Air Quality, Climate Change and Transport in Asia: 2011 in Review
As part of CAI-Asia's mission to promote better air quality and livable cities, CAI-Asia conducted an annual review of main events relevant to air quality, climate change and transport in Asia. The review, which started on 2008 and initially focused on sustainable transport, has now evolved to include air quality and climate events. It is an opportunity to look back and understand where Asia focused in the past year and foresee emerging trends in Asia in the coming years.
Air Quality, Climate Change and Transport in Asia 2011 in Review 1 January 2011 Japan Releases Guidelines on Low-Carbon Urban Development http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Street_a t_Ginza_Tokyo.jpg Tokyo, Japan. Japan's Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism announced on August 30, 2010, that it has formulated guidelines to create low-carbon cities. The Guidance was formulated to support initiatives of local authorities, by indicating what should be considered when promoting low-carbon city development, its basic concepts, as well as the necessary measures and methods of assessing their effects. Contents of the Guidance will be updated as necessary. Read here: http://www.mlit.go.jp/common/000136941.pdf 13 January 2011 China sets 2011 pollution control goal, warns of challenges Photos are taken at CAI-Asia China Office located near CBD of Beijing. From left, Feb 14-16, morning. The Chinese government has set its 2011 target to reduce the emission of four major pollutants, cutting them by 1.5 percent year on year. These main pollutants are Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), sulfur dioxide, ammonia nitrogen, and nitrogen oxide. Ammonia nitrogen and nitrogen oxide were newly added to the country's major pollutants monitoring list in accordance with its environmental protection plan from 2011 to 2015. CAI-Asia, 2011. 19 January 2011 India MOEF releases Air quality monitoring, emission inventory and source apportionment study for Indian cities Busy road in Bangalore, India. Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF) released the results of source apportionment studies in six cities (Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai and Pune) which assessed the contribution of various sources to air pollution. Source emission profiles for vehicular and non-vehicular sources were also developed through this study. This is an outcome of work undertaken by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) with other research institutes. Reports are available here: http://www.cpcb.nic.in/Source_Apportionment_Studies.php CAI-Asia, 2008. 26 January 2011 Guangzhou named first Chinese winner of Int'l Transport Award City representatives Guangzhou and other nominated cities at the awarding ceremony. Guangzhou became the first Chinese city to be granted the International Sustainable Transport Award 2011, for its recent transportation achievements--most notably the Zhongshan Ave. Bus Rapid Transit, its public bike system and the Greenway System. Other nominees include Leon, Mexico; Nantes, France; Tehran, Iran and Lima, Peru. CAI-Asia, 2011. 22 February 2011 Palembang, Indonesia set to implement sustainable urban transport schemes Ted Aljibe / AFP/Getty Images (2012). http://mediad.publicbroadcasting.net/p/shared/npr/20120 1/144643471.jpg Heavy traffic in Palembang, Indonesia The City of Palembang decided to implement the Phase 1 of its Mid-term Sustainable Urban Transport Action Plan. Phase 1 includes projects such as, the improvement of the TransMusi bus system and parking management schemes. The parking management part will include removal of on-street parking and providing off-street parking facilities in downtown areas. Park & Ride facilities at the main cordon entries into the city will also be a part of Phase 1. 10 March 2011 Malaysia: Government may ban electric bicycles http://www.baikbike.com/wp http://www.baikbike.com/wpcontent/uploads/folding_electric_bicycle.jpg Left: Electric bicycle. Right: Publication cover. Electric bicycles may be taken off the road if the Cabinet accepts a recommendation from the Transport Ministry. Minister Datuk Seri Kong Cho is recommending to not allow electric bicycles, citing safety reasons. For more information, read "Managing Two and Three Wheelers in Asia" which analyzes social and environmental impacts of motorized two and three-wheelers and provides an array of tailpipe and non-tailpipe measures to curb these. Read: http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/sites/default/files/documents/23-Wheelers-in-Asia-Book.pdf CAI-Asia, 2011. 2 April 2011 Karachi, Pakistan: Only 6% of 2.3m vehicles for public in city http://www.karachidigest.com/wpcontent/uploads/2011/01/transport.jpg Overcrowded public transport in Karachi, Pakistan. More than 24 million passenger trips are generated daily, but of over 2.3 million vehicles in the Karachi, only 6% are public transport vehicles whereas nearly 54% use public transport. Karachi Mass Transit Cell Director-General Atique Beg highlighted the scarcity of public transport in the city that 40 passengers competed for a seat in public transport vehicles. He said a study was being carried out in view of the city's transport situation in 2030 and planning was being done to integrate all the three planned transport systems � BRT, LRT and Karachi Circular Railway (KCR). 14 April 2011 Maynilad Water GHG Inventory gets ISO certified: Philippines' first ISO:14064 on GHG Awarding ceremony. CAI-Asia mentored Maynilad Water in establishing their integrated GHG and air pollution emissions accounting system in 2010. With this as basis, Maynilad Water then sought ISO 14064:2006 Greenhouse Gases certification through TUV Rheinland Gmbh. While some companies report their emissions in the annual report , this is the first ISO certification of this kind in the Philippines. The certificate was awarded on April 14, 2011 in the presence of Philippines Climate Change Commissioner and Head of the Philippine Climate Change Delegation to UNFCCC Conference of Parties - Mr. Naderev Sa�o. http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/node/7286 25 June 2011 Jakarta, Delhi: close to deciding on congestion pricing? Heavy traffic in Jakarta. Jakarta came one step closer to implementing the much-anticipated electronic road pricing (ERP) system after the President signed Government Regulation (PP) No. 32/2011 on Traffic Management and Engineering. The PP regulated steps to implement ERP, which includes planning, managing traffic, procurement and preparing road facilities. Aside from Jakarta, Delhi is also planning to introduce congestion charge to ease gridlock. The Municipal Corporation of Delhi hopes to introduce a system to levy 150-rupee (�2) fee on cars, motorbikes and even rickshaws entering central areas during the day. CAI-Asia, 2011. 21 July 2011 India adopts international pact on air pollution from ships http://www.thehindu.com/multimedia/dynamic/00729/21TH_SHI PS_729665f.jpg A ship docked at a harbor spews smoke. The Indian government gave its nod for accepting international regulations for the prevention of air pollution emanating from ships, as proposed under a 1997 protocol of the International Maritime Organization. According to the regulations, limits have been set on sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide emissions from ship exhausts and deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances have been prohibited. 12 August 2011 Vietnam: National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy approved http://english.vov.vn/Uploaded_VOV/donghuycuong/20091102/ climate%20changeVN.jpg Left: Flooding in Vietnam. Right: Map of Vietnam showing likely impacts of climate change. Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung has approved the National Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation, which was designed to have four specific objectives. One of these objectives is to sets out a target of transforming Vietnam into a low-carbon economy, with green growth becoming a mainstream of sustainable development. The strategy, which also covers 10 strategic tasks, says that climate change adaptation is a vital issue for Vietnam. http://www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/wp http://www.oxfamblogs.org/fp2p/wpcontent/uploads/vietnam.gif 16 August 2011 Leon Schipper, Physicist and Iconoclast, Dies at 64 Lee playing at BAQ 2010 in Singapore, November 2010. Inside: Lee receiving his Band-Air Award. Leon (Lee) J. Schipper passed away on 16 August in Berkeley, Calif. He held a bachelor's degree in music and a Ph.D. in astrophysics, both from Berkeley, but he specialized in energy efficiency and transportation energy and was often a critic of the conventional wisdom. "CAI-Asia pays tribute to Lee Schipper, a staunch advocate for clean air and sustainable urban transport, a beloved member of the CAI-Asia family." Read an online journal by Lee's family: http://www.lee-schipper.org/ CAI-Asia, 2010. 1 September 2011 'We Need Safe Footpaths`: Walkability survey results for 6 Indian cities released Pedestrians crossing in Chennai Central Railway Station. The walkability study by CAI-Asia serves to help decision makers prioritize planning and investments to improve non-motorized mobility in India. In addition to availability of pedestrian footpaths, it includes other parameters such as accessibility to crossings and amenities and road safety issues. Walkability in Indian Cities: http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/projects/India-walkability Walkability and Pedestrian Facilities in Asian Cities: http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/sites/default/files/documents/ADB-WP17-Walkability-PedestrianFacilities-Asian-Cities.pdf CAI-Asia, 2011. 7 September 2011 Vietnam sets vehicle emission standards and fuel quality roadmap Hanoi, Vietnam. Prime Minister Nguyen Tan Dung approved a new motor vehicle emission standard to mitigate motor vehicle emissions. Under the roadmap, automobiles will be required to comply with Euro 4 emission standards by January 1, 2017. Motorcycles manufactured, assembled or newly imported will be required to comply with Euro 3 emission standards beginning January 1, 2017. Parallel to these efforts, the Government is also set to improve fuel quality standards by leapfrogging to Euro 4 beginning 1 January 2016. Jophel Botero Ybiosa, 2011. 22 September 2011 Most dangerous Metro Manila buses named http://www.abscbnnews.com/sites/default/files/a_images/objects/20110726_D imples_carino.jpg 26 July 2011: View from the Skyway over the wreckage of a bus that plunged 30 feet down to South Luzon Expressway in Paranaque, Metro Manila. Following a string of road accidents, the Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) compiled a list of the most dangerous buses in Metro Manila, based on the number of accidents associated which may have resulted in deaths, injuries, damage to property, and warned that they may lose their franchises. The list covers 2010 and the first half of 2011. The list is available here: http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/63357/ltfrb-ranks%E2%80%98most-dangerous%E2%80%99-bus-companies 26 September 2011 WHO releases global compilation of air quality data http://www.who.int/gho/phe/outdoor_air_pollution/phe_012.jpg Exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 or less in 1081 cities, 2003-2010. The World Health Organization released a global compilation of air quality data from nearly 1,100 cities across 91 countries. Some of the main findings in the new compilation are: (1) Majority of urban populations have an average annual exposure to PM10 particles in excess of the WHO Air Quality guideline recommended maximum level; (2) For 2008, the estimated mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution in cities amounts to 1.34 million premature deaths. *It is noted that CAI-Asia's CitiesACT database is the main data source for Asia for the WHO Outdoor Air Pollution in Cities database 21 October 2011 India BEE releases Consultation Paper on Passenger Car Fuel Economy Labeling and Standards Framework Surat, India. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) released a consultation paper on Passenger Car Fuel Economy Labeling and Standards Framework for 2015 and 2020 (Available here: http://188.8.131.52/schemes/documents/s&l/BEE%20Consultation%20Paper-21Oct2011.pdf). Based on this proposal, the Government of India will issue the notification on fuel economy standards and a labeling program under the Energy Conservation Act. Comments on the consultation paper from Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) is available here: http://184.108.40.206/schemes/documents/s&l/CONSULTATION/Final%20CSE%20comments.pdf CAI-Asia, 2011. 1 November 2011 Euro III gasoline now available in Sri Lanka http://salasalappu.com/wp http://salasalappu.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/petrol-sed.jpg July 2011: Long lines of vehicles were seen outside Lanka IOC filling stations in Colombo Lanka IOC introduced, for the first time in the Sri Lankan market, Euro III grade petrol. Lanka IOC and Ceylon Petroleum Corporation have a duopoly on retail petrol and diesel sale in Sri Lanka. According to Mr K.R. Suresh Kumar, Lanka IOC Managing Director, since there was a large number of premium cars and SUVs on roads, there is a ready market for higher quality petrol. The company, which sells normal (90 Octane), premium and 95 Octane petrol here, plans to replace its premium brand petrol with Euro III standard petrol. 25 November 2011 Car plate sales raise billions for Shanghai, PR China http://v2.cache2.c.bigcache.googleapis.com/static.panoramio.co m/photos/original/27270473.jpg?redirect_counter=2 Shanghai traffic from above. Shanghai Finance Bureau said fiscal income last year from plate auctions hit 4.15 billion yuan (US$652.7 million), compared to 2009's 2.59 billion. The bureau's report showed that the city government spent 2.4 billion yuan last year from the accumulated income from plate auctions to support public transport. It was used to subsidize transit bus companies' purchase of greener buses, cover losses incurred by offering free rides to senior citizens and funding discount programs to encourage more people to take public transport. 25 November 2011 Hanoi, Vietnam wants to increase car registration fee by 10 times http://image.english.vietnamnet.vn/Images/2011/11/24/11/20111 124112341_1.jpg In its petition sent to the Hanoi People's Council, the Hanoi People's Committee proposes to increase registration fee on cars (both new and secondhand) from the current level of 12 percent to 20 percent for the first time, with cars of less than ten seats. The fee from the second registration will be 15 percent. Hanoi administration wants to raise registration fee to curb the growth of personal vehicles, to reduce traffic jams, to increase budget revenue to invest in public transport projects. 25 November 2011 Cost-Effective Actions to Cut Black Carbon, Methane and Ground Level Ozone Spotlighted in New Report A package of 16 measures could, if fully implemented across the globe, save close to 2.5 million lives a year; avoid crop losses amounting to 32 million tons annually and deliver near-term climate protection of about half a degree C by 2040. The measures, outlined in a new report compiled by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) with an international team of experts, target short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs)--black carbon which is a major component of soot, methane and tropospheric ozone. http://www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/slcf/ 6 December 2011 Companies Sign Joint Declaration for Green Freight in Asia Launch of Green Freight Declaration at the 6th EST Forum in Delhi, India. Global freight logistics companies, manufacturers, freight carriers and industry associations signed the "Private Sector Declaration on Green Freight in Asia towards a Green Economy" to support green freight initiatives and programs in Asia. It was announced at the 6th Environmentally Sustainable Transport (EST) Forum and Urban Mobility India 2011 Conference in Delhi on 6 December. Signatories of the declaration are also founding member of the Green Freight Asia Network that will be coordinated by CAI-Asia and the Sustainable Supply Chain Centre Asia Pacific For more information: http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/projects/GFANPrivateSector CAI-Asia, 2011. 6 December 2011 National Mobility Card launched in India http://www.globalnewspost.co.cc/2011/12/india http://www.globalnewspost.co.cc/2011/12/india-kamal-nathlaunches-national.html national.html The Union Minister for Urban Development, Shri Kamal Nath launching the Common Mobility card `More", at the Urban Mobility India Conference 2011, in New Delhi on December 06, 2011. The Union Minister for Urban Development Kamal Nath launched the National Common Mobility Card (NCMC) on the concluding day of the Urban Mobility India 2011 Conference-Cum-Exhibition. The idea of NCMC is to provide commuters with a seamless, efficient and hassle free travel experience across the length and breadth of the country. Seamless connectivity across multiple modes of transportation will increase the popularity and acceptability of public transport nationally and make public transport more appealing. 7 December 2011 WHO: green cars still hurt health 17 April 2011: 13th Tour of the Fireflies in Manila, Philippines. Transport policy changes recommended by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) focus too much on better fuel and engine performance, and not enough on health impacts, claims WHO. "The IPCC is remiss in only focusing on climate change," said Carlos Dora of WHO's Department of Public Health and Environment. " 'Better' transport � better for climate and health, should focus on promoting a mix of high-quality rapid transit/public transport and active transport i.e. safe cycling and walking," said Dora. CAI-Asia, 2011. 11 December 2011 Durban conference delivers breakthrough in international community's response to climate change . http://www.cop17-cmp7.com/images/gallery/main/cop17http://www.cop17 president-briefing/COP17_Durban_deal_04.jpg briefing/COP17_Durban_deal_04.jpg COP17/CMP7 president, Min Maite Nkoana-Mashabane and UNFCCC Executive Secretary Christiana Figueres at the last press briefing after the adoption of the `Durban Package' In Durban, governments decided to adopt a universal legal agreement on climate change as soon as possible, but not later than 2015. Governments, including 35 industrialized countries, agreed a second commitment period of Kyoto Protocol from January 1, 2013. To achieve rapid clarity, Parties to this second period will turn their economy-wide targets into quantified emission limitation or reduction objectives and submit them for review by May 1, 2012. For more information: http://www.cop17-cmp7durban.com 16 December 2011 Stakeholders demand sustainable urban transport in Kathmandu http://www.cen.org.np/uploaded/Proceedings_KSUT%20Forum.pdf Panel discussion during the Kathmandu Sustainable Urban Transport Forum. Clean Energy Nepal (CEN) and Clean Air Network Nepal (CANN) in collaboration with Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MoPPW) organized "Kathmandu Sustainable Urban Transport Forum" to inform and sensitize stakeholders on sustainable urban transportation, share approaches and initiatives, forge collaboration and enhance coordination among governmental, non-governmental and private sectors working on urban transportation. 29 December 2011 Nanjing release PM2.5 data of the past 4 years, Guangdong release data of the past 6 years Guangzhou, P.R. China. In end of November, Nanjing EPB indicated that it will release PM2.5 data by June 2012 latest, the first Chinese city to do so. Nanjing began to monitor PM2.5 as a pilot from 2008 with three stations. Based on 2008-2011 monitoring period, 50-60% of PM10 is PM2.5. For the same period, the annual PM2.5 concentration has increased with an average of 63 mg/m3. Soon after, Guangdong province released PM2.5 data of the past six years from three monitoring stations. In the past 6 years, the range of annual concentration of PM2.5 in urban areas of Guangdong is 37-47mg/m3. CAI-Asia, 2011. REFERENCES January Japan Releases Guidelines on Low-Carbon Urban Development http://www.japanfs.org/en/pages/030473.html China sets 2011 pollution control goal, warns of challenges http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/201101/13/c_13689609.htm MOEF releases Air quality monitoring, emission inventory and source apportionment study for Indian cities http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-0119/lucknow/28372641_1_air-pollution-particulate-matter-airquality http://www.cpcb.nic.in/Source_Apportionment_Studies.php Guangzhou named first Chinese winner of Int'l Transport Award http://english.people.com.cn/90001/98649/7273325.html February City of Palembang set to implement sustainable urban transport schemes http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-0119/lucknow/28372641_1_air-pollution-particulate-matter-airquality http://www.cpcb.nic.in/Source_Apportionment_Studies.php March April Karachi, Pakistan: Only 6% of 2.3m vehicles for public in city http://www.dawn.com/2011/04/03/only-6pc-of-23m-vehiclesfor-public-in-city.html Maynilad Water GHG Inventory gets ISO certified: Philippines' first ISO:14064 on GHG http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/node/7286 June Jakarta, Delhi: close to deciding on congestion pricing? Jakarta: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/06/25/onelegal-boundary-go-jakarta-erp.html Delhi: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/dec/08/delhicongestion-charge-ease-gridlock July India adopts international pact on air pollution from ships http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/article2281539.ece August Vietnam: National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy approved http://english.vov.vn/Home/PM-ratifies-national-climate-changeadaptation-strategy/201112/133269.vov Malaysia: Government may ban electric bicycles http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=%2F2011%2F3%2F10 %2Fnation%2F8214628&sec=nation January 17, 2012 Sample footer 29 REFERENCES Leon Schipper, Physicist and Iconoclast, Dies at 64 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/19/science/earth/19schipper.h tml http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/17/berkeleylab-energy-efficiency-expert-lee-schipper-dies/ September 'We Need Safe Footpaths`: Walkability survey results for 6 Indian cities released http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/node/7495 Vietnam sets vehicle emission standards and fuel quality roadmap http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/node/7530 Most dangerous Metro Manila buses named http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/63357/ltfrb-ranks%E2%80%98most-dangerous%E2%80%99-bus-companies WHO releases global compilation of air quality data http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2011/air_polluti on_20110926/en/index.html October November Euro III gasoline in Sri Lanka soon http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/companies/article258913 8.ece Car plate sales raise billions for Shanghai http://www.shanghaidaily.com/nsp/Metro/2011/11/25/Car%2Bp late%2Bsales%2Braise%2Bbillions%2Bfor%2BShanghai/ Hanoi wants to increase car registration fee by 10 times http://english.vietnamnet.vn/en/society/15731/hanoi-wants-toincrease-car-registration-fee-by-10-times.html Cost-Effective Actions to Cut Black Carbon, Methane and Ground Level Ozone Spotlighted in New Report http://www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/slcf/ http://www.unep.org/publications/ebooks/slcf/Portals/24167/do cs/UNEP_Press_release-short_lived_climate_forcers_final.pdf December Companies Sign Joint Declaration for Green Freight in Asia http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/node/7865 National Mobility Card launched in India http://www.indiainfoline.com/Markets/News/Kamal-Nathlaunches-National-Common-Mobility-Card/5304800578 BEE releases Consultation Paper on Passenger Car Fuel Economy Labeling and Standards Framework BEE Consultation Paper: WHO: green cars still hurt health http://220.127.116.11/schemes/documents/s&l/BEE%20Consult http://www.health24.com/news/Enviro_Health_/11308,71916.asp ation%20Paper-21Oct2011.pdf REPORT: CSE Response: http://18.104.22.168/schemes/documents/s&l/CONSULTATIO footer January 17, 2012 Sample http://www.who.int/hia/examples/trspt_comms/hge_transport_l 30 N/Final%20CSE%20comments.pdf owresdurban_30_11_2011.pdf REFERENCES Durban conference delivers breakthrough in international community's response to climate change http://www.cop17-cmp7durban.com/en/news-centre/mediareleases/breakthrough-response-to-climate-change20111211.html Kathmandu Sustainable Urban Transport Forum http://www.cen.org.np/index.php?page=news_detail&nid=263 Proceedings Report: http://www.cen.org.np/uploaded/Proceedings_KSUT%20Forum. pdf Nanjing release PM2.5 data of the past 4 years, Guangdong release data of the past 6 years http://www.njhb.gov.cn/art/2011/12/28/art_36_27407.html http://news.ifeng.com/mainland/detail_2011_12/29/11639762_ 0.shtm PHOTO CREDITS Front cover: Jakarta, Indonesia. Photo by CAI-Asia (2011). Photos can be accessed in the CAI-Asia Flickr Page: http://www.flickr.com/photos/cai-asia Back-cover: Top-view of Manila, by Stella Estremera (May 6 2011). Disclaimer The views expressed in this publication are those of CAI-Asia Center staff, consultants and management, and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Trustees of the CAIAsia Center. The CAI-Asia Center does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this publication and does not accept responsibility for consequence of their use. �2012 Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities Center Inc. All rights reserved. Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities (CAI-Asia), 2012. "Air Quality, Climate Change and Transport in Asia: 2011 in Review". Pasig City, Philippines. January 17, 2012 Sample footer 31 www.cleanairinitiative.org