Safe Food Handling Guide
Learn how to keep food safe with this brief guide.
Safe Food Handling Guide Updated: January 27, 2011 Table of Contents Food Contamination Storage Cleaning Assessment (link-out) Introduction The resources in this guide will provide basic knowledge relating to keeping food safe as it moves from the Capital Area Food Bank to your organization - and then on to clients. Each year, improper food handling contributes to... 76 estimated food-borne illness outbreaks? 325,000 estimated hospitalizations? 5,000 estimated deaths Review this guide to discover how safe food handling can reduce health risks for your agency and your clients. Please note that safe food handling training is required of all partner agencies of the Capital Area Food Bank. Reviewing this brochure and filling out the online assessment will fulfill requirements for programs that do NOT prepare food on-site. Programs that prepare food will need full certification. See this website for reducedrate certification options. Food Contamination How Does Food Contamination Occur? The four main causes of food contamination are: 1. Not washing hands 2. Cross-contamination 3. Improper storage and cooking temperatures 4. Contamination by animal waste Contaminants can be divided into three categories: physical, chemical and biological. Physical wood metal glass paint chips hair Chemical cleaning chemicals maintenance chemicals pest control chemicals Biological micro organisms insects rodents birds How Can We Avoid Food Contamination? Wash! Rinse! Sanitize! This will make such everything is properly cleaned. This includes the work space and all the materials used. Wash Hands with Soap. Wash hands with hot soap and water for at least 30 seconds. Know the Proper Temperature Controls. The proper temperature for refrigerated foods is between 32-40 degrees Fahrenheit. The proper temperature for freezer items is 0 degrees Fahrenheit. The Temperature Danger Zone is between 41 - 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Click here for information on how to calibrate a thermometer and how/when to use a thermometer. Know the critical times for perishable foods. Perishable foods should not be left in the Temperature Danger Zone for more than four hours! Click here for a list of safe food handling temperatures for common foods. Remember this acronym: "FAT TOM" Food - bacteria can grow in all foods, especially those that are high in protein Acidity - bacteria can grow in neutral or acidic areas Time - perishable foods should not be left out for longer than 4 hours Temperature - Temperature Danger Zone: 41 - 140 degrees Fahrenheit Oxygen - bacteria can grow with or without oxygen Moisture - bacteria likes to grow in foods with a lot of moisture Reflection Questions 1. What is considered a physical contaminant? 2. What is the temperature danger zone? 3. What is the longest amount of time that perishable foods can be left out in the Temperature Danger Zone? Storage What do I do when I get the food? When you receive any food, be sure to check all the boxes, cans, packaging and dates. This will ensure that the food in your pantry is safe and satisfying for all of your consumers. Proper Storage: Items must be stored at least 6 inches off the ground. Food should be organized on shelves in proper categories. Food should be stored in proper food temperatures. Food should not be stored with any cleaning products or chemicals. Evaluating Food: Packaging Boxes with inner bags Boxes without inner bags Bags or sacks Pouches Cans Throw out if... inner bag is open in any way open in any way rips, tears punctures or holes inflation, incomplete or incorrectly formed seals missing label, dented or pinched top and bottom, dirt under top *Discard products with open packaging or products that show signs of molding or rodents What Do All of the Dates Mean? There is a lot of confusion about the dates on food packaging. Unless a date is accompanied by the words "Expires by" or "Expiration date", then the date is NOT an expiration date. See below for the most commonly used phrases for food product dating. \ "Sell By" Date - Last day the product is recommended for display on a supermarket shelf. This product is still good to eat past this date! "Best if Used By" Date - indicates how long the product will maintain best quality or flavor. This food is still safe to eat after this date, although it may have a slight taste or texture change. "Coded" Date - indicates a date on which the product was packaged. This date enables manufacturers to rotate their stock as well as locate their products in the event of a recall. "Use By" or "Expiration" Date - Indicates the last date suggested for use of the product in terms of quality or freshness. Once a product exceeds this date, it is said to have "exceeded its shelf life." This type of coding is easy to read and usually gives the date (day, month, and year) after which the product should not be used. It should be noted that rarely when a food product exceeds its shelf life does it become a potential food safety hazard. The product usually degrades in quality, affecting color, flavor, aroma, texture, etc. The few exceptions of products which may develop potential food safety hazards when they exceed their shelf life are produce, lunch meats, fresh prepared salads (like potato salad), which should always be destroyed after they exceed their shelf life. Shelf Life Reference Guide Product Estimated shelf life past the sell-by date 1-3 weeks Do not use beyond code 3-10 days 1-2 years 1-2 years 6 months-a year 3 months 3 months 1 year 1-2 years 3 months - 1 year Do not use beyond code 1-4 weeks 1 year 1-2 days Yogurt Baby Food or Formula Bread/Bakery Products Canned Goods Aseptic Containers Jars/Bottles Cereal Crackers Pasta Dried Beans Freezer Products Prepared Salads/Dips Refrigerated Juices/Teas Rice Not Frozen Poultry Not Frozen Beef, Veal, Pork & 3-5 days Lamb Not Frozen Ground Meat or 1-2 days Poultry Not Frozen Variety Meat 1-2 days Not Frozen Ham Not Frozen Sausage Eggs Cooked Poultry Cooked Sausage Sausage Hard/Dry Corned Beef Vacuum Packed Dinners Frozen Bacon Frozen Hot Dogs Luncheon Meat Cooked Ham Canned Meat Canned Ham 5-7 days 1-2 days 3-5 weeks 3-4 days 3-4 days 6 weeks 5-7 days 2 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks 2 weeks 7 days 2-5 years 2 years For even more specific information about sell-by dates for even more specific foods, please view the Food Marketing Institute's Food Keeper Brochure. Follow FIFO - First In First Out - This acronym indicates that the first products that are placed on your shelf are the first ones out of your facility. Following this guideline ensures that consumers are getting the freshest and safest foods possible. Reference Questions 1. Can you eat something past the "Sell By" Date? 2. How far off the ground should the food be stored? Cleaning Developing A Regular Cleaning Schedule A regular cleaning schedule will insure that the storage and preparation area is clean and safe for food handling. Wash WASH dishes, utensils, cookware, cutting boards, appliances and cooking surfaces with HOT, SOAPY WATER to remove visible soil. Rinse Thoroughly RINSE OFF soap and film. Sanitize REGULAR CHLORINE BLEACH diluted into water is an easy-to-use germ killer. Below is a short video on how to prepare a sanitizing solution. Recipes for sanitizing: 1. Nonporous Surfaces* - Use 1 tablespoon liquid bleach per gallon of water. Leave wet for 2 minutes. Air dry. 2. Porous Surfaces** - Use 3 tablespoons liquid bleach per gallon of water. Leave wet for 2 minutes. Rise and air dry. *Nonporous Surfaces: are areas that are smooth, unpainted solid surface that limit penetration of liquid. This includes glass, plastic or metal surfaces. **Porous Surfaces: are areas that can admit the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices. This includes wood surfaces. Reference Questions 1. What is the best thing to do to ensure that you will have a safe area for food handling? Helpful Sites Below are several resources that provide additional information regarding safe food handling. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service has a wealth of resources relating to safe food handling. The United States Food and Drug Administration provides updated information regarding product recalls and other food safety topics. The Mayo Clinic has a wealth of resources, particularly relating to proper hand-washing techniques. Restaurant Association of Metropolitan Washington provides reduced-rate safe food handling certification to Capital Area Food Bank partner agencies. The Food Marketing Institute has published a comprehensive primer on storing food safely. Click here to access the brochure. Assessment Completing this online assessment is required in order to receive credit for having completed basic safe food handling.