 295–297, 299–300, 302, 312,313, 322, 330, 331, 335–336, 338–339, 340, 341, 342, 350, 353–356, 353, 354, 365, 374, 400, 403–407, 413, 428, 430, 430–432, 442, 445–46, 449, 449, 451, 464, 466, 473, 474, 474 carbon dioxide/CO2 5, 32, 34, 73, 119, 144, 196, 219, 219, 243, 260, 262, 297, 331, 350, 365, 375, 403, 428 carbon dioxide equivalent 38, 39, 54, 354, 354, 413, 430 carbon footprint 390, 449, 449 carbon sequestration 43–44, 73, 79, 87–88, 134, 152, 221, 243, 243, 265, 268, 271, 312, 336, 338, 342, 350, 355, 383, 383, 407, 445 carbon sink 73, 76, 149, 197, 197, 200, 202–203, 238 CARICOM 225, 320, 337 CBD/Convention on Biological Diversity 135, 138, 152–157, 159–160, 236, 238, 271, 282, 313, 329, 331–332, 342, 462, 469, 471, 476, Central African Republic 239 Chile 209, 210, 330, 339 China 8,9–11, 14–18, 20, 24, 26, 42, 57, 78, 84, 104, 150, 168, 174, 182, 260, 262, 267, 271, 274, 274, 278, 278, 280, 282–283, 297, 368, 403, 412, 449, 477 Chlorofluorocarbons 33, 51, 54, 464 cholera 116, 117, 117, 221 Clean Development Mechanism 40, 152, 266–267, 282, 295, 297, 462, 466 climate change 5,9,14–17, 25, 26, 32–36, 34–36, 34, 38, 40–41, 50–51, 57–60, 59, 61, 73, 76, 81, 81, 87–88, 89, 98–99, 100, 101, 108–109, 115, 117–119, 122–123, 125–127, 128, 134, 136–137, 139, 143, 148, 149, 151– 153, 151, 158, 159–160, 179–180, 187, 197, 201–205, 207, 209, 216, 219, 220, 222, 227, 234–237, 236, 238, 239–240, 244–250, 254, 260, 262–263, 262, 265–267, 266–268,270, 272, 278, 283, 281, 282, 284, 290, 293, 294, 295, 295, 298, 302, 309, 311–313, 318–319, 324, 326–327, 329, 329, 331, 331, 333, 334, 336–342, 352– 354, 355, 361, 365–366, 369, 375–376, 378, 381–383, 385–387, 389, 400–407, 401, 411, 414, 420, 425, 429, 431, 433, 435–436, 438, 440, 444, 447, 458, 460–461, 462, 464, 466, 466–468, 468, 472, 476, 481 climate variability 34, 194, 208 coal 14–15, 19–20, 57, 121–122, 182, 205–206, 252, 276, 280, 301, 354–355, 355, 365–366, coastal 8, 23, 75–77, 79, 100, 100, 102, 107, 109, 111–112, 111–113, 114, 118–120, 119, 122–124, 123, 126–127, 127, 136, 139, 143, 148–149, 154, 177, 184, 189, 210, 225, 234, 236, 236, 238, 239, 241, 242, 44–245, 244–245, 248, 251, 252, 253, 263, 265, 268, 268, 269, 282, 292, 295, 302, 318, 319–320, 323, 324, 327–328, 330, 331–332, 334, 337, 337–338, 342, 358, 363, 374, 392–393, 400, 402, 404–406, 407, 408–409, 414 Index

521

Colombia 80, 86, 321, 324, 330, 334–335, 334, 338–339, 340, 405 Common Agricultural Policy 84, 310 complex systems 23, 323, 401, 460 compliance 155, 170–171, 189, 224, 241, 252, 265, 279–281, 291, 295, 301, 302, 308, 341, 378, 381, 387, 391, 395, 411, 413 Congo 72, 239 Congo (Dem Rep of) 24, 86, 247–248 connectivity 100, 242, 310, 329, 464, 473, 472 consumption and production 10, 14, 23, 60, 218, 326, 395, 401, 498, 411, 420, 441, 460 coral reef 25, 34, 82, 99, 119, 120, 127, 134, 136, 143, 145, 149, 155, 159, 177, 206, 222, 224, 242, 262, 265, 268, 329, 392, 403, 429, 440 corridor 133, 242, 268, 270, 310, 329, 330, 331, 336, 408 Costa Rica 80, 322, 323, 330, 332, 334, 335–336, 338, 339– 340 Côte d’Ivoire 248 Croatia 292, 295 Cuba 331, 334, 335, 338, 339, 339 cultural services 146, 208, 223 Cyprus 292 Czech Republic 292

D

dairy 7, 14, 26, 44, 80, 82, 88, 148 DALYs (disability-adjusted life years) 46, 47, 54, 116, 117, 437 DDT/dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane 112–113, 178–180, 178–179, 180, 187 dead zone 111, 111, 127 deforestation 8–9,12, 16, 27, 66, 67, 71, 72–73, 75–76, 79, 82, 83, 87–88, 89, 148–149, 154, 157, 221, 228, 238, 243–244, 270, 279, 282, 322, 333, 335–337, 338, 342, 405, 408, 414, 426, 429–430, 465, 478 Democratic Republic of the Congo 24, 86, 247–248 Denmark 9, 114, 292, 304, 304, 367, 412 desertification 67, 67, 75, 88–88, 137, 148, 203, 219, 245, 319, 333, 375–376, 382–384, 382, 385, 406, 425–426, 458, 461, 462, 463, 466, 467, 467, 471 Dominican Republic 333, 405 driver 3, 4, 5, 9, 10,12, 19, 21, 23–25, 24, 26, 32, 34, 40, 58, 66, 72–73, 75, 82, 85, 89, 91, 99–100, 106, 115, 127, 127, 139, 150–151, 156, 158, 159–160, 174, 194–195, 198, 208, 210, 217, 217, 222, 232, 237, 241, 251, 260, 261, 262, 270, 281, 337, 343, 375, 382, 395, 400–403, 408–409, 411, 422–423, 425, 427–428, 436, 446, 448–450, 460–461, 482 dryland 68, 73–75, 74, 79, 87–88, 88, 89, 144, 203–204, 221,244, 249, 249, 336, 382

E

e-waste 24, 169, 175, 177, 184, 187, 188, 277, 283 early warning 128, 338, 339, 402, 471, 476 Earth System 5, 12 130, 193–195, 196, 199–202, 206–210, 208, 253, 401, 420, 422, 446, 451, 471, 482 Ecological footprint 11, 77, 144, 159, 206, 207 economic downturn 338, 358 522

Index

ecosystem restoration 238, 246, 250, 251 ecosystem services 36, 66, 67, 72, 76, 79, 79–80, 79, 85–86, 88, 89, 91, 98, 100, 102, 120, 128–129, 135, 136–137, 139, 145–150, 146, 156–158, 158, 216, 238, 242–244, 243, 253–254, 265, 268, 270, 271, 281, 282, 291, 294, 309, 319, 322, 324–325, 325, 329, 330, 331–333, 332, 332, 334, 335–337, 340, 342, 342, 350, 352–353, 358–359, 361, 369, 393, 403–408, 414, 440–441, 445, 449, 451, 458, 460, 462, 474 ecosystem-based adaptation 149, 150, 260, 267 ecotourism 149, 321, 335–336, 392 Ecuador 86, 321, 324,325, 330, 334, 338-339, 444 Egypt 245, 292 El Niño 327 El Salvador 330, 334 emerging issues 47, 56, 67, 168, 183, 220, 222, 290, 293 enabling conditions 253, 284, 313, 323, 325, 336, 379–381, 384, 402, 409, 412, 460–461, 482 endangered species 138, 151, 164, 203, 270, 462, 467 environmental assessment 183, 219, 227–228, 237, 278, 293, 387, 406–407, 410, 465, 465, 472, 473, 474 environmental cooperation 352–353, 357, 411 environmental education 227, 293, 321–323, 321, 338, 343, 406 environmental governance 87, 169, 264, 265, 277, 281, 284, 290, 292–293, 302, 312–313, 318–322, 320–321, 323, 325, 343, 351–353, 351, 369, 374, 376, 379, 384, 395, 400, 401, 402–404, 406–407, 409–411, 414, 464–466, 472–474, 472, 473, 479, 481, 481 environmental targets 224, 292 equity 80, 90, 115, 135, 154–155, 236, 242, 253–254, 262, 270, 280, 282, 318, 321, 323, 325, 329, 331, 332, 334–335, 337, 343, 358–359, 409, 411, 420, 451, 471, 475, 479 Eritrea 246 erosion 16, 24, 69, 77, 79, 111, 137, 140, 148, 208, 249, 252, 332, 334, 336, 356, 360, 382, 383, 384, 396 Estonia 154, 292 Ethiopia 245, 246, 248, 249, 249, 250, 298, 402 Europe European Commission 123, 177, 186, 219, 223, 225, 298, 471 European Environment Agency 181, 218, 225 European Union 16, 42, 75, 83, 84, 120, 180, 218, 251, 290, 292, 292, 404, 471, 481 eutrophication 34, 43, 63, 82, 110–111, 111, 139, 197, 294, 303, 352 externality 369

F

feedback 4, 23, 88, 194, 196, 460, 480, 481 fertilizer 109, 143, 178, 182, 185, 356, 359, 401 Fiji 269 Finland 292, 311 food security 126, 281, 325, 332, 340, 378, 383 forest degradation 79, 87, 89, 238, 243, 270, 322, 408 forest management 73, 271, 291, 330, 333, 340, 342, 439, 442 Former Yugoslav Republic of/FYR Macedonia 292, 295 fossil fuel 38, 41, 73, 82, 195, 197, 205, 352, 365, 367, 403 France 16, 292, 367, 412, 448, 473 freshwater 14, 36, 41, 43, 71, 75, 82, 243, 245, 404, 405, 407

G

Gambia 240, 246 genetic diversity 136–137, 144, 150, 157, 159, 332, 426 Georgia 292, 353 Germany 16, 83, 292, 297, 298, 367, 404, 412 Ghana 24, 86, 241–242, 246, 248, 465 glaciers 118–119, 118, 181, 197, 222, 222, 429 Global commons 99, 201, 424, 460–461 Global Earth Observation System 462 globalization 4, 5, 14, 19, 20, 26, 66, 67, 85, 173, 320, 321, 403 genetic modification/GMO 134, 150, 150 governance 321, 323, 324, 376, 425, 445, 450, 451 Greece 292 green economy 60, 90, 98, 146, 280, 284, 350, 351, 352, 355, 355, 395, 423, 451, 451, 471, 474–475, 475, 479, 480, 482 green water 102, 104, 197 greenhouse effect 200 greenhouse gas/GHG 11–12, 17–20, 21, 23–24, 33–38, 35–36, 38, 41, 43–44, 49, 57–58, 61, 69, 73, 77, 82, 84, 88, 117, 182, 189, 220, 262, 262, 265–268, 268, 276, 278, 282, 294–295, 295–296, 300, 302, 312, 332, 334, 338, 335–336, 340–341, 341, 353–357, 355, 359, 364–367, 369 385, 387–388, 390, 402, 404, 407, 424, 426, 429, 430–433, 439, 442–443, 447, 471, 474, 481 grey water 104, 438, 442 groundwater 9, 23, 69, 101, 102–104, 103–104, 106, 109–110, 109, 118, 120–121, 126, 128–129, 133, 148, 180, 205–206, 216, 219, 221, 241, 273, 294, 302, 327, 361, 376, 378–381, 378, 379,381, 383, 383, 425, 436 growth Guatemala 86, 332, 332, 334–335, 334 Guinea 240–241, 240, 244, 251 Guinea Bissau 240 Guyana 334

H

habitat loss 134, 139, 142, 148, 150, 158, 158, 329, 329, 332, 342, 439–440 habitat fragmentation 263 Haiti 24, 117, 227 herbicide 25, 69, 150, 180, 334 Honduras 330, 341 human health 16, 23, 26, 32–33, 35, 41–43 41, 43, 46, 46–49, 49, 51, 54, 56–57, 81–82, 100, 100, 102, 108, 110, 112, 114, 116, 126–127, 128, 135, 146, 150, 150, 168, 170–172, 172–173, 175, 178, 178, 181–186, 186–188, 204, 206, 220, 223, 237, 238, 251, 264, 274, 276–278, 290, 292, 298, 306, 308, 342, 350, 352, 354, 356, 395, 426, 477–478 human rights 4, 7, 24, 86, 154, 234, 238, 241, 246–247, 246, 249, 253–254, 402, 477–478, 479–480 Hungary 292, 303, 482 husbandry 147, 151, 336, 385, 435

I

Iceland 292, 295, 297, 469 India 9–11, 14–18, 36, 59, 77, 84, 86, 88, 104, 109, 115, 145, 152, 168, 174, 196, 222, 242, 244, 262, 267, 270,

272–273, 275, 275, 277, 279, 280, 282, 283, 297, 298, 434, 445, 450, 456, 463, 477 Indonesia 14, 72, 82, 84, 86, 182, 187, 262, 267, 268, 268, 280, 282–283, 403, 447 industrialization 23, 50, 118, 274, 390, 404 invasive species 4, 5, 15, 114, 124, 139, 139, 143, 150, 151, 222, 270, 329 Iran 73, 74, 88 Iraq 375–376, 390, 393 Ireland 292 Italy 16, 292, 309, 367, 412

J

Jamaica 330, 334 Japan 9, 10, 40, 54, 113–114, 122 129, 134,154, 276, 278, 282, 284, 295, 300, 338,367, 412 Jevons paradox 12 Jordan 278, 292, 375–376, 376, 378–380, 378, 384, 385, 386–389, 389–390, 392, 470

K

Kazakhstan 283, 292 Kenya 154, 240, 248, 248, 365 Kuwait 375, 387, 390, 391, 413, 414 Kuznets 12, 12, 20, 428 Kyoto Protocol 35, 39, 58, 152, 268, 295, 337

L

land acquisition 85, 86, 91, 359 land cover 5, 18, 68, 77, 79, 85, 219, 221, 225, 275 land deals 66, 86, 88, 221, 237, 246 land degradation 26, 66, 67, 68, 216, 374 land use planning 334, 383 landscape Lao People’s Democratic Republic 270 Latvia 292 Lebanon 292, 375–376, 379–380, 382, 388 leverage point 5, 23, 26, 420, 422, 455, 448, 450 Libya 241, 292 Liechtenstein 292, 297 life-cycle analysis 176, 176, 274 Lithuania 292 Luxembourg 292

M

Madagascar 157, 242, 242, 245 maize 4, 14, 15, 25, 68, 69, 82, 334, 433 Malawi 246 Malaysia 86, 140, 247 Maldives 268, 282, 403, 403, 473, 474 Mali 239, 246, 247, 250 Malta 292 mangrove 100, 177, 252,262, 268, 402, 403 marine protected area/MPA 239, 240, 240, 244, 321, 330, 374, 390, 391, 393, 396, 401 material flow accounting 11, 173, 207 Mauritania 239, 240 Mauritius 251, 402 Index

523

meat 7, 13, 14, 19, 83, 270, 335, 383, 432, 435 mega-cities 284 methane 5, 12, 37, 49, 76, 298, 299, 300, 431, 435 Mexico migration 6, 7, 8, 9, 20, 201, 217, 228, 335, 389, 439 Millennium Development Goals/MDG 7, 34, 34, 135, 171, 184, 218, 225, mining 103, 109, 113, 188, 265, 266, 306, 333, 334 mitigation 434, 435, 438, 439, 442, 444, 458, 465, 468 model/modelling 25, 50, 58, 59, 129, 241, 291, 355, 432 Monaco 292, 295 Mongolia 271, 282 monitoring 293, 297, 302, 321, 338, 339, 381, 470, 471, 471 Montenegro 292, 295 Morocco 245, 292, 465 Mozambique 243, 246, 246, 251 multilateral environmental agreements 100, 127, 171, 171, 176, 320, 462, 463, 467 Myanmar 412

N

Namibia 246, 248, 253 nanotechnology 144, 169, 183 natural capital 283, 318, 337, 343 Nepal 221, 270, 271, 279, 283, 410, 414 Netherlands 219, 292 New Zealand 149, 278, 283 Nicaragua 29, 330, 334, 334, 335, 340 Niger 241, 246, 478 Nigeria 181, 236, 241, 246, 251 Nitrogen 14, 45–46, 61, 129, 294, 298, 299, 300, 304 Nitrogen dioxide/NO2 44, 61 Nitrogen deposition 34, 43, 51, 139, 143, 159 Nitrous oxide 23, 43, 44, 76, 152, 431, 435 Norway 20, 282, 292, 295, 297 Nutrient pollution 111, 111

O

Oats 4, 25 Oil 14, 13, 24, 25, 77, 82, 84, 86, 237, 240, 242 Oil sands 367 Oman 375–380, 390, 407 Organic agriculture 334, 335, 336 Organic carbon 73, 76 Organochlorine 113, 113, 180 ozone depleting substance 32, 57 ozone layer 33, 35, 51, 52, 54, 57, 58, 201

P

Panama 149, 321, 330, 336, 336, 340, 447 Paraguay 330, 335 particulate matter/PM 32, 34, 41–42, 46, 46, 47– 48, 58–59, 61, 220, 294, 298, 300, 302 pasture 68, 68 , 80, 235, 246, 251, 335, 336, 434, 442 pathways 136, 143, 151, 208, 330, 423, 425, 427, 441, 444, 445, 448 payment for ecosystem services/PES 80, 89, 214, 238, 242, 243, 244, 253, 265, 271 524

Index

permafrost 37, 76, 77, 194, 196, 197, 200, 222 persistent organic pollutant/POP 168, 171, 171–172, 178, 178, 184 Peru 122, 321, 324, 330, 334, 334, 338, 339, 340 pesticide 23, 25, 69, 143, 150, 168, 172, 356, 463, 467 Philippines 153, 177, 273, 282, 283 phosphorus 111, 356 Poland 292, 310 policy bank 475 policy responses 4, 26, 160, 217, 253, 260, 261, 407–409 pollutants 100, 112, 220, 224, 264, 272, 292, 301, 426, 431 population 5–10, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 23, 327, 440 Portugal 292, 294, 311, 368, 412 poverty 319, 329, 330, 332, 336, 337, 340, 343, 382, 385 precautionary principle 91 precipitation 71, 107, 115, 118, 118, 119, 128, 375, 384, 436 primary energy 35, 350, 367, 385, 387, 389, 431, 443 protected areas/PA 85, 151, 152, 238, 240, 244, 250, 251 provisioning services 146, 148, 158 public-private partnership 244, 251, 360, 369, 375, 391, 461, 475, 482

Q

Qatar 375, 391

R

radiative forcing 32, 49 REDD+ 87, 242, 243, 244, 248, 265, 265 regulating services 145, 223 renewable energy 280, 282, 294, 297, 298, 312, 337, 338, 341, 386 Republic of Korea 4, 276, 278, 278, 280, 282–283, Republic of Moldova 292, 295 resource efficiency 12, 128, 222, 264, 306, 444, 445 rice 4, 14, 15, 59, 153 263, 334, 335, 431 Rio+20 232, 458, 472, 483 river fragmentation 108, 108, 352 Romania 292, 303, 310 run off 9, 88, 196, 236, 238, 241, 249, 289 Russian Federation 177, 180, 292, 295, 306–307, 435 Rwanda 254

S

Saint Lucia 321, 327, 329 salinization/salination 79, 208, 225, 338, 382, 326, 436 Samoa 282–283 sanitation 376, 377, 378, 424, 425, 426, 428, 437–438, 442, 451, 475 Saudi Arabia 375, 378, 379, 380, 381, 386, 390 savannah 73, 203, 206 Senegal 182, 239, 246, 248, 402 sequestration 265, 271, 331, 336, 338, 342, 350, 383, 383, 445 Serbia 292, 303 sewage 110–112 129,149, 178, 274, 305, 306 Singapore 280, 282–283 Slovakia 292 Slovenia 292 small island developing states 101, 107, 119, 119, 319, 327 soil erosion 16, 69, 148, 332, 334, 356, 396

sorghum 4, 25, 250 soy/soybean/soya 4, 25, 68, 72, 83, 83, 86, 88, 297 soy moratorium 83 Spain 292, 297, 473, 479 species abundance 158, 439 Sri Lanka 271, 273, 282 stratospheric ozone 32, 33, 35, 50–51, 51, 58, 61, 200–201, 207 Sudan 237, 251 supporting services 146, 342, 365 surface water 69, 99, 102–103, 110, 181, 206, 221, 239, 376, 403 sustainable agriculture 138, 150, 312, 333, 334, 335, 405 sustainable cities Sustainable development goals/SDG 87, 391, 427, 458, 471, 473, 482 Sweden 56, 292 Switzerland 292, 295, 297, 472 Syrian Arab Republic/Syria 292, 375, 278–380, 382, 383, 386–389, 393

T

Tajikistan 292 technology transfer 58, 265, 282–283, 337, 341, 345, 409, 476, 475–476 Thailand 40, 145, 262, 282–283, 412 threshold 33, 42, 46, 54, 59, 83, 140, 146, 158, 198, 208, 401, 425, 429, 443, 446, 450 tipping points 4, 23, 33, 37, 158, 206, 401, 422 Togo 250 Tonga 282–283 traditional knowledge 135, 137 151, 154–155, 158, 160, 222, 240, 269, 420, 448, 475 transformative Trinidad and Tobago 322, 330 tropospheric ozone 32,34, 41, 43, 48, 49, 49, 50, 57, 58, 59, 61, 220 Tunisia 245, 292 Turkey 73, 292 Turkmenistan 292

U

Uganda 88, 122, 226, 246–247, 368, 412 Ukraine 290, 294–295, 303, 310 United Arab Emirates 375, 378–379, 390, 391, 393, 430 United Kingdom/UK 16, 17, 40, 47, 292, 474 United Republic of Tanzania/Tanzania 9, 154, 224, 228, 248, 297 United States of America/US 4, 7, 11, 15–20, 57, 72, 77, 81–83, 89, 150, 161, 204–206, 360–365, 367, 376, 445, 473, 481 urbanization 5, 11, 14–18, 66, 105, 107, 109, 118, 234, 260, 260, 262, 274, 318–319, 325, 327, 375–356, 382, 385, 388, 390, 393, 395 Uruguay 330, 333, 335, 338, 341, 405 Uzbekistan 273, 282, 292

V

vegetation 39, 49, 69, 74, 76, 77, 88, 148, 203–204, 203, 332, 361, 382, 383, 414 Viet Nam 270, 280, 282, 403 – payement for ecosystem services 271 virtual water 98, 104–106, 105, 106, 128, 381

W

wastewater 48, 104, 109, 110, 129,265, 273, 274, 324, 327, 376, 379–381, 380, 402, 408, 430, 438, 442 water footprint 104–105, 105 – and demand 103 – Network 219 water quality 100,100, 105 109–110, 113–114, 116, 119, 120– 121, 122, 127, 128–129, 205, 221, 236, 237, 238, 240, 252, 351, 358–360, 362, 369, 403, 406, 412, 426, 436 water quantity 79 water stress 74, 369, 115, 123, 129, 436–438, 437, 438, 442, 444 water – thermal/hydro power 121 water – competition and conflict 125 well being 2, 17, 26, 33, 36, 67–69, 77, 85, 104, 126–127, 134–135, 194, 199, 201, 203–204, 222, 206–208, 234–236, 247, 266, 270, 313, 322, 332, 382, 395, 418, 421, 425, 445,450–451, 458–459, 461, 470–472, 471, 475, 478, 482 – biodiversity 139, 146–147 environmental – 81 – Ogoni people 246 – Global Biodiversity Assessment 140 – environmental sustainability 26 measures of – 26 – water 101, 122, 128 – economic 332 – terrestrial 339 – land policy 334 – organic agriculture 334 ecological – 477 – environmental justice 477 West Asia/West Asian countries 68, 73, 102, 105, 107, 114, 225, 372, 374–376, 376, 377, 382, 384–388, 385, 391–396, 395, 401, 406–413, 427 – rainfall 38 wheat 4, 25,49, 59, 69, 239, 381, 381, 406, 433

Y

Yemen 374–376, 378–379, 378, 381–382, 390–391, 393 youth 6, 335, 449

Z

Zambia 465 Zimbabwe 182, 248, 465

Index

525


The GEO-5 Process : Accronyms and abbreviations