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A COLLECTION OF CHINESE SNUFF BOTTLES INCLUDING A SELECTION FROM

THE WHITE ORCHID COLLECTION

Chinese Snuff Bottles XVII by

Robert Hall

www.snuffbottle.com roberthall@snuffbottle.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Author: Susan Page Photography: Robert Hall Photography Produced by: Asia Marketing Design Wah Yin Agents (HK) Limited

FOREWORD We are delighted to present here our Catalogue celebrating 25 Years of TEFAF (The European Fine Art Fair). TEFAF was set up in 1988 by art and antique dealers to create a showcase for art. It has continuously changed to remain exciting and attractive to visit, and has now evolved into the largest and most successful art fair in the world, hosting nine separate art sections with more than 260 exhibitors from nearly all continents. All items in the fair are strictly vetted for authenticity and quality by a panel of over 170 experts, so that a purchaser may buy with complete confidence. We at Robert Hall have exhibited at almost every fair (we missed one in the early 1990’s due to events in Iraq) and we are proud to be able to continue our tradition of exhibiting the very finest Chinese snuff bottles with this celebratory catalogue. Each year we worry about finding bottles to exhibit. It is a constant quest to find pieces of such quality that we can proudly present them for sale. This year we are fortunate to be exhibiting jade and porcelain bottles from The White Orchid Collection, and we have supplemented these bottles with our own finds -- bottles of glass, quartz and other hardstones, organic materials and metal -- to create a catalogue representative of most materials known to snuff bottle collectors. We are delighted to have a few bottles here from the Bozzo Family Collection, of Virginia USA. Peter (Pete) Bozzo was a most charismatic fellow: his professional achievements in the US Navy were many, and he was a wonderful husband and father. We knew Pete as a collector of bottles, the type of collector who would study every detail of the piece and want to find out all he could about the story on the bottle. He would read every resource that came along and was always trying to find out more about bottles through visiting collections and handling pieces in dealers’ galleries. Pete’s collecting taste leaned towards the natural stones, the agates and the jades and he was particularly fond of silhouette or ink-play agates. Pete was present at many of the auctions in the USA, and at many of the International Chinese Snuff Bottle Society Conventions. The four bottles we have here were all purchased by him at auction in the USA in the 1990’s. Pete’s death in 2005 was most untimely, and he is sorely missed by many. The owner of the White Orchid Collection, several of whose bottles are illustrated in this catalogue, was an elegant and charming French lady who died last summer at the age of 86. She was passionately interested in Chinese snuff bottles for practically her entire life.

Born in Arras, in the north of France into a military family, she left that country while still very young, and went to Asia and then Africa where she spent many years. She purchased her first snuff bottle at the age of 17 while on a trip to Hong Kong with her parents. Amazingly, although there were no guide books available at that time, in either English or French, (Lilla Perry’s book was not published until 1960) she unerringly chose for her first acquisition a plain glass bottle with an authentic Qianlong mark and of the period. She possessed the rare gift of a discerning eye, and it never left her. She lived for several years in Vietnam, and while few snuff bottles were to be found there, she and a group of expatriate friends often went to Hong Kong for brief visits and she was able to add to her collection there. It did not seem so important to her (or, actually, to anyone else at that time!) to record a detailed provenance and date of her purchases. In this catalogue, therefore, the provenance for those bottles is given simply as ‘Hong Kong, 1950’, even though many of them were purchased there before or after that specific date. Later, she spent twenty years in Ethiopia where, snuff bottles being scarce, she became interested in local jewellery and collected several fine pieces. After returning to France, she was part of a small group of snuff bottle enthusiasts in Paris, and a founding member of the European Association of Snuff Bottle Collectors. She was also a member of the International Chinese Snuff Bottle Society for many years. She continued to collect snuff bottles with her usual enthusiasm right up to her death. Her many friends dearly miss her kindness, unfailing good humour and excellent advice. We are most grateful to the TEFAF organization for putting on such a superb fair each year. We also wish to thank the wonderful collectors we have met through exhibiting at the fair. For many of you, we were the first opportunity you had to see and examine these exquisite small objects. And you come back year after year to satisfy your desire to add to your collection. We have made friends with many of you, and thank you for that. We would like to encourage those of you who receive this catalogue but do not attend the fair to do so next year. Hop on a plane to this delightful town in the south of the Netherlands and have the art experience of a lifetime. Susan Page Robert Hall February 2012

1

Glass, opaque white, the rounded body overlaid with a layer of red and carved with precision to reveal an aquatic scene including two ducks and a flowering bough, water weed and an inscription above, the other side also with an aquatic scene with fish and water weed with a seal above. Attributed to Li Junting Yangzhou School 1800-1850 Height: 5.8cm Provenance: A Private Collection, France

2

Glass, of rounded form with an elegant flared neck, of translucent amber hue with contrasting opaque yellow mask-and-ring handles and footrim. Beijing, 1750-1820 Height: 5.3cm Provenance: Biro Collection

3

Glass, rounded form of bubblesuffused light yellow hue with red overlay carved as a formalized flower head, the sides with mask and ring handles and the footrim also carved from the overlay. Beijing, 1750-1820 Height: 5.5cm Provenance: A Private Collection, France This distinctive formalized flowerhead appears on a wide range of works of art from the early 18th Century onwards. It represents a mallow or kui flower which represents loyalty to the Emperor because the mallow, like the sunflower, follows the path of the sun during the day, suggesting ‘Obeisance to the Emperor’, who is represented by the sun.

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Glass, opaque turquoise, the faceted octagonal body with raised panels on the front and reverse. Palace Glassworks, Beijing, early 18th Century Height: 3.3cm

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Glass, translucent red, the faceted octagonal body with flat central panels on the front and reverse, the neck tall. Palace Glassworks, Beijing, early 18th Century Height :4.3 cm

6

Glass, of translucent red, the faceted octagonal body with concave central panels on the front and reverse, the neck unusually tall. Palace Glassworks, Beijing, early 18th Century Height :4.2 cm

7

Glass, translucent red, the faceted octagonal body with faceted central panels on the front and reverse. Palace Glassworks, Beijing, early 18th Century Height :4 cm

(Note for 4 – 7) Faceted forms derive mostly from European stylistic and technical influence during the early years of the Beijing Palace Glassworks which were set up in 1696. At this time, the workshops were under the direction of a Jesuit missionary named Kilian Stumpf, and there is every reason to expect European influence in design as well as manufacture. Bohemian glass of the 17th and 18th centuries is well known for faceting, and similarities with early Palace workshop production suggest a clear connection. Small size also seems to be a standard feature of some of the earlier Imperial faceted glass snuff bottles. These wonderful bottles have been raised from the tomb sites in and around Beijing. In preparation for the Olympic Games in 2008, the foothills surrounding Beijing underwent extensive excavation and a great number of tombs were unearthed containing, amongst other things, these small glass bottles.

8

Glass, opaque white with red, blue, green, yellow and turquoise overlay carved with two butterflies hovering around a bamboo plant, the reverse with prunus blossom issuing from rockwork. Beijing, 1780-1850 Height: 7.5cm

9

Glass, opaque white with maroon overlay carved in low relief with a collection of ancient vessels which contain plants or fruit, with inscription above, the sides carved with long elegant mask-and-ring handles. Yangzhou School, 1800-1850 Height: 6.2cm

10

Glass, translucent amber carved in low relief with panels on the front and reverse, one side with ancient vessels, one of which contains a prunus blossom, the reverse a panel containing archaic calligraphy, the sides carved with mask-and-ring handles. 1780-1850 Height: 6.3cm

11

Glass, of rounded form, caramel with maroon splashes resting on a neat oval footrim. 1780-1850 Height: 5.5cm Provenance: A Private Collection, Scotland

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Glass, opaque white with light blue overlay carved with a figure carrying a hoe, with a bat flying above and ruyi fungus below, the reverse with a bird carrying a branch in its beak and with a duck swimming amongst reeds below, the sides carved with long mask-and-ring handles, resting on an oval footrim. Li Junting School, Yangzhou 1800 -1850 Height: 6.7cm Provenance: Biro Collection

13

Glass, opaque white, enamelled in famille rose colours with a different type of cricket on each main side, the base with the mark Guyue xuan (‘Ancient Moon Pavilion’) in iron-red enamel. Beijing, Palace Workshops, 1770-1830 Height: 6cm Provenance: Lord and Lady Sandberg, England Similar Example: The Art of the Chinese Snuff Bottle, The J & J Collection, Moss Graham, Tsang no 201

The cricket (xishou) either alone or with its cage became a very popular subject on snuff bottles of all types in the 19th Century. This may be due to the interest in keeping and training crickets for sport and entertainment, a habit which started in the court at Beijing in the late 18th and early 19th Century. Another reason for the popularity of the subject is suggested by Victor Graham (see ‘Chinese Snuff Bottle Lore’, Journal ICSBS Summer 1984, pp 12-13. He suggests that crickets on either side of a bottle could conceivably suggest a pun meaning ‘be loyal to one’s country’ (i.e. loyal to one’s Emperor). Large quantities of Imperially made porcelain bottles were used as presentations to officials around the country, and many of these have Daoguang marks. There are only a handful of enamelled glass bottles with the subject of a cricket. The crickets on this bottle are painted in a strong and vivid manner that captures the spirited character of the insect and has all the power and confidence of the best of the Guyue Xuan wares. The shape of the bottle is also typical of the group.

14

Glass, clear, with red overlay carved with confronting dragons surrounding a shou medallion, the oval footrim also carved from the overlay. Palace Glassworks, Beijing, early 18th Century Height: 5.8cm

15

Glass; single overlay of deep red on a translucent white ground, carved in relief with two attributes of the Daoist Immortals, the fan and castanets, the reverse carved with peaches.

patron of actors and actresses and is always shown in a nobleman’s clothes. The combination of the two attributes, along with the peaches, signifies the wish to confer longevity on the owner of the bottle.

This may well be one of a set of four bottles collectively depicting the emblems of the Eight Immortals. The fan and the castanets shown on this bottle are associated with Zhongli Chuan and Cao Guojiu. The former uses the fan to revive the dead, and the latter is the

Palace Glassworks, Beijing 1736 - 1795 Height: 7.2 cm Provenance: Pamela R. Lessing Friedman Published: Robert Hall, Chinese Snuff Bottles XI, The Snowy Peaks Collection, no 34

16

Nephrite, pure white, carved on each shoulder with a mask-and-ring handle, the oval foot surrounded by a protruding oval footrim; the bottle later embellished with a gold filigree design with small rounded, floral settings centred with jadeite, tourmaline, and garnets. The bottle: 1750-1850 Filigree embellishment (possibly Indian or Chinese) late 19th or early 20th century. Height: 6.1 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Tajan sale of 20 March 2002, Lot No. 157 The White Orchid Collection

17

Nephrite, of pale olive-coloured mottled material, one side with a brown skin carved with five mischievous monkeys, young and old, having a good day collecting peaches whilst scampering around rocks with ruyi fungus, a young monkey attempting to steal a peach from a colleague whilst perched on the shoulders of an older mate. Master of the Rocks School, 1740-1850 Height: 6.6 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Beaussant Lefèvre, 18 November 2005, Lot 184 The White Orchid Collection

18

Nephrite, of rounded rectangular form, the celadon-coloured body with a mottled ochre skin on one main side skillfully carved with the legendary musician,Yu Boya, seated beneath a gnarled prunus tree with his qin on a low table while his friend, Zhong Ziqi, carrying a bundle of reeds on his back, turns his head to listen. Master of the Rocks School, 1740-1850 Height: 6.7 cm Provenance: Robert Hall, September 1996 The White Orchid Collection

Yu Boya was a talented player of the qin (the Chinese zither) in the 6th century B.C. One day, while he was drifting along the river in his boat, he took out his qin and began to play. After a few notes, he heard a sigh from the riverbank; it was Zhong Ziqi, a wood-cutter, who had stopped to listen. ‘How beautiful is the music!’ said Zhong Ziqi. ‘It sounds like a clear stream bubbling over rocks’. Boya continued to play. ‘How beautiful is the music!’ cried Zhong Ziqi again. ‘I feel as if I were on a magnificent mountain!’ Boya was amazed and delighted that Zhong Ziqi had so correctly interpreted his music. The two men quickly became friends and arranged to meet again the following year at the same place. When Boya arrived at the appointed time, however, there was no sign of his friend. He went into a nearby village and saw an old man tending a new grave – that of Zhong Ziqi, who had died of a sudden illness. Mourning that there was no more worthy listener in this world, Boya played a lament by the graveside, and then smashed his qin, vowing never to play again.

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Nephrite, white with a slight celadon hue, round, carved with the obverse and reverse of a Spanish Charles IV eight-reales coin, the foot flattened and oval.

22

19th century Height: 4.7 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Ader-Tajan-Picard sale of 29 November 1982, Lot No. 220 The White Orchid Collection

20

Nephrite, pale grey, the tall, elegantly shaped form of oval section, the upper and lower registers carved with ruyi lappets surrounding the neck and foot, the middle band containing formalized scrolls, the oval neck with a flattened rim surrounding the mouth and mirroring the foot which has been carved in the same manner. Qianlong period, 1736-1795 Height: 6.8 cm Provenance: Hong Kong, 1950 The White Orchid Collection

21

Nephrite, of tall and elegant teardrop form, left undecorated in order to accentuate its simple and flawless shape. 1780-1850 Height: 6.1cm Provenance: Private Collection, Oxford, England

Nephrite, white, of flattened rectangular shape, carved on both sides with stylized flowers and scrolling foliage patterns, the edges each with a formalized floral ridge, the neck surrounded by ruyi lappets, the footrim with an indented ridged pattern. Moghul school, 1780-1850 Height: 6.4 cm Provenance: Boscher and Oriot sale in Morlaix, France, 19 May 1996, Lot No. 288 The White Orchid Collection

23

Jadeite, the bulbous, well-hollowed body of pale mottled olive-green with slight veining throughout, the recessed base of oval shape, the neck and lip slightly flared. 1780-1850 Height: 5.1 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Jutheau Sale, 3 October 1988, Lot 83 The White Orchid Collection

24

Jadeite, emerald-green mottled with cream, the well-hollowed body carved overall with writhing dragons, some with ruyi in their mouths, others partially hidden by the natural inclusions in the material; the base flat but for a part of a dragon’s tail trailing across. 1780-1850 Height: 5.1 cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 1999 The White Orchid Collection

25

Jadeite, of flattened rectangular form, the icy white material with emerald-green inclusions, carved in light relief with ducks swimming amidst lotus plants in full bloom. 1780-1850 Height: 6.5 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Millon-Jutheau sale of 25 October 1982, Lot No. 473 The White Orchid Collection

26

Jadeite, of flattened rectangular shape, the material of the icy, misty hue with the random splashes of emerald-green that the Chinese describe as ‘pine-needles in snow’; the recessed oval foot surrounded by a narrow footrim. 1780-1850 Height: 6.4 cm Provenance: Diamantina, Paris, October 1995 The White Orchid Collection

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Jadeite, mottled emerald-green with patches of black, cream and reddishbrown, the well-hollowed body of bulbous form, with a flat foot. 1780-1850 Height: 5.6 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Delavenne and Lafarge Sale, 18 November 1985, Lot 32 The White Orchid Collection

31

Jadeite, brilliant green, of simple rectangular form resting on a recessed oval foot surrounded by a protruding oval footrim. 1780-1850 Height: 5.6 cm Provenance: Robert Hall The White Orchid Collection Published: Robert Hall, Catalogue Summer Exhibition, bi yan hu, 6–22 June, 2001

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Jadeite, pale green with darker veins, the plain bottle well hollowed and resting on a flat foot. 1780-1850 Height: 5.7cm Provenance: The Gerry Mack Collection, sold Sotheby’s New York, 25 October 1997, lot 59 The Peter and Marion Bozzo Collection, USA

Jadeite, of flattened rectangular form, mottled spinach-green with darker greenish-black markings, well hollowed, with an oval foot.

Jadeite, the mottled material with white, cream and brown areas, one side with bright emeraldgreen patches resembling a Winter landscape, the oval foot surrounded by a protruding oval footrim.

1780-1850 Height: 5.9cm

1780-1850 Height: 5.6cm

Jadeite, the exceptionally flattened, narrow body of deep-green material where the workman has striven to achieve his goal of narrowing the bottle surprisingly well, while allowing a reasonable quantity of snuff to be carried. 1780-1850 Height: 5.7cm Provenance: Galerie Espace 4, Paris, May 2003 The White Orchid Collection

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Nephrite, white, of double gourd shape, a pale brown inclusion on one side of the upper lobe expertly carved with a writhing dragon facing upwards. Probably Imperial, 1760-1820 Height: 5.1 cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, December 2003 The White Orchid Collection

34

Nephrite, of flattened shield shape, incised on the front with a bamboo plant and on the reverse with calligraphy, the incisions filled with gold enamel. 1760-1820 Provenance: The White Orchid Collection

35

Nephrite, white and brown, carved as a tightly tied bag, a brown inclusion at the neck charmingly carved as a monkey carrying a spray of flowers and clutching the bag closely. 1780-1850 Height: 6.4 cm Provenance: The Button Collection The White Orchid Collection Published: Robert Hall, The Button Collection, Chinese Snuff Bottles X, No. 111, September 2003

36

Nephrite, pure white, of flattened rectangular form, carved in shallow relief with a dragon surging from the waves that form the base of the bottle; the other side with a crane, a counter in its beak, flying above the sun which is rising from the waves. 1800 - 1880 Height: 5.6 cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 10 April 1995 The White Orchid Collection

37

Nephrite, white, realistically carved in the form of a mallow flower, the central calyx enclosed by radiating petals, well hollowed. Probably Imperial, 1736-1795 Height: 4.8 cm Provenance: Palais des Congrès, Paris, Poulain, Le Fur, Fattori Sale, 22 January 2001, Lot 68 The White Orchid Collection

38

Nephrite, of pale light coloured material with a darker light ochre coloured area which has been carved with a curling fish amongst waves, the sun amidst clouds. Height: 6.1cm Provenance: The White Orchid Collection

39

Nephrite, of squared oblong form, the mottled cream and light beige material carved on each side with two confronting formalized dragons contesting a flaming pearl; the lateral sides with a small rectangular area containing a small but formalized dragon, the rectangular foot surrounded by a protruding footrim. 1780-1850 Height: 5.9cm

40

Nephrite, white, of oval form with flattened lateral sides and a flared neck, a raised panel on each face, one enclosing a flowering prunus branch, the other a flowering peony branch; the base indented. Probably Imperial, 1780 – 1850 Height: 5.5 cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 29 March 1994 The White Orchid Collection

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Nephrite, the pale, slightly mottled stone with darker ash-coloured inclusions, the front with an ochre skin carved with a sage, his staff in his left hand, standing beneath a gnarled pine tree and facing a tall ornamental rock.

44

Master of the Rocks School, 1780-1850 Height: 6.7 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Bondu sale, 21 April 1988 The White Orchid Collection

42

Nephrite of pale material, probably artificially coloured to give it an ancient look, carved on each side with an archaic scene of a mother phoenix and young.

Master of the Rocks School, 1780-1850 Height: 6.3cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Tajan sale, 20 March 2002, Lot 133 The White Orchid Collection

45

1780-1850 Height: 6.2cm Provenance: Sotheby’s New York, 23 March 1998, lot 194 The Peter and Marion Bozzo Collection, USA

43

Nephrite, the body of the bottle with two colours, the front iron-red with some dark ash-coloured inclusions, the reverse of pale olive-green, carved overall with a continuous scene of flowering lotus, the ironred marking continuing in a band around the neck. 1780-1850 Height: 5.4cm Provenance: Private Collection, Oxford, England

Nephrite, very pale yellow, of squared form, the ochre skin on one side carved with Meng Haoran on his donkey holding a branch of flowering prunus in a landscape with a prunus tree above him and two birds in flight, while his attendant obligingly trudges along behind.

Nephrite, mottled olive colour, with two shiny brown inclusions resembling leather, each shoulder with an unusual lion mask with a long mane. 1760-1800 Height: 6.1 cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Pescheteau sale, 18 March 1991, Lot No. 36 The White Orchid Collection

46

Nephrite, green with an ochre skin on each side, the front carved with a dragon amidst clouds, the other side with a curled fish amongst waves with rocks and clouds above; the oval foot surrounded by a protruding foortrim. 1780-1850 Height: 6.6cm Provenance: The Captain’s Antiques, Victoria, B.C., Canada, 1964 Neal W. and Frances R. Hunter Sothebys New York, 15 September 1998, lot 217 The Peter and Marion Bozzo Collection ,USA

47

Nephrite, pebble form, white with some small inclusions, carved with a rocky landscape with bats and clouds above lapping waves.

50

1780-1850 Length: 6.8cm Provenance: The White Orchid Collection

1780-1850 Height: 6.3cm Provenance: The White Orchid Collection

48

Nephrite, pure white, carved as a mallow flower, with naturalistic petals, the foot also carved as part of the flower.

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Nephrite, beige and celadon, the different coloured inclusions skilfully used to carve three intertwined fish and a conch shell. 1780-1850 Height: 6 cm Provenance: Robert Hall, May 1989 The White Orchid Collection

Nephrite, white, carved as a melon with leaves and trailing tendrils, and a butterfly on one side. 1700-1800 Height: 5.5 cm Provenance: Maître Patrick Sausverd, Joigny, France, 18 November 1955, Lot 44 The White Orchid Collection

Probably Imperial, 1736 – 1795 Height: 5cm Provenance: The White Orchid Collection This shape was known to the Chinese as fengjuankui (‘mallow curling in the wind’).

Nephrite, pinkish-toned, carved as a fish lying on its belly and supported by its fins.

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Nephrite, white with grey and black inclusions, carved with baby chilong emerging from a sash wrapped around the body of the bottle. 1780-1850 Height: 4.9cm

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Nephrite, pure white, carved overall with a ‘basket-weave’ pattern, the design stopping under the base of the bottle and forming the oval protruding footrim. Probably Imperial, 1736-1795 Height: 5.6 cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 14 May 2002 The White Orchid Collection

54

Nephrite, white with slightly brown inclusions, carved with a continuous rendition of the ‘basket-weave’ design, continuing under the foot of the bottle, base of the neck with a surrounding band carved with rope work. Possibly Imperial, 1736-1795 Height: 5.1cm

55

Nephrite, pale grey, of flattened shield shape, carved overall with a tightly controlled and perfectly executed ‘basket-weave’ design surrounding the whole body and stopping just short of the oval foot rim. Possibly Imperial, 1736-1795 Height: 6.4cm

56

Nephrite, green spinach jade, the radically flattened body carved overall excepting the foot and neck with a basket-weave design, the base with an indented oval foot. Possibly Imperial, 1780-1850 Height: 5 cm Provenance: ‘Father Roth’ 13 June 1958 Avrina Pugh Collection Sotheby’s, New York, 1 April 2005, Lot 396 The White Orchid Collection

(Note for 53 – 56) The level of technical ability to carve this design is formidable and it is probable that the majority of these bottles were carved in the Palace Workshops in Beijing. The popularity of baskets in general and this design in particular may arise from the symbolism of the basket (lanzi) which may suggest male children (nanzi), one of the three desires close to the Chinese heart. These are duofu (‘plenty of happiness’) duoshou (‘plenty of years to live’) and duonanzi (‘plenty of male children’).

57

Jet, carved on one side with prunus blossom and an inscription. 1780-1850 Height: 6.5 cm Provenance: Private Collection, France

58

Coral, the substantial light coloured material carved with a goggle-eyed Fo dog chasing a beribboned brocade ball on one narrow side, with lower relief carving with floral motifs on the front and reverse. 1780-1850 Height: 5.6cm Provenance: Private Collection, France

59

Carnelian, the front, reverse, and two narrow sides with flattened panels. 1780-1850 Height: 5.4cm

60

Gourd, carved with the scene of a dog lying amongst leaves, the reverse with the head of another creature, and an inscription ‘J.L. Uyando’; the bottle with a metal neck to receive the snuff. 1800-1880 Height: 5cm

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Burlwood, of flattened form, the bottle left plain to show the attractive natural pattern. 1800-1880 Height: 6cm

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Metal, small, with an elegant flared neck and oval footrim. 1800-1880 Height: 3.4cm

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Metal, in the shape of a fish with details of scales and fins. 1800-1880 Length: 7cm

64

Gourd, of rounded form with a chain at the shoulders to create a loop for suspension and a metal neck creating a funnel to remove the snuff. 1800-1880 Height: 5.8cm

65

Macaroni agate, light grey, beige and white, well hollowed, the sides carved with mask-and-ring handles.

69

1780-1850 Height: 5.5cm

66

Chalcedony, light honey-coloured with ochre skin carved with two horses, one with raised foot, the other turning its head to nibble at its ankle, extremely well hollowed and resting on a protruding footrim.

1780-1850 Height: 5.6cm

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1780-1850 Height: 5.5cm Provenance: Private Collection, France

67

Chalcedony, of flattened rectangular form, well hollowed and resting on a protruding footrim. 1780-1850 Height : 6.5cm Provenance: Private Collection, England

68

Chalcedony, agate, with unusual vertical cream banding on a brown ground, and a cream inclusion carved with two butterflies, the reverse with a darker area carved as an aubergine. 1780-1850 Height: 5.7cm

Chalcedony, pale grey, extremely well hollowed and showing natural cloud-like markings, the unusual triangular form resting on a flat foot and with a wide mouth.

Chalcedony, light honey colour with darker inclusions minimally carved to depict two birds, both standing on rocks, with their heads turned around looking as though they are deliberately ignoring each other; the lateral sides carved with mask-andring handles, resting on a protruding footrim. 1780-1850 Height: 5.4cm

71

Chalcedony, honey colour with darker inclusions minimally carved in low relief to show five bats flying above a double gourd. 1780-1850 Height: 6.6cm Provenance: Private Collection, Oxford, England

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Chalcedony, honey-coloured with darker inclusions, carved on one side with a monkey seated on a rock holding a peach, the other side with two Buddhist lion pups, and a bird. 1780-1850 Height: 5.5cm Provenance: The Neal W. and Frances R. Hunter Collection Sotheby’s, New York, 15 September 1998, lot 245 The Peter and Marion Bozzo Collection, USA

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Porcelain, with panels on the front and reverse painted in famille rose enamels with elegant ladies involved in leisurely pursuits, one side in an interior setting and the other in a garden; the surround panels painted in underglaze-blue scrolling motifs enhanced by gold enamels; the base painted in iron-red with the mark Jiaqing nian zhi (‘Made during the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor’). Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen 1796-1820 Height: 6.3cm

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Porcelain, painted in famille rose enamels with warriors standing in a clearing, the reverse with a fishing scene; the base with a fourcharacter mark in iron-red seal script Daoguang nian zhi (‘Made during the Daoguang Period’).

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Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 5.7cm

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Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1796 – 1821 Height: 5.7cm Provenance: Galerie Di Donna, Paris, 1989 The White Orchid Collection

Porcelain, painted in famille rose enamels with a yellow hen and her six fluttering chicks, the other side with an iron-red cockerel with legs and beak picked out in yellow and black enamels; the base with a fourcharacter mark in iron-red seal script mark Daoguang nian zhi (‘Made during the Daoguang Period’). Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1821 – 1850 Height: 5.5cm Provenance: John Ault Collection The White Orchid Collection Published: Robert Kleiner, Chinese Snuff Bottles from the Collection of John Ault, 1990 , no 146

Porcelain, painted in famille rose enamels with the continuous design of two five-clawed dragons chasing a flaming pearl, all set against an incised wave ground. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 7.7cm

Porcelain, moulded in quatrefoil form, covered in a turquoise glaze and painted in famille rose and gold enamels with a continuous formalized floral design of Indian lotus on a formalized scrolling vine and leaves, the shoulders and sides also decorated with smaller flowers and scrolling vine, all outlined in thick gold; the base with a fourcharacter mark in iron-red seal script Jiaqing nian zhi (‘Made during the Jiaqing Period’).

This is one of a rare group of porcelain bottles produced to imitate cloisonné enamel.

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Porcelain, of flattened shield shape, painted in famille rose enamels with a magpie resting on a flowering prunus branch, with blooming chrysanthemum and rocks below and inscription above, the reverse with a lady seated in a pushcart and a gentleman on horseback being served refreshments in a courtyard; the base enamelled in iron-red seal script Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period’). Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 5.8cm Provenance: A Private Collection, Oxford, England

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Porcelain, moulded in the form of a squirrel on a bunch of grapes, covered in a clear glaze. Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 6.9cm Provenance: Mr. and Mrs. H E Hyde Collection

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Porcelain, moulded in the form of a squirrel on a bunch of grapes, and painted in famille rose enamels to depict the details of the fur on the animal’s back. Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 6.4cm Provenance: Gallery Bertrand de Lavergne, 24 November 2005 The White Orchid Collection The depiction of squirrels with trailing grapevines forms a rebus wishing numerous children and continuation of the family line. They imply a wish for ceaseless generations of sons and grandsons.

81

Porcelain, moulded and covered with a colourless glaze in the form of a curled lotus leaf with two buds and a beetle, the neck with a layer of brown enamel and three spur marks where the leaf was supported in the kiln.

84

Jingdezhen, 1800-1860 Height: 8cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 24 January 1995 The White Orchid Collection

82

Porcelain, biscuit with isolated areas of white glaze, moulded with nine Buddhist lions playing with beribboned brocade balls against a ground of formalized clouds; the neck with a band of leiwen above lingzhi lappets; the foot with a formalized petal border; the base and lip glazed. 1830-1880 Height: 6.6cm Provenance: Dr and Mrs Stephen Weisz Mr and Mrs John Hamilton Published: Robert Hall, Chinese Snuff Bottles III, no 62

83

Porcelain, moulded, carved, and covered with a colourless glaze illustrating the same scene from The Romance of the Three Kingdoms as that described in No. 86 below, the eyes and facial features cleverly picked out in black enamel ; the base with the four-character mark Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period’) in iron-red enamels. Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 7cm Provenance: Galerie Di Donna, Paris, 4 April 1986 The White Orchid Collection

Porcelain, carved with plump fish, three on one main side and two on the other, the eyes of each picked out in black enamel, and covered overall with a pale green glaze; the base with a four-character incised seal, Kangxi nian zhi. 1800-1900 Height: 6.2cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, October 2000 The White Orchid Collection

85

Porcelain, carved with a solitary figure in a continuous landscape with a cluster of buildings shaded by pines and other trees, with high mountains in the background and boulders in the foreground, the reverse with a lakeside scene, covered overall in a duck-egg-blue glaze. Unsigned, but possibly the work of Chen Guozhi. Jingdezhen, 1820-1860 Height: 6.8cm Provenance: Hong Kong 1950 The White Orchid Collection Similar example: Moss, Graham, Tsang: A Treasury of Chinese Snuff Bottles, Volume 6, Part 3, no 1353

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Porcelain, moulded, carved and enamelled in the famille rose palette to illustrate Chapter 90 of the Romance of the Three Kingdoms which describes the sixth of Zhuge Liang’s seven battles with the Mans, a tribe of southern barbarians. On one side, Mulu, a barbarian prince, goes into battle seated on his white elephant, holding a hand-bell and accompanied by his standard bearer, wild animals and ugly men who wore no armour and little clothing; on the reverse is shown Zhuge Liang in his light chariot and the men of Shu advancing with their model beasts belching flames; the two scenes separated by rocks and flowering trees on the lateral sides, the neck surrounded by cloud scrolls amidst which can be seen a watch tower on the city wall; the base with a four-character mark Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period’) in iron-red enamel.

87

Porcelain, moulded, carved, and painted in famille rose and gold enamels with a continuous scene known as Ba man jin bao or ‘Eight Barbarians Bearing Tribute’, representing the eight tributary states bordering China bringing gifts to the Chinese Emperor: precious objects, an elephant, two Fo dogs, and a chariot of gold ingots; the base with a four-character mark in iron-red enamels Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period’). Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1736-1795 Height: 6.7cm Provenance: Collection of the Baronesses Sapuppo and D’Essen Sotheby’s, London, 14 November 2000, Lot 142 Galerie de Lavergne, Paris Collection Didier Haegy, Paris Hotel Drouot, Paris, Pierre Bergé sale, 25 May 2004, Lot 63 The White Orchid Collection

Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1736-1795 Height: 7.2cm Provenance : Rochefort-en-Terre, July 1983 The White Orchid Collection

88

Porcelain, of double bottle form, moulded, carved and painted in famille rose and gold enamels with scenes of warriors and officials around a table in heated debate, the other side with figures talking in a courtyard with pine and clouds above, all set against a gold ground. Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 6.7cm Provenance: Palais du Mandarin, Paris, 1975 The White Orchid Collection

89

Porcelain, of cylindrical form, decorated in underglaze-blue and red with two bewhiskered five-clawed dragons chasing a flaming pearl, the base surrounded by lapping waves and with a six-character Yongzheng mark. Jingdezhen, 1800-1850 Height: 7.2cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, March 2000 The White Orchid Collection

90

Porcelain, of cylindrical form, painted in underglaze-blue with scaly fiveclawed dragons chasing a flaming pearl, with clouds and vapours in the back ground; five bats on the mouth of the bottle; the base with a sixcharacter Yongzheng mark. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 6.2cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 30 October 1992 The White Orchid Collection

91

Porcelain, of unusual form with central panels decorated in underglaze-red to depict a fisherman standing beside a rocky outcrop, the reverse with what appears to be a goat looking up at the sun, the panel surrounds decorated with scrolling lotus design with the lotus flowers in red and the vines and leaves in blue; the base with a six-character Yongzheng mark in underglaze-blue. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 7.4cm

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Porcelain, of flattened rounded form painted in famille rose and gold enamels, illustrating the subjugation of the Qing dissident, Zhang Ge’er: one side with a battle scene, with warriors recklessly throwing swords, the reverse depicts a trial scene, set in an open courtyard, with a single figure kneeling between rows of officials with hands cast down in indictment; the shoulders moulded with mask-and-ring handles, the base enamelled in regular script with the mark Yongle tang (‘Hall of Eternal Happiness’).

Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 6cm Provenance: Galerie Espace 4, Paris, March 2006 The White Orchid Collection Similar example: Moss, Graham, Tsang: A Treasury of Chinese Snuff Bottles, Volume 6, Part 3, no 1328

93

Porcelain, finely enamelled in the famille rose palette with a cricket on each main side, both with very long and flamboyant antennae, the foot inscribed in iron-red seal script Daoguang nian zhi (Made in the Daoguang period.)

Imperial kilns, Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 5.6cm Provenance: Hotel des Ventes, Versailles, France, 27 October 1985 The White Orchid Collection Crickets were a popular subject during the Daoguang period, and both these bottles are lively depictions with a great deal of anatomical detail.

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Porcelain, finely enamelled in the famille rose palette with a cricket on each main side, the foot inscribed in iron-red seal script Daoguang nian zhi (Made in the Daoguang period). Imperial kilns, Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 5.8cm

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Porcelain, flattened shield shape, decorated in famille rose enamels with one hundred boys in a garden setting, fifty boys on each side, some holding lanterns or kites, the lateral sides with a formalized scrolling motif in iron-red, the base with a fourcharacter mark in seal script mark Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period’).

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Jingdezhen, 1780-1880 Height: 6.9cm

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Imperial kilns, Jingdezhen 1750-1790 Height: 5.2cm Provenance: Marcelle Duboff Collection, Dennis G. Crow Ltd., 3 February 1997 The White Orchid Collection

Porcelain decorated in iron-red enamel with scaly, five-clawed dragons with whiskers and fierce faces, their eyes picked out in black enamel, claws and teeth in white enamel; the background incised with a wave design; the base with a Yongzheng mark in iron-red seal script. Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 6cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 1993 The White Orchid Collection

97

Porcelain, painted with an iron-red five-clawed dragon, the reverse with a phoenix with exotic plumage in famille rose enamels surrounded by cloud scrolls; the base with a fourcharacter Yongzheng mark in ironred seal script. Imperial kilns, Jingdezhen 1780-1850 Height: 6.8cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Viviane Jutheau sale, 4 October 1993, Lot 59. The White Orchid Collection

Porcelain, cylindrical, decorated in iron-red with central shou characters surrounded by bands of ruyi, the shoulders with a bat and floral design and the neck surrounded by leiwen. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 7.5cm Provenance: Private Collection, Oxford, England

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Porcelain, of round flattened form, each face painted in vivid famille rose enamels with a brightly coloured butterfly above melons dripping from a leafy flowering vine.

Yixing stoneware, of rare lobed melon form, the vertical grooves perfectly and evenly tapered towards the base. Yixing, 1780 – 1850 Height: 5.3cm Provenance: Robert Kleiner, 3 December 2007 The White Orchid Collection

101

Porcelain, of cylindrical form, decorated in iron-red with a fiery fiveclawed dragon chasing a flaming pearl, the base surrounded by waves painted with light green enamel. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 7.4cm Provenance: Private Collection, Oxford, England

102

Porcelain, painted in famille rose enamels with ducks under lotus, the base with a worn four-character mark Daoguang nian zhi (‘Made during the Daoguang Period’). (wear overall)

104

Imperial Kilns, Jingedezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 5.9cm Provenance: Hong Kong, 1950 The White Orchid Collection

103

Porcelain, painted in famille rose enamels with two magpies swooping around a wave, with weeping willow framing the scene; the reverse with iron-red and black bats flying amidst clouds above a fantastic rock which creates white frothy waves, the sides with raised mask-and-ring handles; the foot inscribed in iron-red seal script Daoguang nian zhi (‘Made during the Daoguang Period’). Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 5.6cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Viviane Jutheau sale 4 October 1993, Lot 52 The White Orchid Collection Published: Moss, Hugh M. An Exhibition of Chinese Snuff Bottles, June 1970, No. 275

Porcelain, painted in famille rose enamels with two doves on each main side, one side with a pair with lighter coloured markings standing beside an orchid, the other with grey doves near bamboo; the foot inscribed in iron-red seal script Daoguang nian zhi (‘Made during the Daoguang Period’). Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1821-1850 Height: 5.3cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, November 2001 The White Orchid Collection

105

Porcelain, of pebble form, painted in famille rose enamels with bug-eyed cicadas clinging to a bamboo plant emerging from green flowers, the reverse with a cicada and a butterfly also on green flowers, with aquatic plants including floating water lilies and reeds. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 6.1cm Provenance: Palais du Mandarin, Paris, January 1991 The White Orchid Collection

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Porcelain, moulded and painted in famille rose and gold enamels with a small boy, with a top knot and smiling face, embracing a large double gourd, the base with a six-character mark Da Qing Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period of the Qing Dynasty’) in iron-red enamel. Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1736-1795 Height: 5cm Provenance: Robert Kleiner Galerie de Lavergne, Paris Collection Didier Haegy Hotel Drouot, Paris, Pierre Bergé sale, 25 May 2004, Lot 55, and illustrated on Catalogue cover The White Orchid Collection Published: Robert Kleiner & Co. Catalogue 1997, No. 41

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Porcelain, moulded and enamelled in the form of a double fish, painted with iron-red enamel, with the eyes picked out in black and with an area of yellow enamel at the neck. Jingdezhen, 1800-1850 Height: 6.1cm Published: Viviane Jutheau, Guide du Collectionneur de Tabatières Chinoises, page 91

108

Reticulated porcelain, moulded, carved and pierced with four bats surrounding a shou medallion, with geometric floral motif surrounds and a key fret design on the shoulders, the whole outer case covered with a yellow glaze. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 6.3cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, September 2006 The White Orchid Collection

109

Porcelain, moulded in the form of a Fo dog seated with its paw on a brocade ball, with an adorable puppy looking up at him, painted in predominantly blue enamels with eyes picked out in black and curling black hairs (wear to some areas). Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 7.1cm Provenance: Espace 4 Gallery, Paris The White Orchid Collection

110

Porcelain, of flattened shield shape, a slightly convex panel on each side, painted with famille rose and gold enamels, one side with an idyllic landscape showing a fisherman wading with a net in a lake with his companion slowly getting into the water, and with a farmer using a hoe and a small boy in attendance, the reverse with a family in an interior setting eating at a table, the parents feeding the children with chopsticks, with a small child in a basket which acts as a highchair; the lateral sides decorated in underglaze-blue with a formalized scrolling motif, and the base with a four-character mark in iron-red seal script Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period’).

113

Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen,1750-1795 Height: 5.3cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Millon-Jutheau sale, 12 December 1985, Lot 33 The White Orchid Collection Published: Viviane Jutheau, Guide du Collectionneur de Tabatières Chinoises, page 86

111

Porcelain, of flattened shield shape, painted in famille rose and gold enamels, one side with figures seated around a table under a pine tree, the other with a lady walking through the countryside carrying packages, accompanied by children, the base with a four-character mark in iron-red seal script Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong period’) Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 5.6cm Provenance: Hotel Drouot, Paris, Ader Tajan sale 11 March 1993, Lot 158. The White Orchid Collection

112

Porcelain, moulded, carved and reticulated, covered with iron-red enamel, one side with a phoenix against a cloud ground and the other with a dragon against a cloud ground, with ruyi lappets above and below, the base with the four-character mark Jiaqing nian zhi (‘Made during the Jiaqing Period‘) in gold enamel. Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1796-1820 Height: 7.5cm

Porcelain, moulded, carved and painted in famille rose and gold enamels with an illustration of Chapter 74 of The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Pang De’s campaign to liberate Fancheng City and his defeat by Guan Yu who opened the dams and flooded the valley where Pang De’s men were camped. On one side can be seen Guan Yu and his standard bearer in a boat, the reverse with five men drowning, Pang De clinging to his overturned craft and Zhou Cang, Guan Yu’s sword bearer, on a raft holding a spear and about to capture Pang De, all on an incised wave ground with rockwork around the base and sides, cloud scrolls around the neck, the base with the four-character mark Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong period’) in iron-red enamel. Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 7cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 1995 The White Orchid Collection

114

Porcelain, moulded and painted in famille rose and gold enamels with an array of archaic pots and vessels containing flowers and plants, a tripod censer emitting smoke, a rolled scroll and auspicious fruit; the sides decorated with mask-and-ring handles; the base with a four-character mark Qianlong nian zhi (‘Made during the Qianlong Period’) in iron red enamel. Imperial Kilns, Jingdezhen, 1780-1800 Height: 7.1cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, September 2003 The White Orchid Collection

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Porcelain, painted in underglaze-blue with a scholar seated in a garden looking at the sun above, the reverse with a scholar inscribing a rockface, with a boy in attendance, the neck surrounded by a band of ruyi.

118

Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 4.1cm Provenance: Jean-Pierre Benoist Collection Robert Hall The White Orchid Collection

Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 4.4cm Provenance: A Private Collection, Oxford, England

116

Porcelain, painted in underglaze-blue with a scholar being approached by his attendant carrying prunus blossom, the reverse with the attendant carrying a Qin and presenting it to a scholar; the bottle of amphora form with an unusual pierced foot and the shoulders with insects in place of mask handles. Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 5cm Provenance: Robert Hall, 25 February 1992 The White Orchid Collection

117

Porcelain, soft-paste, of vase form, painted in underglaze-blue with a continuous scene from Xiyou ji (‘The Pilgrimage to the West’), showing Xuancong (Tripitaka) with the Dragon Horse and Sun Wu (Monk) meeting Zhu Ba Jie (Pigsy) for the first time at the entrance to Cloudy Path Cave, the neck with a ruyi-head border, the base with a six-character Yongzheng mark. Jingdezhen, 1800-1850 Height: 5.6cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, October 1999 The White Orchid Collection

Porcelain, a small snuff jar, painted in underglaze-blue with scrolling lotus leaves and flowers, the base with a six-character Yongzheng mark.

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Porcelain, a small snuff jar painted in underglaze-blue with the continuous design of ‘The Three Friends’, pine, prunus and bamboo, with clouds surrounding the neck. Jingdezhen, 1800-1880 Height: 4.7cm

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Porcelain, soft paste, decorated with a continuous scene of The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Jingdezhen 1780-1850 Height: 6.5cm Provenance: Galerie de Lavergne, Paris, September 2006 The White Orchid Collection

121

Porcelain, painted in underglazeblue with the Eight Buddhist Symbols set against a design of ribbons, the neck surrounded by leiwen, the base with a six-character Yongzheng mark. Jingdezhen, 1780-1850 Height: 5.6cm Provenance: A Private Collection, Oxford, England

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Robert Hall Publications Hall, Robert. Chinese Snuff Bottles. London: Robert Hall, 1987 Chinese Snuff Bottles II. London: Robert Hall, 1989 Chinese Snuff Bottles III. London: Robert Hall, 1990 Chinese Snuff Bottles IV. London: Robert Hall, 1991 Chinese Snuff Bottles V. From the Collection of Mr. And Mrs. Robert Trojan. London: Robert Hall, 1992 Chinese Snuff Bottles VI. From the Collection of Lionel Copley. London: Robert Hall, 1993 (Part 1) Chinese Snuff Bottles VI. From the Collection of Lionel Copley. London: Robert Hall, 1994 (Part 2) Chinese Snuff Bottles VII. The Art of an Imperial Addiction, London: Robert Hall, 1995 Chinese Snuff Bottles VIII. Made in China. Porcelain Snuff Bottles from Jingdezhen, London: Robert Hall, 1996 Chinese Snuff Bottles IX. Chinese Whispers, London: Robert Hall, 1999

Chinese Snuff Bottles. Masterpieces from the Rietberg Musuem. Zurich, London: Robert Hall, 1993 Chinese Snuff Bottles X. The Button Collection, London: Robert Hall, 2003 Chinese Snuff Bottles XI. The Snowy Peaks Collection, London: Robert Hall, 2005 Chinese Snuff Bottles XII. A Must Have Accessory, London: Robert Hall, 2007 Chinese Snuff Bottles XIII. The Boston Snuff Party, London: Robert Hall, 2008 Chinese Snuff Bottles XIV. Irish Mist, London: Robert Hall, 2009 Chinese Snuff Bottles XV, The SB Collection, London: Robert Hall, 2011 Chinese Snuff Bottles XVI, Serendipity, London: Robert Hall, 2011

QING DYNASTY CHRONOLOGY Shunzhi Kangxi Yongzheng Qianlong Jiaqing Daoguang Xianfeng Tongzhi Guangxu Xuantong

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Robert Hall

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Robert Hall Chinese Snuffbottle XVII