2005 University Emissions Inventory
This document represents work by Barnard College to complete phase one of the New York City Mayoral Challenge – completion of an emissions inventory. Presented here are estimates of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from University buildings and vehicle fleets. Due to data availability, our inventory is based on year 2005. This data will provide a baseline against which we will be able to compare future performance, enabling us to demonstrate progress in reducing emissions.
Barnard Greenho u s e Gas Emissions Analysis 2005 University Emissions Inventory 4/1 5 / 2 0 0 8 Credits and Ackno wledg e m e nt s Name of University Lisa Gamsu, Vice President for Administration & Capital Planning Julio Vazquez, Director, Office of Facilities Services Daniel Davis, Associate Director, Office of Facilities Services Fran Rooney, Luthin Associates Rakesh Parasura m a n, Luthin Associates New York City Laurie Kerr, NYC Mayoral Challenge Melissa Wright, Policy Advisor on Energy and Special Projects NYC Mayor's Office of Operations ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability Melissa Stults, Program Officer, ICLEI Table of Contents 1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................1 1.1 Climate Change Background.....................................................................................1 1.2 The New York City Mayoral Challenge....................................................................2 1.3 The Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign..................................................2 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory .............................................................................3 2.1 ICLEI Methodology and Model.................................................................................3 2.1 New York City Methodology and Model..................................................................3 2.1.1 CACP Software.................................................................................................5 2.2.2 Creating the Inventory........................................................................................6 2.2 University Inventory Results.....................................................................................6 3 Conclusion.....................................................................................................................11 Appendix 2 Barnard Emissions in 2005: Detailed Report with Notes..........................14 1 Introduction On Earth Day 2007, Mayor Bloomberg released PlaNYC, New York City’s comp reh e n sive long - term sustainability plan. PlaNYC present s 127 initiatives designed to reduce the city’s greenhou s e gas emissions by 30 percent below 2005 levels by 2030. PlaNYC also contains a commit m e n t to reduce emission s from City govern me n t operations and facilities by 30 percent below 2006 levels by 2017. To assist in achieving emissions reductions in the comm u nity, Mayor Bloomberg annou nced the NYC Mayoral Challenge – an initiative to reduce emissions in NYC Universities and Colleges by 30 percent below 2005 levels by 2017. This docume n t represe nt s work by Barnard College to complete phase one of the New York City Mayoral Challenge – completion of an emissions inventory. Presente d here are estimates of greenho u s e gas emissions resulting from University buildings and vehicle fleets. Due to data availability, our inventory is based on year 2005. This data will provide a baseline against which we will be able to compare future perfor m a nce, enabling us to demons t ra te progres s in reducing emissions. 1.1 Climate Change Background A balance of naturally occurring gases disperse d in the atmos p he re determine s the Earth’s climate by trapping solar heat. This pheno m e n o n is known as the greenho u se effect. Modern huma n activity, most notably the burning of fossil fuels for trans po rt a tion, electricity generation, and building heat and hot water, introd u ces large amount s of carbon dioxide and other gases into the atmo s p h e re. Collectively, these gases intensify the natural greenho u se effect, causing global average surface tempera t u re to rise, which is in turn is expected to affect global climate pattern s. Overwhelming evidence suggests that huma n activities are increasing the concentration of greenhou s e gases in the atmos p h e re, causing a rise in global average surface temperat u r e and consequen t climate change. In respon se to the threat of climate change, comm u nities worldwide are taking action to reduce their greenho u s e gas emissions. In New York City, the sheer scale of the city means that it emits nearly 0.25% of the world’s total greenhou s e gases. Therefore, becoming more efficient will have a tangible impact. New York City is amending its building code and working to protect its infrastr uct u re from the inevitable impacts of climate change. But the mas sive changes that scientists predict under extreme scenarios would still place large areas of the city underwater and beyond the reach of any protective meas ures. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 1 Beyond our comm u nity, scientists also expect changing temperat u r e s to result in more intense storm s accompa nied by flooding and land slides, sum me r water shortages as a result of reduced snow pack, and disruption of ecosyste m s, habitats and agricultural activities. 1.2 The New York City Mayoral Challenge In June 2007 Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announce d that ten universities accepted his challenge for reducing their greenhou s e emissions 30% by 2017, matching the commit me n t the Mayor made for emissions reductions from City operatio n s. Each of the universities, known as 2030 Challenge Partners, are creating an inventory of their greenho u se gas emissions along with a plan for how they intend to achieve their reductions. New York City’s first - ever carbon emissions inventory found that energy use in buildings accounts for almost 80% of the City's overall emissions, and of that, 18% is from govern me n t al and institutional buildings. By accepting the challenge, the university Challenge Partners are leading by example in helping to make a sizable dent in the City's overall emissions. The City is working with all of its Challenge Partners to share best practices and develop a body of knowledge that can help all of them achieve the target with maximu m efficiency. 1.3 The Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) Campaign While Barnard will be abiding by the terms laid out in the NYC Mayoral Challenge, it is importa n t to note that New York City is formally a member of ICLEI – Local Governme n t s for Sustainability. By joining ICLEI, New York City has joined an international movemen t of local govern me n t s. More than 800 local governme n t s, including over 350 in the United States, have joined ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) cam paign. 1 In ad dition to New York City the neighboring municipalities of Westchester County, Suffolk County, Nassau County, Yonkers, Yorktown, and many more, are all Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) participant s. The CCP campaign provides a framework for local comm u nities to identify and reduce greenho u s e gas emissions, organize d along five milestone s: 1 ICLEI was formerly known as the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, but the name has been changed to ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 2 (1) Conduct an inventory of local greenhou s e gas emissions; (2) Establish a greenhou s e gas emissions reduction target; (3) Develop an action plan for achieving the emissions reduction target; (4) Implemen t the action plan; and, (5) Monitor and report on progres s. While Mayoral Challenge participant s are not formally members or ICLEI, as part of New York City, participant s have followed a similar framework as provided above. As such, this report represent s the completion of the first CCP milesto ne – completion of a greenhou s e gas inventory, and provides a found atio n for future work to reduce greenhou s e gas emissions in Barnard College. 2 Greenhous e Gas Emissions Inventory The first step toward reducing greenhou s e gas emissions is to identify baseline levels and sources of emissions in Barnard College. This information can later inform the selection of a reduction target and possible reduction measures. 2.1 ICLEI Methodology and Model ICLEI’s Cities for Climate Protection metho dology assists local govern me n t s in syste ma tically tracking energy and waste related activities in the comm u nity, and to calculate the relative quantities of greenhou s e gases produce d by each activity and sector. Once completed, the inventory provides the basis for the creation of an emission forecast, and allows for the quantification of emissions reductio n s associated with propose d meas ures. 2.1 New York City Methodology and Model What to Count In order to allow for ease and consistency, the NYC Mayoral Challenge asks that parties only calculate their energy use and associated emissions emitted in the operatio n of buildings, campus ground s, and fleets. The buildings and fleets to be included should include, at a minimu m, all buildings and vehicles owned and operate d by the university. Universities are encourage d to track the emissions of their rental properties and rental vehicles if possible; however rentals do not need to be counted in the total, given that the university’s lack of Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 3 control over their emissions. The Challenge recognizing that control is central to being held accountable for savings. Therefore rental buildings or other proper ties over which the University does not have total control need not be counte d toward the total. Energy Use per Square Foot The 30% reduction will be calculated on a per square foot basis of buildings owned and operate d by the university. As such, all Universities were asked to report their usage numbers on a per square footage basis. Leased Space To be determine d… Coefficients In order to allow for compliance with New York City’s emissions inventory, coefficients for electricity and steam were taken directly from the method ology derived from the NYC inventory. Emissions for electricity equate d to 1,038 lbs / MWh and steam, 76.478 lbs /MMBtu. To convert steam from units of Mlbs (thousan d s of pound s), as is metere d, to MMBtu, Mlbs is multiplied by 1.687. Selection of Baseline Inventory Year All participant s were given the opport u nity to choose fiscal year 2000 - 2001 or 2005 - 2006 as a baseline year. Docume nting Methodology All Universities are required to provide detailed notes regarding how and where their energy use data was derived. This information can be found in this report as well as in the ICLEI – Clean Air and Climate Protection software. Renewable Energy Credits The intent of the Challenge is to increase the efficiency of New York City’s buildings and fleets, therefore, green power purchases made elsewhere should form a minimal part of each University efficiency portfolio. The Challenge states that Renewable offsite power purchase s can count for no more than 15% of the total reduction of 30% required, or 4.5%. Purchase contracts must be long - term, lasting at least through 2030. Carbon Offset Credits The Challenge states that offsite carbon offset credit purchas es count for no more than 5% of the total reduction of 30% required, or 1.5%. Additional Infor mation Universities are encouraged to track more information than is required to meet the Challenge, such as information on rental properties or CO 2 e generated by Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 4 waste or the trans po r t of materials. Other sources of CO 2 e emissions, such as waste or the trans po r t of materials, can be tracked and even counte d toward the total. But they are not required, and a more complex analysis should not delay the develop me n t of an inventory of the emissions from the university’s buildings, groun d s, and fleets. Updating Inventories Inventories should be update d annually and include, at the minimu m, all buildings and fleets owned and operated by the University. 2.1.1 CACP Software To facilitate comm u nity efforts to red uce greenho u s e gas emissions, ICLEI develope d the Clean Air and Climate Protection (CACP) software package with the State and Territorial Air Pollution Progra m Administrat ors (STAPPA), the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Officials (ALAPCO), and To rrie Smith Associates. This software calculates emissions resulting from energy consu m p tio n and waste generation. The CACP software deter mines emissions using specific factors (or coefficients) according to the type of fuel used. Greenho u s e gas emissions are aggregated and reporte d in terms of carbon dioxide equivalent units, or CO 2 e. Converting all emissions to carbon dioxide equivalent units allows for the considera tion of different greenho u s e gases in compara ble terms. For example, metha ne is twenty - one times more powerful than carbon dioxide on a per molecule basis in its capacity to trap heat, so the CACP software converts one ton of metha ne emissions to 21 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. The CACP software is also capable of reporting input and outp u t data in several formats, including detailed, aggregate, source - based and time - series reports. The emissions coefficients and metho dology employed by the CACP software are consistent with national and international inventory standar d s established by the Intergovern m e n t al Panel on Climate Change (1996 Revised IPCC Guidelines for the Preparation of National Inventories) and the U.S. Voluntary Greenho u s e Gas Reporting Guidelines (EIA form1605). However, for the NYC Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 5 Mayoral Challenge, we utilized New York City specific coefficients for steam and electricity, corres po n di ng to 76.478 lbs /MMBTU (steam) and 1,038 lbs /MWh (electricity), respectively. The CACP software has been and continues to be used by over 350 U.S. cities, towns, and counties to reduce their greenhou s e gas emissions. However, it is worth noting that, although the software provides both New York City and Barnard College with a sophisticate d and useful tool, calculating emission s from energy use with precision is difficult. The model depend s upon numer o u s assu m p tion s, and it is limited by the quantity and quality of available data. With this in mind, it is useful to think of any specific number generate d by the model as an approximation of reality, rather than an exact value. 2.2.2 Creating the Inventor y Barnard’s greenho u se gas emissions inventory consists of an assess m e n t of all energy used in buildings and vehicle fleet. Creating our emissions inventory required the collection of informa tion from a variety of sources (See Appen dix 2 for inventory source data.) Data from the year 2005 was used for the baseline inventory. When calculating Barnard’s emissions inventory, all energy consu m e d in Barnard buildings and fleet was include d. This means that, even though the electricity used by Barnard College studen ts and resident s is produce d elsewhere, this energy and the emissions associated with it appears in Barnard’s inventory. The decision to calculate emissions in this manner reflects the general philosop hy that an entity should take full responsibility for the impacts associated with its energy consu m p tio n, regardless of whether or not the energy generation occurs within its geograp hic borders. This is consisten t with the ICLEI protocol developed for its local govern me n t members. 2.2 University Inventory Results In the base year 2005, Barnard emitted approxima tely 12,890 tons of CO 2 e. As shown in Table 1, and illustrate d in the chart below, Electricity use was the greatest contributor to greenho u s e gas emissions at 40.2.1% of the total. Other sectors: Fuel Oil contribute d 35.9%, and Natural Gas contribute d 23.8% Barnard’s total greenhou s e gas outpu t. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 6 Table 1 : Barnard - Wide Greenhou s e Gas Emissions in 2005 Greenhou s e Gas Energy Emission s Sector Equivalent (tons (MMBtu) CO 2 e ) Buildings 12,887 138,484 Fleet 3 38 Street lights Total 12,890 138,522 Figure 1. Barnard - Wide Greenhous e Gas Emissions in 2005 160,000 140,000 120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0 Buildings Fleet Streetlights Total Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 7 In the base year 2005, Barnard emitted approxima tely 12,890 tons of CO 2 e. As shown in Table 1, and illustrate d in the chart below, Electricity use was the greatest contribut or to greenhou s e gas emissions at 40.2 of the total. Other sectors: Fuel Oil contribute d 35.9%, and Natural Gas contribute d 23.8% Barnard’s total greenhou s e gas outpu t. Table 2 A: Barnard - Wide Greenhous e Gas Emissions in 2005 by Source Source Electricity Fuel Oil Natural Gas Gasoline Diesel TOTAL C02 % 40.2 35.9 23.8 0 0 100% C02 (Tons) 5,184 4,633 3,070 3 1 12,890 Energy (MMBtu) 32,747 56,050 49,687 30 7 138,522 Figure 1A. Barnard - Wide Greenhou s e Gas Emissions in 2005 Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 8 Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 9 Barnard’s consu m p tio n of electricity and other fuels in local buildings and vehicles is also responsible for the release of criteria air pollutant s, including NO X, SO X, CO, VOCs, and PM10 . The Buildings sector is responsible for the majority of NO X, CO and VOC emissions as well as emissions of SO X and PM10 . Table 2. Barnard Community - Wide Criteria Air Pollutant Emissions in 2005 NO X (lbs) 33,354 15 33,369 SOX (lbs) 78,670 1 78,671 CO (lbs) 15,114 148 15,263 VOCs (tons) 2,084 16 2,100 PM10 (tons) 10,680 1 10,680 Sector Buildings Fleet Streetlights Total Table 3. Barnard Building Energy Use Greenhou s e Gas Emissions in 2005 2 Area (sq ft) 419,700 275,000 84,000 34,000 99,000 59,000 59,000 Electricity Use (kWh) 1,638,000 6,029,560 575,000 555,600 75,906 309,600 143,400 Electricity Cost ($) $287,496 $1,077,41 7 $287,496 $92,,201 $14,408 $57,809 $24,063 Natural Gas Use (therms) 172,494 236,033 24,228 19,737 15,326 234 21 Natural Gas Cost ($) $429,527 $607,200 $93,043 $48,442 $81,482 $50,245 $98,265 Energy Equivalen t (MMBtu) 44,248 64,972 7,960 3,909 6,302 4,296 5,228 Greenhous e Gas Emission s (tons CO2e) 3,720 6,504 756 425 509 435 442 Site 3009 Broadway 42 Claremo nt 1235 Amsterda m 49 Claremo nt 600 W 116 St 616 W 116 St 620 W 116 St Buildings Total 2 1,029,7 00 138,522 9,327,066 1,748,689 468,073 1,408,204 12,890 Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 10 Table 4. Barnard Street and Traffic Lighting Greenhou s e Gas Emissions in 2005 Site Street Lighting Public Safety Lighting Ball field lighting Parking Lot Street & Traffic Total Electricity Use (kWh) Electricity Cost ($) Energy Equivalent (MMBtu) Greenhous e Gas Emissions (tons CO2e) Table 6. Barnard Vehicle Fleet Greenhou s e Gas Emissions in 2005 Department EMS Public Works Public Safety Transit Buses Vehicle Fleet Total Gasoline Consumptio n (gal) Diesel Consumption (gal) Total Fuel Cost ($) Energy Equivalent (MMBtu) Greenhou s e Gas Emissions (tons CO2e) 6,807 15,452 38 38 3 3 6,807 15,452 Data compiled on energy use to help Barnard inventory was obtained from Luthin Associates. Detailed notes on the information provided, can be found in the notes section of Appendix II. 3 Conclusion In joining ICLEI and the Cities for Climate Protection ™ Campaign, New York City made a commit m e n t to reduce its emissions of greenho u s e gases. This commit m e n t was furthere d by the passage of Local Law 55 of 2007, which requires the city to reduce citywide greenhou s e gas emissions by 30% below 2005 levels by 2030, and emissions from City govern me n t operations and facilities by 30% below 2006 levels by 2017. As part of that commit me n t, Mayor Bloomberg started the NYC Mayoral Challenge to inspire local universities and colleges to reduce their energy consu m p tio n. This report lays the groundwo r k for those efforts by estimating baseline emissions levels against which future progress can be demons t ra t e d. This analysis found that the Barnard as a whole was respon sible for emitting 12,890 tons of CO 2 e in the base year 2005, with the buildings, fleet, and street Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 11 lighting sectors contributing roughly equal amount s to this total . These emissions are roughly X percentage of total New York City commu nity - wide emissions. Following the ICLEI method ology, we recom m e n d that Barnard next forecast anticipated future emissions, begin to docume n t emissions reduction meas ur es that have already been implemen te d since the base years docume n te d in this report, and quantify the emissions benefits of these measures to demon s tr a te progress made to date. Next the Barnard Barnard should begin to identify potential new emissions reduction measure s that might be impleme nte d in the future, including energy efficiency, clean energy, vehicle fuel efficiency or alternative fuel use, trip reduction strategies, and other projects. Hundred s of local governm e n t s from aroun d the world have successfully saved money and enhance d comm u nity livability through taking action to reduce greenhou s e gas emissions, and Barnard can easily join their ranks. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 12 Appen dix 1 University - Wide Emissions Inventory Source Data for Year Barnard Building Energy Use Site Area (sq ft) Electricit y Use (kWh) Electricity Cost ($) Natural Gas Use (therms) Natural Gas Cost ($) Subtotal Buildings Data provided by: Barnard Street Lighting Site Street Lighting Outdoor Lighting Parking Lot Parking Lot Electricity Use (kWh) Electricity Cost ($) Subtotal Street & Traffic Data provided by: Barnard Vehicle Fleet Department Gasoline Consumption (gal) Diesel Consumption (gal) Total Fuel Cost ($) EMS Public Safety Public Works Buses Subtotal Vehicle Fleet Data provided by: Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 13 Appendix 2 Notes Barnard Emissions in 2005: Detailed Report with Detailed Report Government Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2005 Barnard College, New York Buildings Equiv CO 2 Equiv CO 2 Energy Cost (tons) (%) (MMBtu) ($) 1235 Amsterdam Electricity 311 2.4 Light Fuel Oil 296 2.3 Natural Gas 150 1.2 Subtotal 1235 Amsterdam 756 5.9 3009 Broadway (Brooks) Electricity 885 6.9 Light Fuel Oil 1,770 13.7 Natural Gas 1,066 8.3 Subtotal 3009 Broadway 3,720 28.9 42 Claremont Electricity 3,402 26.4 Light Fuel Oil 1,643 12.7 Natural Gas 1,458 11.3 Subtotal 42 Claremont 6,504 50.5 49 Claremont Electricity 300 2.3 Light Fuel Oil 3 0.0 Natural Gas 122 0.9 Subtotal 49 Claremont 425 3.3 600 W 116th St Electricity 41 0.3 Light Fuel Oil 373 2.9 Natural Gas 95 0.7 Subtotal 600 W 116th St 509 3.9 Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 1,962 0 3,575 0 2,423 0 7,960 0 5,590 0 21,408 0 17,249 0 44,248 0 21,493 0 19,876 0 23,603 0 64,972 0 1,896 0 39 0 1,974 0 3,909 0 259 0 4,511 0 1,533 0 6,302 0 14 This report has been generated for Barnard College, New York using STAPPA/ALAPCO and ICLEI's Clean Air and Climate Protection Software developed by Torrie Smith Associates Inc. Page 2 Government Greenhouse Gas Emissions in 2005 Detailed Report 616 W 116th St Electricity Light Fuel Oil Natural Gas Subtotal 616 W 116th St 620 W 116th St Electricity Light Fuel Oil Natural Gas Subtotal 620 W 116th St Equiv CO 2 Equiv CO 2 (tons) (%) 167 266 1 435 1.3 2.1 0.0 3.4 Energy Cost (MMBtu) ($) 1,057 0 3,216 0 24 0 4,296 0 77 283 81 442 0.6 2.2 0.6 3.4 489 0 3,426 0 1,313 0 5,228 0 All Residential Accounts Natural Gas 97 Subtotal Residential Accounts 97 Subtotal Buildings Vehicle Fleet Barnard College, New York Barnard Fleet Gasoline Diesel Subtotal Barnard Fleet Subtotal Vehicle Fleet Total 0.8 0.8 1,568 0 1,568 0 138,484 0 12,887 100.0 3 1 3 3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 30 7 38 38 0 0 0 0 12,890 100.0 138,522 0 This report has been generated for Barnard, in New York City, New York using STAPPA/ALAPCO and ICLEI's Clean Air and Climate Protection Software developed by Torrie Smith Associates Inc. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 15 Barnard College: Preliminary Analysis and Programming To the extent that meeting Mayor Bloomberg’s initiative is not a momentary event, but a long term and permanent commitment in how Barnard College approaches its energy use, this report outlines Project Opportunities and Benefits Implementing the performance opportunities identified during this study will result in a combination of benefits, including energy savings, infrastructure improvements, operational improvements, and planning support. These benefits include the following: 1. 2. 3. Automation of energy using systems using DDC systems. A campus lighting retrofit plan that provides improved lighting quality and substantial energy savings. Upgrade heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment at or near the end of its life cycle with more efficient equipment that will allow operational efforts to be focused elsewhere. Reclaim waste energy, where economically appropriate. Application of sustainable energy technologies (such as wind and solar), where economically appropriate. The ability to look at all of these performance improvements in light of future growth plans and expectations. 4. 5. 6. Energy Conservation Measure Summary The following section describes in more detail those opportunities for energy and water conservation measures (EWCMs) that have been identified as candidates for inclusion in a performance contracting scope of work at Barnard College. The following table summarizes the main EWCM groupings, and where they would potentially be implemented. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 16 Preliminary ECM Summary 1 Steam System Improvements Steam Trap Survey Insulate bare pipe/fittings/valves/tanks Building load metering/monitoring 2 Boiler Plant Improvements Install new, efficient, modular boilers Install VFDs on larger hot water pumps Preheat combustion air with waste heats Chiller Plant Improvements Replace absorption chillers with electric Install VFD on cooling tower fans Controls Planning and Improvements Migration to new campuswide infrastructure Digital realtime monitoring and automatic logging Install selfcontained radiator valve Building Electrical System Improvements Wind turbine installation Install electrical submeters to track building energy use Airside HVAC Improvements Variable Air Volume (VAV) HVAC conversion VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup airs VAV control on chemical fume hood exhaust system Air system infrastructure improvement 3 4 5 6 7 Lighting System Improvements Retrofit T12/magnetic with T8/electronic Occupancy sensors Other lighting retrofits 8 Heat Recovery Opportunities 17 Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 Install pool dehumidification/HR in pool Install heat pumps in mech. rooms to preheat Airside and waterside heat recovery Food service compressor room preheat DHW 9 Water Conservation Replace shower heads to reduce DHW load VFDs on domestic water booster pumps Install low flow fixtures 10 Building Envelope Improvements Window seals on AC units Apply window film to control solar load Replace single pane windows with double pane 11 Miscellaneous Energy Projects Cogeneration Vending Machine cycling Install thermal storage E N E R G Y A N D W A T ER C O N S E R V A T I O N M E A S U R E S Steam System Improvements Opportunity Potential Scope Items The steam distribution system is served by two boiler plants (Brooks, Altschul). In general, the steam distribution system is functioning well. However, there is little available data on where the steam is used in the various buildings. A few steam traps may have failed, though most appear to be well maintained. Most steam and condensate piping is insulated. This EWCM is focused on ringing out the last few percent of steam distribution efficiency. The typical payback time is short for these kinds of projects. Metering projects can have a longer payback. Steam Trap Survey Insulate bare pipe/fittings/valves/tanks Building load metering/monitoring Boiler Plant Improvements Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 18 Opportunity Potential Scope Items Several of the buildings have steam boilers that are at or near the end of their life cycle. As the boilers are replaced, they can be converted from steam to hot water resulting in higher efficiency (low fuel use). All boiler room require combustion (outside) air by code. For the larger boilers, waste heat can be captured and be used to preheat combustion air. Payback periods for boiler replacements are often moderate to long. If immediate replacement is required, paybacks are often short. Waste heat recovery is often a short payback. In some buildings where steam is converted into hot water for building heat, many of the pumps are constant volume pumps. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) can be installed and controlled to reduce pumping energy. Implementing variable speed pumping can yield a short payback period. Install new, efficient, modular boilers Preheat combustion air with waste heat Install VFDs on larger hot water pumps Chiller Plant Improvements Opportunity Potential Scope Items The two chiller plants that serve the campus use absorption technology. The single affect absorption chiller that serves part of the south campus is at or near the end of its life cycle. Due to the way in which it was installed, certain necessary maintenance cannot be performed. The single affect absorption chiller is an inherently inefficient machine—about 1/10 as efficient as an electric chiller. Because the cost of gas is much higher than several years ago and electric chillers have become significantly more efficient, a new electric chiller will cost less to operate than a new absorption chiller. The payback for this kind of project is moderate to long. If equipment will be replaced immediately, payback periods are shorter. Replace absorption chillers with electric Install VFD on cooling tower fan Opportunity Cooling tower fans are either constant speed or twospeed. Using variable frequency drives, significant energy savings are possible by precisely matching the cooling tower fan speed with the heat rejection load on the tower. Fan energy can be reduced. Payback periods are usually short. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 19 Controls Planning and Improvements Opportunity Potential Scope Items A variety of automatic temperature control systems are installed across campus. New direct digital controls (DDC) are being installed in the Nexus Building, which are latest generation controls. Other buildings on campus have controls that are equal to the age of the buildings in which they were installed. The older controls range from still functioning to disconnected. With the older controls, some of the building comfort levels are not maintained as well as possible and energy use is higher then necessary. The maintenance staff cannot see what areas of campus are working well on an hourly or daily basis without physically checking. Installing new DDC controls across campus will allow greater control of temperature and comfort levels while minimizing energy use. Because the DDC system collects data, it can immediately alert maintenance staff of any problems as they occur. In selected applications, payback periods range from short to moderate. Where steam radiators do not already have selfcontained temperature control valves, we recommending installing them. Steam radiators can easily overheat a space. Over heated spaces can consume a great deal of energy. Energy savings comes from providing the right amount of steam to a given area to meet the temperature needs of that area. Usually this is a shortterm payback project. Migration to new campuswide controls infrastructure Digital realtime monitoring and automatic logging Install selfcontained radiator valves Building Electrical System Improvements Potential Scope Items Explore the possibility of installing wind turbines on campus. These will not be the large turbines that inhabit wind farms in Texas nor along the mountain ridges of the northeast. Rather we would explore smaller versions that are appropriate for an urban setting. These would likely be placed on top of the taller buildings, but would not dominate the architecture. These will not play a significant role in lowering CO2 use on campus but will play their part in helping. Installing electric submeters does not save energy per se. However, they do reveal where electricity is being used on campus, which is difficult to accurately determine now. Which building or part of a building uses the most electricity? The answer is important in helping to focus where energy conservation measures may have the greatest affect. Also, submeters can quickly indicate whether and where changes in energy use occurs. Wind turbine installation Install electrical submeters to track building energy use Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 20 Airside HVAC Improvements Opportunity Potential Scope Items Many of the older HVAC systems across campus where designed and installed during a time when energy was inexpensive and fine control of equipment was very expensive. Constant volume air handling systems were commonly installed. They use large fan motors at a relatively constant energy rate. These systems can be converted to allow air flow to vary to meet specific space conditioning needs. DDC controls along with equipment installation can yield significant energy savings while maintaining or increasing comfort levels. Usually payback periods are short. The main kitchen on campus runs at least 12 hours per day when the students are on campus. In the kitchen are hoods that exhaust air continuously when the kitchen is occupied. While the kitchen hood exhaust is on, outside air must be drawn into the building and be conditioned to make up for the exhaust air. However, about half the time the kitchen is occupied, the kitchen hoods are operating without cooking activities. We can install systems to control exhaust air flow depending upon the cooking activities. These energy saving systems usually have short payback periods. Altschul uses large amounts of outside air to condition the building and to support the chemical fume hoods in the science classrooms and laboratories. The chemical fume hoods exhaust large amounts of air from the building. When the chemical fume hoods are not in use, air flow can be reduced in both the exhaust and outside air conditioning systems. Using DDC systems and air flow control equipment, we can reduce energy use while maintaining a safe and comfortable environment in the science laboratories. These systems usually have a moderate payback period. The age of many of the air systems on campus is equal to the age of the buildings they serve and are at or near the end of their useful life. In some areas, the function or conditioning requirements have changed due to programming changes, increased enrollment, or student and faculty expectations. TAC will assist in strategic planning on how and when to upgrade, recondition, or replace air systems to provide lower energy use, improve space temperature control, and lower maintenance requirements. The payback period will vary depending on the extent of improvements recommended and the types of systems that are replaced. Variable Air Volume (VAV) HVAC conversion VAV control on kitchen hoods and makeup air VAV control on chemical fume hood exhaust system Air system infrastructure improvement Lighting System Improvements Opportunity Potential Scope Items Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 21 In several of the dormitory corridors and in specific locations in other buildings on campus, older lighting technologies can be replaced with more energy efficient lighting. TAC will perform a campuswide, roombyroom inventory of the lighting systems used and determine where lighting retrofits can assisting in reducing energy use while maintain or improving lighting levels. Where Retrofit T12/magnetic with T8/electronic Occupancy sensors Other lighting retrofits Heat Recovery Opportunities Opportunity Potential Scope Items The pool uses energy to heat the water. Most of the heating energy is lost through evaporation of the pool water. Pool dehumidification systems capture the wasted heat and use it to heat the pool water, provide a properly conditioned space, and can reduce property maintenance (painting walls, patching ceilings) that pools usually require. The payback periods vary depending on hours of pool use, size of pool area, and desired water temperatures. Older buildings often have many opportunities to recover waste heat. For example, toilet exhaust systems remove, by design, conditioned air from buildings. Is there a way of capturing energy from the exhaust air stream before it is wasted to the atmosphere? An affirmative answer results in significant energy savings. Mechanical rooms that are warm, computer rooms and other spaces that always need to be air conditioned are sources of heat that can be captured and reused to preheat domestic water, condition outside air, or provide heating in areas that require it. Payback periods vary and are dependent upon the precise project considered. Install pool dehumidification/HR in pool Install heat pumps in mech. rooms to preheat DHW Airside and waterside heat recovery Food service compressor room preheat DHW Water Conservation Opportunity Potential Scope Items Often the cost of water determines the economics of water conservation projects. However, low flow shower heads reduce hot water use. Heating water is energy intensive. Reducing the amount of water that needs to be heated for showers provides significant energy savings and short payback periods. Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 22 Three buildings have domestic water booster pumps. These pumps are used to maintain building water pressure in lieu of a water tank on the roof. The pumps currently are constant volume and cycle to maintain water pressure in the buildings. Installing variable frequency drives will allow the pumps to operate at the minimum energy rate to meet the building’s water pressure needs. Energy savings and lower pump maintenance are the results. Payback periods are typically short. Replace shower heads to reduce DHW load Install VFDs on domestic water booster pumps Install low flow fixtures Building Envelope Improvements Opportunity Potential Scope Items In a number of locations, window air conditioners are used to condition rooms. Where air conditioning units are installed in double hung windows, a gap is created between the lower and upper sashes. Some installations have the gaps sealed while others do not. We will seal the gaps in the remaining windows. Savings is achieved by eliminating the free flow of outside air through the gaps into the building. Payback periods are short. In Lehman, the library has a large glass area that puts a large load on the air conditioning system in the summer. Solar film reduces the amount of infrared light (the portion of light that carries the most heat) that enters the building. Payback periods are usually short. Window replacement is usually a longer payback project from and energy savings perspective. However, if the windows in question are going to be replaced shortly, energy savings can contribute to offset a portion of the installation cost. Window seals on AC units Apply window film to control solar load Replace single pane windows with double pane Miscellaneous Energy Projects Opportunity Potential Scope Items Cogeneration is a term meaning that one fuel is converted into two sources of energy. Typically, natural gas is burned to generate electricity and heat. The heat can be in the form of hot water or steam. Cogeneration is economical when there is a steady requirement for heat throughout the year. During the winter, the need for heat is obvious. But during the summer, the need for heat is usually low. Barnard College uses steam to heat domestic water during the summer and to generate chilled water through the absorption chillers. A balance of first cost and energy savings Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 23 is required to install a successful cogeneration project. More discovery is required prior to TAC recommending this approach to energy savings. Vending machine cycling will save energy by turning off the refrigeration during lowuse times, usually over night hours. Since the vending machines on campus are not owned by Barnard College, we will research this further for our next report. Thermal storage is a technique used to reduce the cost of electricity by shift when electricity is used from peak periods to offpeak periods. Alternatively, thermal storage may allow Barnard College to more fully participate in utility curtailment programs. These programs pay for the guaranteed reduction of electrical demand during peak utility demand periods. More research will be required to validate this concept for Barnard College. Cogeneration Vending Machine cycling Install thermal storage Barnard Emissions Inventory 4/15/08 24