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Pioneer Photography in Bolivia: Directory of Daguerreotypists & Photographers, 1840s-1930s by Daniel Buck

Introduction The roots of photography are deep in Bolivia. Amateur daguerreotypists were on the scene by the late 1840s, and professional photography studios had opened in Sucre, Cochabamba, and La Paz by the early 1850s. Daguerre himself is said to have provided the young Tomás Frías, who later became president, with a daguerreotype outfit. Over the ensuing decades, cartes de visite, cabinet cards, stereographs, and postcards became as fashionable on the altiplano as they were elsewhere in the world. A few of the Bolivia's pioneer image makers--the Corderos, Luis Gismondi, Arthur Posnansky, and Rodolfo Torrico Zamudio, for example--are familiar, even celebrated, today. But the names of the vast majority--Victor Crespo, Georges B. von Grumbkow, Guillermo Manning, Moisés Valdéz, Ricardo Villaalba, are largely unrecognized. Some, like the German Georges B. von Grumbkow, worked a few years in Bolivia and then apparently went home. Their names survive only in monographs or in folders of prints in museum vaults. Others, like Ricardo Villaalba, all but forgotten in his native Bolivia, made hundreds of cartes de visite of highland Indians that can found in museum collections in the United States and Europe. Born in Corocoro, Pacajes province, he had opened a studio in La Paz by the 1860s. Reversing the pattern of photographers who came to Bolivia from abroad, Villaalba relocated to Arequipa, Peru, in the 1870s, and to Paris in the late 1880s. Even Moisés Valdéz, who documented the mining camps in the furthest reaches of the Potosí department in the 1880s and 1890s, is virtually unknown. Local photographers, such as Manuel Maria Zapata in Totora or M. García in Cochabamba, devoted their careers to portraits commemorating family events such as weddings, first communions, and graduations, generally made in their small studios on the central plazas of their hometowns. When their studios closed, their negatives were thrown out; the photographers and their work vanished. The purpose of this directory is to shed light on this terra incognita: to identify the names and places and periods of activity of the daguerreotypists and photographers--professional and amateur, native-born and foreign, resident and itinerant--who worked in Bolivia during the country's first century of photography. Data for the directory was taken from imprints, inscriptions, and dedications on photographs in private collections, on museum walls, and in institutional archives. Antique postcards were scoured for clues. (Even though postcard publishers were not necessarily photographers, their names have been included because they played a key supporting role in the evolution of the photography trade.) Commercial guides, newspapers, travel and mountaineering accounts, and the growing literature on the history of Bolivian photography were reviewed. Experts on Bolivian culture were queried. In all, nearly 400 photographers, studios, and postcard publishers were identified.

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Corrections or additions to directory should be sent to: Daniel Buck 100 Tenth Street SE Washington, DC 20003-3909 Phone: 202-544-6541 E-mail: djbuckdc@cs.com

A Adams, Franklin. Adams first visited Bolivia in 1904 during a three-year trip around South America with his wife, Harriet Chalmers Adams. After returning to the United States in 1906, he joined the Pan American Union (now the Organization of American States) and soon became its Director General. He remained at the PAU until his retirement in the early 1930s. Six of his photographs of La Paz and the altiplano are held by the Royal Geographical Society in London. He and his wife published "The Liberation of Bolivia," in the American Review of Reviews (January 1913). The article contains twenty illustrations based on their photographs. Adams, Harriet Chalmers (1875-1937). A National Geographic Society writer and photographer, Adams first traveled to Bolivia in 1904 during a three-year trip around South America with her husband, Franklin Adams. Among the twenty-one articles she wrote for the National Geographic Magazine are two about Bolivia, both of which feature her photographs: "Some Wonderful Sights in the Andean Highlands" (September 1908) and "Kaleidoscopic La Paz: City of the Clouds" (February 1909). She and her husband published an article in the American Review of Reviews (January 1913) titled "The Liberation of Bolivia" containing twenty illustrations based on their photographs. Adams was a correspondent for Harper's in Europe during World War I. After the war she and her husband visited Eastern Bolivia during another lengthy trip to South America. Adams was a founder (1925) of the Society of Woman Geographers--the National Geographical Society did not allow women as full members--and served as its first president. She lectured frequently on her travels, illustrating her talks with slides and movies. "Harriet Chalmers Adams is America's greatest woman explorer," the New York Times enthused. "As a lecturer no one, man or woman, has a more magnetic hold over an audience than she." The SWG in Washington, DC, the SWG Collection at the Manuscript Reading Room at the Library of Congress in Washington, DC, and the Stockton Public Library in Stockton, CA, have personal papers and scrapbooks of clippings about Adams's career, but her only surviving photographs appear to be those held by the National Geographic Society. See also Harriet Chalmers Adams: Adventurer and Explorer, by Durlynn Anema (1997). Ahlfeld, Frederick (1892-1982). A German geologist, mountain climber, and photographer, Ahlfeld immigrated to Bolivia in 1924 and settled in Cochabamba. According to Jill Neate, Ahlfeld was "for over half a century the foremost authority on [Bolivian] geology and mineralogy, producing over thirty specialist books and countless other publications. Whether visiting mines, studying mineral deposits, or climbing high peaks, he was indefatigable in his explorations, covering over 100,000 kilometers on foot and taking part in over forty expeditions. . . . His knowledge of [the Cordillera Real] was unrivalled and his photo-archives a veritable treasure house." Ahlfeld's archives are said to be in Cochabamba. Aguilar, Fernando. Aguilar was a photographer in Oruro in the early 1930s. His studio, on the Plaza Ingavi, is listed in the GuĂ­a Comercial de Bolivia Fontova (1930-1931). 6

Aguilar, José. An Oruro photographer active in the early 1930s, Aguilar had a studio on the Plaza Ingavi. Whether he was related to Fernando Aguilar or not is unknown. Aguirre, P. The imprint "Fot. P. Aguirre" appears on a real-photo card inscribed in Santa Cruz on 12 August 1921. El Altiplano. Eduardo Pabón Rada credits the Bolivian periodical El Altiplano with supplying the forty-two photographs (of Copacabana and the Lake Titicaca area) published in his tourist booklet, Bellezas Panorámicas (1935?). Alvinay & Cía. The imprint "Alvinay y Cía., Arequipa" appears on a ca. 1869 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. Alvinay's Bolivian activities, if any, are unknown. Amarós, Emilio. Amarós was a postcard publisher and possibly a photographer in Bolivia in the early 1900s. His imprint appears on postcard views of La Paz, Santa Cruz, and Sucre. América, Foto. The imprint "Foto América de F[illegible]" appears on a wedding portrait with an inscription dated 8 April 1926 in Oruro. Angel Medina, J. The advertisement "J. Angel Medina, Técnico fotograbador y fotógrafo" appears in the La Paz section of Rosendo Viscarra Heredia's Guía General de Bolivia (1918). Angulo, Félix. Angulo was active in Cochabamba between ca. 1919 and ca. 1925. He had a studio on Calle San Martín. A photographer of the same name had a studio in Arica, Chile, on Calle Dos de Julio, ca. 1908, but it is not known if he is related to the one in Cochabamba. Antofagasta (Chili) and Bolivia Railway Company. The FCAB, as it is known, commissioned photographs of the construction and operation of its lines in Chile and Bolivia, from Antofagasta, Chile, to Uyuni, Oruro, La Paz, Cochabamba, and Potosí, Bolivia. The Bolivian phase of the railroad was begun in 1889. The photographs are in the company's archives in London, Antofagasta, and Santiago. A few examples can be found in Howard Blakemore's From the Pacific to La Paz, the Antofagasta (Chili) and Bolivia Railroad, 1888-1988 (1990). Arendt, Erich. Arendt traveled in Bolivia in the mid-1920s. His account of that trip, Streifzuge durch Bolivien (1927), contains eighty illustrations based on his photographs, including scenes of markets, folklore groups, weavers, altiplano villages, bullfights, the Yungas road, the Sorata road, Sorata, Lake Titicaca, Tiwanaku, the Cordillera Real, muleteers and mules, and Corocoro. Arismendi, Federico. Arismendi was a Potosí photographer with studios at Calle Dolores 9 ca. 1925 and on Calle Hoyos in the early 1930s. Arnó Hermanos. As prominent book dealers, stationery vendors, and, above all, post card publishers in La Paz and Cochabamba from the early 1900s through the 1930s the Arnó brothers influenced the development of photography in Bolivia. Their stores included La Universitaria (Calle Ingavi 19) in La Paz ca. 1908; La Universitaria (Calle Ayacucho 105 y 107) in La Paz ca. 1918; La Universitaria (Calle Comercio 40) in Cochabamba ca. 1918; Librería Arnó Hermanos (Calle Illimani 10/20 near the Plaza Murillo, with branches on Calle Mercado s/n and Calle Ingavi 18-20-22) in La Paz ca. 1925; Librería y Papelería (Av. 6 de Agosto 39) in La Paz; and Librería Española (Calle Comercio 129) in La Paz in the early 1930s. An entire page extolling

the Librería Arnó Hermanos--"uno de las negociaciones más importantes del ramo en este lado de la América española"--along with an advertisement on another whole page appear in J. Ricardo Alcarón's Bolivia en el primer centenario de su independencia (1925). The present Libraría Gisbert at Calle Comercio 1270 in La Paz occupies Arnó Hermanos old store on what was formerly Calle Illimani 10/20. Asebey A., Lucas. Asebey was a photographer in Sucre, with a studio on Calle Olañeta in the 1910s. The imprint "Fotografía IRIS Lucas Asebey A.--Sucre--Bolivia" appears on a family portrait inscribed "Sucre, 2 de Agosto de 1916." His Sucre studio, Foto Iris, is listed in commercial guides as late as 1928. Astete, Moisés. A photographer in Santa Cruz as early as 1908, Astete had a studio on Calle Ayacucho in the 1930s. The verso of his cabinet card exults: "Fotografía moderna de Moisés Astete. Unica de primera clase en este país. Se opera todos los días en cualquier clima. Las planchas son conservadas. Especialidad en reproducciones y ampliaciones por los últimos procédures." Avril, Fotografía. The imprint "Fotografía Avril" appears on an early 1900s real-photo postcard of a Bolivian scene.

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B Baguin, P. The imprint "Foto. P. Baguin" appears on a late 1800s photograph of a rural scene on display in the Museo Municipal in Tupiza. Bandelier, Adolphe Francis Alphonse (1842-1914). Bandelier was a Swiss-born American archeologist-historian, who studied and photographed in Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, including Lake Titicaca and Tiwanaku, between 1892 and 1903. His first trip, 1892 to 1894, was sponsored by Henry Villard, the president of the Northern Pacific Railroad, and took him to Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. Sponsored by the American Museum of Natural History in New York, Bandelier returned to Bolivia in 1894 accompanied by his spouse, Fanny Ritter Bandelier, who had been a field assistant on the 1892 trip. About a hundred of his Bolivian photographs from these expeditions are held by the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe. Some are published as illustrations in his Islands of Titicaca and Koati (1910). In a "Notice to Readers," the author acknowledges his "friend and countryman Mr. Rudolph Weber," who "made and retouched the photographs of objects and reproduced the frequently defective landscapes and scenes of Indian life." Bandelier was accompanied in Peru and Bolivia in 1892-1893 by Charles Fletcher Lummis, who also made photographs. His obituary appears in the Bulletin of the Pan American Union (June 1914). Barbon, Thomas. The Peabody Museum at Harvard University has a single photograph credited to Barbon. Made in the late 1800s, it depicts the Tiwanaku village church, which was constructed by the Spaniards with stones taken from the nearby Tiwanaku ruins. Whether Barbon was the photographer or the donor is unknown. Barclay, W.S. Barclay was an English writer who visited Bolivia in 1908. Six of his photographs of La Paz, Tiwanaku, and Copacabana are held by the Royal Geographical Society, of which he was a fellow. Barrios, Mario. Active as early as 1856, Barrios was a pioneer photographer in Potosí. Bastide, George. See Mission Scientifique Française. Bateson, W.R. Copies of Bateson's photographs from a 1908 visit to Bolivia are at the Royal Geographical Society. Bazoberri, Luis. Bazoberri (also spelled Bazoberry) had a studio, Foto Bazoberri, in La Paz at Calle Yanacocha 95 in the 1920s and another in Cochabamba on Calle Argentina in the 1920s and 1930s. Bazoberry photographed the Chaco War and many of his images illustrate Mariano Baptista Gumucio's Historia (Gráfica) de la Guerra del Chaco (1976); the Latin American Library at Tulane University holds a collection of twenty of his photographic postcards of the Chaco War. See Latin American Library/Tulane University.

Beltrán, Carlos O. Beltrán was a postcard publisher and possibly photographer in La Paz ca. 1926. Bennett, Wendell C. A Yale University anthropologist, Bennett led the American Museum of Natural History archaeological expeditions to Bolivia in 1932 and 1933-1934. His photographs of Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, Beni, and Lake Titicaca archaeological sites illustrate a number of his publications. See, for example, Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History (vol. XXXV, part IV, 1936). Bernal, Gregorio (d. 1955). Bernal was a Chilean immigrant who worked as photographer in Tupiza in the early 1900s. Bernal, Natalio. Bernal's imprints "Natalio Bernal, Galería Fotográfica, Calle de Socabaya 68, La Paz," and "N. Bernal" appear on cartes de visite from the 1860s and 1870s. He apparently was not related to Gregorio Bernal. Berry, Edward W. Berry was a professor of paleontology at Johns Hopkins University and coleader, with Joseph T. Singewald, Jr., of the school's 1919 George Huntington Williams Memorial Expedition to the Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Six of his photos illustrate "The Quimsa Cruz Region of Bolivia," in Berry and Frank M. Swartz's Contributions to the Geology and Paleontology of South America (1925). Biggemann & Cía., Editores. Biggemann was a postcard publisher and possibly a photographer in La Paz during the early 1900s. He published postcards of Arthur Posnansky's photographs of Tiwanaku and Potosí, and images of mining scenes attributed to him appear in William van Brabant's La Bolivie (1909). Bingham, Hiram (1875-1956). An American historian, writer, explorer, and politician, Bingham led the 1911 Yale South American Expedition that discovered Machu Picchu. In 1908, he had traveled by rail, mule, and stagecoach along the colonial trade route through Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. His account of that journey, Across South America (1911), contains about two dozen of his Bolivian photographs. Blattmann, Carl. The Swiss-born Blattmann came to Bolivia under contract to the French Casa Braillard & Co. in Riberalta. In 1913, he became the general manager of the Casa Surarez Hnos., the pre-eminent Bolivian rubber enterprise, in Cachuela Esperanza, and in 1919 returned to Switzerland. A selection of Blattmann's rubber-country photographs appeared in Imágenes del auge de la goma (1989), by Ricardo Centeno and Patricia Fernández O. The authors wrote: "Con su inseparable cámara fotográfica de fuelle, una de las pocas introducidas al país en esa época, Blattmann alternaba sus labores administrativas con el arte de la fotografía. Ninguna escena se escapaba de su lente. Fotos de las oficinas, de las casas, de las calles, de las plazas, de gente común, de 'bárbaros', de días de campo, de dura faena en la selva, todo está registrado en sus archivos, aunque muchas fotos han desaparecido con el tiempo." Some 700 of Blattmann's photographs survive, now in the hands of his descendants in Bolivia. Blumel, Pedro. Blumel was a Polish immigrant who became a photographer in La Paz in the 1930s. He specialized in portraits on metal buttons that could be worn as lapel pins. Before 10

taking up photography, Blumel was a baker. Later in life, he struck it rich as a miner and owned thermal springs at Huancapampa, from which he sold bottled mineral water. Boada, Luis. Boada was a photographer in La Paz in the late 1800s. The imprint "Luis Boada" appears on stereographs of La Paz views, including Obrajes and the Plaza Murillo. Bohorques Duque, Julio. Active in La Paz, Bohorques Duque had a studio on Comercio ca. 1928. Bolland, Henry. Bolland was an English explorer and director of the ca. 1900 "Exploración Boliviana al Alto Paraguay y la Laguna Gaiba." His narrative of the expedition, Exploración practicada en el Alto Paraguay y en la Laguna Gaiba (1910), contains a dozen photographs of the region. Boock, Rodolfo. Active in Antofagasta, Chile, in the early 1900s, Boock published Huanchaca, Pulacayo, Bolivia, an album of albumen photographs of the Huanchaca mine works. Bowles, Juan S. A photograph credited to Bowles, "Types of river boats on the Río Beni, Bolivia," appears in Frederick L. Hoffman's article, "American Business Opportunities in Bolivia," Bulletin of the Pan American Union (vol. LV, no. 2, August 1922). Bowman, Isaiah (1878-1950). An American geographer, explorer, and founder of the American Geographical Society, Bowman traveled extensively and made many photographs in Peru (he was a member of Hiram Bingham's 1911 Yale South American Expedition) and Bolivia in the early 1900s. See, for example, his "Trade Routes in the Economic Geography of Bolivia," Bulletin of the American Geographical Society (vol. XLII, no. 1, January 1910). The society's archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee hold two Bowman prints from Bolivia. Brachet, A. Brachet was a postcard publisher and possibly a photographer in the early 1900s. His imprint appears on 1904-1906 postcards of La Paz. Buchler, E.E. Buchler was presumably an American photographer. Five of his photographs were published with Alicia O'Reardon Overbeck's "Bolivia, Land of Fiestas," National Geographic Magazine (November 1934). Burgemeister E. Burgemeister was active in La Paz ca. 1918, with a studio at Calle Comercio 24. Bury, F. The imprint "Fot. F. Bury" appears on a ca. 1920 photograph of a caravan automobiles on the Yungas road. Butrón, Evaristo. Butrón was a photographer in Cochabamba in the 19th century.

C Caba, José Antonio. Caba was a Sucre photographer with a studio, La Villa de París, on the Plaza 25 de Mayo ca. 1925. Cáceres, B. Cáceres was a photographer in La Paz in the early 1900s through the 1920s. The imprint "B. Cáceres, Fotografía Central, La Paz, Bolivia," appears on an early 1900s cabinet card of a family picnic, perhaps in the Miraflores neighborhood of La Paz. Camacho, Juan José. Active in La Paz, Camacho had a studio at Calle Mercado 315 in the early 1930s. Camacho, Victor. Camacho was an Oruro photographer with a studio on the Plaza Ingavi in the early 1930s. Carpenter, Frank G. (1855-1924). An American writer, photographer, lecturer, and world traveler, Carpenter visited South America periodically between 1898 and the mid-1920s. The Prints and Photographs Division at the Library of Congress in Washington, DC, holds an extensive collection of Carpenter's photographs, which was donated in 1951 by Mrs. W. Chapin Huntington. Included in the collection are two sets of photographs from Bolivia. The first set, totaling eighty-four images, is in an album of some three hundred snapshots Carpenter made on a 1914 trip to Jamaica, Panama, Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. The Bolivian photos include views of La Paz, Oruro, Lake Titicaca, and the altiplano. The second set, totaling ninety-seven images, is in a collection of photographs that Carpenter apparently purchased during his travels in South America and from the Publishers Photographic Service in New York. Although many of these photographs are anonymous, some are credited to Ewing Galloway, A.A. Hauff, H. Knowles, E.M. Newman, and Max T. Vargas. See Carpenter's South America, Social, Industrial, and Political (1900) and Lands of the Andes and the Desert (1926). Casas, Emilio. Casas was a Potosí photographer with a studio on Calle Camacho ca. 1925. La Castellana. See Martín y Compañía. Castillo, A. Active in La Paz, Castillo had a studio at Calle Sucre 10 ca. 1918. Castillo, Luis. Four photographs attributed to Castillo appear in La Paz: The World's Highest Capital (1930), issued by the Pan American Union. Castillo, V. M. del. Active in La Paz ca. 1925, Castillo had a studio on Calle Potosí. Catinari, Honorato. Catinari was a Franciscan missionary who photographed in the Bolivian Chaco in the 1920s and 1930s. Several of his images, including some from the Chaco War, appear in Doroteo Giannecchini's Historia natural, etnografía, geografía, lingüística del chaco 12

boliviano 1898 (1996), edited by Lorenzo Calzavarini. Chambi, Martín (1891-1973). Active from the early 1900s through 1950, renowned Peruvian photographer Chambi spent almost his entire career in the city of Cusco and the surrounding mountain communities. In 1925, however, on a rare excursion outside Peru, he photographed in La Paz while attending the Exposición Internacional del Centenario de Bolivia, where he won a gold medal. (Moreover, his friend and mentor, Max T. Vargas, had a studio there.) The Gismondi family possesses three Chambi prints depicting the city's streets and the Plaza Murillo festively illuminated. For more about Chambi's life and career, including a bibliography, see Peruvian historian Jorge Heredia's Chambi webpage, Breve Revisión Histórica de los Avatares de ls Obra del Fotógrafo Peruano Martín Chambi, and the Chambi links on Yolanda Retter's webpage, Peruvian Photography 1850-1950. Chani, Miguel (1860-1951). Peruvian photographer Chani was a founder of the Cusco School of photography and influenced Martín Chambi, among others. His studios, Fotografía Universal, were in Cusco, Puno, and Arequipa. He photographed archaeological sites in the southern Andes, including Tiwanaku. Chani's 1910 photograph of a stone doorway in Tiwanaku village appears in Adelma Benavente's Peruvian Photography: Images from the Southern Andes, 1900-1945 (1996). Charnay, Claude-Joseph Désiré (1828-1915). A French photographer active in the United States, Europe, Mexico, and South America, Charnay is best known for his work among Mayan ruins in the Yucatan in 1856 and 1857. Michele and Michel Auer have Charnay in Argentina and Chile from 1866 to 1870; William S. Johnson reports that he was in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina on assignment for the French magazine Tour de Monde in 1875; and Vicente Gesualdo states that he visited northern Argentina and Bolivia--Tiwanaku, La Paz, and Cochabamba--in 1876. Charnay died in Paris in 1915. His Bolivian photographs have not been found. Cherrie, George K. (b. 1865). An Iowa native, Cherrie participated in forty expeditions, most of them to Central and South America, including Theodore Roosevelt's South American Expedition of 1913-1914 to Brazil's River of Doubt. During his long career as a natural scientist he was associated with, among others, the British Museum, the American Museum of Natural History in New York and the Field Museum in Chicago. In 1915, he went to Bolivia with the Alfred Collins-Garnet Day expedition. Two illustrations of scenes along the Río Espíritu Santo in the Chaparé region of the eastern Andes, perhaps based on photographs made by Cherrie, appear in his memoir Dark Trails (1930). Chester, C.L. Chester made stereographic views in Bolivia for the American company Underwood & Underwood. A set of 12 Bolivian stereoviews, presumably made by Chester, was listed in Underwood's ca. 1913 catalog. Christiano Jr. (1830?-1902). Christiano Jr. was the trade name of the Portuguese-born Brazilian photographer, José Christiano de Freitas Henriques Junior. He opened studios in Rio de Janeiro ca. 1863 and in Buenos Aires in 1868, and traveled extensively in the Argentine interior, including to Mendoza and Salta, from where he possibly visited Bolivia. He sold his Buenos Aires studio to Alejandro S. Witcomb in 1878, and died in Asunción, Paraguay, in 1902. Several museums in Rio de Janeiro have examples of his work, and the Archivo Gráfico in Buenos Aires holds twenty-five thousand Christiano negatives. The Archivo Provincial de Salta

holds images of his work in northern Argentina. Alphons Stübel and Wilhelm Reiss purchased some of his prints during their expedition. See Paulo Cesar de Azevedo and Mauricio Lissovsky's Escravos Brasileiros do Século XIX na Fotografia de Christiano Jr. (1988), and Abel Alexander, "El gran fotógrafo Christiano Junior en Mendoza," Congreso de Historia de la Fotografía, vol. II, 1993. Church, George Earl (1835-1910). An American engineer who became a journalist, explorer, and railroad entrepreneur, Church was surveying railroads in the United States before he was twenty-one and exploring Argentine Patagonia at twenty-two. His engineering career was interrupted the American Civil War, in which he served as an officer with the Seventh Rhode Island Infantry. Between the late 1860s and the mid-1870s, he was periodically in Bolivia at its government's invitation, promoting railway enterprises--most importantly the Mamoré and Madeira Railroad Company. He collected photographs and possibly was himself a photographer during this period. Books, maps, and papers from Church's personal library, including Views of Bolivia, an album of ten ca. 1869-1870 albumen prints, presumably gathered during his Bolivian travels, are in the John Hay Library at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. Church was also a vice-president of the Royal Geographical Society. See "North American Captains of Industry in Latin America: Col. George Earl Church," Bulletin of the International Bureau of the American Republics (March 1909), and Lewis Hanke, "A Note on the Life and Publications of Colonel George Earl Church," Books at Brown (vol. XX, 1976). Church's study, Aborigines of South America, edited by his friend Clements R. Markham, was published posthumously in 1912. Clavijo Fotógrafo. The imprint "Clavijo Fotógrafo" appears on a ca. 1867 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. The photographer may have been Cipriano Clavijo, who worked in Chile and Peru from 1855 through the 1880s. There was also a photographer named Clavijo active in Bolivia in the 1920s. Conway, Martin (1856-1937). Conway was an English mountaineer, writer, and art connoisseur who climbed in the Bolivian Cordillera Real in 1898 and 1900, and made the first ascent of Illimani's south peak. See his Bolivian Andes: A Record of Climbing & Exploration in the Cordillera Real in the Years 1898 and 1900 (1901), illustrated with more than eighty photographs. Cordero Castillo, Julio (1879-1961). Cordero was a noted photographer active in La Paz from 1898 to 1940. Born in Pucarani, Cordero came to La Paz at the turn of the century to seek his fortune. He learned photography from the Valdez Hermanos. His two sons, Julio P. Cordero Ordoñez (d. 1963) and Gregorio Cordero Miranda (d. 1979?) operated the family studio after his retirement. Cordero's first studio was at Calle Ayacucho 74, and he later relocated to Calle Comercio 160. Viscarra's 1918 Guía General de Bolivia carries this advertisement: "Importación directa de Europa y Estados Unidos de Norte América, Establecimiento de Fotografía y Cine-Fotografía de Primer Orden de Julio Cordero, La Paz, Grandes premios de Sucre, La Paz y Potosí, Trabajos de arte, ampliaciones, reproducciones, etc., Venta de artículos fotográficos, Vistas fotográficas y tarjetas postales de Bolivia, Se atiende pedidos de cualquier punto de la Republica." Julio Cordero Benavídez, nephew of the progenitor, today guards a family archive of some fifty-thousand images. See Rolando Costa Ardúz's La Paz: sus rostros en el tiempo (1973), 14

which depicts the history of La Paz through the Cordero family's photographs. Cordiglia y Lavalle, F. The imprint "F. Cordiglia y Lavalle, Artista Pintor, Estudio de Pintura y Fotografía, La Paz, Comercio 45," appears on an 1892 cabinet card inscribed from Manuel Aldazosa to Benjamin Martinez and his wife Matilde A. de Martinez. Cosson, Alfredo (1820-1881). Following a failed coup in France in 1852, Cosson fled to Bolivia and later to Argentina. While in Bolivia, he made daguerreotypes, three of which are in a private collection in Buenos Aires. After relocating to Argentina, Cosson lived in Salta, where he was associated with another French daguerreotypist, Amadeo Jacques, ca. 1856. Costas E., R. Costas was a photographer in Cochabamba in the 1920s. Courret, Eugenio, and Aquiles Courret. Eugenio and Aquiles Courret, better known under their "Courret Hermanos" imprint, were French-born photographers active in Lima beginning in 1863. Aquiles returned to France in 1877, but Eugenio remained in Lima until the late 1800s. Their studio continued under other management until 1935. Recuerdos del Perú, an 1868 presentation album now held by the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC, contains numerous albumen prints of an excursion to southern Peru, including an earthquake-devastated Arequipa, and four Bolivian scenes: two of the main plaza in Oruro, and one each of the Plaza Murillo in La Paz and the church in Calamarca. (All but the Plaza Murillo print are incorrectly identified as La Paz views.) The Getty Research Institute in Santa Monica, California, has a two-volume Courret album, Views of Chile and Peru, which contains a few Bolivian views. A small portrait, about half the size of a carte-de-visite, perhaps of the size called "mignon," bears the imprint "E. Courret y Cía. Lima" imprint on verso, with a wetstamped addition of "La Paz, Comercio 41," indicating that the Courret brothers had an agency in La Paz. Crespo, Jacinto. Active in La Paz in the early 1930s, Crespo had a studio, Fotograbados, at Calle Yanacocha 762. Crespo, Victor. Crespo was a leading Cochabamba photographer and postcard publisher in the 1890s and the early 1900s. His imprints "Victor Crespo" and "Fotografía de Crespo e hijo, Cochabamba, Bolivia" are on cabinet cards and albumen prints of the Plaza 14 de Septiembre in Cochabamba and two rural scenes. In 1908, La Prensa, Cochabamba's leading daily, carried an advertisement describing his services: "Fotografía Crespo. Se encuentra al servicio público todos los días, de 9 a.m. á 5 p.m. Se hacen los siguientes trabajos:--fotografías al bromuro, papel brillante, celodina; especialidad en tarjetas postales, en miniaturas y en esmaltes; y todos los trabajos referentes al ramo. Precios sumamente módicos. Cochabamba, abril 23 de 1908. Calle Ayachucho No. 26. 1 año." Crespo y Laredo. The imprint "Crespo y Laredo Fot." appears on late-19th-century cartes de visite of Bolivian subjects. Crosby, Oscar T. (1861-1947). Crosby was an American traveler and photographer. Two 1908 photographs he made with a Brownie are in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Cruz, Arturo. See Guillermo Manning.

Curtis, William Eleroy (1850-1911). Curtis was an American diplomat, writer, and photographer who traveled in South America in the late 1890s. See his Between the Andes and the Ocean (1900), which contains five Bolivian photographs, presumably made with the Kodak he was carrying, and "The Road to Bolivia," National Geographic Magazine (Parts 1 & 2, June 1900 and July 1900).

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D Daleney, J. Daleney was a photographer in La Paz, with a studio at Calle Comercio 517 in the early 1930s. The embossed imprint "Foto Daleney La Paz" appears on a real-photo postcard, inscribed in 1934, of a Chaco War soldier. Damman, C. Pitt Rivers Museum at the University of Oxford has twelve ca. 1865-1873 albumen prints, the majority of which are cartes de visite studio portraits, of indigenous people from Potosí, Sucre, Cinti, Mojo, and elsewhere in Bolivia. The prints are attributed to C. Damman, "who was a copyist for the Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologie," but it is unclear whether he made them, copied them, or purchased them for the museum. D'Andreis, Francisco. D'Andreis was a photographer active in La Paz ca. 1918. Rosendo Viscarra Heredia credits D'Andreis (who also operated a general store) with having made the photographs in his 1918 guide: "Los fotograbados. Los que acompañan la presente crónica referentes a la casa de comercio del señor D'Andreis, podrán dar al lector alguna idea, acerca de la verdadera importancia del negocio. Las fotografías han sido tomadas por un experto profesional, perteneciente a nuestros talleres, sorprendiendo el objetivo a la casa D'Andreis, en momento de calma." Dávalos, Antonio. A photographer in Trinidad in the early 1930s, Dávalos had a studio at Av. Centenario 69. Delgado, Eduardo. Delgado was active in Coroico, in Nor Yungas, in the early 1930s. Deluze, Carlos. Active as early as 1856, Deluze was one of the pioneer photographers in Sucre. Dienst, Rudolf. Dienst was a German mountain climber who came to Bolivia in the 1920s. See his Im Dunkelsten Bolivien, Anden-, Pampa-, und Urwaldfahrten (1926), illustrated with fiftynine photographs, mainly of Bolivian scenes and probably made by Dienst. Doffigny, [?]. See J. Johannessen. Douglas, W. Bruce. In Walter H. Young's book, A Merry Banker in the Far East (And South America) (1916), he acknowledged Douglas as "the well-known traveler in Bolivia and South America generally, to whom I am indebted for many of these interesting photographs." Young's book contains six Bolivian views, presumably made by Douglas. Duguid, Julian. Duguid was an English writer-adventurer who went to Bolivia ca. 1929. Thirtytwo photographs from his travels there illustrate his book Green Hell (1931). Duque Bohorques, Julio. Duque Bohorques was a photographer in La Paz in the late 1920s, with a studio at Comercio 65.

E Encina, Gilberto. In the early 1930s, Encina operated the Taller de Fotografía on Av. Arce in Uyuni.

F Fariñas, Tejada. The imprint "Tejada Fariñas, La Paz, Bolivia" appears on an 1899 cabinet card inscribed by David Perez, La Paz, to Miguel Perez. The imprint on verso reads "Tejada Fariñas, Estudio de Fotografía y Pintura, La Paz, Bolivia." Fawcett, Col. Percy Harrison (1867-1925?). Fawcett was an English surveyor and explorer who demarcated the Bolivian-Brazilian and Bolivian-Peruvian borders in a series of expeditions between 1906 and 1914. He was chief of the Bolivian Commission of the Peru-Bolivia Boundary Commission from 1911 to 1913. (Major H.S. Toppin headed the Peruvian Commission.) Twenty-four of his photographs, dated 1907, 1908, 1911-1913, and 1913-1914, are held by the Royal Geographical Society in London. Among Fawcett's articles are "Explorations in Bolivia," Geographical Journal (London, vol. XXXV, 1910); "Por la zona del Norte de Bolivia," Caras y Caretas (Buenos Aires, vol. XV, no. 722, August 3, 1912); "In the Heart of South America," The Wide World Magazine (London, August 1912, September 1912, October 1912, and November 1912). The last-mentioned, a four-part series, is illustrated with numerous photographs of Bolivia. Fawcett disappeared in 1925 during an expedition in Brazil's Mato Grosso. Some of his Bolivian photographs are included in his memoir, Lost Trails, Lost Cities (1953), edited by his son Brian Fawcett. F.G. Perhaps meaning "Fotografía [G--?]," the imprint "F.G." appears on a series of early 1900 postcards of the Beni, including views of Casa Suarez, the pre-eminent rubber company of the era. Flores, Abdón. Flores was active in La Paz in the early 1930s, with a studio at Calle Colombia 517. Flores, Manuel. Flores had a studio, La Elegante, in Santa Cruz ca. 1918, and another in La Paz at Sagárnaga, ca. 1919. 18

Frías Ametller, Tomás (1805-1884). Frías is said to have received a daguerreotype outfit from Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre himself and become an amateur daguerreotypist, perhaps in the 1840s. A native of Potosí, Frías had a long career in Bolivian politics from the 1820s, when he was private secretary to president Antonio José de Sucre, through the 1870s, when he served twice as president. Exiled by a military dictatorship, he died in 1884 in Florence, Italy.

G Galland, Louis. See Mission Scientifique Française. Galloway, Ewing. Associated with the Publishers Photographic Service in New York, Galloway was an American photographer who visited Bolivia between 1910 and 1925. Several of his prints are in the Frank G. Carpenter collection at the Library of Congress, and four of his photographs appear with Alicia O'Reardon Overbeck's "Bolivia, Land of Fiestas," National Geographic Magazine (November 1934). García, Alameda. García was a photographer active in Cochabamba in the 1920s. García, M. García was a photographer in Cochabamba in at the turn-of-the-century. The imprint "M. García, Fotógrafo, Frente al Colegio Sucre, Galería Americana, Cochabamba, Bolivia," appears on late-19th-century cabinet cards. García, Nemesio. García operated Fotografía Moderna on Calle Oruro in La Paz and in the city of Oruro in the 1910s. The imprints "N. García C., Fotógrafo, Oruro" and "Nemesio Garcia C., Oruro (Bolivia)" appear on a 1917 portraits. His photograph of the Banco Mercantil hangs in the Casa de Cultura in Oruro. García M., D. The imprint "D. García M." appears on a cabinet card from the early 1900s. García Mesa, José (1851-1905). Famous as one of Bolivia's finest painters, Cochabamba native García Mesa was also a photographer. García Hermanos. The imprint "García I Ho. Fotogs. Cochabamba" appears on cartes de visite from the late 1800s through the early 1900s. Garnett, S.H. Garnett visited Bolivia in 1922. Two of his photographs--one of a road and the other of a house near Mallasa--are held by the Royal Geographical Society in London. Gerstmann, Roberto M. (1896-1960?). Gerstmann was a Vienna-born (Hernán Rodriguez V. has him born in St. Petersburg) electrical engineer who, as a young man, developed an interest in photography. In 1924, he immigrated to Chile and from there traveled to Bolivia, where he made some five thousand photographs, a selection of which appear as photogravures in his Bolivia, 150 Grabados en Cobre (1928), which was reissued in 1996 by the Fundación Quipus in La Paz. Gerstmann ranged far, photographing the altiplano from La Paz south to the Argentine border, west to the Chilean border, and east to the Yungas, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, and the lowlands along the Ríos Beni and Mamoré. Only Tarija and the Chaco escaped his lens. Five of his photographs illustrate Stewart E. McMillan's "The Heart of Aymara Land," National Geographic Magazine (February 1927), and several appear in Gustavo-Adolfo Otero's Bolivia 20

(Guía Sinóptica) 1929. Gerstmann settled in Santiago in 1929. He published other photo albums, including Chile: 280 grabados en cobre (1932), Colombia: 200 grabados en cobre (1951), and Chile en 110 cuadros (1960?), and dabbled in film-making in Bolivia. He is thought to have died in Santiago ca. 1960. Several thousand of his glass plates are said to be at a university in Antofagasta. Gibbes, E. B. In 1911, Gibbes made photographs along the Oruro-Antofagasta train route. The Royal Geographical Society in London has nine of her photographs from that journey. Gismondi, Luis D. Originally from San Remo, Italy, Gismondi arrived in Bolivia in 1904 from Peru, where he had worked in Lima and Cusco as a photographer. He was a prolific photographer, photographic-supplies vendor, and postcard publisher in La Paz through the early 1930s. He had stores on Calle Comercio and at Calle Yanacocha 95 y 66 through the mid-1920s, then at Calle Yanacocha 762 in the early 1930s. Gismondi ran a full-page advertisement in Rosendo Viscarra Heredia's 1918 guide, "Fotografía Luis D. Gismondi, Venta de Vistas Incaicas del Peru-Bolivia, Artículos Fotográficos, Se Hacen Sellos de Goma, La Paz, Bolivia, Talleres: Calle Comercio y Yanacocha nos. 95 y 66." Another display appeared in J. Ricardo Alcaron's Bolivia en el primer centenario de su independencia (1925): "Fotografía Gismondi, fundado 1907, Yanacocha 95. Gran colección de vistas Incaicas, Pre Incaicas Y Típicas y en Postales. Venta de artículos fotográficos de las mejores marcas. Se atiende trabajos de 'Amateurs' con prontitud y esmero, así como llamados a domicilio y a cualquier punto de la Republica. Yanacocha No. 95." Gismondi's panoramic views of Potosí and Oruro mines (Tatasi, Oploca, and Siete Suyos, among others) hang in the Casa de la Cultura in Oruro. Eight of his photographs are reproduced in Stewart E. McMillan's "The Heart of Aymara Land," National Geographic Magazine (February 1927). Six gravures made by him appear in Napoleone Rossi di Montelera's Dalla Terra del Fuoco ala Terra degli Incas (1930). Gismondi's son Adolfo (19171993), granddaughter Graciela, and great-granddaughter Geraldin, have carried on the studio, which is now located at Calle Comercio 1031. His photo archives are reportedly divided among descendants in La Paz and Lima. Glover, Charles. The Getty Research Institute in Santa Monica, California, has ten ca. 19131914 albums that are attributed to Glover. They contain 115 photo-negatives and fifty-five photo-prints of railroad construction and mining camps in Bolivia and Chile, chiefly near La Paz, Oruro, Cochabamba, and Calama. Gonin, Juan Alfredo. Gonin was a photographer in the northern Argentine city of Salta in the mid-1860s. Advertisements for his services appear in Actualidad, a Salta newspaper, in the years 1864-1865. Abel Alexander believes that he might have been of French origin. Gonin's imprint appears on a carte de visite with a Sucre inscription, indicating that Gonin might have worked in Bolivia. Gonzáles, Alfredo. Gonzáles was a Sucre photographer from the 1910s through the late 1920s. One of his advertisements reads: "Alfredo Gonzáles, Calle Ayacucho 72, Estudio de Fotografía, Especialidad en trabajos artísticos.--Montado con los últimos adelantos de la Casa Goerz de Berlin y Carl Zeiss de Jena.--Los objetivos para retrato son la última palabra en la ciencia óptica.--Los materiales que emplea son muy modernos y todos los procedimientos muy del día." Gonzáles, Aredo B. A photographer in Sucre in the 1920s and 1930s, Gonzáles (also spelled

González) had a studio at Calle Bustillo 60. González, Miguel. The imprint "Miguel González" appears on a ca. 1890 carte de visite of Bolivian subject. "Fotográfo de Miguel González" appears on a late 1800s albumen print of a rural scene near Tupiza on display in the Museo Municipal in Tupiza. González y Medina. González y Medina were bookdealers and postcard publishers in La Paz in the early 1900s. Their main store, El Siglo Ilustrado, was at Calle Illimani 17-25 ca. 1918. Imprints on their postcards indicate that they also had shops in Oruro, Cochabamba, and Potosí. After a fire in the early 1920s, González and Medina sold out to José San Roman and Enrique Flores (one of their managers). In 1922, they reopened the now greatly expanded enterprise as El Renacimiento with shops in La Paz on the Plaza Murillo 14-18 and at Calle Ingavi 1. Goodwin & Co. Goodwin was a postcard publisher and possibly a photographer in Iquique, Chile. His imprint "Goodwin & Co." appears on an early 1900s real-photo card of Bolivian Indians. Goytesola, Jorge. A photographer from Lima, Goytesola accompanied Chicago newspaper publisher William D. Boyce on a 1911 trip through South America. Boyce's Illustrated South America (1912) has five hundred photographs, twenty-six of Bolivia, presumably made by Goytesola. Gras, Amadeo (1805-1871). Gras, a French-born Uruguayan photographer active in Montevideo and Buenos Aires, passed through the Atacama Desert on an excursion to Peru and Bolivia in 1849. He is said to have sold a daguerreotype camera to Mariano Pablo Rosquellas in Sucre that same year. Grubb, Kenneth G. (b. 1900). Grubb was an English missionary, writer, and photographer with the Worldwide Evangelical Crusade in South America. See his Amazon and Andes (1930), which contains 139 photographs, including thirty of Bolivia, presumably made by Grubb. Grumbkow, Georges B. von. A German photographer and civil engineer employed by the Bolivian government, Grumbkow accompanied Charles Wiener during his 1875-1877 scientific expedition to Peru and Bolivia. Some of Grumbkow's photographs served as the basis for the illustrations in Wiener's Pérou et Bolivie, récit de voyage (1880). Grumbkow also accompanied Alphons Stübel on his 1875-1877 travels in Peru and Bolivia, and was with French scientist Theodore Ber on his visit to Tiwanaku in 1876. Grumbkow visited Tiwanaku, Illimani, Cochabamba, Corocoro, La Paz, Sorata, Chuquisaca, Calamarca, Mejillones, Cotaña, and the Beni, which made him one of the most widely traveled photographers of the era. Fourteen of Grumbkow's photographs illustrate Stübel and Max Uhle's Die Ruinenstätte von Tiahuanaco (1892), forty-two are in the Album Gildemeister (which is held by the Museo de Arte de Lima), and many are in the Stübel collections in Germany. Additionally, several Grumbkow photographs are reproduced in Spurensuche, Zwei Erdwissenschaftler im Südamerika des 19.Jahrhunderts (1994), a study of the Stübel-Reiss expedition, edited by Andreas Brockman and Michaela Stüttgen, and in Registros del territorio: Las primeras décadas de la fotografía, 1860-1880 (1997), by Natalia Majluf. 22

Guerra, Zacarías. The apparently misspelt imprint "Baccarias Guerra" appears on a ca. 1892 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. He may have been Zacarías Guerra, a Chilean photographer thought to have worked in Antofagasta in the late 1870s. His Bolivian activities are unknown. Antonio Paredes-Candia reports that Zacarías Guerra was a Bolivian photographer. Guerra, D. Guerra was active in La Paz ca. 1918, with a studio at Calle Oruro 22. Guerrero, Abraham. A photographer in Viacha in the early 1930s, Guerrero had a studio on Calle Murillo. Guillaume, Julien. According to Deborah Poole, Guillaume was "a specialist in anthropometric photography from Alphonse Bertillon's Service Anthropométrique de la Ville de Paris" and was sent to Bolivia with the 1903 Mission Scientifique Française by "French physical anthropologist Arthur Chervin to study the 'racial physiology' of Bolivian Indians, cholos, and mestizos." He obtained photographs (cartes de visite and large format) from other members of the Mission Scientifique Française and from collections of other photographers who had worked in Bolivia earlier. For example, ca. 1870 images attributed to Ricardo Villaalba, appear among the cartes de visite that Guillaume brought back to France. Guillaume also made his own photographs, portrait parlés, which combined an image with "a set of verbal and statistical descriptions," not unlike a police mug shot, except that his purpose went far beyond making a record of a criminal suspect. Chervin's goal was, as Poole puts it, to assess "Bolivia's racial future" by categorizing and comparing racial types. Guillaume's photographs appear in Bertillon and Chervin's Anthropologie métrique: Conseils pratiques aux missionaires scientifiques sur la manière de mesurer, de photographier et de décrire des sujets vivants et des pièces anatomiques (1909), as well as in Poole's Vision, Race, and Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World (1997). Güssfeldt, Paul (1840-1920). A German mountain climber and photographer who visited South America in 1882, Güssfeldt climbed and photographed in the Chilean and Argentine Andes (and made the first recorded attempt on Aconcagua). He later climbed and photographed in Peru and Bolivia. In his 1888 book, Reife in den Andes von Chile und Argentinien, he mentions having made sixty-eight dry-plate photographs in Bolivia and Peru, and eighty-five in Chile and Argentina. Some editions of his book reportedly contain appendices with reproductions of his Bolivian photographs. Gutekunst, George. Gutekunst was a Philadelphia photographer who traveled through Mexico, Panama, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Ecuador, perhaps in the early 1900s. The Getty Research Institute in Santa Monica, California, has about a hundred of his photographs and glass lantern slides, some of which are from Bolivia. Gutiérrez G., S. Active in La Paz in the early 1900s, Gutiérrez had studios at Av. 6 de Agosto 226, on Calle Illampu ca. 1918, and at Recreo 127 in 1928.

H Hanson, Earl. An American explorer, geographer, and historian, Hanson was in Bolivia during the 1920s. Twelve of his photographs from that visit are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Harrington, J.C.F. A photographer from Decatur, Illinois, Harrington traveled through Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Uruguay, Brazil, and Barbados ca. 1908. Fifty-six of his photographs, including many La Paz views, are held by the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Haufer, W. Haufer's photograph of La Paz appears in Wilhelm Sievers's Süd- und Mittelamerika (1914). He was apparently a German scientist. Hauff, A.A. Hauff was probably an American photographer (the address on one print was "2 Wall St. New York"). He was active in Bolivia between 1910 and 1925. Several of his photographs are in the Frank G. Carpenter collection at the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Hauthal, Rodolf (b. 1854). A German geologist, Hauthal explored and photographed in the Peruvian, Bolivian, and Argentine Andes in the early 1900s. See his Reisen in Bolivien und Peru (1911), which contains eighty-six photographs, most of them Bolivian scenes. Hauthal's photographs also appear in Wilhelm Sievers's Die Cordillerenstaaten (1913) and Süd- und Mittelamerika (1914). Helfritz, Hans (b. 1902). Helfritz traveled extensively in Bolivia in 1939. His account of that journey, Im Quellgebiet des Amazonas (1942), contains seventy-eight reproductions of his photographs (seventy in black-and-white and eight in color), which he made with a Leica. Among the images are scenes of Sajama, Tiwanaku, the Yungas, Lago Titicaca, Quimsa Cruz, Sorata, Río Beni, and Río Tipuani. Helsby, John Stephens, Thomas C. Helsby (1802-1872), and William Glaskell Helsby. The British Helsby brothers were active in a variety of studios in Valparaiso, Santiago, and Liverpool from the 1840s through the 1860s. George Ephraim Squier purchased stereographic views of La Paz, Corocoro, and Tiwanaku with the "Helsby & Co" imprint, presumably during his travels in Peru and Bolivia in the mid-1860s. Juan Gómez has Thomas C. Helsby arriving in Buenos Aires in 1845 from Montevideo, and Vicente Gesualdo has William G. Helsby passing through Bolivia en route from Chile to England in 1856. If Squier's Helsby stereographs were made during this trip, they would be among the earliest extant outdoor views of Bolivia. Herbas, Fernando. The imprint "Fernando Herbas" appears on cartes de visite of Bolivian subjects made between 1876 and 1890. Herbas may have been active in Cochabamba. 24

Hermann, [?]. Thought to have been a German engineer, Hermann led a scientific expedition to the Río Pilcomayo and the Chaco ca. 1907. See "Expedición al alto Pilcomayo," Caras y Caretas (Buenos Aires, vol. X, no. 463, 17 August 1907). Herrera y G., Justo. The imprint "Justo Herrera y G., La Paz-Bolivia, appears on a 1901 cabinet card inscribed from Victoria de Noriega to the Benjamin Martinez family. Hervé, Baltasar. According to historian Pedro Querejazu, who has reviewed the newspapers of the era, Hervé opened his first gallery "a la máquina de daguerrotipo" in Sucre in 1854 and his second in Cochabamba in 1856, making him one of the first professional daguerreotypists in Bolivia. An English portrait artist named Enrique Hervé worked in Buenos Aires and Mendoza in the 1820s, but it is not known if he had any relation to Baltasar. Herzog, Theodor (1880-1961). Herzog was a German mountain climber (with seven first ascents in the Quimsa Cruz and Cochabamba ranges in 1910 and 1911), writer, and photographer. See his books Vom Urwald zu den Gletschern der Kordillere: Zwei Forschungreisen in Bolivia (1913) and Bergfahrten in Südamerika (1925), which contain numerous of his photographs. Hettner, Alfred (1859-1941). Hettner was a geographer in the universities of Leipzig, Tübingen, and Heidelberg. He traveled in Colombia in 1882 and 1883, and in Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Brazil from 1888 to 1890. Whether he made photographs in Bolivia or not is unknown. See his "Enforschumng der Anden von Peru und Bolivien," Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen (1888-1890), and Manuel B. Ballivián, "Viaje del Dr. Hettner al Perú y Bolivia," La Revista Social (Lima, no. 24, June 1891). Hiersemann, [?]. Hiersemann was a photographer whose real-photo postcards of Bolivia were published between 1913 and 1919 by the Hispanic Society of America in New York. Hoek, Henry William (1878-1951). A Dutch-born, Swiss-naturalized geologist and skimountaineer, Hoek explored in Bolivia in 1903 and 1904. Jill Neate credits Hoek with the "first recorded exploration" of the Cordillera Oriental southeast of the Cordillera Real. Two photographs of the sierra near Potosí illustrate his "Cordillera de Potosí," Alpine Journal (vol. XXIII, no. 171, February 1906); six photographs illustrate his "Exploration in Bolivia," Geographic Journal (vol. XXV, no. 4, 1905); and some twenty images, mostly Andean views, are featured in his 1927 book, Aus Bolivias Bergen, republished in 1929 as Por las montañas de Bolivia. Holmberg, Eduardo Ladislao (1852-1937). Of Austrian ancestry, Holmberg was an Argentine polymath--a physician, botanist, zoologist, writer, and photographer. As a young man he traveled with Francisco Moreno in Patagonia, and in 1888, he was appointed the first director of the Buenos Aires Zoo. While traveling in central Bolivia ca. 1908, Holmberg photographed and wrote about llama drovers, kallawayas, and stagecoach runners. See his "Los Grandes Andarines de América," Caras y Caretas (Buenos Aires, vol. XI, no. 520, 19 September 1908), and Luis Holmberg, Holmberg, el último enciclopedista (1952).

I Ibañez, Antonio. Active in Cochabamba in the early between the 1910s and the 1930s, Ibañez had a studio on Calle España. Ibargüen, M. The imprint "Fotografía-M. Ibargüen y Ca.-La Paz" appears on an 1890s cabinet card. Iris, Foto. Foto Iris was a photography studio of Lucas Asebey A. Italiana, Fotografía. Fotografía Italiana was a studio in Oruro ca. 1918.

J Jaldín, C. Jaldín may have been a photographer in Cochabamba in the late 1800s. His imprint "C. Jaldín" appears on a cabinet card of a Cochabamba man. Jiménez Z., José C. Jiménez had a studio in La Paz at Calle Bolívar 319 in the early 1930s and was active through the 1950s. He married Julio Cordero's sister, Carmen Cordero. J.L.F. The imprint "J.L.F." appears on a 1930s postcard of the Salar de Uyuni. Johannessen, J. Johannessen and his partner Doffigny were important society photographers in Cochabamba at the turn-of-the-century. The gilt, embossed imprints "J. Johannessen, Fotografía Alemana," "J. Johannessen, Cochabamba, Bolivia," "Johannessen & Doffigny, Fotografía Alemana, Bolivia," and "Johannessen & Doffigny, Fotografía Alemana, Bolivia, Se opera todos los dias, Se conserva las placas, Especialidád en Ampliaciones & Reproducciones por todos los últimos procederes," appear on early 1900s cabinet cards. They also made a set of photographs of rebel soldiers massed at street barricades in Cochabamba during the 1899 Federalist Revolution.

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K Kavlin, Alejandro, and Enrique Kavlin. The Kavlin brothers immigrated to La Paz from Russia after World War I. They had photographic stores and studios, including Estudio Fotográfico Moderno at Calle Yanacocha 76 ca. 1918, A. Kavlin at Calle Comercio 26 in the late 1920s, and Fotografía at Calle Comercio 370 and Artículos Fotográficos at Calle Comercio 372 in the early 1930s. The Kavlins had a half-page advertisement in Viscarra's 1918 guide: "Estudio Fotográfico Moderno de A. Kavlin, Unica casa en la America del Sud, Que retrata de día y de noche, Retratos al platino--tipia y aristo-platino, Ampliaciones al Bromuro, Pastel, Sepia, al Platino, al Platino Azul y al Oleo, Trabajos Garantidos--precios módicos, Se aceptan llamados a domicilio, Yanacocha 76, La Paz." Their enterprise was also known as the Casa Kavlin ("Materiales fotográficos de las mejores marcas Agfa Kodak, Unicos Importadores") in Oruro at Calle Gobierno 1478 in the 1930s, and they had studios in La Paz, at Calle Comercio 370, in Oruro, and in Cochabamba ca. 1936. A short history of the firm, "La Increíble Historia de la 'Casa Kavlin,'" was published in the La Paz daily Hoy, on 24 February 1991. Casa Kavlin is currently at Calle Potosí 1130 in La Paz, under the direction of Susana Kavlin. Ken, Alexandre. The imprint "A. Ken Phot., Paris" appears on a ca. 1869 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. Ken was active in France in the 1860s and 1870s, so perhaps the image was not made in Bolivia. Keystone View Company. Founded by B.L. Singley in 1892 in Meadville, Pennsylvania, Keystone became one of the world's leading stereographic companies. Among its views are early 1900s La Paz street scenes, such as the Sagárnaga market and the cathedral at Copacabana. In the early 1920s, Keystone absorbed Underwood & Underwood. It ceased publishing stereoviews in 1939, but continued selling them until 1970. For a discussion of U.S. stereoview companies in Latin America, see Estereofotografías norteamericanas: Una mirada sobre América Latina en tres dimensiones (1987), by Hilda Piedrahita. Kiefer, M. Kiefer was a German photographer whose work (along with that of Dr. E. Linder) illustrates Hans Krieger's Indienerland, Bilder aus dem Gran Chaco (1929). Kirchner, Frank. Kirchner was an American geographer. Two of his Bolivian photos are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Klippgen, Carlos. The imprints "Carlos Klippgen," "Fotografía Alemana, Carlos Klippgen, La Paz, Bolivia," and "Foto Klippgen " appear on several images of troop formations prior to and during the 1899 Federalist Revolution (see Zárate "El Temible" Willka, Ramiro Condarco Morales, 2nd ed. rev., 1982) and on 19th-century cabinet cards. The imprint "Carlos Klippgen, Tupiza" appears on a turn-of-the-century cabinet card of a young woman, inscribed on verso "Manuela A. de Becanchea," and an 1880 view of the Fuente Bereguela in the Plaza 16 de Julio (now the Plaza Murillo) in La Paz. Knowles, H. Knowles was a photographer (probably American) active in Bolivia from 1910 to

1925. Several of his photographs are in the Frank G. Carpenter collection at the Prints and Photographs Division of Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Kowanda, Wilhelm. Kowanda traveled in Bolivia in the mid-1920s, coming up from Argentina via Villazon, and visiting Tupiza, Tarija, PotosĂ­, La Paz, Santa Cruz, the GuaranĂ­ missions, and Tiwanaku, before moving on to Peru. His In Zonen der Zukunft (1925) contains a number of illustrations, some photomontages, presumbly based on photographs made by Kowanda. Kroehle, Charles (1876-1902). Kroehle was a German expeditionary photographer who made pictures of Indians in the Amazonian regions of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia from the 1890s through 1902. Frank G. Carpenter met Kroehle ca. 1899 in Lima. He was also associated with Lima-based photographer George Huebner. Twenty-eight of Kroehle's photographs are reproduced in A. Miles Moss's Trip into the Interior of Peru (1908). Kroehle died in 1902 of an arrow wound suffered in Peruvian Amazonia.

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L Landibal, [?]. See Mission Scientifique Française. Landor, A. Henry Savage (1867-1924). As famous as he was controversial, English explorertravel writer Landor roved the Far East, the Near East, Africa, and South America in search of mountains to climb, tribes to discover, rivers to navigate, and stories to tell, mostly the last mentioned and many unbelievable. In 1911, he embarked on a marathon, several-month expedition by train, mule, canoe, steamer, and foot across Brazil, from Rio de Janeiro north to the Amazon, over to Peru, south to Bolivia and Chile, and west through Argentina to Uruguay, where he caught a ship to England. Traveling with only a few porters, he claimed to have packed "six photographic cameras, especially made for me, with the very best Zeiss and Goertz lenses, and some fourteen hundred glass photographic plates--including some for color photography," not to mention one thousand tins of food, eight compasses, six thermometers, four aneroids, twelve repeating rifles, several automatic pistols, thousands of rounds of ammunition, three gallons of castor oil, and "a complete supply of spades, picks, large saws, axes, and heavy-bladed knives." Landor reported that of the eight hundred glass plates he had exposed, every single one made it safely home--an unbelievable assertion given the number of catastrophes he said his expedition encountered. At one point, without food for sixteen days, he and his porters were hacking their way through Amazonia on foot. After a speaking tour in Paris, a newspaper charged Landor with "une série inépuisable de péripéties fantaisistes." Regardless, wherever he actually went and whatever he actually did, he must have carried at least one camera, perhaps with rolled film, because Across South America (1913), his two-volume narrative of the journey, contains more than 250 black-and-white illustrations, most of them from photographs made by Landor. Several Bolivian views are included. Lardani, Giacomo (1861-1937). Born in France in 1861, Lardani was ordained a Franciscan priest in 1884 and arrived in La Paz three years later. In 1898, he moved to the Franciscan mission in Tarija. Photographs he made in the Chaco region in the late 1890s appear in Doroteo Giannecchini's Historia natural, etnografía, geografía, lingüística del chaco boliviano 1898 (1996), edited by Lorenzo Calzavarini, O.F.M., and Giannecchini and Vicenzo Mascio's Album fotográfico de las Misiones Franciscanas en la Republica de Bolivia a cargo de los Colegios Apostólicos de Tarija y Potosí, 1898 (1995). Lardani died in Tarija in 1937. Lassen Hermanos. The Lassen brothers were said to have traveled and photographed in South America, including Bolivia, in the 19th century. The embossed imprint "Fotógrafos Lassen Hnos." appears on a Bolivian cabinet card from Cochabamba inscribed in 1888. Lavadenz, L. The imprint "L. Lavadenz. Fotógrafo Bolivia" appears on a ca. 1867 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject and on an 1882 carte de visite of a Bolivian soldier. Le Plongeon, Augustus (1826-1908). A French archaeologist, writer, and photographer, Le Plongeon opened a photography studio in San Francisco, California, in 1855. In 1862, he moved

to Lima, Peru, where he operated a studio for eight years. While in Peru, he collaborated with Ephraim George Squier in exploring and photographing pre-Hispanic ruins, but Squier appropriated without credit Le Plongeon's photography for his own books. Le Plongeon is said to have visited Tiwanaku, but no images have been found. He later spent almost twenty years studying Mayan ruins in the Yucatan, where his eccentric theory that the Mayan culture was the origin of world civilization, anticipated by several decades Arthur Posnansky's similar grandiose belief about the Tiwanaku culture. Leyton H., Fernando (1888?-1974). Leyton, the grandfather of Bolivian historian Pedro Querejazu, was a mine owner and photographer in Potosí. Linder, Dr. E. See M. Kiefer. Llerena, J.G. Active in La Paz, Llerena had a full-page advertisement in Rosendo Viscarra Heredia's 1918 guide: "Fotografía Llerena & Cía., Calle Diez de Medina 174, Ponemos en conocimiento de nuestra numerosa clientela y el público en general, que a partir del presente año de 1918, adoptaremos el sistema decimal para nuestros contratos, abandonando la antigua costumbre de docenas, con el objeto de dar mayor comodidad al público, Atendiendo a la gran afluencia de trabajo que cada vez más y más se acrecienta, hemos resuelto mejorar el personal de [illegible] así ofrecer nuestros trabajos fotográficos con toda corrección, establidad y brevedad posibles a precios módicos. Las ampliaciones se hacen a todo tamaño, acabadas ya sea a lapiz, acuarela o tinta china; al assur y olea con toda corrección, garantizando la perfección y durabilidad indefinida. Se dan lecciones de fotografía científica y práctica." Llerena y Cía. Llerena had a studio in La Paz at D. de Medina 174 ca. 1919. Loaiza, Art. The embossed imprint "Art. Loaiza" appears on a late-1800s stereograph image of a Polichinela Italiana carnival group in Aranjuez near La Paz. Whether Loaiza is the photographer of the image or the vendor of the stereograph is unknown. López, Roberto. López was an Oruro photographer on Calle Caro-Camacho in the early 1930s. Lozada, Pío. Lozada was a photographer in Cochabamba as early as 1856. Lummis, Charles Fletcher (1859-1928). An American folklorist, historian, and photographer, Lummis accompanied Adolphe Bandelier on the 1892-1893 portion of his expedition to Peru, and traveled solo to Tiwanaku and La Paz between September and October 1893. His photographic and literary archives are at the Southwest Museum, which he founded, in Los Angeles, CA, and include fifty to seventy-five glass negatives and prints of Bolivian scenes. The Huntington Library in San Marino, CA, and the Museum of New Mexico, in Santa Fe, NM, have small collections of Lummis photographs. See Charles F. Lummis, the Man and His West (1975), Turbesé Lummis Fiske and Keith Lummis, and "Lummis at Tiahuanaco," Christopher B. Donnan, The Masterkey (vol. 47, no. 3, July-September 1973). Luna, Nicasio. Active in La Paz, Luna had a studio at Calle Ballivián 82 in the early 1930s.

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M MacLean, Juan. MacLean and Gaspar Schultz explored and photographed the Chaco and Oriente, ca. 1908. See their account, "Viaje á Bolivia á tráves del Chaco," Caras y Caretas (Buenos Aires, vol. XI, no. 496, 4 April 1908). Manning, Guillermo I. (1880?-1947). The son of an Irish-American engineer and Confederate veteran who immigrated to Peru after the American Civil War, Manning was born in Peru and schooled in Europe. He lived in Antofagasta and Uyuni before settling in Tupiza at the turn of the century to work for Aramayo, Francke y Cía., the pre-eminent mining enterprise in southern Bolivia. During his long career in Tupiza, he was a merchant, mine owner (Empresa Palcahuasi, which operated tin and antimony mines in the Portugalete cantón), part-owner of El Chorolque (Tupiza's bi-weekly newspaper), photographer, and postcard publisher, as well as the Argentina consul in Tupiza. Manning learned photography from Zenon Ramírez, and in a joint venture with Arturo Cruz, a wealthy antimony mine owner, he published a series of lithographic postcards, printed in Buenos Aires with the "Manning x Cruz" imprint, depicting scenes of Tupiza and of mining activities in the Sud Chichas province for the Cía. San Juan del Oro, a British-Argentine gold-dredge company in which Manning was a stockholder. Twice widowed, he retired with his third wife to Potosí and died there in 1947. Martín [?]. Martín was an Uyuni photographer who did business a Martín y Companía. His imprint "La Castellana" appears on a 1919 portrait of Blanca Araya and Amalia Luzo. Mascio, Vicenzo. An Italian photographer, Mascio was commissioned by Franciscan missionaries in 1897 to photograph their missions in Sucre, Tarija, and the Chaco for the "Arte Sacro-Misiones y Obras Católicas" exposition in Turin in 1898. Albums of Mascio's work are held by the Archivo Franciscano de Tarija and the Archivo Nacional de Bolivia in Sucre. See also Doroteo Giannecchini and Mascio's Album fotográfico de las Misiones Franciscanas en la República de Bolivia (1995), and Giannecchini's Historia natural, etnografía, geografía, lingüística del chaco boliviano 1898 (1996), edited by Lorenzo Calzavarini. Mather, Frank F. Mather was an American geologist. Twenty-two of his ca. 1920 Bolivian photos are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Mathewson, E.P. Thirty-one ten-by-eight inch toned bromide prints from Bolivia, dated January 1901, part of the Benjamin Stone Collection at the Birmingham Central Library in Birmingham, England, are attributed to E.P. Mathewson of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. The prints were obtained by Sir Benjamin Stone (1838-1914), a member of Parliament, world traveler, and photographer, in the early 1900s. Most of the views are of the mining camps at Huanchaca and Pulacayo (including women sorting ore, an amalgamation retort, plazas, llama herds, markets, street scenes, and policemen). A few are of streets and plazas in La Paz and Oruro. McBride, George McCutchen. McBride was an American geographer who worked in Bolivia.

Eleven of his Bolivian photographs are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, and two illustrate "The Agrarian Communities of Highland Bolivia," American Geographical Society Research Series No. 5 (1921). McMillan, Stewart E. The American Consul in La Paz in the 1920s, McMillan published "The Heart of Aymara Land," in the National Geographic Magazine (February 1927). The article contains one of his photographs of Bolivia. Mendoza, Fotografía. Fotografía Mendoza was a studio on Av. 6 de Octubre in Oruro in the early 1930s. Mercado, Melchor María (1816-1871). Mercado was a celebrated Bolivian artist whose watercolor sketches of scenes in Sucre, Cochabamba, Potosí, La Paz, Santa Cruz, and the Beni are a valuable record of 19th century everyday life. He was also a photographer in Sucre ca. 1868. Meriles, Valentín. A Potosí photographer, Meriles had a studio at Calle Bolivar 26 ca. 1925 and at Calle Quijarro 18 in the early 1930s. Mestajo, Marcelino. The imprint "Marcelino Mestajo, Bolivia," appears on a real-photo postcard of six Bolivian soldiers during the Chaco War. Metraux, Alfred. Metraux was a French anthropologist who worked and photographed in the Bolivian chaco in the 1920s. See his La Civilisation Matérielle des Tribus Tupi-Guaraní (1928) and La Religión des Tupinamba et ses Rapports avec celle des Autres Tribus Tupi-Guaraní (1928). Metz, Walter. Metz was an American working for the Standard Oil survey headquarters in Buena Vista, Santa Cruz Department, in the early 1920s. Several dozen real-photo postcards, inscribed between 1921 and 1922 and presumably made by Metz, depict him, his co-workers, and Buena Vista, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, and the eastern Bolivian lowlands. Meyendorff, Baron Kondratii Egorovich, and Baroness Natalia Meyendorff. The Meyendorffs were a Russian couple, who traveled by train and coach in 1907 from Antofagasta, Chile, up across the Bolivian altiplano (via Uyuni, Oruro, and La Paz) to Peru (where they visited Puno and Cusco, before descending to the coast at Mollendo). Their book, L'Empire du Soleil: Pérou et Bolivie (1909), contains 111 photogravures, presumably from photographs made by them, or perhaps purchased along the journey. On the book's title page, the baron's name is given as Conrad de Meyendorff. Meza, [?]. Meza was active in Cochabamba ca. 1919. Miller, Leo E. (1887?-1952). Miller was a noted American field-naturalist at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. In the Wilds of South America (1918), his account of his expeditions to Colombia, Venezuela, British Guiana, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, Panama, Ecuador, and Peru between 1911 and 1916, contains fourteen illustrations of Bolivian scenes based on his photographs. Sixteen of Miller's photographs from his Bolivian trip, 32

May 1915 to July 1916, are in the American Geographical Society Archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Mission Scientifique Française en Amérique du Sud. Sponsored by the French government and directed by Georges de Créqui-Montfort and Eugéne Sénéchal de la Grange, the Mission Scientifique Française visited the altiplanos of Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, and Peru in 1903 to study human adaptability to high-altitude living. In the years immediately following the expedition's return to France, a dozen volumes were published on the anthropology, paleontology, linguistics, geology, geography, archaeology, and cartography of the region, including Rapport sur une Mission Scientifique Française en Amérique du Sud (1904), Anthropologie Boliviene (1908), Les Lacs des Hauts Plateaux de l'Amérique de Sud (1906), Geographie des Hauts-Plateaux des Andes (1908), and Antiques de la region andine de la Republique Argentine et du desert d'Atacama (1908). Among the scientists whose photography appears in the volumes are Sénéchal de la Grange, Maurice Neveu-Lemaire, Louis Galland, J.-B. Vaudry, E. Wolff, George Bastide, Louis Saunier [or M. Saumier?], and [?] Landibal. The Sintich Hermanos, photographers in La Paz, are credited with photographs of the expedition's archaeological work at Tiwanaku. The Musée de l'Homme in Paris holds an expedition photo album, Travaux et fouilles de Tihuanaco, 1903, and the museum's Photothèque holds an additional fifty prints of Tiwanaku. The Brooklyn Museum of Art also has a copy of Tihuanaco, 1903. Moderna, Fotografía. Fotografía Moderna was a studio in Oruro ca. 1919 on Calle S. Galvarro. Montenegro, Expedición. The Expedicíon Montenegro visited Bolivia from Argentina in 1910. Two photographs from the expedition are held by the Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos Aires. Moore, W. Robert. Moore was a National Geographic Society photographer whose photo essay "High Lights in the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes," National Geographic Magazine (February 1927), contains eighteen Lumière Autochromes, perhaps the earliest published color images of the region. The globetrotting Moore published more than eighty articles in the Geographic between 1927, the year he was hired, and the 1960s. Moores, Lt. C.G. (d. 1915?). See Major H.S. Toppin. Morán Hermanos. The Morán brothers were photographers in Oruro in the 1910s and 1920s. Their imprint "Morán Hnos. Fotógrafos" appears on 1914 and 1920 portraits. Morganroth, G. Morganroth and E. Polack-Schneider were prolific postcard publishers in Lima in the early 1900s. They issued some Bolivian cards, mainly views of Copacabana and Tiwanaku. On a few cards Morganroth is identified as the photographer. Muñecas, E. de las. Muñecas was a photographer in La Paz in the 1920s. Murcientes, Paul. A photographer in Uncía in the early 1930s, Murcientes had a studio, Taller de Fotografía, on Calle Sucre. Muriel, Gustavo. The imprint "Gustavo Muriel, Fotógrafo, Bolivia" appears on a turn-of-thecentury albumen print of a Cochabamba family.

Murillo, B.N. The imprint "B.N. Murillo (Fotógrafo) La Paz/Bolivia" appears on a carte de visite inscribed in 1891. Murillo, J. Poli y Hermanos. The imprints "J. Poli Murillo y Hermanos" and "J. P. Murillo y H. Bolivia" appear on 1890s and early 1900s cabinet cards of Bolivian subjects. The Murillo brothers, who won a prize at the 1893 "Exposicíon Departamental" in La Paz, may have been based in Oruro.

N Nanson, Captain M.R.C. Nanson was a member of the Peruvian Commission of the PeruBolivia Boundary Commission, 1911-1913. Copies of his Bolivian photographs (he surveyed the area around Pelechuco and Mojos down the Río Heath to Madre de Dios) are at the Royal Geographical Society in London. See also Major H.S. Toppin and Lt. C.G. Moores. National Photo Co. The National Photo Co. is credited with several photographs entitled "Sulphur Mining in the Andes, 1902-1932," depicting scenes on Mts. Tacora, Olca, and Ollagüe in the Cordillera Occidental along the Bolivian-Chilean border and held by the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Natuch, Adolfo. Natuch was a photographer in Santa Cruz ca. 1908. Natusch, Adolfo. A photographer in Trinidad in the early 1930s, Natusch had a studio at Calle 18 de Noviembre 209. Neue Photographische Gesellschaft (NPG). Neue Photographische Gesellschaft was a German enterprise active in the first two decades of the 20th century. The company's "NPG" imprint appears on early 1900s stereoviews of Bolivia and Chile. Neveu-Lemaire, Maurice. See Mission Scientifique Française. Newman, E.M. A travel lecturer, writer, and photographer active in South America, including Bolivia, between 1900 and 1920, Newman was affiliated with The Mentor Association, which sold mail-order pamphlets on cultural and historical topics. Some fifty of his Bolivian photographs are in the H.L. Hoffenberg collection at the Biblioteca Nacional in Caracas, and several are in the Frank G. Carpenter collection at the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Nino, Bernardino de (1868-1923). Born in Italy, Nino was ordained a Franciscan priest in 1891. He arrived in Bolivia in 1892. His Etnografía Chiriguana (1912), a study of the Chiriguana Indians in the Gran Chaco, contains more than three dozen illustrations, presumably based on 34

photographs made by him, including images of families, caciques, missions and churches, brass and string bands, school children, carnival dancers, bows and arrows, Franciscans, muleteers, and groups of other Indians, such as Tobas and Chorotis. Nordenskiöld, Erlan (1877-1932). A Swedish explorer, ethnologist, archaeologist, and anthropologist, Nordenskiöld traveled widely in Panama, Colombia, Peru, Argentina, and Bolivia between 1899 and the late 1920s. Among his many publications are Indianer Och Hvita I Nordostra (1911), an account of his 1908-1909 trip through the eastern Bolivian lowlands, Indianlif I Gran Chaco (1910), an account of his 1901-1902 explorations in Bolivia's Gran Chaco. Nordenskiöld, as well as colleagues, including Eric von Rosen, made photographs on the expeditions. The Etnografiska Museum in Göteborg has 1,023 Bolivian photographs, apparently most of them made by Nordenskiöld himself, the Statens Etnografiska Museum in Stockholm holds 135, and the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee has nine. Notta, Luis J. de. A leading postcard publisher in Bolivia in the early 1900s, De Notta is perhaps better known as the proprietor of one of La Paz's most fashionable haberdasheries, Luis J. De Notta, which he founded in the 1880s. Borsalino hats, Doctor Jaeger wool underwear, and Walk-Over shoes were among his exclusive offerings. Over its some fifty years in business the shop's trade name varied (De Notta & Cía., La Casa De Notta, and G. De Notta--for Guillermo De Notta, presumably Luis's brother or son), but the surname was always front and center. The imprint "Editores de Notta & Cía." is common on early Bolivian postcards. Images attributed to "De Notta et Cie." appear in La Bolivie (1909), by William van Brabant. Whether De Notta family members were photographer as well as postcard publishers is not known. J. Ricardo Alcarón's Bolivia en el primer centenario de su independencia (1925) carries a short history of La Casa De Notta, extolling it as "preferido siempre por la gente elegante," but makes no mention of the postcard activities. Nuñez, Clemente. Nuñez was a photographer in Potosí in the early 1930s. His studio was on the Plaza Hospital.

O O'Brien, W.D. O'Brien was an American mining engineer retained by an Argentine investor to study placer gold deposits in the Tipuani River basin. His Report of the Physical and Technical Features, Funds Required to Equip and Earning Power of the Placer Gold Deposits Situated in the Tipuani River Basin, Republic of Bolivia, South America (Los Angeles, 1930), which was submitted to Bernardino J. Bilbao in Buenos Aires on 15 December 1930, contains twenty-five tipped-in black-and-white snapshots of the Tipuani River basin and the gold diggings there. Ocaña L., Manuel. Active in Cochabamba, Ocaña operated a studio on the Plaza 14 de Septiembre ca. 1919 and on Calle España ca. 1925. His embossed imprint "Manuel Ocaña L." appears on a ca. 1920 school class portrait. Olivares U., Bernardino. One of the first photographers in Uyuni, Olivares had studios from the early 1900s through the 1930s. A 1908 advertisement in El Independente said: "Fotografía y Pintura Artística de Bernardino Olivares U., Avenida Arce, Uyuni, Bolivia." By the 1930s, he had moved to the Plaza Campero. Ortega, Francisco Solano (1810-1897). According to Vicente Gesualdo, Ortega met William G. Helsby during his 1856 trip through Bolivia and learned photography from him, becoming the first native-born Bolivian photographer. (But see Tomás Frías Ametller and Mariano Pablo Rosquellas.) Apparently he had studios in Salta in 1875 and later in Rosario, where he died in 1897. It is unclear whether Ortega photographed in Bolivia or not. Orton, James (1830-1877). An American theologian, professor of natural sciences, explorer, and writer, Orton made three trips to South America, in 1867, 1873, and 1876. He came through Bolivia--via La Paz, Lake Titicaca, and the Beni region--on his second and third expeditions. He died on 25 September 1877, while crossing Lake Titicaca, and was buried on Esteves Island in Puno Bay. In his book, The Andes and the Amazon (3rd ed. rev., 1876), which covers his first two expeditions, Orton mentions packing "a photographic establishment" for his first trip. Some of the book's illustrations, including Bolivian scenes from his second trip, are described as "based on photographs." Many of Orton's papers and collections were donated to Inghan University in LeRoy, New York, but the school later went bankrupt. The Smithsonian Institution and Yale University have some Orton papers and expedition artifacts, but his photographs have not been located. Ovando, Víctor. Ovando was a photographer in Potosí in the early 1930s. His studio was on Calle La Paz. Overbeck, Alicia O'Reardon. An American writer and photographer, Overbeck wrote a memoir of her life in a Bolivian mining camp, Living High (1935), which contains fourteen of her photographs. She also published two articles in National Geographic Magazine, "Bolivia, Land 36

of Fiestas" (November 1934), which has one of her photographs, and "Tin, the Cinderella Metal" (November 1940), which has two.

P Palermo, Francisco. Palermo and his son were important photographers in Sucre in the late 1800s. His imprints "Francisco Palermo, Fotógrafo," "F. Palermo, Sucre, Fotografía Parisiene, Paris Gold Medal, 1889," and "F. Palermo, Fotografía Parisiene, Diploma y Medalla en Exposición Universal de Paris en 1889, Se opera todos los días, Ampliaciones y reproducciones, Las planchas son conservadas," appear on late-19th-century cartes de visite and cabinet cards. The wetstamp imprint "Francisco Palermo Hijo" appears on four albumen prints of Sucre--two June 1892 panoramic views and two July 1892 views of the Plaza 25 de Mayo. Palza, Abel F., and Isaac Palza. The Palza brothers were printers, postcard publishers, and possibly photographers in La Paz the early 1900s. Their imprints "Casa Isaac Palza" and "Edición de la casa Palza Hos. La Paz" appear on early 1900s postcards of folkloric groups in Copacabana and Italaque. The cards are unusual in that the colors red, blue, and yellow predominate. Abel F. Palaz's shop, "Tipo-Litografía 'Iris'," was on the Plaza Murillo in La Paz in the early 1900s. Paravicini, Segundino. Paravicini was a Sucre photographer with a studio at Calle Junín 276 from the 1910s through the late 1920s. In Gustavo-Adolfo Otero's Bolivia (Guía Sinóptica) 1929, his first name is spelled "Secundino." Pauels, Máximo. The imprint "Máximo Pauels, Fotógrafo Artístico" appears on a late-19thcentury cabinet card of a Bolivian subject. Paz, Manuel. Paz's imprint "Manuel Paz, Cochabamba" appears on a ca. 1879 carte de visite. Pearson, Henry Clemens (1858-1936). Pearson was the editor of the India Rubber World, an industry trade journal published in New York from 1889 to 1920. His account of a 1909 to 1910 trip to the Amazonian regions of Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, and Colombia, The Rubber Country of the Amazon (1911), contains nearly two hundred photographic illustrations, presumably based on photographs made by him. "I had heard many stories of the vigilance of the customs officials," Pearson wrote, "and that everything paid duty. I, therefore, took only hand baggage for the first trip ashore [at Pará], and even then would have had trouble with the camera had not a smoking room friend explained in profuse Portuguese that I was intimately connected with the Intendente (mayor) and had come from New York purposely to get his photograph." Among the illustrations are some two dozen Bolivian scenes of the Acre region, the town of Sorata, and the MadeiraMamoré Railway. Peck, Annie Smith (1850-1935). Peck was an American mountain climber, travel writer, lecturer, feminist, and photographer. She used her photographs, some of which were made on her unsuccessful 1903 and 1904 attempts on Mt. Illampu, to illustrate her books and (in the form of

lantern slides) lectures, and to publish a postcard series, which she sold to help finance her expeditions. (Some of her postcard images were purchased from other photographers. An anonymous photograph of a sikuri dance group, "Feast of el Señor de la Columna, Sorata, 1897," in the Frank G. Carpenter collection appears on a Peck postcard as "Feast day in [the] town of Sorata.") After her 1904 attempt on Illampu, Peck went to Peru to climb Mt. Huascarán and find the headwaters of the Amazon. See her Search for the Apex of America (1911). Penniman, Mabel. An American woman married to a "well known South American official," Penninman traveled by rail, ship, coach, and mule in 1896 from Mollendo, Peru, to La Paz and south to Buenos Aires. She wrote up her adventures in a two-part series, "One Thousand Miles on Mule-Back," published in Wide World Magazine in September and October 1899. Several of the Bolivian photographs reproduced in her articles bear the imprint "G.N.C.," while others appear to have been made by Penniman. Pepper, Charles M. An American travel writer who passed through Bolivia in 1905, Pepper's Bolivian photographs appear in his Panama to Patagonia (1906). He apparently returned a few years later, because he wrote an article on Bolivian railroads, "Romance of Pan American Railway Building on the Roof of the World," for the Washington Star (8 February 1914). Pereira, Julio H. The imprint "Julio H. Pereira. Fotográfica Victoria" appears on a ca. 1916 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. His Bolivian activities are unknown. Pérez, Pedro N. Pérez was a Potosí photographer with a studio at Calle Nogales 62 ca. 1925. Pérez, Alejandrino (1890-1985?). Pérez and his brother (name unknown) were a pioneer photographers in Tarija from the early 1900s, with studios at Calle 15 de Abril 711 ca. 1925 and Calle Campero 422 in the early 1930s. The imprint "Pérez Hermanos fotógrafos" appears on a postcard of a Tarija cholita postmarked 1922 and "Pérez Hnos. Bolivia" appears on a portrait of a gentleman inscribed "Monteagudo, abril 3, 1909." The Pérez archives, some 40,000 glass plates, are owned by the Pérez brothers successor, Alberto Castillo. Petrocokino, A. Petrocokino, who described himself as a "British born subject," traveled through Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador in 1902. The Bolivian leg of his journey was made by train from Ollagüe, on the Chilean border, to Uyuni and Oruro, by mule to Cochabamba, and by coach ("The coach was a light covered wagonette to seat eight inside, and drawn by six mules, and the baggage, mail, etc., were conveyed in a light cart also drawn by six mules.") to La Paz. His Along the Andes (1903), contains seventeen Bolivian illustrations based on photographs made by him: "The illustrations are all from photographs taken by me: but by the time I reached Lima my stock of plates and films were exhausted and I could only secure small plates for my further journey [to Ecuador]." Among the images are villages and cities such as Challas, Quillacollo, Oruro, Cochabamba, and La Paz, as well as Lake Titicaca. Peuser, Jacabo (1843-1901). Arriving in Argentina from Germany at age 12, Peuser grew up in Paraná and Rosario. He later moved to Buenos Aires, where he became an important book dealer and publisher and a prolific Buenos Aires postcard publisher in the early 1900s. The imprint of the Peuser firm, which survived him, appears on postcards of a few Bolivian scenes, for 38

example, the Potosí-Uyuni road and a group of Indian women near Argentine-Bolivian border. Pickering, William H. A professor of astronomy at Harvard University, Pickering directed the Arequipa Station of the Harvard Observatory from January 1891 to early 1893. The observatory, from which he and two assistants photographed the southern stars, was located on a mountainside two miles northwest of Arequipa, Peru. Pickering was also an amateur mountain climber and is thought to have made photographs during an 1891 climbing trip to Bolivia. The Peabody Museum at Harvard has a 1892 photograph of a Tiwanaku site attributed to Pickering. Piérola, J.N. (d. 1945?). Piérola was a well-known photographer and postcard publisher active in La Paz in the early 1900s. His real-photo postcards, embossed with the imprint "J.N.P.," often featured well-dressed La Paz cholas. In the 1920s, his studio was on the Plaza Murillo. He later had his studio-residence on Calle Oruro. Pinner, Erna. Pinner was the photographer for Kasimir Edschmid's Südamerika wird photographiert (1932), a slender illustrated account of his trip around the continent. Of the seventy-four black-and-white photographic reproductions, twelve are from Bolivia. Pinner (but misspelled "Pinna") was also credited as the photographer for Edschmid's mordant travelogue South America: Lights and Shadows (1932), originally published in Germany as Glanz und Elend Süd-Amerikas (1931). The Spanish edition is entitled Grandeza y miseria de la América del Sur. Only one of book's sepia images, "Cordillera in Bolivian Andes," is from Bolivia. Pinner later became an illustrator of children's books. Platt, Robert S. Platt was an American geographer. Three of his Bolivian photographs are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Polack-Schneider, E. Based in Lima, Polack-Schneider and G. Morganroth were prolific, early 1900s postcard publishers. Their imprints often appeared together on the same card, and Morganroth is occasionally identified as the photographer. Among their Bolivian cards are scenes of Tiwanaku and Copacabana. Portillo, Carlos. Portillo was a leading Oruro photographer from the 1920s through at least the 1930s. Some of his work appears in Bolivia Pintoresca [1926?], by Rodolfo Torrico Zamudio, and his views of Oruro appear in Bolivia en el primer centenario de su independencia (1925), by J. Ricardo Alarcón A. Several of his photographs (said to have been donated by his widow) hang in the Casa de Cultura in Oruro. His studio, Fotografía Portillo, was on Calle Bolivar in the early 1930s. Portman, Lionel. An English writer, Portman traveled in Bolivia ca. 1920. Twenty of his photographs illustrate his Three Asses in Bolivia (1922). Posnansky, Arthur (1873-1946). Born in Vienna and trained as a naval engineer, Posnansky explored and operated a river transport company in the Brazilian-Bolivian Amazonia in the late 1890s during the rubber boom. When the Acre dispute erupted in 1900, he sided with Bolivia and in the ensuing hostilities he volunteered his river launch Anni (rechristened Iris) as a blockade runner. After Bolivia's surrender, he fled to Europe from Brazil, but soon relocated to Bolivia, settling in La Paz in 1903. During a long, colorful career in his adopted land, Posnansky was an engineer, explorer, mine owner, anthropologist, archaeologist, historian, photographer, and film director. In the 1920s he founded Cóndor Mayku Films, which made shorts,

documentaries, and feature films. He spent many years photographing, filming, and studying the Tiwanaku ruins, although his thesis--that the city is the origin of civilization in South America-is not considered credible. Posnansky also photographed mining camps, villages, and other rural scenes, and published several books, including, Tihuanacu, la cuna del hombre américano (1945), and dozens of pamphlets. Javier Nuñez de Arco, who owns a major collection of his work, curated a Posnansky exhibition at the Museo Nacional de Arte in La Paz in September 1993. See also Arthur Posnansky y sus obsesión milenaria: biografía intelectual de un pionero (1995), Carlos Ponce Sanginés. Prem, Joseph P. An Austrian mine engineer, mountain climber, and professor at the Escuela de Minas in Oruro, Prem lived in Bolivia from the 1920s through perhaps the early 1940s. His was first hired by Nicolás Papic to work at the San Vicente mine in Potosí. He made photographs during his climbing excursions in the Quimsa Cruz range and on Mts. Payachatas and Sajama in 1928 and 1929, and in the Santa Vela and Quimsa Cruz ranges and on Mt. Sajama in 1939. Some of his photographs from these excursions are reproduced in his "Two First Ascents in the Bolivian Andes," American Alpine Journal (vol. IV, no. 1, issue 12, 1940), and "Climbing in the Bolivian Andes, 1939," American Alpine Journal (vol. V, no. 3, issue 17, 1945). Prodgers, Cecil Herbert (d. 1924). An English businessman, horse trainer, miner, adventurer, and writer, Prodgers went to Bolivia in 1903 on behalf of the Challana and Tongo Rubber Company to recruit Indians in the Río Challana valley as rubber tappers. Between 1905 and 1907, he launched three expeditions to find the fabled lost Jesuit gold treasure at Sacambaya, near Cochabamba. Unbeknownst to him, the tale of the Sacambaya treasure was a hoax. See his Adventures in Bolivia (1922), which contains eleven of his photographs. There would have been more, but he said that during the return from Challana "the mule carrying all my photographic plates, sixty fine views" tumbled off the trail into a stream, ruining all but three. In his Adventures in Peru (1924), which contains but one Bolivian image, Prodgers told further tales of his life in the southern hemisphere--salvaging a shipwreck off Juan Fernández Island, horse racing in Peru, and mining in Bolivia.

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R Ramírez F., A. The imprint "A. Ramírez F." appears on a 19th century carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. Ramírez, Zenon. Ramírez was a portrait photographer active in Tupiza in the early 1900s. Guillermo Manning trained under Ramírez. Reid, William A. In Bolivia during carnival, Reid visited an Aymara fiesta on the altiplano. He later wrote an article, "The Dancing Indians of Bolivia," Traveler (vol. XX, no. 3, January 1913), illustrated with eight photographs, presumably made by Reid, in as much as he mentioned carrying a camera: "The kodak was evidently something interesting to most of them, for we had a large following wherever our wanderings led; but despite the interest evinced, either in the picture machine or in its operator, they always maintained a safe distance. On several occasions I was warned not to come too near the dancers, and it proved difficult to get within the proper range to secure the best photographic results." Reyes E Hijos. The imprints "Reyes E Hijos, Sucre, Fotografía y Colorida," and "Reyes E Hijos, Sucre," appear on cartes de visite from the 1860s and 1870s. Reyes, J.M. Reyes opened a photographic studio in Bolivia in 1864. Reyes, Muñoz. Reyes was a photographer in Bolivia in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Richardson, Villroy L. Richardson was an American photographer active in Lima, Peru, from the 1850s. He was in La Paz during the unsuccessful 1875 insurrection against the government of Tomás Frías and made three photographs of the burned and gutted presidential palace (known today as "El Palacio Quemado"), which were forwarded by U.S. Legation minister Robert M. Reynolds to the Department of State in Washington. Those photographs are still held in the U.S. National Archives. Richardson's imprint "V.L. Richardson" appears on a ca. 1876 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. He later worked in Iquique, Chile, until sometime between 1880 and 1885. Riedel, August. Riedel was a German photographer who accompanied the Duke of Saxony on his 1866-1868 expedition to Brazil and Bolivia. Ringel, August. A German photographer active in Bolivia from 1875, Ringel was killed by Tobas Indians while accompanying Jules Creveaux on his 1882 expedition to the Chaco. Ritz, Franz. Ritz visited Bolivia's rubber region in the early 1930s. His Kautschutjäger im Urwald (ca. 1934) contains several dozen illustrations of rubber-gathering activities, presumably based on photographs made by him. Rivera, Víctor. Rivera was a photographer in La Paz in the early 1930s. His studio was at Calle Mercado 45.

Rodrigo y Cía. The imprint "Rodrigo y Cía, Fotógrafo" appears on a ca. 1873 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. Rodrigo's identity and Bolivian activities are unknown, although he might be Carlos E. Rodrigo, a photographer in Tacna, Peru, from the 1860s through the early 1900s. Rogers, D.H. Rogers was one of a handful of female photographers who worked in Bolivia. Her ca. 1927 photograph of a Tiwanaku monolith is at the Royal Geographical Society in London. Rojas, Geraldo. The imprint "Geraldo Rojas" appears on a late 1800s photograph of a group of Bolivian army officers on display in the Museo Municipal in Tupiza. Rojas, Germán. Rojas was a prolific La Paz photographer and worked with Arthur Posnansky. Rojas, Jerardo. Rojas was a La Paz photographer whose imprint "Jerardo Rojas, Fotógrafo," appears on a ca. 1871 carte de visite. Rojas y Cía. Rojas y Cía was a photography studio in Santa Cruz ca. 1908. Romero, [?]. The imprint "Romero" appears on a ca. 1888 carte de visite of a Bolivian subject. His activities in Bolivia are unknown. He might have been the latter half of Castro y Romero, a pair of photographers active in Santiago, Chile, until the 1890s, or Martín Romero, a photographer in Salta, Argentina, 1865 to 1880. Rosen, Eric von (1878-1948). Rosen was a Swedish archaeologist and photographer who accompanied Erlan Nordenskiöld's 1901-1902 Chaco-Cordillera Expedition. See Rosen's Ethnographical Research Work During the Swedish Chaco-Cordillera Expedition, 1901-1902 (1924) and Archaeological Researches on the Frontier of Argentina and Bolivia in 1901 and 1902 (1904), which contain numerous photographs, presumably by Rosen. The Statens Etnografiska Museum in Stockholm holds 243 of Rosen's photographs from the Nordenskiöld expedition. Rosendaal, David Raeburn. Twenty-six ethnic photographs, presumably made by Rosendaal, and mainly depicting Indian men, women, and children in and around La Paz, are held by the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. Rosendaal, who was from Topeka, Kansas, deposited the photos at the library's copyright office in October 1926. Rosoli Dávila, Santiago. Rosoli Dávila was active in La Paz in the early 1930s. His studio, Fotograbados, was at Calle Ingavi 381. Rosquellas, Mariano Pablo (1790-1859), and Luis Pablo Rosquellas (1823-1888). FrenchUruguayan photographer Amadeo Gras is said to have sold the elder Rosquellas, a Sucre violinist and singer, a daguerreotype camera during a trip through Bolivia in 1849. Rosquellas and his son, Luis, who was a poet, composer, and Supreme Court justice, reportedly made daguerreotypes, which would put them among Bolivia's earliest daguerreotypists. Rossi di Montelera, Napoleone. Rossi di Montelera traveled in South America, from Tierra del Fuego to the central Andes, in the late 1920s. His Dalla Terra del Fuoco alla Terra degli Incas (1930), contains forty-six illustrations of Bolivian scenes, many of which appear to be based on 42

photographs made by him, as well as six gravures by Luis D. Gismondi. Rouma, Georges (b. 1881). Rouma was a Belgian anthropologist who mounted expeditions to Bolivia in 1911 and in the early 1930s. It is unknown whether he was the photographer on either venture, which resulted in his Les Indiens Quitchouas et Aymaras des Hauts-Plateaux de la Bolivie (1913) and Quitchouas et Aymaras (1933). The latter contains seventy-five photographs, mainly of altiplano Indians. Rudolph, William E. The chief engineer for the Chile Exploration Company at Chuquicamata, Chile, Rudolph was with the mining industry in northern Chile in the 1920s and again from 1948 through the 1950s. An amateur historian and geographer, he traveled and photographed in southwestern Bolivia and contributed articles on the Atacama region to the Geographical Review. He also wrote one book, Vanished Trails of Atacama (1963), a follow-on to Isaiah Bowman's Desert Trails of Atacama (1923). Forty of Rudolph's Bolivian photographs are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Rusby, Henry Hurd (1855-1940). Rusby was an American botanist and pharmacologist, and professor and later dean of the College of Pharmacy, Columbia University. Soon after his graduation from college in January 1885, Rusby was sent by Park, Davis & Co., an American pharmaceutical firm, on a botanical expedition to Bolivia "to investigate the origin, production, and native uses" of coca. Prior to descending the Beni, Madeira, and Amazon rivers to Belem, Brazil, Rusby explored the Bolivian altiplano and the Yungas. After suffering harrowing misadventures and being given up for dead, Rusby returned home in 1887 with 45,000 plant specimens. Rusby's South American memoir, Jungle Memories (1933), contains several Bolivian photos. His obituary appeared in the New York Times on 19 November 1940.

S Saal, Carlos F. The imprint "Carlos F. Saal" appears on a 19th-century carte de visite of Bolivian subject. His Bolivian activities are unknown. Sauels, Máximo. The imprint "Fotográfica Artística de Máximo Sauels. Se conserva los negativos" appears on a ca. 1890 carte de visite and cabinet card of a Bolivian subject. His Bolivian activities are unknown. Saunier, Louis. See Mission Scientifique Française. Scheeler, I.F. The Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC, holds a 15-by-103-inch panoramic view of Sucre that Scheeler deposited at the library for copyright purposes on 23 February 1915. Another of his photographs, "Scene in the Yungas region, Bolivia," is reproduced in Frederick L. Hoffman's article, "American Business Opportunities in Bolivia," Bulletin of the Pan American Union (vol. LV, no. 2, August 1922). Schickler, Ernest. Schickler might have been an American geographer. Sixteen of his early 1900s photographs of Bolivia are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Schill, Ferdinand. Schill was in Bolivia in the early 1930s. His Bolivanisches Abenteuer (ca. 1933) has forty-eight illustrations, presumably based on photos made by him, chiefly portraits of Aymara and Tobas Indians. Schimmer, Augusto. The imprints "Augusto Schimmer" and "Augusto Schimmer, Bolivia" appear on turn-of-the century cabinet cards. Schmieder, Oscar (b. 1891). A geographer from the University of California at Berkeley, Schmieder did a geographical survey of the eastern Andes from the Río Grande in central Bolivia south to the Ríos San Juan del Oro and Pilcomayo in 1924 and 1925. See his "East Bolivian Andes: South of the Río Grande or Guspay," University of California Publications in Geography (vol. 2, no. 5, 1926), which contains reproductions of forty-three of his photographs, including of the Río San Juan del Oro valley, the Inca fort Condor Huasi, the Chaco, Chiriguano settlements, Sucre, and Potosí. Schmieder also did geographical studies in Argentina. Schonbaus, Edición. The imprint "Edición Schonbaus" appears on an early 1900s La Paz postcard. Schnoor, Guillermo. Schnoor (also spelled Schnor) was a post card publisher and perhaps a photographer in Tarija in the early 1900s. The imprints "Editor Guillermo Schnoor Tarija" and "Editor Guillermo Schnor" appear on postcards of a Tarija scenes postmarked 1913 and 1911 44

respectively. Schultz, Gaspar. See Juan MacLean. Schurz, W.L. A trade commissioner with the U.S. Department of Commerce, Schurz visited Bolivia ca. 1920 while researching Bolivia: A Commercial and Industrial Handbook (1921). The book is illustrated with twenty-three photographs of Bolivian scenes made or collected by Schurz. Four of his Bolivian photographs appear in the "South American Hinterlands" chapter of Isaiah Bowman's The Pioneer Fringe (1931). Six of Schurz's photographs are in the American Geographical Society collection at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Seibert, Percy (1880-1965?). Seibert was an American civil engineer, born in Clearspring, Maryland. He came to Bolivia in 1905 to survey the construction of the Viacha-Oruro railroad line. He had a falling out with his boss William Lee Sisson, who fired him. Seibert, nicknamed "Sy," hired on with the Concordia Tin Mine in the Quimsa Cruz range in 1906, ultimately rising to manager. In late 1906, he met and befriended Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid, who were employed at the mine as muleteers and guards. Several decades after the two outlaws died in a shootout 6 November 1908 in San Vicente, Seibert shared with American Western history writer James D. Horan his (often exaggerated) recollections of Butch and Sundance's activities in South America. Seibert also gave Horan a number of photographs, which he had either made or collected, depicting life in the high Andean mine camps (including the only known photograph of Butch and Sundance in Bolivia). The photographs were published in Horan's books, such as The Authentic Wild West: The Outlaws (1977) and (with Paul Sann) Pictorial History of the Wild West (1954), and are now in the James D. Horan Western and Americana Collection held by his sons. See Butch and Sundance Bibliography. Sénéchal de la Grange, Eugéne. See Mission Scientifique Française. Sievers, Wilhelm. Sievers was a German geographer who traveled in Bolivia extensively. His Geografía de Bolivia y Perú (1931) contains twenty-nine illustrations of Bolivian scenes, perhaps based on photographs made by him, but in his earlier books, Die Cordillerenstaaten (1913) and Süd-und Mittelamerika (1914), the illustrations are credited to photographs made by Rodolf Hauthal and W. Haufer. Simon, W.O. Simon traveled in Peru and Bolivia in the early 1900s. A number of his photographs illustrate his "Frontier Life in South America," The Wide World Magazine (London, parts 1 & 2, March 1913 and April 1913). Singewald, Joseph T., Jr. Singewald was professor of economic geography at Johns Hopkins University and co-leader, with Edward W. Berry, of the school's 1919 George Huntington Williams Memorial Expedition to the Andes of Peru, Bolivia, and Chile. Eleven of his photographs of mining scenes in the Quimsa Cruz and Santa Vela ranges of the Cordillera Real illustrate his article, "Among Bolivia's Highest Tin Mines," Bulletin of the Pan American Union (vol. LII, no. 3, March 1921). Sintich Hermanos. The imprint "Sintich Hnos., La Paz, Bolivia," appears on turn-of-the-century cabinet cards of Bolivian subjects. The brothers also photographed the archaeological work at Tiwanaku by the 1903 Mission Scientifique Française en Amérique du Sud. The inscription "Sintich Hnos., La Paz, Bolivia," appears in the lower left corner of some fifty Tiwanaku images

at the Phototheque du Musee de L'Homme in Paris. An album containing an even larger number of the Sintich brothers' Tiwanaku photographs for the French expedition is at the Brooklyn Museum of Art. The inscription "Sintich Fotog." appears on the lower right hand corner of an early 1900s portrait of a large group of Bolivian gentry at what appears to be a wedding on the grounds of a hacienda. Several of the brothers photographs illustrate Guia del viajero en Bolivia (1908), by Luis S. Crespo. In Annie S. Peck's account of her 1904 attempt to scale Mt. Illampu she wrote that her team included Victor Sintich, an Austrian then living in La Paz. Although he is not otherwise identified, he is possibly one of the photographer Sintichs. See Peck's A Search for the Apex of America (1911), chapters XII and XIII. Sisson, William Lee. Sisson was an American civil engineer and veteran of Bolivian railroad construction projects. In 1904, the Bolivian government contracted with Speyer & Co. in New York to study proposed new railroad routes. Speyer hired Sisson and assistant engineer H.C. Robinson, both of whom had worked for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. Jorge E. Zalles accompanied the duo as their interpreter. See Sisson's Reconnoissance [sic] Report Upon Proposed system of Bolivia Railroads/Informe del Reconocimiento sobre el Proyectado Sistema de Ferrocarriles Bolivianos (La Paz, Mayo 1905), which contains nine illustrations. A companion album, Views Taken During Reconnoissance [sic] for Proposed Bolivian Railways and Accompanying Report of the Same, Dec. 1904-Feb. 1905, which contains 160 photographs, all presumably made by Sisson or one of his associates, was published separately and is now rare. An incomplete copy containing ninety-seven photographs was seen at a La Paz antique store in 1999. Zalles was a nephew of the Bolivian president, José Manuel Pando, and had recently worked in the Bolivian legation in Washington, DC. His account of the expedition, Quinientas leguas a través de Bolivia (1906), is more detailed and engaging than Sisson's narrative. Zalles commented on the quality of the hotels, the state of the roads, Sisson's photographic activities, and the theft of Bolivia's archaeological treasures by foreign archaeologists like Adolphe Bandelier. The several illustrations in Zalles's book are presumably by Sisson. Solar, Fotografía del. The imprint "Fotografía del Solar, La Paz," appears on three 1866 cartes de visite. Squier, Ephraim George (1821-1888). Squier was an archaeologist, writer, and photographer and the U.S. envoy to Peru from 1863 to 1865. He mounted several expeditions within Peru and to the Bolivian altiplano. Squier was forced to learn photography after his photographer, identified only as "Mr. P ," died in southern Peru en route to Bolivia. Of the 257 photographs in the Squire collection at the Latin American Library at Tulane University, about twenty-five are of Bolivian scenes (mainly Tiwanaku, La Paz, Corocoro, Illampu, and Lake Titicaca), some with the Helsby & Co. imprint and others anonymous, perhaps made by Augustus Le Plongeon or by Squier, himself. See his Peru, Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of the Incas (1877). Standard Oil Company. In Nelson Rounsevell's "Millions Being Invested in Bolivian Oil Field," Bulletin of the Pan American Union (November 1924), six images of oil-drilling sites in southern Santa Cruz and Tarija are credited to the Standard Oil Company, which had sent geological survey teams to the area. 46

Sterlin, Auguste. Sterlin's imprints "Auguste Sterlin, Fotógrafo," "A. Sterlin, Fotógrafo," and "A. Sterlin (Fotógrafo, La Paz (Bolivia)" appear on cartes de visite and cabinet cards of Bolivian subjects. Several are dated between 1872 and 1882, and bear La Paz and Coroico inscriptions. Sterlin is said to have traveled and photographed in several South American countries, including Bolivia. Stübel, Alphons Moritz (1835-1904). Stübel and Wilhelm Reiss, German geologists specializing in volcanology, traveled together in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Brazil, beginning in 1868. Reiss returned to Germany in 1876, but Stübel continued through Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile. Their original destination had been Hawaii, but a short side trip to follow Alexander von Humboldt's trail in Colombia and Ecuador extended into a decade-long scientific expedition. They never got to Hawaii. Rather than lug cumbersome wet-plate equipment through the Andes, Stübel purchased en route more than two thousand images and Reiss another eight hundred of regions they visited (and some they didn't), from such photographers as the Courret brothers, Christiano Jr., Emilio Garreaud, Georges B. von Grumbkow, the Helsby brothers, Arturo Terry, and Ricardo Villaalba. The bulk of the Bolivian images are attributed to Grumbkow. Stübel had serious reservations about photography as a scientific tool or art form. He thought that the camera didn't allow for individualization; it was ruled by the unyielding laws of optics and hobbled by an unrelenting demand for light. He preferred drawings and watercolors, relying on photographs as a mnenomic aid to fill in details later. Stübel and Reiss, however, occasionally borrowed a camera to make images of personal interest. Whether Stübel did so in Bolivia or not is unknown. In 1896, Stübel deposited his records of the expedition at the Stadtischen Museum fur Volkerkunde (Metropolitan Museum of Ethnography) in Leipzig. The entire collection was thought to have been destroyed during World War II bombing, but the photographs were recently rediscovered and formed the basis for exhibitions in Berlin curated by Andreas Krase in 1988, at the Latin American Center at the University of Munster in 1994, and at the Banco de la República in Bogotá in 1996. In spite of Stübel's lack of interest in photography as an art form or an ethnographical tool, the images he and Reiss gathered are today considered the central accomplishment of their trip and constitute one of the largest, most farranging collections of 19th-century South American photography. Stübel published several works, including one with Max Uhle entitled Die Ruinestätte von Tiahuanaco im Hochlande des alten Perú (1892). Studies and exhibition catalogs of the Stübel-Reiss expedition and collections include Collection Alphons Stübel (1988), Andreas Krase; Spurensuche. Zwei Erdwissenschaftler im Südamerika des 19.Jahrhunderts (1994), Andreas Brockman and Michaela Stüttgen; and Tras las huellas: Dos viajeros alemanes en tierras latinoamericanas (1996), edited by Michaela Stüttgen.

T Tauber, Carl (b. 1864). Tauber was a German scientist who traveled in Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, Uruguay, and Brazil in the early 1920s. Some two hundred of his photographs, including eleven from Bolivia, illustrate his book Mein sechs grossen reisen durch Südamerika (1926). Terrazas, Alfredo. Terrazas was active in Chulumani in the 1930s under the name "Fotografía y Dibujo." Terry, Arturo. Terry came to Peru from the United States in 1848. Later he lived and made daguerreotypes in Copiapó, Chile (1853 and 1854), Bolivia (1854), and Buenos Aires and Salta, Argentina (1861 to 1871), after which he returned to New York City. Thümmel, [?]. Thümmel was a German scientist who worked in Bolivia in the early 1900s. One of his photographs from southern Bolivia appears in Wilhelm Sievers's Die Cordillerenstaaten (1913). Thurston, Charles D. Thurston traveled through Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, and Uruguay from ca. 1918 to 1920. Six albums containing some four-hundred snapshots are held by the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. The Bolivian images are chiefly rural scenes from the Gran Chaco province of the Tarija department, and the Cordillera, Florida, and Vallegrande provinces of the Santa Cruz department. Toppin, Major H.S. (d. 1915?). Toppin was chief commissioner of the Peruvian Commission of the Peru-Bolivia Boundary Commission, 1911-1913, which was organized by the Royal Geographical Society. (Col. Percy Harrison Fawcett served as the chief of the Bolivian Commission.) He and his team demarcated the boundary from Lake Titicaca through the Andes northeast to the Upper Amazon. Toppin and Lt. C.G. Moores and Capt. M.R.C. Nanson also served as commission photographers. Toppin's photographs were described in the commission report as "the best and the most representative." A number of the commission's Bolivian photographs (for example, the Lagunas Cololo and Suches in the Cordillera Apolobamba, Pelechuco Pass, and the towns of Cololo, Mojos, Apolo, Pelechuco, and Puerto Heath) are reproduced in Reports of the British Officers of the Peruvian Commission (1918). The commission's photographs are archived at the Royal Geographical Society in London. Torres, Antonio (1895?-1998). Torres was a photographer in Sucre commencing in the 1920s. Torres Lopez, Ciro. An Argentine writer, Torres Lopez toured Bolivia's rubber region in 1929. His book Las maravillosas tierras del Acre (En la floresta amazónica de Bolivia) (1930), contains eleven illustrations from photographs made by him and one, "el oro negro," from a photograph by Roberto Gerstmann. 48

Torrico Zamudio, Rodolfo (1890-1955). Cochabamba native Torrico Zamudio, nicknamed "El Turista," was an indefatigable traveler, photographer, and postcard publisher. In the early 1920s, Bolivian poet Adel Zamudio wrote of him: "Un viajero solitario, amante apasionado de la naturaleza, la ha recorrido a pesar de todo, sin más auxilio y equipaje que un abrigo y una máquina fotográfica sujetos al hombro. Desde su lago histórico, dormido en una porción de la extensa meseta andina, al pie de los colosos de la Cordillera, hasta sus ríos navegables, tributarios del Amazonas y del Plata, lo ha visto todo y todo ha sido reproducido en el objetivo de su pequeño aparato." See Torrico Zamudio's Bolivia Pintoresca [1926?], which contains dozens of his photographs. His work also appears in Bolivia en el primer centenario de su independencia (1925), by J. Ricardo Alcarón A., and Cochabamba en imágenes, 1571-1935 (1995), by Michela Pentimalli, et al. Torrico Zamudio's archives, thought to be the largest in Bolivia pertaining to a single photographer, are held by the Torrico family in Cochabamba. Troll, Carl (b. 1899). Troll was a German geographer who worked in Bolivia in the 1920s. See his "An Expedition to the Central Andes, 1926-28," Geographical Review (vol. 19, 1929). Two of Troll's Bolivian photographs are in the American Geographical Society archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee. Tschiffely, Aimé Félix (1895-1954). A Swiss-born, Argentine teacher, writer, and adventurer, A.F. Tschiffely (as he was known) made the first transamerican horseback journey, riding from Buenos Aires to Washington, DC, in the late 1920s on a pair of criollo horses, Mancha and Gato. Averaging ten miles a day, he carried The Pickwick Papers for entertainment and a .45 Smith & Wesson revolver for protection. Tschiffely's accounts of his record-setting, two-and-a-half-year trip--"Buenos Aires to Washington by Horse," National Geographic Magazine (February 1929) and Tschiffely's Ride (1933)--contain a number of his photographs of the route through Bolivia, which took him from the Argentina border at La Quiaca north through Tupiza, Potosí, Lake Poopó, Oruro, and La Paz and around Lake Titicaca to Peru.

U Ugalde, Manuel. A native of Ecuador and a painter by profession, Ugalde made daguerreotypes in Cochabamba as early as 1850, and opened a photographic studio in Sucre in 1856. He is said to have apprenticed under Antonio Díaz Peña in Tacna, Peru, in 1855. Uhle, Max (1856-1944). Known as the father of Peruvian archaeology, the German-born Uhle was working in Dresden in the 1880s as museum curator trained in archaeology and ethnology when he met Alphons Stübel and Wilhelm Reiss. Prior to ever setting foot in South America, Uhle wrote, in collaboration with Stübel, Die Ruinestätte von Tiahuanaco (1892). Uhle credited his co-author with inspiring him to devote his life to South American studies. Sponsored by the Prussian government and the Berlin Museum, Uhle went to Argentina in late 1892, and by November 1893 had worked his way north into Bolivia. He continued north via Tupiza, through the villages of the Potosí and Oruro departments, studying pre-Hispanic ruins and local indigenous languages. During much of 1894, Uhle was short of funds and idle in La Paz or out on brief excursions to Tiwanaku and Lake Titicaca, where he found himself in an uncomfortable, competitive relationship with Adolphe Bandelier (whose writings he later criticized). By early 1895, now sponsored by the University of Pennsylvania, Uhle was back full-time on the altiplano and at Tiwanaku. But by the end of the year, frustrated by the government's meddlesome, obstructionist officials, Uhle returned to La Paz. In January 1896, "utterly wearied of Bolivia," he departed for Peru. See John Howland Rowe's Max Uhle, 1856-1944, A Memoir of the Father of Peruvian Archaeology (1954). More than two hundred of Uhle's photos and negatives from his Bolivian period are held by the University of Pennsylvania Museum in Philadelphia. Underwood & Underwood. The brothers Bert and Elmer Underwood opened a stereographic view distribution company in 1882 in Ottawa, Kansas. By the turn-of-the-century, Underwood & Underwood had become one of the leading American stereographic publishers, employing staff photographers and free-lancers to make photographs throughout the world, including Bolivia. A set of 12 Bolivian views in Underwood's ca. 1913 catalog is attributed to C.L. Chester. The company was bought out by Keystone in the early 1930s. For a discussion of U.S. stereoview companies in Latin America, see Estereofotografías norteamericanas: Una mirada sobre América Latina en tres dimensiones (1987), by Hilda Piedrahita.

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V Vaca Pereira, Casiano. Vaca Pereira was a Santa Cruz photographer in the early 1930s. His studio was at Calle Beni 103. Vacano, Max Josef von. Vacano lived in Bolivia for more than two decades in the first part of the 20th century and published several books about the history and commerce of the country, including Aus Dem Erbe der Inkas Bolivien (1912), Bolivia: Su desarrollo y progreso (1925), and (with Hans Mattis) Bolivien in Wort und Bild (1911), which contain numerous photographic illustrations. Whether Vacano was the photographer or not is unknown. Valdes Hermanos. The imprint "Valdes Hermanos, Tarjeta Chica, Fotografía i Pintura, Amplificaciones, Sistema Rembrandt" appears on a 19th century cabinet card of a Bolivian subject. Valdez, Aniceto. Valdez was a photographer in Sucre and La Paz. His imprints "Fotografía i Pintura, A. Valdez, Tarjeta Chica, Ampliaciones, Sistema Rembrandt," "A. Valdez, Sucre," and "Bolivia, A. Valdez, Sucre y La Paz," and "Aniceto Valdez, La Paz (Bolivia)," appear on 1890s cartes de visite and cabinet cards. The verso of one cabinet card reads: "Galería de Aniceto Valdez. Socio Honorario del 'Congreso Internacional de Fotografía' en la exposición de Paris en 1889 y de Bélgica en 1891. Retratos de todos tamaños. Retratos al oleo. Especialidad en ampliaciones inalterables. Se toman dos planchas para escojer la mejor, por cuenta de la CASA." Valdez, C. A prominent portrait photographer in La Paz in the 1890s, Valdez took out a fullpage advertisement in La Ilustración, 1895, no. 2, a journal of "ciencias-artes-literatura" in La Paz, which read: "Fotografía C. Valdez. Esquina de la Plaza que dá origen á la 'Calle Ingavi.' Casa de los Sres. Aramayo, no. 8. Retratos de todas dimensiones desde la tarjeta llamada Mignon á la de Visita, Album, Gabinete, Paris-portrait, Salón, Portrait-salón, Panel-imperial, de Fantasía, - visita y album - y retratos de tamaño natural, - {busto} montados en elegantes Passe-portout con vidrio y marco respectivo. A fin de corresponder debidamente á la confianza de los favorecedores se ha construido una 'Galería Fotografía' convenientemente dispuesta para sacar retratos de buena luz, tono, y delicada suavidad en las sombras; contando, á la vez, con el material fino que se recibe directamente de Europa y Nueva York. Despacho pronto y modicidad en los precios. La Paz - 1895." Another advertisement, in the 16 July 1907, El Ferrocarril, a newspaper in Oruro, promoted presumably the same C. Valdez: "Fotografía de C. Valdez á Hijo. La Primera clase en esta ciudad. Especialidad retratos de tamaño natural (busto), para salones al lapiz sobre base de platino. Calle Colombia no. 140, frente al Hotel Bolivia. Oruro 1907." The imprint "C. Valdez, Bolivia" appears on several late-19th-century cabinet cards. Antonio Paredes-Candia believes that Valdez's first name was either Carlos or César. Valdez, J.A. Valdez was a photographer in La Paz from the late 1910s through the 1930s. He had several studios: Luz y Sombra at Calle Loayza 57 ca. 1918; Estudio de Sombra y Luz, Pintura y Fotografía, J. A. Valdez at Calle Colon 64 ca. 1925; and at Calle Colón 222 in the early

1930s. J. Ricardo Alcarón's Bolivia en el primer centenario de su independencia (1925) carries an advertisement for the "Estudio de Sombra y Luz, Pintura y Fotografía, J.A. Valdez. En este establecimiento se ejecutan con esmero rapidez y con exquisito gusto artístico los siguientes trabajos: PINTURA.--Retratos sobre tela, al óleo, al pastel, á la acuarela; retratos ó la tinta china y al crayón.--Cuadros hístoricos y alegóricos y en general pinturas de todo género sobre seda, joyas, relojes, bolsas, carteras, cigarreras, etc., etc. PINTURA Y FOTOGRAFIA.--Retratos y vistas fotográficas iluminadas al óleo y á la acuarela.--Miniaturas. FOTOGRAFIA.--Retratos, grupos y vistas corrientes.--Ampliaciones.--Reproducciones de fotografías antiguas y modernas de cuadros de óleo, grabados, mapas, planos, etc., etc.--Retratos especiales para lápidas. La casa ha disminuido los precios de estos trabajos á fin de ponerlos al alcanca de todos. AVISO A LOS INGENIEROS.--En la sección de Fotografía de este Establecimiento de arte se copian toda clase de planos al ferroprusiato. Se reciben trabajos de Fotograbado. Retratos en silueta y para pasaportes. Calle Colon No. 64." Valdez also worked as a broker, buying and selling mines and minerals, operated a mining supply store, and traded in antiques. He and Manuel Valdez were reportedly brothers, but whether they worked professionally as the Valdez Hermanos is not known. Valdez, Julio C. Valdez had a photographic studio on Calle Yanacocha in La Paz ca. 1925, and is said to have been the son of one of the Valdez Hermanos. Valdez, Manuel. The imprint "Manuel Valdez, Fotógrafo, Trabajos Artísticos" appears on an early 1900s cabinet card. In the early 1930s he had a studio at Calle Comercio 477 in La Paz. Manuel and J. A. Valdez were reportedly brothers. Valdéz, Moisés. A noted photographer in the Potosí department from the 1880s through at least the 1890s, Valdez traveled extensively (for example, to Tupiza, Chorolque, Tatasi, Quechisla, and Atocha), making documentary photographs of the mines and portraits of the managers of Aramayo, Francke y Cía., the leading mine enterprise in southern Bolivia. He maintained a studio in the city of Potosí, where he made cabinet card portraits. Valdez Hermanos. The Valdez brothers were photographers in La Paz in the 1880s and 1890s. Their imprints "Fotografía Valdez Hermanos" and "Scientia un Arte, Fotografía Valdez Hnos. Bolivia," appear on a late-19th-century cartes de visite and cabinet cards. Julio Cordero Castillo trained with the Valdez brothers. Valdez y Cía. Valdez had a photographic studio in Santa Cruz ca. 1908. Valdivia, Rolón. Active in Cochabamba from the 1920s through the early 1930s, Valdivia had a studio on the Plaza 14 de Septiembre. Varela, C.B. Varela was a photographer in Antofagasta, Chile. Three cabinet cards of scenes related to the 1894 funeral in Uyuni of assassinated former Bolivian president General Hilarión Daza Groselle bear the imprint "C.B. Varela & Cía." Vargas Hermanos. The imprint "Vargas Hermanos" appears on a real-photo postcard of sikuris dancers at Copacabana. Presumably, this is the imprint of Carlos (1885-1976) and Miguel (18861979) Vargas, brothers from Arequipa, who apprenticed with Max T. Vargas. The archive of 52

their work is held by the Asociación Vargas Hermanos in Arequipa. The catalog from a 1997 Vargas brothers exhibition at the Banco Continental in Arequipa can be found at La Fotografía de los Hermanos Vargas. Vargas, Max T. Vargas was a noted Peruvian photographer and postcard publisher in Arequipa, who had a studio in the annex of the Hotel Guibert on the Plaza Murillo in La Paz from the early 1900s through perhaps the 1920s. On 17 May 1908, the La Paz newspaper El Diario carried a half-page advertisement for his studio. Peruvian photographer Martín Chambi trained with Vargas in Arequipa. Several of Vargas's photographs are in the Frank G. Carpenter collection at the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress in Washington, DC. The photographer's granddaughter, Yolanda Retter, has two webpages, Max T. Vargas-Photographer, Peru, 19th-20th Century, and The History of Peruvian Photography, 1850-1950, with links to numerous related sites. Vaudry, J.-B. See Mission Scientifique Française. Vega, Miguel L. de la. Vega owned the "Papelería, Librería y Tienda de Novedades 'El Siglo,'" which sold "Artículos de Fotografía" in Potosí in the early 1900s. Velarde, José V. Velarde was a La Paz photographer with a studio at Calle Yanacocha 76 ca. 1925 and at Calle Yanacocha 380 in the early 1930s. He also had a studio in Cochabamba ca. 1919 on Calle San Juan de Dios. He purchased an advertisement in J. Ricardo Alcarón's Bolivia en el primer centenario de su independencia (1925): "JOSE V. VELARDE, FOTOGRAFO, Calle Yanacocha No. 76. Ofrece sus servicios profesionales al distinguido público en general, en retratos de estudio y de última novedad sistema americano, ampliaciones, reproducciones, miniaturas en colores sepia, azul, verde y negro. Se atiende a domicilio para banquetes, comidas, mantinees, matrimonios y días de campo. Laboratorio especial para desarrollo de placas, películas e impresión de copias para aficionados, garantizado puntualidad y esmero, a precios sumamente bajos. SE ENTRGA RETRATOS PARA PASAPORTES EN UNA HORA." Velarde, Leandro. A photographer in La Paz in the early 1930s, Velarde had a studio at Calle Bolívar 152. Velasco, A. Velasco was a photographer in Santa Cruz in the 1920s. Vidal, Ciprian R. The imprint "Ciprian R. Vidal, Fotógrafo, Chocaya," appears on a ca. 1920 print of a mine operation, presumably in Chocaya, a mining village and railroad station town north east of Atocha in Sud Chicas, Potosí. Villegas Aramayo, F. Villegas Aramayo was a photographer in Santa Cruz and Oruro in the 1920s. Villaalba, Ricardo. A leading photographer in La Paz and Arequipa in the 1860s and 1870s, Villaalba (also spelled Villalba) is one of the few pioneer Bolivian photographers to have immigrated to Europe. Historian Antonio Paredes Candia believes that Villaalba was born in Corocoro, the capital of Pacajes province in the La Paz department. His imprint appears on dozens of 1860s-to-1870s ethnic cartes de visite (some hand-colored) of Bolivian subjects now held by institutions in the United States and France. One collection, at the Peabody Museum at Harvard University, was donated by Elizabeth Agassiz, who obtained the images in 1872 from

Charles Rand--presumably the Charles Rand who was a business associate of American railroad entrepreneur Henry Meiggs and who served as a U.S. vice-consul in La Paz--while on a sailing trip around South America. A second collection, of uncertain origin, is owned by the Eastman House in Rochester, New York. Other images attributed to Villaalba are in the Charles Wiener collection at the Musée d'Ethnographie in Paris. Most of Villaalba's cartes de visite are portraits (chiefly occupationals) of Indians in La Paz and Oruro, although some are from the Yungas. At some point, perhaps in the mid 1870s, Villaalba moved his studio to Arequipa. In the late 1880s, he relocated to France, where he was a member of the Société Française de Photographie, living at La Varenne-Saint-Hilaire, in 1889 and 1894. He was listed as a participating photographer of an 1894 exhibition sponsored by the Photo-Club de Paris.

54

W Walcott, Frederick C. Walcott, an American scientist, visited the remote Laguna Colorada in the Sud Lipez province of the Potosí department in southwestern Bolivia in 1924. Eighteen photographs from that expedition, including what are thought to be the first ever made of the Laguna Colorada and environs, illustrate Walcott's "An Expedition to the Laguna Colorada, Southern Bolivia," Geographical Review (vol. XV, no. 3, July 1925). Ward, Charles V., and Jacob C. Ward (1809-1891). Painters and daguerreotypists from Bloomfield, New Jersey, the Ward brothers made a three-year trip (1845 to 1848) to South America, visiting Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and, on their return home, Jamaica and Cuba. According to Hernán Rodríguez Villegas, they operated daguerreotype studios in Valparaíso and Santiago between 1845 and 1846, and in Copiapó in 1847. Keith McElroy, who has reviewed Lima newspapers of the era, reports that they opened a daguerreotype studio in Lima on 31 July 1847, claiming experience in the United States and Chile. They moved their studio to Callao in late November or early December 1847, returned to Lima in March 1848, and stopped advertising in the Lima newspapers after 15 April of that year. Vicente Gesualdo has them in Chile in 1848, going up to Bolivia from the Pacific coast that same year and taking pictures in La Paz, Oruro, and Sucre, apparently on their way to Peru and home. Gesualdo identifies the Ward brothers as the first daguerreotypists in Bolivia, predating Francisco Solano Ortega and Mariano Pablo Rosquellas. In 1848, Jacob Ward returned to his family and business in Bloomfield, where he died in 1891. What became of Charles Ward is unknown. Their daguerreotypes have not been located. Witcomb, Alejandro S. (1835-1905). The imprint "A.S. Witcomb, Buenos Aires," appears on a late-19th-century cabinet card of a Bolivian subject. An English immigrant, Witcomb, opened a studio in Buenos Aires ca. 1861, purchased Christiano Jr.'s studio and negatives in 1878, and was active until the late 1890s. He died in Asunción, Paraguay, in 1905. His Bolivian travels, if any, are unknown. Witcomb's Buenos Aires studio was carried on by his son Alejandro and others until 1970. La Colección Witcomb is housed at the Archivo General de la Nación in Buenos Aires. Wolff, E. See Mission Scientifique Française. Wright, Marie Robinson (1866-1914). A Georgia native, Wright was married to Georgia supreme court justice Hinton P. Wright at eighteen and widowed at twenty. She then became a special correspondent for a New York newspaper. In the late 1890s, she began publishing a series of heavily illustrated octavo volumes of her travels to Latin America--Mexico, Brazil, Peru, Chile, and Bolivia. Whether she made her own photographs or not is unknown, but she did obtain numerous prints from local photographers. During her 1906 trip to Bolivia, Wright traveled more than a thousand miles by mule. Her Bolivia: The Central Highway of South America, a Land of Rich Resources and Varied Interest (1907), published in Spanish as Bolivia, el camino central, de Sur-América, una tierra de ricos recursos y de variado interés (1907),

contains more than 350 photographic reproductions. Commenting on her death, the Bulletin of the Pan American Union (March 1914) said that "Mrs. Wright was recognized and greeted in every capital of the New World." Wrigley, Gladys M. Wrigley was a key figure in the American Geographical Society in the early 1900s. Three of her Bolivian photographs are in the society's archives at the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee.

56

Z Zapata, [?]. Zapata was a photographer in La Paz in the 1920s. Zapata, Manuel Maria. The imprint "Manuel Maria Zapata, Fotógrafo, Totora," appears on a late-19th-century carte de visite. Zegada, Benjamin. Zegada and his brother (name unknown) were Sucre photographers whose imprints "Benjamin Zegada. Fotografía. Ampliaciones, Reproducciones, Vistas Esmaltados, Etc. Etc.," "B. Zegada Hermanos, Sucre," and "Fotografía de B. Zegada Hermanos" appear on cartes de visite from the 1870s and 1880s. Zevállos, Enrique. The imprint "Enrique Zevállos Bolivia" appears on a real-photo postcard inscribed in Oruro on 21 January 1919.

Retrato autocromo de un grupo de oficiales ind铆genas del Altiplano Circa 1910, fot贸grafo an贸nimo. Coleccion Daniel Buck.

58

Dos cartes de visite iluminadas a mano. Izquierda: Luciano Willka, un lider indígena que participó en el derrocamiento, en 1871, del presidente boliviano Mariano Melgarejo. Circa. 1871. Fotógrafo anónimo. Colección Daniel Buck. Derecha: una dama con serviente. Circa 1870. Fotógrafo anónimo. Colección Daniel Buck.

Caballero Aymara de Tilata, Lago Titicaca. Grabado en cobre. 1928. Fot贸grafo: Roberto Gerstman. Colecci贸n Daniel Buck. 60

Dos tarjetas postales fotogr谩ficas, tomadas en Tupiza. Circa 1920. Fot贸grafo an贸nimo. Collecci贸n Daniel Buck.

La iglesia de Calamarca, al sur de La Paz, constru铆da en el siglo XVI. Alb煤mina. 1868. Fot贸grafos Hermanos Courret. Colecci贸n Biblioteca del Congreso, Washington DC.

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Dos tarjetas postales fotogr谩ficas. Izquierda: Cholita de La Paz. Circa 1920. Fot贸grafo Max T. Vargas. Derecha: Chola boliviana. Circa 1920. Fot贸grafo Jose N. Pierola.

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----. "Yesterday's Modern Bolivian Images," Bolivian Times (La Paz), 23 September 1994. ----. "Los silencios fotógrafos del pasado Boliviano," Foto Bolivia (La Paz), vol. I, no. 5, December 1994-January 1995. ----. "Pioneer Photography in Bolivia: Register of Daguerreotypists and Photographers, 1840s1930s," Bolivian Studies, vol. V, no. 1, 1994-1995. ----. "El desarrollo de la fotografía en Bolivia en el siglo XIX," Historia de la fotografía: Memoria del quinto congreso de la fotografía en la Argentina. Buenos Aires, 1996. ----. "From Bolivia with Love: Postcards from the Past," South American Explorer, no. 50, Winter 1997. ----. "Autochrome Comes to the Altiplano," South American Explorer, no. 58, Winter 1999. ----. "Up in the Andes: Nineteenth Century Photography in Bolivia," History of Photography, forthcoming June 2000. Castillo, Victor M. del. Guía boliviana del turista. La Paz: 1928. Centeno, Ricardo, and Patricia Fernández O. Imágenes del auge de la goma. La Paz, Bolivia: La Papelera, 1998. Chávez, Antonio. "Fotográfia en Salta en el siglo pasado," El Tribuno, "Agenda Cutural" (Salta, Argentina), 5 September 1999. Costa Ardúz, Rolando. Las Paz: Sus rostros en el tiempo. 2 vols. La Paz: H. Alcaldia Municipal, 1973. Crespo, Luis S. Guía del viajero en Bolivia. Vol. I. La Paz: Taller Tip.-Lit. de Jose Mgl. Gamarra, 1908. Darrah, William C. The World of Stereographs. Gettysburg: W.C. Darrah, 1977. Díaz Arguedas, Julio. Expedicionarios y exploradores del suelo boliviano. 2 vols. La Paz: Ediciones Camarlinghi, 1971. Dick O., Gaston. Ciudades de ayer y de hoy (series): La Paz de ayer y de hoy, Potosí de ayer y de hoy, and Sucre de ayer y de hoy. La Paz: 1980--. Facio, Sara. Witcomb/nuestro ayer. Buenos Aires: La Azotea, 1991. Fontova, A. Guía comercial de Bolivia Fontova. La Paz: A. Fontova, 1930-1931. Fototeca Andina. Fotografía histórica andina, 1900-1950. Cusco: Las Casas, 1994. Frontaura Argandoña, Manuel. Descubridores y exploradores de Bolivia. La Paz: Editorial Los Amigos del Libro, 1971. Gerstmann, Roberto. Bolivia, 150 grabados en cobre. Paris: Braun et Cie., 1928, and reprint, La Paz: Quipus, 1996.

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----. Mountaineering in the Andes: A Source Book for Climbers. Ware, Herts, England: Expedition Advisory Centre, June 1987. Nuñez, Estuardo. Viajes y viajeros extrañeros por el Perú. Lima: 1989. Otero, Gustavo-Adolfo. Bolivia (guía sinóptica) 1929. Barcelona: Casa Editorial Maucci, 1929. Paredes-Candia, Antonio. "Los Cordero, una estirpe de fotógrafos artistas," El Diario (La Paz), 10 January 1995. Pentimalli, Michela, Paula Lujan, and Aldo Cardoso. Cochabamba en imágenes, 1571-1935. Cochabamba: Cervecería Taquina, 1995. Piedrahita, Hilda. Estereofotografías norteamericanas: Una mirada sobre América Latina en tres dimensiones. Bogotá: Fondo Cutural Cafetero, 1987. Poole, Deborah. Vision, Race, Modernity: A Visual Economy of the Andean Image World. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. Querejazu, Pedro. "La fotografía y sus 150 años." Presencia (La Paz), 3 June 1990. ----. "Ciento cincuenta años de fotografía: el caso boliviano." Photocopy. La Paz: 1998. Retter, Yolanda. Max T. Vargas--Photographer--Peru, 19th-20th Century. ----. Peruvian Photography, 1950-1950: The History of Peruvian Photography. Links and Original Material. Rodríguez Villegas, Hernán. "Historia de la fotografía en Chile, 1840-1940," Boletín de la Academia Chilena de Historia (Santiago), vol. LII, no. 96, 1985. Sagárnaga Meneses, Jedú Antonio. Diccionario de etno-arqueología boliviana. La Paz: Producciones CIMA, 1990. ----. "Posnansky y Nuñez, dos vidas separadas por el tiempo, unidas por la fotografía." Hoy (La Paz), 19 September 1993. Soliz, Sergio. "La memoria de La Paz de antaño," La Prensa (La Paz), 3 July 1998. Stüttgen, Michaela, ed. Tras las huellas: Dos viajeros alemanes en tierras latinoamericanas. Santa Fé de Bogotá: Banco de la República, 1996. Torrico Zamudio, Rodolfo. Bolivia pintoresca. New York: The University Society, [1926?]. Viscarra Heredia, Rosendo, and Gregorio Viscarra Heredia. Guía general de Bolivia. La Paz: Imprenta Artística, 1918. Watriss, Wendy, and Lois Parkinson Zamora. Image and Memory: Photography from Latin America, 1866-1994. Houston: Fotofest, and Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998. Wulschner, Hans Joachim. Del Río Grande al Plata: Crónicas de viajes realizados por alemanes en el siglo XIX por el continente sudamericano. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudamericana, 1976.

Acknowledgments I am extremely grateful to a number of people who allowed me access to photographs in their collections or shared information from their research. In Bolivia: Mariano Baptista Gumucio, Humberto Bernal, René Blattmann, María Borrajo, Guido Cabrera, Alberto Castillo, Antonio Eguino, Félix Charlar Miranda, Julio Cordero, Carmen Díaz de Polklepovic, Antonio Eguino, Laura Escobardi de Querejazu, Graciela Gismondi, Guillermo Manning Trigo, Peter McFarren, Wilson Mendieta Pacheco, Fernando Mirabal Borda, Mario Morales, Marta Nardin de Urioste, Javier Nuñez de Arco, Sergio Nuñez de Arco, Antonio Paredes-Candia, Alán Pérez Rojas, Boris Polklepovic, Hugo Poppe Entrambasaguas, Pedro Querejazu, Roberto Querejazu Calvo, Roy Querejazu Lewis, Angelica Rosenzweig, Jédu Antonio Sagáranga Meneses, Dora Salazar de Burgos, Edgar A. Valda Martinez, and Luis Velasco Crespo. In Argentina: Abel Alexander, Miguel and Mirta Cuarterolo, Roberto Ferrari, and Federico Kirbus. In Peru: Natalia Majluf. In France: Muguette Dumont. In Germany: Lothar Draeger and Andreas Krase. In the United States: Richard Buchen, Martha Davidson, Andrew Eskind, Jerry Green, Beth Ann Guynn, H.L. Hoffenberg, Diedre E. Lawrence, Robert M. Levine, Carl Mautz, Keith McElroy, Ruth Olivera, Peter Palmquist, Michelle Penhall, Ed Ranney, Yolanda Retter, Richard Rudisill, Janet Tearnan, Jennifer A. Watts, and Peter Yenne. And thanks to the following institutions for their assistance: Archivo Histórico de La Paz, La Paz, Bolivia; Biblioteca Colón, Organización de Estados Americanos, Washington, DC; Biblioteca del Congreso, La Paz, Bolivia; Archivo Histórico de Potosí, Casa de la Moneda, Potosí, Bolivia; Archivo y Biblioteca Nacional de Bolivia, Sucre, Bolivia; Biblioteca Nacional, Caracas, Venezuela; Birmingham Central Library (Benjamin Stone Collection), Birmingham, England; Brooklyn Museum of Art, Brooklyn, NY; California Museum of Photography, University of California, Riverside, CA; Casa de la Culture, Oruro, Bolivia; Getty Research Institute, Museum, Santa Monica, CA; Hispanic Society of America, New York, NY; The Huntington, San Marino, CA; International Museum of Photography, George Eastman House, Rochester, NY; John Hay Library, Brown University, Providence, RI; Latin American Library Tulane, University, New Orleans, LA; Library of Congress (Division of Prints and Photographs), Washington, DC; Museo Histórico, Tupiza, Bolivia; Museum fur Volkerkunde zu Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe, New Mexico; National Geographic Society, Washington, DC; Natural History Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC; Pattee Library (Darrah Collection), Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA; Phototheque du Musee de L'Homme, Paris, France; Pitt Rivers Museum, University of Oxford, Oxford, England; Royal Geographical Society, London, England; Sächsische Landesbibliothek (Abteilung Deustsche Fotothek), Dresden, Germany; Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, CA; and University Library (American Geographical Society Collection), University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, WI.

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Pioneer Photography in Bolivia