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STUDIO X DIA DESSAU

DUNElab

C H R I S T O S PA S S A S // ALEXANDER KALACHEV // MATIAS DEL CAMPO

ASA DARMATRIAJI____TIMOTHEE RAISON____OLGA KOVRIKOVA E N V I R O N M E N T A L

S C I E N T I S T

V I L L A G E

research center for housing development in desertification endangered area

D u n e L a b is a team of architects researching on the topic of adapting the living condition in desert. The research is being conducted at the Dessau Institute of Architecture, Germany under the program of STUDIO X, lead by professor C h r i s t o s P a s s a s /Zaha Hadid Architects/.

2nd advisers: prof. Matias del Campo /SPAN/ T.A. Alexander Kalachev / MArch, DIA Guest Teacher/

Team: Asa Darmatriaji (Indonesia) TimothĂŠe Raison (France) Olga Kovrikova (Ukraine)

CONTENT

1.STUDIO BRIEF 2. PHASE1. INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS 3. THESIS STATEMENT 4.INITIAL RESEARCH 5.SITE SELECTION 6.SIMULATIONS 7.MATERIAL RESEARCH 8.PROGRAMS 9.TOPOLOGICAL STUDY 10. SCANNING TECHNIQUES 11. EXCAVATION TECHNIQUES & PRINTING PROCESS 12.STRUCTURAL STUDY 13. CONCLUSION 14. ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSAL

STUDIO BRIEF STUDIO X - Parametric Collaborations. Phase 1 (WS11) Course Summary: The research brief for the WS11 was to design a concept villa for the 21st century. In highly urbanized, highly mobile societies the house becomes an issue demanding further research and investigation, where the consequences of a materialistic society have devolved the idea of house to that of property. Yet, the house is where everyone’s life is formed and where everyone forms the home based on the living behaviours that stem out of social, family relationships etc. The studio’s interest in the way a villa can become a formal expression for, one or a group of lifestyles and values. This close relationship can be family, sexual, occasional, and professional. A villa is a culmination and the distillation of architectonic notions within a changing societal setup. The design of the villa will respond to the contextual content. The responsiveness of the design to the climate, the views, the site and the urban environment or lack of, around it is crucial to the task of this research. Phase 2 (SS12): Thesis; Team work & Collective Developments Following the submissions in the first semester the studio continues to explore the notion of housing as a result of design agendas that can be combined to deliver an outcome that can be implemented either as a Masterplan, a city intervention, a tower or other large scale development. The students have been asked to form teams based on shared sensibilities and work ethics and to propose a thesis that underlines the team’s design interests and combined agenda. The aim is to fuse the combined ideas into a larger architectural proposition, find ways to mitigate problems and to propose ways to deal with the multiplication/ proliferation of the concepts in fields of multiple units. D U N E LAB

PHASE 1. INDIVIDUAL PROJECTS

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ARCHEOLOGIST VILLA It is located in Persepolis or Takht-e Jamsid (The City of Persians), Fars Province, Iran. It is approximately 70 km northeast from Iran modern city, Shiraz. It was the ceremonial capital of Achaemenid Empire (ca. 550330BC), by knowing that Persepolis is an archeological site where traces of ancient Persian human activity are found, the methodology of learning, observing, through Persepolis ruin or artifacts is a prerequisite. Archeologist villa tries to merge the ancient Persepolis study of proportions and volume with digital architecture approach. My aim in this proposition is to create a new relationship that are related closely with the existing context and content from a specific site in order to be able to produce a new element that are being influenced by the existing site and also to define the new use and meaning that is suitable for 21st century villa requirement. Having arrived in this 21st century which I found it’s abundant complexity that come from inside and outside architectural fields, what is needed to be reconsidered for architects are how the grasp thinking for particular projects nowadays in the extensive observations with all ease from the advance technologies development without disobeying all the real aspects of designing for society, and it has to be balanced with the consideration to what architecture or built form that is done could provide in dynamic society with dreams, projective, engage with reality, consideration of the ‘desire’, and not to abandoned but to rethink and react to what are already successful out there, reflexivity, critical thought within the right specific context. In conclusion the villa idea is producing a new ratio and proportion either for the overall form or for the interior purposes that is fitted to the users both male and female.

The villa is designed for Sherief Sheta, professor of architecture at Mansoura University. His research focuses on sustainable architecture (planning and design) with particular interest on design development theories and techniques. SolarSinter villa tries to represent the lifestyle of the client, substantially merging life cycle of each family member, their relationships, creating comfort indoorenvironment for their life and activities. Villa is located in the desert between Alexandria and El Alamein /Egypt/. The main idea is based on non-additive processes /building with materials found on site: sand as an abundant and free material source, sun as an energy source and the emergent of sand sintering process/. One of the ideas of this project is to explore several techniques which are helping to solve specific problems by using the collective intelligence. The collective intelligence comprises of simple interacting agents composition with the intelligence which lies in the synergy of networks between the individual and individual with the environment. In order to achieve desired results I was using several classes of agents that are responsible for: - scanning system Agents that are scanning the terrain and shallow surface of the dunes in order to analyze the type of materials and to adjust the structure of the building. - spatial organization Agents (rooms and spaces) are coordination their position according to proximity/circulation diagram and topology of the terrain. - programmed circulation Agents /MA/ are mimicking the movement of the family members inside the house /developing different scenarios of the family behaviour/ - structure Agents are following the MA and building the structure according to the amount of time that MA are spending inside of the spaces. - printing Agents are solar- sintering the sand in order to solidify it and create structure.

VILLA FOR XXIST CENTURY SCIENTISTS

Illustration from: “Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes,Time Warps, and the10th Dimension by Michio Kaku

I was asked to design a villa for Leonard Susskind, the so called « father of string theory ». 72 years old already, grown up children and divorced, the scientific community gradually became his own family. Still very active as a researcher, he recently created the Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics (SITP), an institute to support the research in theoretical physics. The institution brings physicists from the entire world to Stanford for lectures, seminars,... It’s aim is to play the role of a catalyser in the development of the research in physics. Thus, the villa will be set as a big family house for the institute’s guests: they will be received all along the year, until 8 person at the time and it will provide the best conditions for guests to interact with each other, to develop new ideas for the future of science. String theory, as an attempt for a theory of everything, proposes to join the two main scientific theories of the 21st century: the theory of general relativity and the quantum theory. To solve this issue, physicists had to find an explanation to the phenomenon of the black-holes. They came out with the multiple-universes hypothesis, where wormholes create space-time shortcuts between black-holes and white-holes of different universes. The Villa for XXIst century scientists was developed according to the geometry of wormholes and their property of continuous spaces.

CONCLUSION

After merging three main topics /which were scanning process, excavation and continuous surfaces techniques/ we concluded that the thesis project aim is to demonstrate process of building in a desert condition with robotized processes which are being arranged with a few strategies such as scanning the terrain to know the topographical condition and classifying different materials to produce height map, identifying the highest rock location from sand surface, excavation strategy that is depending on the scan result, functional arrangement distributed accordingly, series of deep cut to the lowest ground, narrow pathway, by sintering the sand continuously will allow to create multi-layer spaces. We envisioned this proposal would be implemented in a larger scale with low labor forces, less water usage for construction, emphasizing sun energy absorption, reducing heat gain.

THESIS STATEMENT

Primarily our architectural investigation are based on our mutual interests of non-additive process (building with materials found on site), sand as an abundant and free material, sun as an energy source that has big potential for future development, and the emergence of sand sintering process. We have chosen a site in Algeria, El Bayadh Province, El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh as our case for further research investigation, because it is one of the most endangered area by desertification, it has already infrastructure (i.e. airport,road networks, etc), and it needs an activity generator to ameliorate the current condition. We are proposing an Environmental Scientist Village that will be a collaborative place between the local’s and researchers to find architectural solutions, to develop the technology for locals to adapt this climate change, and also to test robotized building processes as our main topic. It is a research center for housing development in desertification endangered area which comprises: houses, a research centre, a civic centre, a mosque,

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a school, shops, agricultural facilities, a sport centre, infrastructures and open spaces. Our project is a masterplan that is being informed with the landscape previously scanned by swarming robots in order to be able to classify certain geological condition, to produce the network structures on site. It is a non-additive architectural approach highly interrelated with the landscape through the creation of an artificial terrain that has multi layer spaces and machinic ornamentation. The project is being developed through multi-agent system that are inspired by nature, in our case desert, dune field patternformation, desert erosion processes, which are proliferating continuous spaces that have striated, contoured, cavernous surface aesthetics. We are envisioning with the addition of digital tools an advanced industrial process that would allow to create more responsive architectural solutions, low impact materials, which will lead toward better efficiency, and also more economical for long term use.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENTIST’S VILLAGE Environmental Engineering Research Center for housing development in desert area. INTRODUCTION.

Having arrived in 21st century, there are many problems regarding the environmental conditions that are caused by global warming, excessive population growth, unstoppable global migrations, the spread of deserts, and so forth1 . In fact one quarter of the earth’s land is threatened by desertification, according to estimates by the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). As defined by the UN Convention, desertification is a process of “land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities” which will affect on loss of biodiversity, global warming2 . In a festival celebrating “Cultures and Civilizations of Desert Peoples” in December 2002, President Bouteflika told the audience that “Algeria lost, each year, 40,000 hectares of its most fertile lands because of desertification.”3 We are interested to address the issue of housing in desert condition as our main topic; therefore we are proposing an environmental scientist village that is dealing with this question. For example United Nations Environment Program researcher, environmental engineers, anti desertification group, and volunteers will be gathered in this village and try to address the desertification issue by the application of science and engineering principles to land resources in order to provide water, land for small habitation, vegetation, food production, energy. Hence we are proposing new possible material research in this particular case, sand or rock that could be optimized with the advanced fabrication technology, where we would emphasize the idea of zero material transfer, and also in our architectural concept we are generating the form from the existing material. “With the addition of digital and advanced industrial processes should allow us to create more responsive devices and low impact materials that will lead toward better efficiency, and also more economical for long term use.”4

RESEARCH OUTLINES - Analyzing the desert geological, topological, and environmental data; - Desert housing ecological consideration and residential design approach; - Improvement of desert living possibilities; - Usage of advanced technology in desert condition; - Organization of environmental engineering research center; - Material research on sand and rock. RESEARCH METHODS

- Analysis of desertification housing main issues for example desert physical properties research through digital simulation, available data (geological map, scientific data, and etc); - Research on multi-dimensional arrangement of a variety of spaces and its optimization; - Research in ratio and proportion as a device to define interior spaces; - Digital computational geometry, simulation of social behavior that articulates structure (agent based methodology), material organization strategies, and environmental pressures analysis i.e. (light, air, heat intensity), to be able to justify the size, location of openings, location of ventilations, and also for material decisions; - Designing series of scenarios of for 21st century environmental scientist village; - Small robotic interface for 3d scanner or 3d printer research in low impact construction process in the environment; 1. http://www.jamesmartin.com/book/megaproblems.cfm LAB 2.http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninfo/sustdev/desert.htm 3. http://desertification.wordpress.com/2007/03/28/desertification-in-algeria/ 4.Sarah Rich, edited by Viviana Gustala, Ecological House.(2008). Teneues Publishing Group

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INITIAL RESEARCH

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ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY We are inspired by the invention of sand sintering solar system and also other technological development on the advanced tools for example robotic CNC drilling machine, composite 3D printing machine, geological scanner which could enhance the architectural production not based on ready products but instead being self sufficient, by reinventing the available source on site. “Decoration has evolved into a new paradigm for the relationship between structure, form, and aesthetic in architecture.[‌] With the era of advanced technology the aesthetic has already embedded within the production of the overall objects or architectural form that has a machine aesthetic in it.â€? Technology and natural resources are related to our current methodologies in manufacturing, to reveal new opportunities and test scenarios of architectural production which is implemented within the process of optimizing the use of solar energy and power resins with silica that we found in the sand.

MA DESIGN PRODUCTS STUDENT PROJECT // MARKUS KAYSER

This project explores the potential of desert manufacturing, where energy and material occur in abundance. In this experiment sunlight and sand are used as raw energy and material to produce glass objects using a 3D printing process, that combines natural energy and material with high-tech production technology. By using the sun’s rays instead of a laser and sand instead of resins used in modern 3D printers, Markus had the basis of an entirely new solar-powered machine and production process for making glass objects that taps into the abundant supplies of sun and sand to be found in the deserts of the world. The Solar-Sinter was completed in mid-May and later that month Markus took this experimental machine to the Sahara desert near Siwa, Egypt, for a two week testing period. The machine and the results shown here represent the initial significant steps towards what Markus envisages as a new solar-powered production tool of great potential.

http://www.creativeapplications.net/objects/solar-sinter-objects/

INITIAL RESEARCH ROBOTICS

BIOLOGICALLY-INSPIRED. HEXAPOD ROBOTS A hexapod robot is a mechanical vehicle that walks on six legs. Since a robot can be statically stable on three or more legs, a hexapod robot has a great deal of flexibility in how it can move. If legs become disabled, the robot may still be able to walk. Many hexapod robots are biologically inspired by Hexapoda locomotion. Hexapods may be used to test biological theories about insect locomotion, motor control, and neurobiology. X-RHEX: A HIGHLY MOBILE HEXAPEDAL ROBOT FOR SENSORIMOTOR TASKS Using the internal IMU and a payload laser scanner, X-RHex can create a 3D point cloud of its surroundings. Six powerful motors actuate compliant legs, allowing X-RHex to traverse a wide variety of terrains, including asphalt, grass, sand, mud, and rocks. By using a mil-spec rail mounted interface and standard electrical connections, X-RHex can support a wide variety of payloads, making it a mobile “laboratory on legs”.

INITIAL RESEARCH ROBOTICS

SWARM ROBOTS. A Low Cost Scalable Robot System for Demonstrating Collective Behaviors Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of mostly simple physical robots. It is supposed that a desired collective behavior emerges from the interactions between the robots and interactions of robots with the environment. This approach emerged on the field of artificial swarm intelligence, as well as the biological studies of insects, ants and other fields in nature, where swarm behaviour occurs.

INITIAL RESEARCH EROSION ON DIFFERENT MATERIALS

INITIAL RESEARCH WEATHERING BRIEF EXPLANATION

INITIAL RESEARCH EROSION PROCESS

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INITIAL RESEARCH EROSION DIAGRAMS

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INITIAL RESEARCH EROSION DIAGRAMS STREAM EROSION

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EROSION & WEATHERING DIAGRAMS STREAM EROSION

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INITIAL RESEARCH

DESERT WIND EROSION PROCESS

DESERT WIND EROSION PROCESS deflation and abrasion DEFLATION AND ABRASION

DEFLATION is a process of dry sand movement by the wind because of lack of moisture or vegetation. Ralph A.Bagnold (1941) mentioned this wind erosion begins when air velocities reach 4.5 m/s.

large part of erosion

small deflation hollow source: http://courses.missouristate.edu/EMantei/creative/glg110/deserts-wind.html

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ABRASION is a process of grinding and scraping dry sand surface by the sand particles carried by the wind which resultng polished and smooth effect.

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES IN NORTH AFRICAN DESERT (BARCHAN)

INITIAL RESEARCH GEOLOGICAL FEATURES IN NORTH AFRICAN DESERT

(INSELBERG) (PEDIMENT) (PREDOMINANT WIND)

(ALLUVIAL FAN) (TABLE LAND) (WADI)

(PLAYA)

(STAR DUNE) source: http://www.larousse.fr/encyclopedie/media/Laroussefr_-_Article/11018183

(MOUND DUNE)

(LONGITUDINAL DUNE) D U N E LAB

NATURE OF SAND INITIAL RESEARCH NATURE OF SAND

FLUID THRESHOLD = 10-20 miles/hour = 4.4704-8.9408 m/s (Bagnold, 1941 and Sharp, 1963) AVERAGE HEIGHT OF WINDBLOWN SAND = 10cm (Bagnold, 1941) SAND RIPPLE HEIGHT=approx. 1/10 of WAVELENGTH (Bagnold, 1941) & approx. 1/18 of WAVELENGTH (Sharp, 1963) DISTANCE OF SAND MOVEMENT ON THE SURFACE= 64cm (Sharp and Saunders, 1978) MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF SAND MOVEMENT = rarely exceed 2m in height (Fryberger et al., 1979) Wind Direction

angle of repose

340

Sloughing sand

Movement of sand dune

source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angle_of_repose

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Approximate angle of repose: Dry Sand=34 0 0 Water Filled Sand=15-30 Wet Sand=45 0

INITIAL RESEARCH

SAND DUNES

SAND DUNES major types of sand dunes

MAJOR TYPE OF SAND DUNES

Barchan dunes

Transverse dune

Seif dune

Linear dunes

Star dunes

Barchan ridge

Predominant wind direction Barchan dunes is a crescent shaped dune which commonly formed in relatively flat sand surface, limited supply of sand, and flow of wind from one direction. Barchan ridge is a row of connected barchan dunes which occurs in relatively varying type of sand surfaces, greater supply of sand.

Reversing dunes Transverse dunes is a long asymetrical dune that form right angles of wind direction, formed relatively from weak winds and abundant supply of sand with single long slip face.

Source: http://courses.missouristate.edu/EMantei/creative/glg110/deserts-wind.htm

Seif dune or longitudinal dune is a long dune (could be more than 100km long and 100m high), the dune ridge is symetrical and it has slipfaces on either side, and it is formed by strong winds at least from two directions.

Complex dune is a dune that is formed when the predominant wind are varying therefore it is forming linear, star, and reversing dunes.

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SITE SELECTION

SITE SELECTION We are proposing the site in Algeria, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab World, and it is covering approximately 2,400,000 sq km of land area. The land are comprises of arable land which is 3.17%, permanent crop that is covering 0.28% and desert is 96.55% (in 2005) . We are seeing this as a possibility to examine new material use, while also addressing the desertification issue with our proposal of environmental scientist’s village. The ranges of environmental concerns in Algeria are biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, migration and poverty. The site is located in El Bayadh province that is divided to 8 districts and 22 municipalities. The desertification sensibility map showed that this province is one of the extreme place toward desertification, therefore the location of Environmental Scientist’s village will take place in this area, where the nearest airport location is in El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh. It will be approximately 100km from El Abiodh Sidi Cheikh Where the village will start developing the method of anti desertification and get connected with the adjacent city.

desert map

desertification sensibility map

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population map

DESERT WITH ROCK FORMATION SPREAD GEOLOGICAL CONDITION

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DESERT GEOLOGICAL CONDITION

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DESERT AND ROCK FORMATION GEOLOGICAL CONDITION

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ROCK MOUNTAIN GEOLOGICAL CONDITION

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FLAT DESERT WITH ROCK FORMATION GEOLOGICAL CONDITION

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DIGITAL SIMULATIONS

INITIAL RESEARCH DUNE PATTERNS FOUND ON SITE

SIMULATIONS SIMULATED DUNE PATTERNS

wind direction wind velocity: 3.4

wind variability wind direction 70% wind velocity: 0.8

wind variability 10%

wind direction wind velocity: 7.3

wind variability 60%

wind direction wind velocity: 1.7

wind variability wind direction 20% wind velocity: 1.4

wind variability wind direction 15% wind velocity: 4.4

wind variability wind direction 40% wind velocity: 7.4

wind variability 35%

wind direction wind velocity: 7.0

wind variability wind direction 60% wind velocity: 2.7

wind variability 7%

wind direction wind velocity: 5.1

wind variability 40%

wind direction wind velocity: 6.3

wind variability wind direction 20% wind velocity: 9.0

wind variability wind direction 15% wind velocity: 7.4

wind variability wind direction 40% wind velocity: 6.9

wind variability 65%

wind direction wind velocity: 5.0

wind variability wind direction 10% wind velocity: 10.0

wind variability 80%

wind direction wind velocity: 4.8

wind variability 70%

wind direction wind velocity: 7.4

wind variability wind direction 20% wind velocity: 4.4

wind variability wind direction 80% wind velocity: 4.4

wind variability wind direction 40% wind velocity: 4.4

wind variability 80%

wind direction wind velocity: 7.3

wind variability wind direction 70% wind velocity: 9.0

wind variability 15%

wind direction wind velocity: 7.4

wind variability wind direction 30% wind velocity: 1.0

wind variability wind direction 45% wind velocity: 4.4

wind variability wind direction 25% wind velocity: 6.3

wind variability wind direction 40% wind velocity: 4.85

wind variability 80%

SIMULATIONS CELL TEMPERATURE, AIR FLOW, FLOW VECTOR ANALYSIS

From the computational fluid analysis that we understood at the lower level of the sand surface that absorbs heat, there is an urge to add shading to reduce the heat gain over the sand surface that will allow the area to be inhabited. The airflow rate and wind flow are parallel on the closest part from the sand surface is slower and where there are no obstacle above ground the speed increase.

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SIMULATIONS SOLAR INSULATION ANALYSIS

It is obvious the solar radiations on the sand, rock surface on the site are very high which means several layers of protection from direct sun needs to be introduced, in order to make desert as a liveable place.

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SIMULATIONS WIND EROSION SIMULATION

wind magnitude:0.1 wind speed:1 gravity:9.8

wind magnitude:0.3 wind speed:1 gravity:9.8

wind magnitude:0.5 wind speed:1 gravity:9.8

wind magnitude:0.7 wind speed:1 gravity:9.8

wind magnitude:0.9 wind speed:1 gravity:9.8

The simulation initially started to reveal the variety of surface deformations that are caused by wind that occured through time from the actual form until the final deformed form. Simulation was tested with maya dynamics by using its embedded field conditions wind, gravity, object stiffness, etc. The result showed multiple variations that are depending on the wind magnitude, velocity, gravity. In order to have different result on simulations, the object weight set to 0.5 which works in between the predetermined value in the dynamic system from 0 (black-soft material) to 1 (white-stiff).

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SIMULATIONS WIND EROSION SIMULATION

We are seeing erosion processes in the desert as a device to shape the site and to create aesthetic effects in the architectonic production. In this case wind act as an active agent that changes the building and environment through time. By studying and simulating the erosion process allow us to manipulate and control the effects of erosion on the interior and exterior through continuous spaces.

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SIMULATIONS RAIN EROSION SIMULATION

initial state

mature state

Rain erosion simulation was set in a scripting process, by understanding the idea from water drop are being set up to always find the lowest position to drip on the surface contact, and in the same time lowering or widening the surface that is in contact with simultaneous reassignment on the position variations would allow to reveal rain water pattern on site, after multiple times rain water contact with the surface material land land has shaped an after rain form. frame 0

frame 100

frame 200

frame 250

frame 300

frame 350

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SIMULATIONS GLACIAL EROSION SIMULATION

Glacial erosion simulation was done by setting or colliding two different particles in a system and by setting up several parameters, which are depending on collision, bounce, friction, stickiness, gravity, and wind. On the diagrams on the right the test was done in several scales to imagine the land transformations or effect that are created through time. The process of glacial erosion was happened in a large scale fracture. The physical factors that are affecting the simulation was gavity, air, wind speed and direction. It is built to analyze with several natural forces that could be set according to our need. In other words, it is controllable simulation that could be usefull for surface or geometry production that are informed or representing erosion potential as a tool for architectural design.

collision strength:1 bounce:0.1 friction:0.02 stickiness:1 frame:0

collision strength:1 bounce:0 friction:0.02 stickiness:2 frame:0

collision strength:1 bounce:0 friction:0.02 stickiness:2 frame:0

frame:50

frame:100

frame:150

frame:100

frame:250

frame:400

frame:150

frame:250

frame:400

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SIMULATIONS STREAM EROSION SIMULATION

Stream erosion simulation defined as an existing water canal, creek, as a devide to direct water toward the lower position in space yet in the same time transferring surface materials that has less nutrient which are depositing some amount of materials to some other areas. The simulation was done to see even clearer pattern which are formed by the process of deepening because of contunuous stream in the water flow path. collision strength:0.5 bounce:0 friction:0.02 stickiness:2 frame:0

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frame 10

frame 50

frame 100

SIMULATIONS HUMAN EROSION SIMULATION

Human erosion simulation was mainly caused by human activities which has made top soil nutrients being removed and mainly caused land degradation, lack of vegetation, low land permeability. This simulation was intended to show of the land degradation effect which only considering the gravity and wind which caused land form changed. gravity:9.8 wind speed:10 frame:0

frame 10

frame 50

frame 100

frame 150

frame 200

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frame 300

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SIMULATIONS WIND PATTERN SIMULATION

Wind pattern simulation is being calculated only considering the wind velocity that is taken from the simulation software ecotect, grasshopper, winair, and it is being affected by the existing site terrain condition. The other weather factors are not being accounted within the simulation, by extrapolating the predominant wind pattern would reveal the process of erosion on surface and also the characteristic of being striated is considered as one of tool for our architectural design.

wind velocity map generated in the site with soft wind.

speed 1

speed 3

speed 9

speed 15

speed 30

wind velocity map generated in the site with strong wind.

speed 1

speed 3

speed 9

speed 15

speed 30

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SIMULATIONS WIND EROSION

Wind pattern on site that is creating ventifacts or striated deflation lines over sand surface or rock and also with weathering process and erosion, particularly through process of abrasion reveals yardangs or deflation on a rock surface. By knowing the wind pattern on site, placement of the wind breaker as part of retention walls for protection could redirect the wind and it will create the pattern over the time on the buildings.

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SIMULATIONS WIND BREAKER SIMULATION

Wind breaker is one of our device to defend the site, the simulation was tested in two different wind breaker condition, which were tested on straight and with angle, we assumed it will be placed on a flat surface and tested with various wind directions, it is also to learn how the process of wind movement in the site to redirect the wind.

wind velocity map generated with 90 degrees angle with various wind directions.

wind velocity map generated with 45 degrees angle with various wind directions. D U N E LAB

EXPERIMENTATIONS WIND BREAKER SIMULATION

We have also tested several physical test on wind breaker to see the effects that are happening on the surface, which is showing how the sand is being transported through saltation, surface creep, suspension. The process of wind erosion such as deflation or blow out on the surface materials are shown below.

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PHYSICAL EXPERIMENTS

EXPERIMENTATIONS WIND BREAKER STRATEGY single layer

Single layer wind breaker helps to reduce but the size of hollow deflation is still large and it needs to be adjusted with several layers of wind breaker.

A B C D

C

C D

D

D

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A / EXISTING TERRAIN

B / LEEWARD SAND SLOPE

C / BLOW OUT SAND SLOPE

D / PROTECTED SAND

EXPERIMENTATIONS WIND BREAKER STRATEGY double layer

Double layer wind breaker experiment shows the size of deflation were smaller than the previous experiment, by redirecting the wind by several layers of wind breaker would help to protect buildings from sand storm.

A B

C

D

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A / EXISTING TERRAIN

B / LEEWARD SAND SLOPE

C / BLOW OUT SAND SLOPE

D / PROTECTED SAND

EXPERIMENTATIONS MATERIAL EXPERIMENT 3d printed model

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EXPERIMENTATIONS MATERIAL EXPERIMENT sand solidification & sand texture

These model experiments are basically being done by using several sand solidification techniques: pouring salted water on sand; layered glue on sand; dripping glue and salted water on sand; plaster and salted water on sand. The tectonic qualities from sand material from micro scale has the granular texture, and from macro scale it depends on the technique that we are applying with pouring salted water on sand, dripping glue and salted water on sand, plaster and salted water on sand created more solid appearance without layered and with layered glue on sand with different thickness of each layer.

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EXPERIMENTATIONS TERRAIN SCANNING ROBOT robot mock-up

The robot is developed to avoid obstacle, in order to get the site data in reality the robot will be equipped with one of these sensor: GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar), magneto meter, Electromagnet sensor, Electrical resistance. The purpose of this robot deployment is to create a site map with materials, height, weather data,... to define the location of the project for sand sintering and carving.

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EXPERIMENTATIONS TERRAIN SCANNING ROBOT robot mock-up in progress

MOTOR DRIVER L2392D

9V BATTERYMAIN POWER

DISTANCE SENSOR ARDUINO UNO BOARD

SERVO MOTOR

BREADBOARD

6V BATTERYSECONDARY POWER

360째 MOTOR D U N E LAB

EXPERIMENTATIONS TERRAIN SCANNING ROBOT robot mock-up version 2

For this version, we hacked a simple remote-control car to have a better control on the direction and faster movements.

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PROGRAMS

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PROGRAMS FUNCTIONS DISTRIBUTION

PROGRAMS NETWORK ORGANIZATION various grid arrangements

These several network organizations are generated in order to optimize the placement of functions on site, from regular grid to deformed grid and several layers connectivity that are initiated on site.

PROGRAMS NETWORK ORGANIZATION

PROGRAMS

PROGRAMS NETWORK ORGANIZATION path optimisation strategies

D U N E LAB

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY PATTERN STUDY

We are developing an algorithm which calculates the optimal proximity between main structure location, supporting structure, and various landscape surfaces

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY PATTERN STUDY

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY PATTERN STUDY

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY PATTERN STUDY

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY PATTERN STUDY

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY PATTERN STUDY

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY CONTINUOUS SURFACE GEOMETRY

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY CONTINUOUS SURFACE GEOMETRY

Inspired by wormhole idea given that the shortest path between spaces are created by connecting spaces through continuous surface which are arranged to have connection between one space to other spaces through bifurcating condition that will minimize the building area, especially for specific condition like in a desert. We envisioned that this topological configuration is working dynamically/harmonically as above ground structure and base structure as well and by creating this type of configuration will allow for space expansion underground which are ideal for desert condition.

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY

D U N E LAB

D U N E LAB

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY

D U N E LAB

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY

We are seeking to create spatial quality of spaces that are informed from hierarchical network diagrams, which we adjusted to the design by distinguishing the main and seconday branches, number of connections

D U N E LAB

CONCLUSION PATTERN STUDY

We have tested several conditions that are depending on type of surface divisions that are creating different densities and we conclude that we are using regular grid for the main structure, because the densities that are needed to give shadow on site is sufficient and iso curves arrangement as circulation network was chosen because it is optimizing the structure with a compact arrangement.

SCANNING TECHNIQUES

SCANNING TECHNIQUES POLYCENTRIC DEPLOYMENT

D U N E LAB

SCANNING TECHNIQUES ROBOT DEPLOYMENT STRATEGY

Scanning techniques were tested on several notions, which are monocentric, polycentric, corner swarms, ripples, triangulate scanning strategy. The scanning robots are developed to avoid obstacles in this particular case are high rock formation and by applying this technique would allow us to generate the height map of sand, clay, rock on site are informed by scanning robots for the the next strategy of excavating, printing, and settling the buildings on the site.

D U N E LAB

SCANNING TECHNIQUES

LINEAR RADIAL

SCANNING TECHNIQUES

SPIRAL SWARM CORNERS

SCANNING TECHNIQUES COLOR CODED MAP

SCANNING TECHNIQUES LOGIC DESCRIPTION

The optimization of scanning strategy are developed based on an idea to find the closest rock from sand surface which in returned from the known topography we are able to placed for main and secondary structure

STRUCTURAL SCANNING GROWTH TECHNIQUES

MONOCENTRIC

SCANNING TECHNIQUES

STRUCTURAL GROWTH

POLYCENTRIC

EXCAVATION TECHNIQUES & PRINTING PROCESS

EXCAVATION TECHNIQUES EXCAVATION PATTERN

Linear excavation pattern are optimum to achieve elongated arrangement, the connection between nodes are very limited to the linear path.

Triangular excavation pattern are creating compact connection between and creating rigid connection between nodes and it is very efficient for creating connection between nodes.

Different triangular excavation pattern are creating more dynamic between nodes and also creating multiple hierarchical system.

main structure location

EXCAVATION TECHNIQUES & PRINTING PROCESS Closest rock formation below sand surface Excavation robot

Terrain excavation method according to sand repose angle Sand deposition

Excavation robot

Sand deposition

Sand deposition process

Sand deposition

Sinter robot

Sand deposition

Main beam sintering process over the sand top surface

Sand deposition Excavation robot

Sintering, excavation, and sand deposition adjusted to functional distribution

Future space expansion

Sinter robot

Sand deposition

Future space expansion

EXCAVATION TECHNIQUES & PRINTING PROCESS

Architectonic qualities from sand sintering process in desert area: porous walls, solid buildings, characterized with striated lines by the nature of printing layer by layer, thin cut on ground, wall, ground condition related with 35 degrees of sand repose angle.

sand repose angle: 35째 future structure extension

sinter robot, able to climb 35째 slope and avoid falling down while printing

SAND REPOSE ANGLE: 35째

excavated existing sand

EXCAVATION TECHNIQUES & PRINTING PROCESS GROUND & BUILDING STRATEGY

Building with covered pathway condition

Road

Two storey building with covered walkway

Light Court

PRINTING PROCESS MULTIPLE LAYERSprocess STRATEGY Sand sintering is being

done sequentially starting from the below. Several layers for main and secondary structures, and concurrently building are being printed after excavating process or preparation by taking the advantage of sand repose angle.

PRINTING PROCESS From the optimized pattern on site different densities for printing was tested, the desirable consideration is to create the right balance for desert living condition, which are characterized mainly solid in order to protect from direct sunlight, maintaining interior temperature to be cooler than outside temperature, porous material in micro scale.

D U N E LAB

STRUCTURAL STUDY

STRUCTURAL STUDY TOPOLOGICALSTRUCTURE

canopy structure optimization lines

supporting structure

STRUCTURAL STUDY Topological configuration on two layers which are adapted on sand and clay/rock surface or the existing topographical condition which are mainly to alleviate the uncovered desert surface with the smallest surface over the site.

canopy structure optimization lines

supporting structure

Structural study

STRUCTURAL STUDY Case 01: linear beam

Case 02:

Case 03: beams joined together

Case 04: test 02 and 03 combined +

Case 05: higher profile +

D U N E LAB

Test Geometry

Stress simulation

Yield simulation

Structural study

STRUCTURAL STUDY

Test Geometry

Stress simulation

Yield simulation

Case 06: curved beam on the ground

Case 07: branches tip connected

Case 08: cases 06 and 07 combined

+

We are testing the structure that are given by the proximity structure algorithm with various cases by increasing the depth of structural elements, adding connection from main beams to secondary beams to get optimization load distribution, and for a specific condition that the structure are spanning too far, at several segments we are adding secondary post, and touch the ground.

D U N E LAB

Structural study

STRUCTURAL STUDY Case 09:

Case 10:

Case 11:

Case 12 :

Case 13:

D U N E LAB

Test Geometry

Stress simulation

Yield simulation

CONCLUSION

D U N E LAB

D U N E LAB

CONCLUSION To be able to occupy desert for a better living condition there are several basic understanding that was driven from our CFD analysis which informed the design to be adjusted accordingly. Architectural intentions were driven to mitigate the extreme condition in desert. By adding structural elements that works as shading system as well as a structure for functions or building, we are allowing horizontal and underground expansion. The understanding of wind pattern will reveal architectonic qualities that are depending on time: for example, from a range of 50 years the sand sintered building will get deteriorated by ventifacts or yardang. In the same time the design process is extended with series of future predictions. The use of continuous geometries optimizes the distances between spaces, the amount of material used, and creates heterogeneity in the space arrangements within the given existing landscape. In the same time, we will create an artificial landscape that is contrasting but adapting to the topographical conditions. The integration between building and landscape are formed by the sand 35° repose angle condition that is constraining the printing process. Series of retaining walls are being introduced to protect the building from the extreme environmental conditions, as well as narrow cuts or openings to control the light intensity, narrow pedestrian pathways that are protected, striated wall conditions, integrated furniture from materials, shading system that are combining fabric or textile that wouldn’t increase the structural load but in the same time intensifying the habitable shaded area. Scanning the landscape to find the best location for structural foundations allow us to extrapolate further to other locations. Swarming robots are quite successful on creating network organizations adapted to unknown sites. D U N E LAB

D U N E LAB

ARCHITECTURAL PROPOSAL

D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS MASTERPLAN - UNDERGROUND LEVEL

3

2 1 4

5

3

1. RESEARCH LABS 2. EXPERIMENTAL LABS 3. DRIVEWAY/RAMP 4. PARKING 5. OFFICE D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS MASTERPLAN - GROUND LEVEL 1

1

2

14

12 6

2

13 8 5

9

7

11 1. EL ABIODH MAIN ROAD 2. MAIN ROAD 3. PEDESTRIAN 4. FUTURE ROAD EXTENSION 5. RESEARCH LABS 6. MOSQUE 7. SCHOOL 8. TOWNHALL 9. LIBRARY 10. FABRICATION LAB 11. HOTEL 12. SPORT FACILITY 13. TOWN SQUARE 14. HOUSES

3

10

4

D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS MASTEPLAN - UPPER LEVEL

2

3

1

4

1. MULTIPLE LAYERS 2. CITY ROAD CONNECTION 3. MAIN ROAD 4. PEDESTRIAN 5. FUTURE ROAD EXTENSION D U N E LAB

5

DRAWINGS MASTERPLAN - CIRCULATION DIAGRAM

main pedestrian circulation main vehicles circulation

D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS CLUSTER - PLAN LEVEL 0

3

1 2

4

5

1. RESEARCH LABS 2. GARDEN 3. OFFICE 4. TOILETS 5. STORE D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS DRAWINGS CLUSTER - PLAN LEVEL CLUSTER - PLAN LEVEL 3 3

1 3

2

4

5

10

7

9 6 1. RECEPTION 2. OFFICE 3. MEETING ROOM 4. TOILETS 5. GARDEN 6. TOILET 7. LOCAL SERVICE UNIT 8. LIBRARY-SCIENTIFIC SECTION 9. LIBRARY RECEPTION 10. LIBRARY-KIDS AND PUBLIC SECTION 11. MATERIAL TESTING LAB

8 11

D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS

DRAWINGS

CLUSTER - PLAN LEVEL 2

CLUSTER - PLAN LEVEL 2

2 3

4

1

5

10

6

9 7 1. CONFERENCE HALL 2. RECEPTION 3. OFFICE 4. MEETING ROOM 5. STORE 6. HOUSE 7. GARDEN 8. LIBRARY-KIDS AND PUBLIC SECTION 9. TOILET 10. LOCAL SERVICE UNIT 11. MATERIAL TESTING LAB 12. STORE D U N E LAB

12

6 8

11

DRAWINGS CLUSTER - PLAN LEVEL 3

1

2

4 3

1. LANDSCAPE DECK 2. ROAD 3. NARROW PATH 4. OPENING

4 D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS CLUSTER - PLAN ROOF

D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS SECTION

D U N E LAB

section

DRAWINGS CLOSES ROCK AND SAND DEPOSITION DIAGRAM

Closest rock location from sand surface Sand deposition level Existing terrain level

D U N E LAB

Closest rock location from sand surface 0

50m

section

DRAWINGS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

PROGRAMS

2

2

2

1 3

4

2 2

6

5

7

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Landscape Artificial landscape Research laboratory Canteen Shop Office Library

50m

Landscape Artificial landscape Research laboratory Canteen Shop Office Library

D U N E LAB

DRAWINGS HOUSE

LOWER LIVING UNIT

UPPER LIVING UNIT

D U N E LAB

Special Thanks to Christos Passas 1st adviser Alexander Kalachev studio tutor Matias del Campo 2nd adviser Neil Leach guest professor and StudioX people Karim Soliman Tudor Cosmatu Alexandra Maks Heidy Boris Yurii Kirill Marzieh Ahmed Marta

DIA DESSAU

DUNElab

DESSAU 2012

STUDIO X

C H R I S T O S PA S S A S // ALEXANDER KALACHEV // MATIAS DEL CAMPO

ASA DARMATRIAJI____TIMOTHEE RAISON____OLGA KOVRIKOVA


ESV_DuneLab_StudioX