Nedayeh Mardom #2
This is the second issue of Nedayeh Mardom, a Toronto-based youth newspaper that is primarily distributed in the Afghan and Iranian community as well as university campuses. Check it out, and if you like what you see, link up with us at email@example.com
DECEMBER 2009 ISSUE #2 NEDAYEH MARDOM THE AFGHAN-IRANIAN YOUTH PRESS Karzai DeclareD PresiDent Runoff Elections Cancelled as Abdullah Withdraws Candidacy Hamid Karzai, arguably the most out of favour candidate of the recent elections, has been declared president. Of course, it is practically impossible for any unpopular political figure to win in a fair and truly democratic election. Undeniably, the Afghan elections were a sham. It is clear that this fact could not be disputed, even by the western powers, when the puppet by Navid Lal government seceded to demands for a runoff election. The purpose of the runoff was to have a final vote on the two leading candidates and to remove any doubts about the validity of the process. However, as with the initial election, the runoff proved to be completely illegitimate. The initial election produced results from polls, showing Karzai and Dr. Abdullah as the two leading candidates. Afghanistan's Independent Election Commission (IEC), which was comprised mostly by associates of Karzai, produced polling results stating that Karzai received 54.6% and Abdullah received 27.8% of the votes. The number of votes attained by Karzai was highly disputed due to substantial widespread fraud and the United Nations' Electoral Complains Commission (ECC) took action. Ultimately, after the ECC's audit, Karzai ended up with 49.7% of the legitimate votes, and Abdullah with 30.6%. In an attempt to brush off the tarnished image of the election and to avoid a runoff, American diplomats such as John Kerry rushed in to wager a power sharing deal between Karzai and Abdullah. This effort aimed to end the election with what they called a "legitimate outcome". Fortunately, Abdullah did not accept any power sharing deals and demanded a runoff election. Abdullah also demanded the resignation of three of the IEC officials who appeared to have close ties with the Karzai party. ...continued on pg 2 and organized means of struggle is becoming more significant. The recent Haft Tapeh sugar cane cutters strike, which ended in victory, saw many of its union leaders arrested by the regime. The pipe workers in Ahvaz not only went on strike, but also joined the mass demonstrations. Oil workers have also entered the arena, with a recent protest fighting to get back unpaid wages. These developments are quite significant given the key role that workers must play in the oncoming revolution. Encouragingly, the Iranian Left is actively agitating for a general worker strike in Iran. We look to the future with great optimism. Forward with the Iranian Revolution! november 4th UPrisings; "Death to the DictatorshiP" by Farshad Azadian Iranian People See Through the "Anti-imperialist" Rhetoric of the Islamic Regime Iran is a revolutionary one, and that people have gone beyond Moussavi. The "reformist" camp of the Islamic regime, who are in opposition to Ahmadinejad, represent another wing of the same murderous ruling elite. They have, over the last months, begun to lose the confidence of a growing number of people who are becoming radicalized by the inaction of these reformists. We are seeing left-leaning students play a growing and more central role in the movement, with workers entering the political arena with more force. Just as rightwing forces decry, or sometimes live in denial of, the increased militancy of the Iranian people, some who call themselves leftists have also criticized the movement in Iran. This group has declared the Islamic Regime as anti-imperialist, and has accused the people's uprisings of being US-backed. To the contrary, both American Imperialism and the Iranian Capitalist class are united in their fear of the revolutionary movement of the Iranian people. Workers are also playing a growing role in standing up to the Islamic regime. While working class Iranians have played a significant part in the protests from the beginning, the use of collective On November 4th 2009, a day officially sanctioned for celebration of the 1979 US embassy occupation, mass demonstrations swept through cities across Iran. That the movement in Iran has not died down may have surprised some commentators, but it showed quite clearly that the revolutionary movement continues to move forward, with increased militancy and the continued political development of the masses. Marches were seen across Tehran, Shiraz, Rasht, Mashhad, Isfahan, Ahvaz, Tabriz, Arak, Yasooj, Tafresh and Shahre Kord among others, clashing with police and basij paramilitary forces. Many were injured, arrested and the state's repressive apparatus went to great lengths to prevent communication and even movement within Tehran itself. These efforts did little to prevent the protests, where people burned pictures of Khamenei and chanted "Death to Khamenei", demonstrating the popular intention of the movement to bring down the Islamic Regime. Many have argued that the goal of the movement is not, or perhaps should not be, a revolution. This view, which is relatively common here in Toronto, suggests that the road forward is through reforms and non-violent protests. These same reformists, just months ago, would never has considered the possibility of the militant street protests we saw today. Even the Western Corporate media, such as the Washington Post, has suggested that the situation in Founding StatementS ............... pg 2 We will not forget ........ PG 2 American Hegemony ... PG 2 Divide and Conquer ..... PG 3 Ontario Workers ......... PG 3 Malalai Joya ............... PG 4 Workers in Iran ............ PG 4 Hichkas ..................... PG 4 INSIDE get involved ............ pg 2 We Will not Forget Remembering the Next Generation of Fallen Comrades by Farshad Azadian islamic Regime puts Kurdish Revolutionaries to the Firing Squad in 1979. I fought furious tears as I read about Ehsan Fattahian; fallen comrade, revolutionary hero and just one more of our brave youth executed by the Islamic regime. I was thinking about writing this article during the past few days while riding on Toronto's streetcars, where many Canadians wore poppies to mark Remembrance Day. As a youth I sat through those Remembrance Day assemblies at school. My thoughts were always elsewhere � not in the battlefields of Europe or Korea where Canadians fought, but thinking of Evin Prison and Khomeini's firing squads � not concerned with 1914 or 1944, but with 1981 and 1988. Those were significant to me. That was where a generation of our bravest and finest paid with their lives for a genuine democratic and socialist Iran. Many of us Iranian-Canadian youth have parents who fled Iran during those same years and many of us, by the time we were in grade school, were curiously asking about our family history; of fleeing Iran, of years in prison, of torture and of their many comrades who were murdered. The same indignity and fury that we felt when learning about the stories of how our families had ended up in Canada, we now feel again. As youth hear the names of Neda and Ehsan, as we hear of the hundreds who are now in prison or who have been killed, we pay our respects to this new generation of revolutionary heroes. We youth must carry forward the work that our parents took on before us. Our fellow youth in Iran are doing so bravely in the face of batons, teargas, bullets and prison bars. As we pay our respects, we renew our commitment to support the struggle for democracy and socialism in Iran. A concrete task to which we are obligated is to ensure that not a single political refugee fleeing the Islamic Regime is denied refuge in or deported from Canada. The revolutionary struggle that has brought many of us to Canada continues to move forward, paid for in the blood of the next generation of Iranians, and we too must play our part in that struggle. Continued from pg 1... KaRZai pReSident Karzai finally announced that there would be a runoff election, but he refused to have his associates in the so called Independent Election Commission dismissed. Rachel Reid of the Human Rights Watch noted, "It's hard to see how a second round can be credible." Without any measures to make a second round more credible, Abdullah saw no reason to further take part in an unfair election. As well, he had thought that if he was to withdraw from the runoff that the United States or UN would work to ensure fair conditions in the second round. Abdullah's faith in the legitimacy of these imperialist powers led to his downfall. Following Abdullah's withdrawal, the US and Britain began pushing for a rapid coronation of Hamid Karzai. With an illegitimate Karzai government in power for the next five years, the prospects for a progressive Afghanistan are bleak. The imperialist NATO and UN forces are currently in Afghanistan supposedly to fight an authoritarian and extremist Taliban; however, their support of an illegitimate government will only work to increase corruption and strengthen the Taliban insurgency. Growing instability produced by the elections is exactly what the United States aimed to achieve in order to further strengthen their presence in the region. These elections clearly exhibited the fact that the real losers of this war of conquest are the Afghan people. by: Rashin Alizadeh ehsan Fattahian, Kurdish Communist and Revolutionary, executed on november 11th, 2009. shorteneD & rePrinteD FoUnDing statement oF the aFghan-iranian YoUth netWorK the enD oF american hegemonY? The Afghan-Iranian Youth Network has come together around the following basic points, uniting our work as we move forward: � We are united in our opposition to the Islamic dictatorship ruling over Iran. Furthermore, we are firmly opposed to any type of foreign imperialism in Iran, particularly in the form of military aggression and economic destabilization. � We also express a fierce opposition to the imperialist occupation of Afghanistan by UN-mandated NATO forces, and as an organization based in Canada, we hope to play a particular role in exposing and challenging Canadian imperialism. While we support the resistance of Afghans, we make our opposition to the reactionary forces of political Islam clear. � We refuse to decide between foreign imperialism and reactionary Islamic forces back home, rather, we actively support the progressive movements in our countries. � We are determined to take up the issues that affect our Diasporic communities, as well as those of the broader working class people of Canada. We call on all Afghan and Iranian youth to get active and organized within the youth network, and to become active in their communities, workplaces and schools. The Afghan-Iranian Youth Network and our publication, "Nedaye Mardom", are grassroots initiatives. We need your involvement to continue to grow and to build a movement that can fight for a better society. afghan-iranian Youth network Since WWII, the American dollar has dominated the world economy because of the US promise to back its bills with gold. Nixon later removed this criterion to finance expenses. The country could then print its money without gold backing, resulting in increasing flow of US dollars within the world economy. Were it not for the dollars' popularity in economic trading, such mass printing would diminish the value of the currency as it did in Germany in 1923. As the American economy neared a collapse last year, worried government officials of Gulf states, China, Russia, France and Japan held secret meetings to discuss their risked capital. Now these countries, as well as Venezuela, are considering trading oil with the Euro, Japanese Yen, Chinese Yuan, gold or a new regional currency instead of the dollar. In 1999, Saddam Hussein made a decision to trade oil in Euros, and 4 years later was attacked by the Americans and British in "pursuit" of democracy and world security. After the occupation, oil transactions returned to trade in American dollars and therefore American control. The US influence as a consequence of recent wars in Asia has provided America with oil profits, while preventing a Russian regional monopoly and reducing Chinese domination in the area. However with the abandonment of the dollar the United States will no longer be able to have control through military occupation which could mean the demise of the American hegemony. All of the military tactics pursued by the American government are serving big business profits while burdening every household with its costs. The expenses of the wars are borne onto working Americans who are only left with inferior living standards and reduced social services due to budget cuts to reduce debt. The average citizen will be hit the hardest with the demise of the US dollar, leading to the collapse of the American economy which may end the country's global dominance. layout editor PEDRAM MOSSALLANEJAD FARSHAD AZADIAN REZA ESHTERAKI afghan issues editor SHAFIQULLAH AZIZ english editor farsi editor PG. 2 writers RASHIN ALIZADEH NAVID LAL FARID AZADIAN ARMAN NOORY The Afghan-Iranian Youth Network is a grassroots youth initiative. The only way we can continue to grow is with your involvement. The paper is completely funded by members and supporters. To get involved with the paper, or to become a donor, please contact us by email at AfghanIranianYouth@Gmail.com ISSUE #2 DECEMBER 2009 Imperialist Occupation of Afghanistan Deepens Ethnic Divisions There is a growing separation between Pashtuns and the Afghan government. Pashtuns, the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, are increasingly alienated and isolated from the rest of the country. The Tajik ethnic group constitutes approximately 24% of the country's 33 million Afghans, the second largest group after the Pashtuns who account for 42%. American and NATO forces actively propagate conflict between these two major ethnic groups, siding with the Tajiki minority. Closely examining the distribution of power throughout the country's military and intelligence ministries, it is easy to understand that the national government in Kabul is dominated by a Tajiki minority. Hamid Karzai, who is ethnically Pashtun, has been instated as the president of this Tajikidominated government, lending it an thin fa�ade of equal representation. The high ranking officials in the government from this minority group are comprised of those members that were former Northern Alliance ministers. The Northern Alliance, which primarily consists of Tajiks, retained power of government for a short period in the early 1990s after Russia withdrew its troops, only to be taken over by the Taliban a few years later. During the NATO led invasion in 2001, the US and allied forces backed Northern Alliance militants to overthrow the Talib government. A resurgence of power within the Northern Alliance, and international backing, allowed these militants to slaughter tens of thousands of Pashtuns who they erroneously deemed to be a part of Taliban or Al Qaeda. After this massacre, Taliban forces were overwhelmed, and the Northern Alliance, under the guise of liberating women and fighting the war on terror, once again gained control of government. Those that were largely responsible for this carnage, presently hold prestigious and powerful positions in government. As Afghanistan has been in a state of continual war for the past 30 years, the defence and intelligence ministries are integral and considerably powerful institutions within the government. The offices of the Defence Minister, Minister of Intelligence, Speaker of the House of Parliament, and Chief of Staff of the Army, are under the control of those who were loyal to the Northern Alliance. Mohammed Qasim Fahim was the Defence Minister and Vice President during the transitional administration under Karzai in 2002-2004. As the senior-most military commander with the lifetime rank of marshal, Mohammed Fahim, also known as "Marshal Fahim", holds and exercises tremendous influence over the country's military and security operation. He had a prominent position in the Northern Alliance as Minister of Intelligence, and later Defence Minister. Marshal Fahim is an ethnic Tajik from Panjshir province. Bismillah Khan Mohammadi is the Chief of Staff of the Afghan National Army since 2002 and was the Deputy Minister of Defence of the Northern Alliance. The Chief of Staff is effectively the official leader of the army, and has extensive power. Mohammadi is an ethnic Tajik from Panjshir province. Amrullah Saleh is the Head of the National Security Directorate which controls the civilian and military secret police, and is also in charge of intelligence services. The National Security Directorate is largely seen as anti-Pashtun and pro-Northern Alliance because it is dominated by the original Northern Alliance Group. Saleh is an ethnic Tajik from Panjshir province. Yunus Qanuni is currently the Speaker of the House of the Afghan Parliament. He served as Interior Minister under the Northern Alliance government and the transitional administration of DiviDe anD conqUer by: Shafiqullah Aziz Karzai. Qanuni was involved in the creation of the Northern Alliance and took de facto control with Marshal Fahim and Abdullah Abdullah in 2001. Qanuni is an ethnic Tajik from Panjshir province. Ahmad Zia Massoud is the current First Vice President of Afghanistan in the Karzai administration, and is also the younger brother of former Northern Alliance leader, Ahmad Shah Massoud. As an ambassador in the Karzai transitional administration, he was also an important player in the Northern Alliance, partaking in the entire direction of resistance in the Panjshir Valley during the Soviet occupation. Ahmad Zia Massoud is an ethnic Tajik from Panjshir province. All of these Panjshiris hold extensively powerful positions in the government of Afghanistan. They assemble key ranks on all levels of military, intelligence, and legislative bodies of the government. These former Northern Alliance Panjshiris effectively control the entire operation of the Afghan government. The prominent members of the Northern Alliance have been accused of human rights abuses, war crimes, and drug trafficking. For all intents and purposes, American and NATO forces have simply chosen to support one ethnicity over another. The standard application of the imperialist rule of divide and conquer by incorporating a very concentrated group of powerful and affluent Panjshiris, has effectively caused tremendous instability in the country, pitting the two largest ethnic groups against each other for rule of government. Without stability in Afghanistan, and the unity of all ethnicities that reside in the country, there can be no progression towards peace. The division of ethnicities perpetuated by the imperialist US forces allows for a more commanding foreign control of the government. If Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks cannot come together and rise up against foreign occupation, it will be long before the country will see independence from imperialist rule. goes to print, there is a huge strike happening in Sudbury. It is evident that workers have moved and this is reflecting itself in a shift to left in the leadership of unions, too: just listen to Leo Gerard, USW's International President, giving by far the most leftist speech in NDP Convention in Halifax; CEP talking of Nationalization under worker's control; and Wayne Samuelson, OFL's President, saying he thinks that we will witness a "Fightback" by workers. This has, of course, shown itself in the political arm of the unions; the NDP. Andrea Horwath, who was a leadership candidate, differentiated herself by calling for "not adjusting" and "not keeping Socialism at door". It was in this spirit that the NDP rank-and-file elected her against Peter Tabuns, who was the candidate of the party brass. There remain significant criticisms of Horwath, particularly over her resorting to "Buy Ontario" measures, which are unlikely to save jobs in the province. Regardless, there is no doubt that she is to the left of the party bureaucracy, and her election as a self-styled "working-class girl" to the party leadership represents a shift to the left in NDP Ontario. Another factor that is indicate of this shift to the left is the increase in presence of Marxists (who are gathered around the ideas of a journal called Fightback) in the NDP. It is our role, as youth and students, to support the growing left-wing mood among the working class in Ontario and struggle shoulderto-shoulder with them. We should support the NDP and its shift to the left under Horwath, however, we should demand that the NDP turn to a clear socialist program. The election of a working-class premier to Ontario will be a step forward in the struggle towards socialism in Ontario and across Canada. PG. 3 ontario WorKers: Witnessing by: Reza Eshteraki a clear shiFt to the leFt The crisis of capitalist system has thrown the world into convulsions over the last year. The economic collapse has exposed the bankruptcy of capitalism as an economic system, and has rallied the different bourgeois governments to the task of struggling for the system's survival. They are now talking about green shoots of recovery. All evidences prove that "Recovery", when it comes, will be even worse for us workers and people: it will mean more cuts and more attacks on our wages, pensions and overall standard of living. A simplistic view would immediately come to the conclusion that we are now entering, in the near future, a period of a rising working class struggle against Capitalism. That's not, however, how the class struggle works. Working class people are very practical, and often their initial response to a crisis is often fear and an unwillingness to fight back. The entrance of workers into the scene of struggle will take another few years. However, there is one place in the world where there is an exception to this rule: Canada and in particular, Ontario. The reason for this is that in Ontario, crisis has been ongoing for some time now. This crisis has come under different names before the financial meltdown and the international crisis of capitalism; the 9/11 crisis, the SARS crisis and, most importantly, the decline in the manufacturing sector, which is the heart of our province's economy. According to Statistics Canada, there are currently 770,000 workers in Ontario employed in manufacturing. When Dalton McGuinty's Liberals took power in 2003, this number was close to 1.4 million. That is why we are already witnessing a clear shift to the left in Ontario. Unlike most places in developed world, we have been witnessing workers fighting back in the recent months. We had factory occupations all over GTA and Southern Ontario. There was a massive Toronto City Workers strike which ended in a victory for the workers and before that we had York University workers who striked for three months in the dearth of winter to be finally legislated back to work by the government. As this paper DECEMBER 2009 ISSUE #2 by: Reza Eshteraki malalai JoYa's message: "canaDa oUt Toronto hosts no shortage of events that progressive-minded people find of interest. However, a recent talk given by Malalai Joya, an expelled Afghan MP, was one of the best I have ever attended. Her denouncement of the NATO occupation of her native Afghanistan, coupled with her opposition to the Taliban as well as the Islamic Fundamentalist regime in Iran was particularly powerful. Malalai was brought into the international spotlight with her 2003 election to the Loya Jirga, an assembly for ratification of the Constitution of post-Taliban Afghanistan. There she gave a 90 second speech that changed her life. She openly questioned the legitimacy of the assembly because of the presence of "felons" and "warlords". She was quickly expelled by the chairman Mojaddedi. Malalai has since been an international voice for the situation of women in Afghanistan and she has been unique in her uncompromising, revolutionary stance against US, Canada and NATO occupiers as well as the reactionary Taliban. She continues the fight inside Afghanistan but has also made a habit of going in speaking tours around the world to raise attentions to her country and her work. oF aFghanistan!" Malalai spoke in two engagements in Toronto as part of a cross-Canada tour that included promotion of her newly published book titled "A Woman Among Warlords: The Extraordinary Story of an Afghan Who Dared to Raise Her Voice". She had been heard before in Canada by her speech in NDP Convention in Quebec City, whereas NDP proudly became the only major federal party to call for bringing the troops home. Olivia Chow, current NDP Foreign critic, also spoke with Joya, together with Nila Zamani, Afghan-Iranian activist and a US war resister. When Malalai was asked by the author of this article about the revolutionary movement in Iran, we were very pleased to hear her fiery message of support to Iranians masses. She not only gave her full enthusiastic support to the anti-regime movement in Iran (which she said has been an inspiration to people in Afghanistan and all over the world) but compared Khomeini, founder of what she calls "Facist regime in Iran", to Hitler and Mussolini and also warned on Iranian masses not to be deceived by the "Reformists like Mousavi and Karoubi" whose hands are soaked in blood. We hope her voice is a reminder to Canadians that their army and tax money is not helping the Afghan people, but rather, serves reactionary figures such as Karzai and many ex-taliban forces. The struggle she has fought also highlights that it is unacceptable for left-wing forces to support reactionary Islamic political formations in the Middle East. On the happy occasion of she her visit to our city, we are compelled to say once more: Canada out of Afghanistan Now! the strUggle oF the WorKers in iran by: Farid Azadian Workers in Iran commonly face persecution at the hands of the Islamic republic of Iran, a regime which offers them few civil and labour rights. Conditions of workers have reached a significant low point with the official unemployment rate currently at 12.5%. The actual unemployment rate believed to be a much higher figure somewhere in 17-18% range. Since 2007 alone, the minimum wage has been cut by nearly half; from the equivalent of 432 to 263 dollars a month. Workers in Iran have no legal right to organize independent labour unions, and are only offered the possibilities of joining various forms of Islamic worker associations. In actuality these associations work against the interests of workers, are largely controlled by the bosses and act as an extension of the regime. Attacks on workers in Iran are frequent. Mansour Osanloo, the head of the syndicate of workers of Tehran and Suburbs Bus Company, represents some 17,000 bus workers and has been imprisoned in Evin since 2007 where he faced terrible torture. He is among thousands of other political prisoners who face brutal treatment in the regime's prisons. Union activists who try to uphold the rights of workers are frequently arrested and imprisoned without trials. In other cases, workers who try to organize themselves and strike are attacked or replaced by a scab workforce. This past May Day, workers and activists gathered at Laleh Park to protest the everworsening conditions they live in. The government responded with violence and arrests. We should not lose sight of the fact that the Islamic government is based on a capitalist system. Upper class Iranians are interested solely in making money and exploiting workers; these are the true enemies of the working class. In response to this, independent labour unions boycotted the past elections due to the fact that none of the candidates were offering anything beneficial to workers. That is, the candidates were united in their disregard for working class people. In spite of this repression, there have been important working class victories and the struggle is moving in a positive direction. Recently, 4000 brick workers won a pay raise after engaging in a 17-day illegal strike. This is a signal to all workers to organize and fight for much needed improvements to their work conditions. There has also been a growing involvement of workers in the uprising movement in Iran, often through strikes and work slowdowns. What is clear is that workers in Iran, organizing collectively, are playing a growing role in fighting the antiworker Islamic regime. The ruling elite rightfully fears this movement because of its potential to advance the current Iranian protest movement. noboDY by: Arman Noory Does iranian hiPhoP liKe hichKas campaign, three recording studios were raided by state officials as well as at least six musicians arrested. One of the arrested was Reza Pishro, a fellow rapper and member of Hichkas' entourage. For days during this campaign, rapper Hichkas was considered at large and Mahdyar Aghajani was forced to flee his home country at the age of 18. Hichkas continues to receives attention from foreign news outlets, having already been interviewed by BBC and the Daily Show. He explained to a BBC interviewer that he believes the 1979 revolution was progressive and good, however it was a creation of a previous generation; he emphasizes that the new generation of Iranians must put everything right from within, such as culture and economy, in an effort to move forwards rather than backwards. In his interview with Iranian online magazine Persianesque, when asked regarding which songs were specifically disliked by the Islamic Republic, Aghajani responded Top-selling Iranian rapper Soroush Lashkary, better known by his stage name "Hichkas," is no stranger to state persecution and resistance. He and Mahdyar Aghajani, who composed the beats of their acclaimed album "Jangale Asfalt," have created a fresh and unique Iranian hip-hop sound using traditional Iranian instruments. The two have never received official permission to release their music on CD and the possession and exchange of their music is deemed illegal. Lashkary himself is forbidden from performing in and leaving the country. Hichkas' socially conscious lyrical content touches on government indifference towards the masses, unemployment, and violence in daily life. Despite the fact that Hichkas, like many other critical-minded Iranians, must already commit to a degree of self-censorship for safety, he has been arrested multiple times for his music, including once immediately after the release of Jangale Asfalt. In spring of 2007, during the Islamic Republic's "moralization" PG. 4 citing the songs "Ghanoon" and "Ekhtelaaf." Aghajani continued to say that "there was a problem because he is a rapper, ... he was the most known, he was targeted in their efforts to destroy Iranian hip hop. "Ghanoon" is about things happening in the streets. Everyone is aggressive and all, but it's not their fault. It's because of the government that everyone hates everyone. In the chorus [Hichkas] says ... "I'm a ghorbani from the jungle." Ghorbani: the animal they kill for the sake of god." Mahdyar Aghajani also explained to Persianesque that Hichkas was criticizing the Islamic Republic in a religious way as well. "[Hichkas] himself, believes in Islam. But he knows that the government is using and changing Islam against people. He finishes one of his verses in "Ghanoon" like this: "I'm innocent, God is my witness. Or did someone pay God a bribe too?" All attempts to stop the phenomenon of the largely popular underground music scene has failed. Mahdyar, who now lives in Berlin and is seeking refugee status, has since worked on an album for rappers Quf, Reveal as well as his own instrumental album. ISSUE #2 DECEMBER 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " " . . � . . . . . . . . . . . . " " "! " : . . . . . "" . "" . . . . . . ! : . : " . " .. . . . . ( " ) " " " .. . )Fightback( " " . " " . " " .. . " " . ( " " .. ) . ( .. ) Fightback . . .. . . : . . . . . . "" : . . . . . . : . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . " " : ." "" . . "" "" . "" . . "Persianesque" "" "" . " : ." " : ." . . . " ... "" . . . " : . ." " "" . "" . " " . . . "" . "" . : � : . � . � . . � . . . . " " . . . . .) ( . . "" . . . . . . . . . . : AfghanIranianYouth@Gmail.com . " " . . . " ... . . . . . . . . . "" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! " " : "" ................. ................................ ......................... ........................ .............. .................... ....................... .............................. ........................... ! . . " " " ." . . . . . . . .